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This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).Topaz 4 Carat Oval Shape Topaz Gemstone Ring Enhanced with Azotic(r)Treatment Heart Cut Sky Blue Topaz Ring
The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition.
Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.
Etymology and historical/mythical usage
The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above.
According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan.
Topaz is also the birthstone of November.Example of Heat Treated Topaz-Pink Topaz Pear Cut Ring
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Topaz is also the birthstone of November. In 1887 the Michelson-Morley experiment, using an interferometer to attempt to detect the change in the speed of light caused by the Earth moving with respect to the aether, was a famous null result, showing that there really was no static, pervasive medium throughout space and through which the Earth moved as though through a wind. According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan. This evolved into the luminiferous aether of the 19th century, but the idea was known to have significant shortcomings - specifically that if the Earth is moving through a material medium, the medium would have to be both extremely tenuous (because the earth is not being detectably slowed in its orbit), and extremely rigid (because vibrations propagate so fast). In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above. In the 17th century, theories of the nature of light had required the idea of an aethereal medium which would be the medium to convey waves of light (Newton relied on this idea to explain refraction and radiated heat). The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. This led to the development of the vacuum tube.
It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. A number of electrical properties become observable at this vacuum level, and this renewed interest in vacuum. Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. The study of vacuum then lapsed until 1855 when Heinrich Geissler invented the mercury displacement pump and achieved a record vacuum of about 0.1 Torr. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition. In 1654, Otto von Guericke conducted his famous Magdeburg hemispheres experiment, showing that teams of horses could not separate two hemispheres from which the air had been evacuated. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. Robert Boyle later conducted experiments on the properties of vacuum.
When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. Some people believe that although Torricelli produced the first vacuum, it was Blaise Pascal who recognized it for what it was. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. Following work by Galileo, Evangelista Torricelli argued in 1643 that there was a vacuum at the top of a mercury barometer. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. Opposition to the idea of a vacuum existing in nature continued into the Scientific Revolution, with scholars such as Paolo Casati taking an anti-vacuist position. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. This speculation became irrelevant after the Paris condemnations of Bishop Tempier, which required there to be no restrictions on the powers of God, which led to the conclusion that God could create a vacuum if he so wished.
The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. There was much discussion of whether the air moved in quickly enough as the plates were separated, or, following William Burley whether a 'celestial agent' prevented the vacuum arising—that is, whether nature abhorred a vacuum. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. Medieval thought experiments into the idea of a vacuum considered whether a vacuum was present, if only for an instant, between two flat plates when they were rapidly separated. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. The absence of anything implied the absence of God, and hearkened back to the void prior to the story of creation in the book of Genesis. The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. In the Middle Ages, the idea of a vacuum was thought to be immoral or even heretical.
This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).. Later Greek philosophers thought that a vacuum could exist outside the cosmos, but not inside it. Mineral galleries. Similarly, Aristotle considered the creation of a vacuum impossible—nothing could not be something. Mindat with location data. He believed that all physical things were instantiations of an abstract Platonic ideal, and could not imagine an "ideal" form of a vacuum. Webmineral. Plato found the idea of a vacuum inconceivable.
Ancient Greek philosophers did not like to admit the existence of a vacuum, asking themselves "how can 'nothing' be something?". Historically, there has been much dispute over whether such a thing as a vacuum can exist. String theory is believed to be analogous to quantum field theory but one with a huge number of vacua - with the so-called anthropic landscape. If the theory is obtained by quantization of a classical theory, each stationary point of the energy in the configuration space gives rise to a single vacuum.
In free (non-interacting) quantum field theories, this state is analogous to the ground state of a quantum harmonic oscillator. In quantum field theory and string theory, the term "vacuum" is used to represent the ground state in the Hilbert space, that is, the state with the lowest possible energy. The best support for vacuum fluctuations is the Casimir effect. Vacuum fluctuations may also be related to the so-called cosmological constant in the theory of gravitation, if indeed this entity were to be observed in nature on a macroscopic scale.
While most agree that this represents a significant part of particle physics, it is a concept that would benefit from a deeper understanding than currently available. This is called vacuum fluctuation. The lowest possible energy state is called the zero-point energy and consists of a seething mass of virtual particles that have brief existence. More fundamentally, quantum mechanics predicts that vacuum energy can never be exactly zero.
