This page will contain wikis about Topaz, as they become available.

Topaz

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).

Topaz 4 Carat Oval Shape Topaz Gemstone Ring Enhanced with Azotic(r)Treatment Heart Cut Sky Blue Topaz Ring

The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition.

Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

Etymology and historical/mythical usage

The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above.

According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan.

Topaz is also the birthstone of November.

Example of Heat Treated Topaz-Pink Topaz Pear Cut Ring

References

  • Webmineral
  • Mindat with location data
  • Mineral galleries

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Topaz is also the birthstone of November. Notable was the popularity of political slogans and messages on T-shirts coinciding with the presidential election. According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan. The story of the message tee embraces the modern phenomenon of “personal branding” (indicating, in this case, the wearer’s sense of humor), as well as a climate in which statements—political or personal—are generally preferred to be catchy than true . In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above. The trend has only increased in this decade; embraced by celebrities, such as Britney Spears and Paris Hilton, and reflected back on them, too ('Team Aniston'). The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. The late 1990s saw the renewed popularity of T-shirts with slogans and designs, with a strong inclination to the humorous and/or ironic.

It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Examples: Calvin Klein, FUBU, Ralph Lauren, The Gap. Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. While critics claim that wearing such logos serve only to advertise for clothing designers without being paid, brand-name T-shirts remain popular. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition. These garments allowed consumers to flaunt their taste in designer brands in an inexpensive way, in addition to being decorative. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. Since the late 1980s and especially the 1990s, T-shirts with prominent brand-name logos have been popular, especially with teenagers and young adults.

When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. These kind of T-shirts are still being produced and are available to buy over the internet. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. These were very popular in the United States as well in the late 80's among teens. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. This brand of T-shirt, Global Hypercolour, was a common sight on the streets of the UK for a few years, but has since mostly disappeared. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. In the 1980s, thermochromatic dyes were used to produce T-shirts that changed colour when subjected to heat.

The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. This can be done manually or a using semi-automated machine. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. These colored inks are transfered through the screen into a design on the garment. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. In silk screening, a design is seperated into "cmyk" or "rgb" colors and ink is transerred onto the garment through a silk screen. The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. The most common form of t-shirt printing is silk-screening.

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).. Laser printers are capable of printing on plain paper using a special toner containing sublimation dyes which can then be permanently heat-transferred to T-shirts. Mineral galleries. Other methods of decoration used on T-shirts include airbrush, applique, embroidery, and the ironing on of either flock lettering, heat transfers, or Dye sublimation transfers. Mindat with location data. Since then T-shirts have become a medium for self-expression and advertising, with any imaginable combination of words, art and even photographs on display. Webmineral. became popular.

People also started to tie-dye and screen-print the basic T-shirt and variants such as the tank top, "wife beater", muscle shirt, scoop neck, V-neck etc. In the 1960s, the Ringer T-shirt appeared and became a staple fashion for youth and rock-n-rollers. The T-shirt became cool when James Dean wore it in the film Rebel Without a Cause.. At first the public was shocked but by 1955 it had become acceptable.

John Wayne, Marlon Brando and James Dean all wore them on national TV. After WWII the T-shirt started appearing without a shirt covering it. Army and Navy. During WWII the T-shirt had become standard issue underwear in both the U.S.

Since they were so much more comfortable they quickly became popular among the Americans, and because of their design they got the name T-shirt. The idea of the T-shirt came to the USA during WWI when US soldiers noticed the light cotton undershirts European soldiers were using while the US soldiers sweated in their wool uniforms. . They are typically made of cotton or polyester fibers (or a mix of the two), knitted together in a jersey stitch that gives a T-shirt its distinctive soft texture.

T-shirts are manufactured by the textile industry. T-shirts are often decorated with text and/or pictures. T-shirt fashions include styles for men and women, and for all age groups, including baby, youth and adult sizes. A more recent trend in women's clothing involves tight-fitting "cropped" T-shirts that are short enough to reveal the lower abdomen including the belly button.

A T-shirt typically extends to the waist, although one fashion is for "oversized" T-shirts. This still occurs, but T-shirts are now also frequently worn as the only piece of clothing on the top half of the body (except that women usually wear a bra beneath it). T-shirts were originally worn as undershirts. There are also long-sleeved T-shirt and sleeveless T-shirt variants.

A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a shirt, usually buttonless, collarless and pocketless, with a round neck and short sleeves, pulled on over the head. ISBN 087905686X.. The T-Shirt Book, Gibbs Smith Publisher. Scott Fresener, Earl Smith, Nancy Hall (1995).

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