This page will contain wikis about Topaz, as they become available.

Topaz

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).

Topaz 4 Carat Oval Shape Topaz Gemstone Ring Enhanced with Azotic(r)Treatment Heart Cut Sky Blue Topaz Ring

The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition.

Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

Etymology and historical/mythical usage

The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above.

According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan.

Topaz is also the birthstone of November.

Example of Heat Treated Topaz-Pink Topaz Pear Cut Ring

References

  • Webmineral
  • Mindat with location data
  • Mineral galleries

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Topaz is also the birthstone of November. These trucks have also been known to clock up more than 300,000 miles with regular maintenance. According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan. Amazingly, although it was now suffering from severe structural (there was already significant body corrosion when it was purchased) and fire damage, the truck was still running after being repaired only with typical tools and equipment that would be found in a car's toolbox, such as spanners (wrenches), motor oil and a monkey wrench. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above. This was only compounded when on the third series (programme five) of the revamped BBC motoring show Top Gear, a 13-year old Toyota Hi-Lux with 190,000 miles on the clock, was subjected to a number of extraordinary survival tests, which included driving it into a tree, tying it up to a jetty and letting it be washed out to sea by the incoming tide, dropping a caravan on it, setting the cab on fire, and placing it at the top of a 240-foot block of flats that was subsequently destroyed by a controlled demolition. The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. The Toyota Hi-Lux has gained a reputation for exceptional sturdiness and reliability, even during sustained heavy use.

It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Engines (markets):. Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. This new version won the Canadian Car of the Year Best New Pick-up award and was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition. The Tacoma/Hi-Lux was updated in 2005. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. Engines:.

When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. It was also restyled in 2001 when a new double cab (crew cab) option was added, and a flashy S-Runner was offered as well. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. The Tacoma was restyled in 1998 when the front fascia and the frame were the primary changes as well as the addition of new badging. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. All versions now featured coil springs in front with a live axle and leaf springs in back. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. This, the ninth generation of compact pickup trucks from Toyota, was radically updated, with a new frame and body, new suspension, and new engines.

The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. The origins of its name are supposedly unknown... It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. Part-way through 1995, Toyota introduced the new Tacoma in the United States. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. Engines:. The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. Production began at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, California in 1991.

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).. The V6 Xtracab SR5 earned Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year award that year. Mineral galleries. The next redesign, in 1989, saw a longer-wheelbase option, 122 in (309.9 cm) versus 103 in (261.6 cm) for the regular wheelbase. Mindat with location data. Engines:. Webmineral. A V6 engine was introduced in 1988.

The solid front axle was swapped out for an independent front suspension/ torsion bar setup in the 4x4 model in 1986, and optional automatic locking front hubs and an electronic transfer case was added as well. The next year saw the introduction of an optional fuel injected engine, the 22R-E, and a turbocharged option, the 22R-TE. The big news for the 1984 redesign was the introduction of the Xtracab two-row extended cab option. Research and development work on the Trekker lead to the development of the Toyota 4Runner (called the Toyota Surf outside North America), which was released in 1984.

There were at least 1,500 Trekkers and a much smaller, unknown number of the other two models sold in North America. All 3 employed the Toyota Hi-Lux 4x4 RV cab and chassis, and an all-fiberglass rear section. The vehicles which resulted from this collaboration were the Toyota Trekker, Toyota Wolverine, and the Toyota Blazer. Toyota was attempting to enter the SUV market.

The 1981 model year saw a vehicle development deal between Toyota and Winnebago (primarily) and two other aftermarket customizers. Engine:. It used solid axles and leaf springs front and rear and skid plates to protect the transfer case and fuel tank. Another important addition was the a four wheel drive model.

This time, the SR5 package included an updated torsion bar suspension as well as the usual trim upgrades. The next generation appeared in 1979. Engine:. The Hi-Lux name was dropped in America in favor of "Truck" the next year.

