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Toyota Hi-Lux

A Toyota Hi-Lux.

The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well.

Please note, as the Hi-Lux name was dropped in the US in 1976, any details listed here purporting to relate to the Hi-Lux from that date may not be entirely correct when applied the the vehicle which continues to be marketed by Toyota as the Hi-Lux throughout the rest of the world. The product lines for the US and elsewhere diverged at that point and in many cases on a year for year basis the vehicles sold in the US only resemble the true Hi-Lux, with major mechanical/chassis differences.


1935

The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck.

1947

After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963.

Engine:

  • 995 cc I4, 27 hp (20 kW)

1964

Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K.

Engine:

  • 1964-1968 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW)

1969

The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. A 4-speed manual transmission was standard.

Engine:

  • 1969 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW)
  • 1970-1971 - 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R SOHC I4, 97 hp (72 kW)
  • 1972 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW)

1973

In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time.

Engine:

  • 1973-1974 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW)

1975

The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year.

Engine:

  • 1975-1978 - 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW)

1979

The next generation appeared in 1979. This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades.

Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model. It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank.

Engine:

  • 1979-1980 - 2.0 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW)
  • 1981-1983 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1981-1983 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only)

1981

The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984.

1984

The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988.

Engines:

  • 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1984-1986 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only)
  • 1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1985-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 RPM and 173 ft.lbf (234 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW)

1989

The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991.

Engines:

  • 1989-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM
  • 1989 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW)

1995

Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. The origins of its name are supposedly unknown...

This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back.

The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well.

Engines:

  • 1995-2004 2.4 L (2438 cc) 2RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 142 hp (106 kW) (4x2)
  • 1995-2004 2.7 L (2693 cc) 3RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW) (4x4)
  • 1995-2004 3.4 L 5VZ-FE 24-valve DOHC V6, 190 hp (142 kW)

2005

The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005.

This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005.

Engines (markets):

  • 2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4 (South Africa)
  • 2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 102 hp - 120 hp (Asia, Europe, South Africa, South America)
  • 2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 164 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA)
  • 2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 163 hp (Asia, South Africa, South America)
  • 2005 4.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 238 hp - 245 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA)

Reputation

The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use. This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance.


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These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance. In 1887 the Michelson-Morley experiment, using an interferometer to attempt to detect the change in the speed of light caused by the Earth moving with respect to the aether, was a famous null result, showing that there really was no static, pervasive medium throughout space and through which the Earth moved as though through a wind. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. This evolved into the luminiferous aether of the 19th century, but the idea was known to have significant shortcomings - specifically that if the Earth is moving through a material medium, the medium would have to be both extremely tenuous (because the earth is not being detectably slowed in its orbit), and extremely rigid (because vibrations propagate so fast). This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. In the 17th century, theories of the nature of light had required the idea of an aethereal medium which would be the medium to convey waves of light (Newton relied on this idea to explain refraction and radiated heat). The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use. This led to the development of the vacuum tube.

Engines (markets):. A number of electrical properties become observable at this vacuum level, and this renewed interest in vacuum. This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005. The study of vacuum then lapsed until 1855 when Heinrich Geissler invented the mercury displacement pump and achieved a record vacuum of about 0.1 Torr. The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005. In 1654, Otto von Guericke conducted his famous Magdeburg hemispheres experiment, showing that teams of horses could not separate two hemispheres from which the air had been evacuated. Engines:. Robert Boyle later conducted experiments on the properties of vacuum.

It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well. Some people believe that although Torricelli produced the first vacuum, it was Blaise Pascal who recognized it for what it was. The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. Following work by Galileo, Evangelista Torricelli argued in 1643 that there was a vacuum at the top of a mercury barometer. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back. Opposition to the idea of a vacuum existing in nature continued into the Scientific Revolution, with scholars such as Paolo Casati taking an anti-vacuist position. This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines. This speculation became irrelevant after the Paris condemnations of Bishop Tempier, which required there to be no restrictions on the powers of God, which led to the conclusion that God could create a vacuum if he so wished.

