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Toyota Hi-Lux

A Toyota Hi-Lux.

The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well.

Please note, as the Hi-Lux name was dropped in the US in 1976, any details listed here purporting to relate to the Hi-Lux from that date may not be entirely correct when applied the the vehicle which continues to be marketed by Toyota as the Hi-Lux throughout the rest of the world. The product lines for the US and elsewhere diverged at that point and in many cases on a year for year basis the vehicles sold in the US only resemble the true Hi-Lux, with major mechanical/chassis differences.


1935

The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck.

1947

After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963.

Engine:

  • 995 cc I4, 27 hp (20 kW)

1964

Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K.

Engine:

  • 1964-1968 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW)

1969

The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. A 4-speed manual transmission was standard.

Engine:

  • 1969 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW)
  • 1970-1971 - 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R SOHC I4, 97 hp (72 kW)
  • 1972 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW)

1973

In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time.

Engine:

  • 1973-1974 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW)

1975

The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year.

Engine:

  • 1975-1978 - 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW)

1979

The next generation appeared in 1979. This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades.

Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model. It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank.

Engine:

  • 1979-1980 - 2.0 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW)
  • 1981-1983 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1981-1983 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only)

1981

The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984.

1984

The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988.

Engines:

  • 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1984-1986 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only)
  • 1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1985-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 RPM and 173 ft.lbf (234 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW)

1989

The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991.

Engines:

  • 1989-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1989 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW)

1995

Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. The origins of its name are supposedly unknown...

This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back.

The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well.

Engines:

  • 1995-2004 2.4 L (2438 cc) 2RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 142 hp (106 kW) (4x2)
  • 1995-2004 2.7 L (2693 cc) 3RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW) (4x4)
  • 1995-2004 3.4 L 5VZ-FE 24-valve DOHC V6, 190 hp (142 kW)

2005

The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005.

This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005.

Engines (markets):

  • 2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4 (South Africa)
  • 2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 102 hp - 120 hp (Asia, Europe, South Africa, South America)
  • 2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 164 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA)
  • 2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 163 hp (Asia, South Africa, South America)
  • 2005 4.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 238 hp - 245 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA)

Reputation

The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use. This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance.


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These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance. As a result, the wearing of wrist-watches has become less common among mobile phone users, who are now the majority of the population. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. As these phones typically display the time on their screens when not in use, it has become common to rely on them for time-keeping, effectively making the mobile phone serve the function of a pocket watch. This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. In the early 2000s, the carrying of mobile telephones has become ubiquitous in many affluent countries. The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use. Wrist_PDA, although many digital watches come with extremely sophisticated data management software built in.

Engines (markets):. As of 2005, the only programmable computer watches to have made it to market are the Seiko Ruputer, the Matsucom onHand, and the Fossil, Inc. This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005. Several companies have however attempted to develop a computer contained in a WristWatch (see also wearable computer). The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005. Now with the ubiquity of the mobile phone in many countries, which have bigger screens, buttons, and batteries, interest in incorporating extra functionality in watches seems to have declined. Engines:. Such watches have also had the reputation as ugly and thus mainly geek toys.

It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well. As well as awkward user interfaces due to the tiny screens and buttons possible in a wearable package, and in some cases short battery life, the functionality available has not generally proven sufficiently compelling to attract buyers. The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. These watches have not had sustained long-term sales success. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back. In the early 2000s, a self-contained wristwatch television receiver came on the market, with a strong enough power source to provide one hour of viewing. This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines. In the early 1980s Seiko marketed a watch with a television receiver in it, although at the time television receivers were too bulky to fit in a wristwatch, and the actual receiver and its power source were in a book-sized box with a cable that ran to the wristwatch.

The origins of its name are supposedly unknown... As miniaturized electronics become cheaper, watches have been developed containing calculators, video games, digital cameras, keydrives, GPS receivers and cellular phones. Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. A number of functionalities non directly related to time have also been inserted into watches. Engines:. In 2005 for example, a company has put into market an alarm wristwatch with an accelerometer inside that monitors the user's sleep and rings during one of his almost-awake phases. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991. Other technological enhancements to wristwatches have been explored but most of them remained unnoticed.

The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. Suunto is the only company offering a reasonable-sized watch integrating GPS. The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. Early examples are the Casio PRO TREK GPS Satellite Navi and the Garmin Forerunner 201. Engines:. As GPS receivers are significantly more complex, very few wrist-watches integrating GPS are available and most of which are very large compared to regular watches. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988. Similarly watches with GPS time synchronisation use the satellite networks time signals.

