This page will contain wikis about Topaz, as they become available.

Topaz

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).

Topaz 4 Carat Oval Shape Topaz Gemstone Ring Enhanced with Azotic(r)Treatment Heart Cut Sky Blue Topaz Ring

The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition.

Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

Etymology and historical/mythical usage

The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above.

According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan.

Topaz is also the birthstone of November.

Example of Heat Treated Topaz-Pink Topaz Pear Cut Ring

References

  • Webmineral
  • Mindat with location data
  • Mineral galleries

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Topaz is also the birthstone of November. Overseas the Celica received a small restyling, with new bumpers and headlamps, continuing its sales. According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan. However until mid-May, customers could still order one, although it was advised they took action before that time ended. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above. Exporting of the Celica ceased in July 2005. The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. This is a flawed theory, because Toyota owns Scion and is positioning the Scion tC as a successor to the Celica, as part of a greater brand positioning scheme.

It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Many attribute the 2004 loss in sales to the introduction of the cheaper Scion tC. Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. As of November 2004, just 8,216 Celicas had been sold for calendar year 2004. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition. [2] Celica sales hit 52,406 units in 2000, but dropped sharply to 14,856 in 2003. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. In July 2004, Toyota announced the Celica would be discontinued in the United States at the end of the 2005 model year because of increasing competition and lack of sales.

When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. In 2001, Honda released the Acura RSX for the 2002 model year with a 2.0 L 4-cylinder 200 hp engine, which competed directly with the Celica. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. However, the Celica enjoyed the spotlight for about a year or so, being that it was one of the few vehicles offering 100 hp/L for under $27,000 USD. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. Unfortunately, Toyota was too late to the sport compact party. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. The GT was available in both a 5-speed manual and 4-speed automatic and the GT-S was available with a close-ratio 6-speed manual and a 4-speed manumatic.

The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. The GT-S had a more aggressive system called the VVTL-i (Variable Valve Timing with Lift and Intelligence) which would act as VVTi until 6200 rpm when the valves opened a fraction further and provided a 40 hp boost. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. Both of these engines featured Toyota's signature VVTi (Variable Valve Timing with Intelligence) system, which continuously varied the camshaft timing. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. This Celica came in two trim levels, the GT powered by a 1.8 L 4-cylinder 140 hp 1ZZ engine and the GT-S powered by a 1.8 L 4-cylinder 180 hp 2ZZ engine co-developed with Yamaha. The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It closely resembled the XYR concept with the exception of the front bumper and rear spoiler.

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).. In 2000, Toyota began production and sales of the 7th generation Celica. Mineral galleries. The XYR displayed an aggressive stance and radical styling not seen since the last Toyota sports car, the Supra. Mindat with location data. Also in 1999, Toyota released pictures of their next concept car, dubbed the XYR. Webmineral. The Celica was now available as a GT liftback or a GT convertible.

In 1999, the Celica lineup was simplified even further with the elimination of the coupe model. All 1998 Celicas included additional standard equipment, making the Celica a better value. All Celicas (coupe, liftback and convertible) were now GT models. In 1998, the ST model was discontinued to simplify the Celica ordering process.

For 1997, the only change in the Celica was the discontinuation of the GT coupe. Also available were optional driving lights in the redesigned grille area (standard on GT models). The 1996 Celica received optional side skirts to improve its aerodynamic efficiency, as well as a redesigned rear spoiler. At ASC, the roof was removed and a three-layer insulated and power-operated top was installed, producing a vehicle that was virtually water and windproof.

The vehicle arrived in the US as a partially assembled vehicle. Built off of the GT coupe, the conversion took place in the ASC facility in Rancho Dominguez, California. 1995 saw the introduction of the third generation convertible. However, the team was banned from competition for a year after the car's single victory due to turbocharger irregularities.

The car proved to be quite competitive in the 1995 World Championship. The 2500 homologation cars built to allow Toyota to enter the GT-Four as a Group A car in the World Rally Championship also sported extras such as all of the plumbing required to activate an anti-lag system, a water spray bar for the front heat exchanger and an extender spoiler mounted on risers. Influenced strongly by Team Toyota Europe, Toyota's factory team in the World Rally Championship, the final version of the GT-Four included improvements such as an all aluminium bonnet to save weight, four channel sports ABS, an improved CT20B turbocharger, and Super Strut Suspension. This version was to be the most powerful Celica produced to date, producing between 240-250hp from an updated 3S-GTE motor.