The origins of its name are supposedly unknown... There was much discussion of whether the air moved in quickly enough as the plates were separated, or, following William Burley whether a 'celestial agent' prevented the vacuum arising—that is, whether nature abhorred a vacuum. Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. Medieval thought experiments into the idea of a vacuum considered whether a vacuum was present, if only for an instant, between two flat plates when they were rapidly separated. Engines:. The absence of anything implied the absence of God, and hearkened back to the void prior to the story of creation in the book of Genesis. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991. In the Middle Ages, the idea of a vacuum was thought to be immoral or even heretical.

The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. Later Greek philosophers thought that a vacuum could exist outside the cosmos, but not inside it. The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. Similarly, Aristotle considered the creation of a vacuum impossible—nothing could not be something. Engines:. He believed that all physical things were instantiations of an abstract Platonic ideal, and could not imagine an "ideal" form of a vacuum. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988. Plato found the idea of a vacuum inconceivable.

The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. Ancient Greek philosophers did not like to admit the existence of a vacuum, asking themselves "how can 'nothing' be something?". The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. Historically, there has been much dispute over whether such a thing as a vacuum can exist. The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. String theory is believed to be analogous to quantum field theory but one with a huge number of vacua - with the so-called anthropic landscape. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984. If the theory is obtained by quantization of a classical theory, each stationary point of the energy in the configuration space gives rise to a single vacuum.

There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. In free (non-interacting) quantum field theories, this state is analogous to the ground state of a quantum harmonic oscillator. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. In quantum field theory and string theory, the term "vacuum" is used to represent the ground state in the Hilbert space, that is, the state with the lowest possible energy. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. The best support for vacuum fluctuations is the Casimir effect. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market. Vacuum fluctuations may also be related to the so-called cosmological constant in the theory of gravitation, if indeed this entity were to be observed in nature on a macroscopic scale.

The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. While most agree that this represents a significant part of particle physics, it is a concept that would benefit from a deeper understanding than currently available. Engine:. This is called vacuum fluctuation. It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank. The lowest possible energy state is called the zero-point energy and consists of a seething mass of virtual particles that have brief existence. Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model. More fundamentally, quantum mechanics predicts that vacuum energy can never be exactly zero.

This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades. Even the space between molecules is not a perfect vacuum. The next generation appeared in 1979. Each atom exists as a probability function of space, which has a certain non-zero value everywheres in a given volume. Engine:. Another reason that perfect vacuum is impossible is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle which states that no particle can ever have an exact position. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year. If this soup of photons is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the walls, it can be said to have a particular temperature, as well as a pressure.

A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. One reason is that the walls of a vacuum chamber emit light in the form of black-body radiation: visible light if they are at a temperature of thousands of degrees, infrared light if they are cooler. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. Even an ideal vacuum, thought of as the complete absence of anything, will not in practice remain empty. The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. 1913, p.720). Engine:. (See "Polar Magnetic Phenomena and Terrella Experiments", in The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903 (publ.

A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time. It does not seem unreasonable therefore to think that the greater part of the material masses in the universe is found, not in the solar systems or nebulae, but in "empty" space. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. We have assumed that each stellar system in evolutions throws off electric corpuscles into space. In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. He wrote: "It seems to be a natural consequence of our points of view to assume that the whole of space is filled with electrons and flying electric ions of all kinds. Engine:. In 1913, Norwegian explorer and physicist Kristian Birkeland may have been the first to predict that space is not only a plasma, but also contains "dark matter".

A 4-speed manual transmission was standard. The deep vacuum of space could make it an attractive environment for certain processes, for instance those that require ultraclean surfaces. It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. The idea of using this wind with a solar sail has been proposed for interplanetary travel. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. Spacecraft can be buffeted by solar winds, but planets are too massive to be affected. The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout. Beyond planetary atmospheres, the pressure from photons and other particles from the sun become significant.

Engine:. [2]. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K. Studies have discovered that some satellites retrieved from orbit are coated with a very thin layer of urine and fecal matter evidently released from Russian and US space missions. Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. The atmosphere in Low Earth Orbit is increasingly being polluted with man-made debris. Engine:. Most Earth satellites operate in this region, and they need to fire their engines every few days to maintain orbit.