The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. In recent years, mass production has meant that atomic watches have become as cheap as quartz watches, though market share still remains small as interest from big manufacturers is limited. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. Similar signals are broadcast from Rugby (MSF time signal), England and Frankfurt, Germany. The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. It will also reset itself when daylight saving time changes. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984. This radio signal tells the wristwatch exactly what time it is, in theory precise to a fraction of a nanosecond.

There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. These wristwatches normally receive a radio signal from one of the national atomic clock facilities around the world, for example the National Institute of Standards and Technology located in Colorado in the United States. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. In 1990 radio controlled wristwatches or as they are sometimes called "atomic watches" reached the market. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. This is often used as a case study in design schools to demonstrate the commercial potential of industrial and graphic design. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market. They founded the Swiss Watch company (Swatch) and called graphic designers to redesign a new annual collection.

The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. In fact it was so cheap that if a watch broke it would be cheaper to throw it away and buy a new one than to repair it. Engine:. The result was that they could considerably reduce the pieces and production time of an analog watch. It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank. They joined forces with designers from many countries to reinvent the Swiss watch. Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model. At the end of the 20th century, Swiss watch makers were seeing their sales go down as analog clocks were considered obsolete.

This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades. For others, analog watches are just easier to read. The next generation appeared in 1979. In fact, because digital watches are so cheap, analog watches are often worn as status symbols. Engine:. Digital watches have not replaced analog watches, despite their greater reliability and lower cost. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year. In addition to the function of a timepiece, digital watches can have additional functions like a chronograph, calculator, video game, etc.

A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. The first LCD watch with a six-digit LCD was the 1973 Seiko 06LC, although various forms of early LCD watches with a four-digit display were marketed as early as 1972 including the 1972 Gruen Teletime LCD Watch [3], [4]. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. LED displays were soon superseded by liquid crystal displays (LCDs), which used less battery power. The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. It had a red light-emitting diode (LED) display. Engine:. A retail version of the Pulsar was put on sale in 1972.

A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time. The first digital watch, a Pulsar prototype in 1970, was developed jointly by Hamilton Watch Company and Electro-Data. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. Douglas Adams, in the introduction of his novel The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, would say that humans were 'so amazingly primitive that they still think digital watches are a pretty neat idea'. In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. They were seen as the great new thing. Engine:. Cheaper electronics permitted the popularization of the digital watch (an electronic watch with a numerical, rather than analog, display) in the second half of the 20th century.

A 4-speed manual transmission was standard. Watch batteries come in many forms, the most common of which are silver oxide and lithium. It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. The most common power source is the battery. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. A seldom used power source is temperature difference between the wearer's arm and the surrounding environment (as applied in the Citizen Eco Drive Thermo). The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout. Kinetic powered quartz watches make use of the motion of the wearer's arm turning a rotating weight, which in turn, turns a generator to supply power.

Engine:. Solar powered quartz watches are powered by available light. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K. There are solar powered, kinetically powered, battery powered and other less common power sources. Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. There are also several variations of the quartz watch as to what actually powers the movement. Engine:. The first quartz watch to enter production was the Seiko 35 SQ Astron, which appeared in 1969.

This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963. The first prototypes were made by the CEH research laboratory in Switzerland in 1962. After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. The quartz analog watch is an electronic watch that uses a piezoelectric quartz crystal as its timing element, coupled to a mechanical movement that drives the hands. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck. The first battery-powered watch, the Hamilton Electric 500, was released in 1957 by the Hamilton Watch Company of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1. The first use of electrical power in watches was as a source of energy to replace the mainspring, and therefore to remove the need for winding.

. The concepts are different but not mutually exclusive; a watch can be a chronograph, a chronometer, both, or neither.
. A chronograph is a type of complication, as explained under the heading "Complicated Watch." A chronometer is a watch or clock whose movement has been tested and certified to operate within a certain standard of accuracy by the COSC (Contrôle Officiel Suisse des Chronomètres). The product lines for the US and elsewhere diverged at that point and in many cases on a year for year basis the vehicles sold in the US only resemble the true Hi-Lux, with major mechanical/chassis differences. The similar-sounding terms chronograph and chronometer are often confused, although they mean altogether different things. Please note, as the Hi-Lux name was dropped in the US in 1976, any details listed here purporting to relate to the Hi-Lux from that date may not be entirely correct when applied the the vehicle which continues to be marketed by Toyota as the Hi-Lux throughout the rest of the world. Among watch enthusiasts, complicated watches are especially collectible.

One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well. Two popular complications are the chronograph complication, which is the ability of the watch movement to function as a stopwatch, and the moonphase complication, which is a display of the lunar phase. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. A complicated watch has one or more functionalities beyond basic time-keeping capabilities; such a functionality is called a complication. The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. Today, many Westerners wear watches on their wrist, a direct result of the First World War. The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. When the war ended, demobilized European and American officers were allowed to keep their wristwatches, helping to popularize the items amongst middle-class Western civilian culture.