Production of the Alltrac, or GT-Four as it was known outside the US, continued for the Japanese and Australian markets. Celicas also sported CFC-free air conditioning. New safety equipment in the form of driver and passenger-side airbags was standard, and anti-lock brakes were available on all models. Celicas were available in either coupe or liftback form, with the GT sports package available only on the liftback.

Styling of the new Celicas was acclaimed by most publications as "Supra-esque" with four exposed headlights. The Celica was only available in ST and GT trims in the US for the 1994 model year, but the addition of the optional "sports package" to the GT produced GT-S-like handling. The sixth-generation Celicas bore very little resemblance to their previous brethren. For 1994, Toyota pulled out all the stops.

However, in August of 1991 an earlier change was made, namely the front brake discs which where solid, were made vented. In 1992 Toyota facelifted the range, the changes include:. Special features include:. The special rally edition of 5000 is known as the Carlos Sainz (CS) in Europe (in honour of their famous WRC driver) and the RC in Japan.

With a 2.0 L turbocharged 3S-GTE producing 149kW (200 BHP), it was also one of the most powerful Celicas made thus far. With its sport-style interior, power-operated driver's seat, and a sunroof as standard equipment, the All-Trac (known as the GT-Four outside of the United states) was the most expensive Celica yet. Anti-lock brakes were available on GTS all four years and was avalible on the GT from 1992-93, as were numerous luxury items -- all of these were standard on the All-Trac model. In North America, the GT and GT-S were powered by the 2.2 L 5S-FE, while the ST sported the 1.6 L 4A-FE - all were DOHC 16-valve.

The Celica received revised styling, upgraded wheels and tires, and a more powerful GT-Four (US: All-Trac). The fifth generation Celica was introduced in 1990. In some European countries these models were available instead;. With full-time all wheel drive and a turbocharged version of the GT-S 2.0 L engine producing 190 hp (3S-GTE), it immediately took its place as the flagship of the Celica range, and became the official Toyota rally car for all years of production.

In 1988, Toyota introduced the "ultimate Celica", the All-Trac Turbo or GT-Four. Front wheel drive and four-wheel independent suspension made the Celica a great all-around sports car. The GT-S was given a 135 hp version of the DOHC 2.0 L engine (3S-GE) featuring T-VIS. STs and GTs came with a SOHC 8 valve, 2.0 L, 92 hp engine (Engine Code 2S-E) from the Toyota Camry, but quickly changed to an all new DOHC 116 hp engine (3S-FE) for the 1987 model year, also shared with the Camry.

The Celica was now available in ST, GT and GT-S trim, all available as either coupe or liftback models, with the GT being offered up in a soft-top convertible coupe as well. It was an all-new vehicle with front wheel drive, a rounded, flowing body and new 2.0 L four-cylinder engines. For 1986, the Celica changed completely. Chassis code:
ST: ST161
GT & GT-S: ST162
All-Trac/GT-Four: ST165.

The GT-S included larger wheels and tires, fender flares, independent rear suspension, a sports interior including special seats, and a leather-wrapped steering wheel and shifter knob. In 1983, Toyota added the GT-S model to the Celica line to re-inject the sports image that Celica had lost as it grew larger and heavier with each subsequent model. Styling was changed considerably from previous models and power was now provided by a 2.4 L(22R-E) engine.In Australia, Toyota decided to drop the 21R-C in the celica instead of the American and Japanese 22R-E, as a result, the car only turned out a mere 67 kilowatts. 1982 saw the introduction of the third generation Celica.

A unique one-off development of this series was a car-derived pickup, designed by Toyota's California Studio in 1977. The Camry was spun off into its own range two years later. This model was a Toyota Carina with a Celica front end. In 1980, a four-door version was announced, known as the Toyota Celica Camry.

This new generation offered more safety, power and fuel economy than previous models, and was awarded Motor Trend's "Import Car of the Year" for 1978. Power was provided by 2.2 L engines for both models. The second generation Celica was released in 1978 (production began in late 1977), and was again available in both ST and GT trim levels. (See image).