This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963. In Low Earth Orbit (about 300 km altitude) the atmospheric density is still sufficient to produce significant drag on satellites. After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. The density of gas decreases with distance from the object. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck. Stars, planets and moons keep their atmosphere by gravitational attraction, so atmospheres have no firm boundary. The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1. Neither these photons nor the neutrinos produce a significant interaction with matter, so stars, planets and spacecraft move freely in this near perfect vacuum of interstellar space.

. The current temperature is about 3 K, being merely 3 degrees above the absolute zero of temperature.
. All of the observable universe is also filled with large numbers of photons, the so-called cosmic background radiation, and quite likely a correspondingly large number of neutrinos. The product lines for the US and elsewhere diverged at that point and in many cases on a year for year basis the vehicles sold in the US only resemble the true Hi-Lux, with major mechanical/chassis differences. A perfect vacuum is an ideal state that cannot practically be obtained in a laboratory, nor even in outer space, where there are a few hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter at 10−14 Pascal or 10−16 Torr. Please note, as the Hi-Lux name was dropped in the US in 1976, any details listed here purporting to relate to the Hi-Lux from that date may not be entirely correct when applied the the vehicle which continues to be marketed by Toyota as the Hi-Lux throughout the rest of the world. The properties of the vacuum remain largely unknown.

One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well. It is cold and has no friction. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. Much of outer space has the density and pressure of an almost perfect vacuum. The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. The lowest pressures currently achievable in laboratory are about 10-13 Pa. The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation. Vessels lined with a highly gas-permeable material such as palladium (which is a high-capacity hydrogen sponge) create special outgassing problems.

2005 4.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 238 hp - 245 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). Your system may be able to evacuate nitrogen, (the main component of air,) to the desired vacuum, but your chamber could still be full of residual atmospheric hydrogen and helium. 2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 163 hp (Asia, South Africa, South America). Smaller molecules can leak in more easily and are more easily absorbed by certain materials, and molecular pumps are less effective at pumping gases with lower molecular weights. 2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 164 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). The impact of molecular size must be considered. 2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 102 hp - 120 hp (Asia, Europe, South Africa, South America). The porosity of the metallic chamber walls may have to be considered, and the grain direction of the metallic flanges should be parallel to the flange face.

2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4 (South Africa). Some oils and greases will boil off in extreme vacuums. 1995-2004 3.4 L 5VZ-FE 24-valve DOHC V6, 190 hp (142 kW). The water absorption of aluminium and palladium becomes an unacceptable source of outgassing, and even the absorptivity of hard metals such as stainless steel or titanium must be considered. 1995-2004 2.7 L (2693 cc) 3RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW) (4x4). In ultra-high vacuum systems, some very odd leakage paths and outgassing sources must be considered. 1995-2004 2.4 L (2438 cc) 2RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 142 hp (106 kW) (4x2). Some systems are cooled well below room temperature by liquid nitrogen to shut down residual outgassing and simultaneously cryopump the system.

1989 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). Once the bulk of the outgassing materials are boiled off and evacuated, the system may be cooled to lower vapour pressures and minimize residual outgassing during actual operation. 1989-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. If necessary, this outgassing of the system can also be performed at room temperature, but this takes much more time. 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). The system is usually baked, preferably under vacuum, to temporarily raise the vapour pressure of all outgassing materials in the system and boil them off. 1985-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 RPM and 173 ft.lbf (234 Nm) at 2800 RPM. Ultra-high vacuum systems are usually made of stainless steel with metal-gasketed conflat flanges.

1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. On a larger scale, the principles are the same as in a Cryomodule. 1984-1986 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). Cryopumping incorporates the use of introducing cryogenics and a vacuum system. 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. One such method to create a high vacuum to ultra high vacuum is by the use of cryopumps. 1981-1983 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). Yet more specialized pumps become useful:.