2005 4.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 238 hp - 245 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). Army contractors began to issue reliable, cheap, mass-produced wristwatches which were ideal for these purposes. 2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 163 hp (Asia, South Africa, South America). As the scale of battles increased, artillery and infantry officers were required to synchronize watches in order to conduct attacks at precise moments, whilst artillery officers were in need of a large number of accurate timekeepers for rangefinding and gunnery. 2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 164 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). In addition, as increasing numbers of officers were killed in the early stages of the war, NCOs promoted to replace them often did not have pocket watches (traditionally a middle-class item out of the reach of ordinary working-class soldiers), and so relied on the army to provide them with timekeepers. 2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 102 hp - 120 hp (Asia, Europe, South Africa, South America). During the First World War, officers in all armies soon discovered that in battlefield situations, quickly glancing at a watch on their wrist was far more convenient than fumbling in their jacket pockets for an old-fashioned pocket watch.

2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4 (South Africa). Being a popular figure in Paris, Cartier was soon able to sell these watches to other men. 1995-2004 3.4 L 5VZ-FE 24-valve DOHC V6, 190 hp (142 kW). Cartier gave him a leather-band wristwatch from which Dumont never separated. 1995-2004 2.7 L (2693 cc) 3RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW) (4x4). It was not until the beginning of the 20th century that the Brazilian inventor Alberto Santos-Dumont, who had difficulty checking the time while in his first aircraft (Dumont was working on the invention of the aeroplane), asked his friend Louis Cartier for a watch he could use more easily. 1995-2004 2.4 L (2438 cc) 2RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 142 hp (106 kW) (4x2). It was however considered a woman's accessory.

1989 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). The wristwatch was invented by Patek Philippe at the end of the 19th century. 1989-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. Aaron Lufkin Dennison founded Waltham Watch Company in 1850, which was the pioneer of the industrial manufacturing by interchangeable parts, the American System of Watch Manufacturing. 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). Eventually, miniaturization of these spring-based designs allowed for accurate portable timepieces which worked well even at sea. 1985-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 RPM and 173 ft.lbf (234 Nm) at 2800 RPM. However, these watches only had an hour hand - a minute hand would have been useless considering the inaccuracy of the watch mechanism.

1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. It is rumoured that Henry VIII (the portrait of Henry VIII at this link shows the medallion thought to be the back of his watch) had a pocket clock which he kept on a chain around his neck. 1984-1986 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). In 1524, Peter Henlein created the first pocket watch[1][2]. 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. In Tudor England, the development of "pocket-clockes" was enabled through the development of reliable springs and escapement mechanisms, which allowed clockmakers to compress a timekeeping device into a small, portable compartment. 1981-1983 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). The invention of a spring mechanism was crucial for portable clocks.

1981-1983 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. The first reasonably accurate mechanical clocks measured time with weighted pendulums, which are useless at sea or in watches. 1979-1980 - 2.0 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). For that reason, most maps from the 15th century to c.1800 have precise latitudes but distorted longitudes. 1975-1978 - 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). However, the process was notoriously unreliable until the introduction of John Harrison's chronometer. 1973-1974 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). The latitude could be measured by looking at the stars, but the only way a ship could measure its longitude was by comparing timezones; by comparing the midday time of the local longitude to a European meridian (usually Paris or Greenwich), a sailor could know how far he was from home.

1972 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). The earliest need for portability in time keeping was navigation and mapping in the 15th century. 1970-1971 - 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R SOHC I4, 97 hp (72 kW). . 1969 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). Watches may be collectible; they are often made of precious metals, and can be considered an article of jewelry. 1964-1968 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). The back-and-forth motion of the winding rotor couples to a ratchet to automatically wind the watch.

995 cc I4, 27 hp (20 kW). The invention of "Automatic" or "Self-Winding" watches allowed for a constant winding without special action from the wearer: it works by an eccentric weight, called a winding rotor, that rotates to the movement of the wearer's body. a stem winder. Mechanical timepieces are still used, usually powered by a spring wound regularly by the user, e.g. Current watches are often digital watches, using a piezoelectric crystal, usually quartz, as an oscillator (see quartz clock).

leather (often synthetic), metal, or nylon), although before the 20th century most were pocket watches, which had covers and were carried separately, often in a pocket, and hooked to a watch chain. In modern times they are usually wrist-watches, worn on the wrist with a watch-strap (made of e.g. A watch is a small portable clock that displays the time and sometimes the day, date, month and year.

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