1976 Saw the addition of the liftback version, available in GT-form with a 2 litre engine. There was also a GTV version, which could even be considered a hybrid between the GT and LT versions, as it had the 2T-G engine, with a slightly cut-down interior, and didn't come with things like power windows, but they were optional. The GT model came with various upgrades like underbody spoilers, tinted windows, different bonnet flutes, power windows, air conditioning, and shared a few things with the ST - a full-length centre console and oil pressure/ammeter gauges, rather than the LT's warning lights. The 2T-G that powered the high-end GT model was a twin-cam, twin-solex carburettor 1600cc engine.

The lower-end LT was equipped with a 2T carbureted four-cylinder engine displacing 1600cc, while the ST came with a twin Solex-carburettor 2T-B engine. The Celica came out in three different versions, the LT, ST and GT. Allegedly a "cut-down" version of Toyota's supercar, the 2000GT, the Celica was a relatively affordable sports car. The first generation Celica was released to the market in 1970.

Robert Huffman won the 2003 Dash Series Championship driving one of these Celicas. These Celicas started racing in 2000 and had 6th or 7th generation bodies but a steel tube-frame race chassis and a production based V-6 engine that was not avalible in the street Celica. A less stock version of the Celica with factory backing and development was campaigned successfully by several drivers in the Goody's Dash Series. The Celica (usually the 1st through 3rd generation Rear-Wheel Drive model powered by the R series engine) is sometimes raced privately in stock car racing, usually in four-cylinder classes at the grassroots level.

Toyotas run in the NHRA Funny Car class also used Celica bodies, although besides the body, these cars do not share any resemblance to their street counterparts. 7th generation Celicas were also successfully campaigned in the NHRA Sport Compact Drag Racing series during the early 2000s. It was entered into GT300 class of the Japanese Grand Touring Championship. Team Racing Project Bandoh created a special RWD variant of the 7th generation Celica using a 3S-GTE engine[1].

Slightly modified versions of stock Celicas were also used as the spec car in the Toyota Pro/Celebrity Race from 1976 to 2005. The team captured many class wins and the GTO Championship in 1987. In road racing, The Celica was raced by Dan Gurney's All American Racers team with factory backing in the IMSA GTU and GTO classes from 1983 to 1988. The ST185's homogolation version is called the Carlos Sainz (CS, after the driver), or RC in Japan.

They are considered a collector's item by some enthusiasts. Special editions of the GT-Four models were produced for the public in extremely limited numbers (5000) due to homogolation demands. Some time after TTE switched to the shorter Toyota Corolla. Soon after introducing the ST205 in 1995, TTE was banned for 12 months from the WRC because of cheating.

Carlos Sainz was the driver who drove to success in both the ST165 and ST185. A GT-Four Celica competed in Group A Rally racing from the mid-1980s to the late 1990s. In racing, the Celica is known for its rally racing prowess. .

Other versions include a four wheel drive turbocharged model (designated All Trac in the US or GT-Four in Japan and Europe, produced from 1988-1999), a hatchback model, and a convertible model. Through seven generations, the model has gone through many revisions and design forks, including the Toyota Celica Supra (later known as the Toyota Supra). During the FWD generations, top-model Celicas came with a turbocharger and most recently, variable valve timing. During the RWD generations, American market Celicas were powered by various versions of Toyota's SOHC 20R or 22R engines.

The most significant change between generations occurred in 1986, when the drive train was changed from rear wheel drive to front wheel drive. Through all generations, Celicas have been built around Toyota's high-performance inline-4 engines. The name is derived from the Spanish word for "heavenly" or "celestial". The Toyota Celica name has been applied to a series of popular sports cars made by the Japanese company Toyota.

a tail light redesign. a Toyota emblem on the hood; and,. 15" wheels on the GT model fitted with Dunlop 205/55VR tyres;. the ST and GT received a brand new bumper;.

wider body for the All-trac and GT-S;. uprated disc brakes (from 269 to 277mm);. a new 5S-FE, producing 100kW and 196Nm of torque;. improved gear linkage;.

new 3 way CAT system;. front and rear spring rates were increased significantly;. stiffer anti roll bar;. different bumper which is much lighter than the standard one.

different bonnet, the emphasis of which is to get rid of heat as fast as possible, (instead of scooping in air, as is the case with the standard ST185 bonnet);. a different intercooler (WTA as opposed to ATA) which TTE wanted so they could more easily tune their WRC car;.

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