A 5-speed manual transmission was optional. Larger and more luxurious in every way, the truck also introduced the 20R engine and SR5 upscale trim package. The truck was radically redesigned in 1975. Engine:.

A 7.5 ft (2.3 m) "long bed" was optional for the first time. A more-comfortable interior was specified along with exterior updates. In the middle of 1972, the 1973 Hi-Lux was released. Engine:.

A 4-speed manual transmission was standard. It used a typical truck setup of A-arms and coil springs in front and a live axle with leaf springs in back. The only body style was a regular cab short bed and all were rear wheel drive. The Hi-Lux name was coined in 1969, but it was a highly-luxurious vehicle only when compared to the Stout.

Engine:. It was larger than the similar Datsun and Mazda compact trucks, and looked like a Chevrolet C/K. Toyota entered the American market with the 1964 introduction of the Stout. Engine:.

This was the true ancestor of the Hi-Lux, and remained in production from 1947 through 1963. After World War II, Toyota returned with a compact pickup truck, the Toyopet Model SB. It shared many components with the company's A1 car, and was a 1.5 ton stake-bed commercial truck. The original Toyota pickup was the 1935 G1.

.
. The product lines for the US and elsewhere diverged at that point and in many cases on a year for year basis the vehicles sold in the US only resemble the true Hi-Lux, with major mechanical/chassis differences. Please note, as the Hi-Lux name was dropped in the US in 1976, any details listed here purporting to relate to the Hi-Lux from that date may not be entirely correct when applied the the vehicle which continues to be marketed by Toyota as the Hi-Lux throughout the rest of the world.

One popular option package, SR5, also became synonymous with the truck, even though it was used on other Toyota models as well. In the United States, the Hi-Lux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck or Compact Truck, and this name was replaced by Tacoma in 1995. The Hi-Lux name was adopted as a replacement for the Stout in 1969, and remains in use worldwide. The Toyota Hi-Lux is a compact pickup truck built and marketed by the Toyota Motor Corporation.

2005 4.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 238 hp - 245 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). 2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 163 hp (Asia, South Africa, South America). 2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 164 hp (Australia, South Africa, USA). 2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 102 hp - 120 hp (Asia, Europe, South Africa, South America).

2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4 (South Africa). 1995-2004 3.4 L 5VZ-FE 24-valve DOHC V6, 190 hp (142 kW). 1995-2004 2.7 L (2693 cc) 3RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 150 hp (112 kW) (4x4). 1995-2004 2.4 L (2438 cc) 2RZ-E 16-valve DOHC I4, 142 hp (106 kW) (4x2).

1989 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). 1989-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. 1988 - 3.0 L 3VZ-E V6, 150 hp (112 kW). 1985-1987 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-TE SOHC FI turbo I4, 135 hp (101 kW) at 4800 RPM and 173 ft.lbf (234 Nm) at 2800 RPM.

1985-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R-E SOHC FI I4, 105 hp (78 kW) at 4800 RPM and 137 ft.lbf (185 Nm) at 2800 RPM. 1984-1986 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only). 1984-1988 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. 1981-1983 2.2 L L Diesel I4, 62 hp (46.2 kW) at 4200 RPM and 93 ft.lbf (126 Nm) (SR5 long bed only).

1981-1983 - 2.4 L (2366 cc) 22R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW) at 4800 RPM and 129 ft.lbf (174 Nm) at 2800 RPM. 1979-1980 - 2.0 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). 1975-1978 - 2.2 L (2189 cc) 20R SOHC I4, 96 hp (72 kW). 1973-1974 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW).

1972 - 2.0 L (1968 cc) 18R SOHC I4, 108 hp (81 kW). 1970-1971 - 1.9 L (1858 cc) 8R SOHC I4, 97 hp (72 kW). 1969 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW). 1964-1968 - 1.9 L (1897 cc) 3R I4, 85 hp (63 kW).

995 cc I4, 27 hp (20 kW).

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