1981-1983 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. Even higher vacuums are possible, but they generally require custom-built equipment, strict operational procedures, and a fair amount of trial-and-error. 1979-1980 - 2.0 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). With careful design and operation, 1μPa is possible. 1975-1978 - 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). With these standard precautions, vacuums of 1 mPa are easily achieved with off-the-shelf molecular pumps. 1973-1974 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). As a result, many materials that work well in low vacuums, such as epoxy, will become a problematic source of outgassing when attempting to achieve high vacuums.

1972 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). All materials, solid or liquid, have a small vapour pressure, and their outgassing becomes important when the vacuum pressure falls below this vapour pressure. 1970-1971 - 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R SOHC I4, 97 hp (72 kW). The system must be clean and free of organic matter to minimize outgassing. 1969 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). High vacuum systems generally require metal chambers with metal O-ring seals such as Klein flanges or ISO flanges. 1964-1968 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). As with mechanical pumps, the base pressure will be reached when leakage, outgassing, and backstreaming equal the pump speed, but now minimizing leakage and outgassing to a level comparable to backstreaming becomes much more difficult.

995 cc I4, 27 hp (20 kW). Both of these pumps will stall and fail to pump if exhausted directly to atmospheric pressure, so they must be exhausted to a lower grade vacuum created by a mechanical pump. Diffusion pumps blow out molecules with jets of oil, while turbomolecular pumps use high speed fans. Both types of pumps blow out gas molecules that diffuse into the pump. The two main types of molecular pumps are the diffusion pump and the turbomolecular pump.

In high vacuum, however, pressure gradients have little effect on fluid flows, and molecular pumps can attain their full potential. Since there is no seal, a small pressure at the exhaust can easily force flow backstream through the pump; this is called stall. They do this at the expense of the seal between the vacuum and their exhaust. Molecular pumps sweep out a larger area than mechanical pumps, and do so more frequently, making them capable of much higher pumping speeds as measured in volume per time.

This regime is generally called high vacuum.. When the distance between the molecules increases, the molecules interact with the walls of the chamber more often than the other molecules, and molecular pumping becomes more effective than compression pumping. At atmospheric pressure and mild vacuums, molecules interact with each other and push on their neighboring molecules in what is known as viscous flow. Matter flows differently at different pressures based on the laws of fluid dynamics.

Fortunately, once the pressure has dropped below 1 kPa or so, another vacuum pumping technique becomes possible. Better pumping technologies must be used to go beyond this barrier. Adding more pumps in parallel or bigger pumps of the same type can still improve the pump-down speed, but they will not reduce the base pressure below ultimate. In this situation, the vacuum will approach the pump's ultimate pressure - the best vacuum that this type of pump can achieve under ideal conditions.

However, there is a point where backstream leakage through the pump and outgassing of the pump oils become the dominant mass flows into the chamber. If the dominant mass flow into the vacuum system is chamber leakage or outgassing of materials under vacuum, then the vacuum can be improved simply by installing bigger pumps with a higher volume flow rate. The base pressure of a rubber- and plastic-sealed piston pump system is typically 1 to 50 kPa, while a scroll pump might reach 10 Pa and a rotary vane oil pump with a clean and empty metallic chamber can easily achieve 0.1 Pa. Outgassing can be reduced by desiccation prior to vacuum pumping.

When the pump's mass flow drops to the same level as the mass flows into the chamber, the system asymptotically approaches a constant pressure called the base pressure. Evaporation and sublimation into a vacuum is called outgassing, and the most common source is water absorbed by materials in the chamber. Meanwhile, the leakage rates, evaporation rates, and sublimation rates produce a constant mass flow into the system. So although the pumping speed remains constant when measured in litres/second, it drops exponentially when measured in kilograms/second. A mechanical vacuum pump moves the same volume of gas with each cycle, but as the chamber's pressure drops, this volume contains less and less mass.

The pump's cavity is then sealed from the chamber, opened to the atmosphere, and squeezed back to a minute size. Because of the pressure differential, some air from the chamber is pushed into the pump's small cavity. Inside the pump, a mechanism expands a small sealed cavity to create a deep vacuum. This is the principle behind most mechanical vacuum pumps.

By repeatedly closing off a compartment of the vacuum and exhausting it, it is possible to pump air out of a chamber of fixed size in a manner analogous to pumping a milkshake out of a glass. For example, your muscles expand your lungs to create a partial vacuum inside them, and air rushes in to fill the vacuum. The easiest way to create an artificial vacuum is to expand the volume of a container.
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Astrophysicists prefer to use density to describe these environments, in units of particles per cubic metre. In interplanetary and interstellar space, isotropic gas pressure is insignificant when compared to solar pressure, solar wind, and dynamic pressure. This vacuum state is called high vacuum, and the study of fluid flows in this regime is called particle gas dynamics. When the MFP is greater than the chamber, pump, spacecraft, or other objects present, the continuum assumptions of fluid mechanics do not apply.

As gas pressure decreases, the mean free path (MFP) of the gas molecules increases. Here, 29.92 inHg means perfect vacuum. Thus a vacuum of 26 inHg is equivalent to a pressure of (29.92 - 26) or 3.92 inHg. This means that the pressure in vacuum, when specified in inches of mercury, is equal to the specified inches of mercury subtracted from 29.92.

For commercial purposes, vacuum is often measured in inches of mercury (inHg). It is often also measured using the barometric scale, or as a percentage of atmospheric pressure in bars or atms. The SI unit of pressure is the pascal (abbreviation Pa), but vacuum is usually measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or Torr, with 1 mmHg or 1 Torr equaling 133.3223684 pascals. Engineers measure the degree of vacuum in units of pressure.

In engineering, a vacuum is any region where the gas pressure is less than atmospheric pressure. The antithesis of a vacuum, which is also an ideal unachievable state, is called a plenum. A complete characterization of the physical state would require further parameters, such as temperature. Physicists use the term partial vacuum to describe real-life non-ideal vacuum.

In modern day usage vacuum is considered to exist in an enclosed space or chamber, when the pressure of gaseous environment is lower than atmospheric pressure (760 Torr or 101 kPa), or has been reduced as much as necessary to prevent the influence of some gas on a process being carried out in that space. A perfect vacuum is an ideal state that cannot practically be obtained in a laboratory, nor even in outer space where there are a few hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter at 10−14 pascal or 10−16 torr. Vacuum ranges do not have universally agreed definitions and often depend on the size of the vacuum chamber, but a typical distribution is as follows:. .

A perfect vacuum with a gaseous pressure of absolute zero is a philosophical concept with no physical reality; see sections below on Vacuum in Space and The Quantum Mechanical Vacuum. vacua) which means "empty," but space can never be perfectly empty. The root of the word vacuum is the Latin word vacuus (pl.
A vacuum is a volume of space that is empty of matter and radiation, including air, so that gaseous pressure is much less than standard atmospheric pressure.

For other uses, see vacuum cleaner, vacuum exercise and Vacuum (musical group).'. Converting them to solids by electrically combining them with other materials, called ion pumping. Converting the molecules of gas to their solid phase by freezing them, called cryopumping or cryotrapping. light bulb.

vacuum tube. vacuum welding. process purging. ultra-clean inert storage.

adhesive preparation. vacuum deposition as in semiconductor fabrication. thermal insulation as in a thermos. freeze drying.

Interstellar space = approximately 1 fPa (10−17 Torr) [1]. Pressure on the Moon = approximately 1 nPa (10−11 Torr). Cryopumped MBE chamber = 100 nPa to 1 nPa (10−9 Torr to 10−11 Torr). Near earth outer space = approximately 100 µPa (10−6 Torr).

Mechanical vacuum pump = approximately 100 Pa to 100 µPa (1 Torr to 10−6 Torr). Mechanical water-sealed liquid ring vacuum pump = approximately 3.2 kPa (24 Torr). Vacuum cleaner = approximately 80 kPa (600 Torr). Atmospheric pressure = variable, but standardised at 101.325  kPa (760 Torr) or 760 mm of mercury.

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