Even the space between molecules is not a perfect vacuum. Each atom exists as a probability function of space, which has a certain non-zero value everywheres in a given volume. Another reason that perfect vacuum is impossible is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle which states that no particle can ever have an exact position. If this soup of photons is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the walls, it can be said to have a particular temperature, as well as a pressure.
One reason is that the walls of a vacuum chamber emit light in the form of black-body radiation: visible light if they are at a temperature of thousands of degrees, infrared light if they are cooler. Even an ideal vacuum, thought of as the complete absence of anything, will not in practice remain empty. 1913, p.720). (See "Polar Magnetic Phenomena and Terrella Experiments", in The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902-1903 (publ.
It does not seem unreasonable therefore to think that the greater part of the material masses in the universe is found, not in the solar systems or nebulae, but in "empty" space. We have assumed that each stellar system in evolutions throws off electric corpuscles into space. He wrote: "It seems to be a natural consequence of our points of view to assume that the whole of space is filled with electrons and flying electric ions of all kinds. In 1913, Norwegian explorer and physicist Kristian Birkeland may have been the first to predict that space is not only a plasma, but also contains "dark matter".
The deep vacuum of space could make it an attractive environment for certain processes, for instance those that require ultraclean surfaces. The idea of using this wind with a solar sail has been proposed for interplanetary travel. Spacecraft can be buffeted by solar winds, but planets are too massive to be affected. Beyond planetary atmospheres, the pressure from photons and other particles from the sun become significant.
. Studies have discovered that some satellites retrieved from orbit are coated with a very thin layer of urine and fecal matter evidently released from Russian and US space missions. The atmosphere in Low Earth Orbit is increasingly being polluted with man-made debris. Most Earth satellites operate in this region, and they need to fire their engines every few days to maintain orbit.
In Low Earth Orbit (about 300 km altitude) the atmospheric density is still sufficient to produce significant drag on satellites. The density of gas decreases with distance from the object. Stars, planets and moons keep their atmosphere by gravitational attraction, so atmospheres have no firm boundary. Neither these photons nor the neutrinos produce a significant interaction with matter, so stars, planets and spacecraft move freely in this near perfect vacuum of interstellar space.
The current temperature is about 3 K, being merely 3 degrees above the absolute zero of temperature. All of the observable universe is also filled with large numbers of photons, the so-called cosmic background radiation, and quite likely a correspondingly large number of neutrinos. A perfect vacuum is an ideal state that cannot practically be obtained in a laboratory, nor even in outer space, where there are a few hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter at 10−14 Pascal or 10−16 Torr. The properties of the vacuum remain largely unknown.
It is cold and has no friction. Much of outer space has the density and pressure of an almost perfect vacuum. The lowest pressures currently achievable in laboratory are about 10-13 Pa. Vessels lined with a highly gas-permeable material such as palladium (which is a high-capacity hydrogen sponge) create special outgassing problems.
Your system may be able to evacuate nitrogen, (the main component of air,) to the desired vacuum, but your chamber could still be full of residual atmospheric hydrogen and helium. Smaller molecules can leak in more easily and are more easily absorbed by certain materials, and molecular pumps are less effective at pumping gases with lower molecular weights. The impact of molecular size must be considered. The porosity of the metallic chamber walls may have to be considered, and the grain direction of the metallic flanges should be parallel to the flange face.
Some oils and greases will boil off in extreme vacuums. The water absorption of aluminium and palladium becomes an unacceptable source of outgassing, and even the absorptivity of hard metals such as stainless steel or titanium must be considered. In ultra-high vacuum systems, some very odd leakage paths and outgassing sources must be considered. Some systems are cooled well below room temperature by liquid nitrogen to shut down residual outgassing and simultaneously cryopump the system.
Once the bulk of the outgassing materials are boiled off and evacuated, the system may be cooled to lower vapour pressures and minimize residual outgassing during actual operation. If necessary, this outgassing of the system can also be performed at room temperature, but this takes much more time. The system is usually baked, preferably under vacuum, to temporarily raise the vapour pressure of all outgassing materials in the system and boil them off. Ultra-high vacuum systems are usually made of stainless steel with metal-gasketed conflat flanges.
On a larger scale, the principles are the same as in a Cryomodule. Cryopumping incorporates the use of introducing cryogenics and a vacuum system. One such method to create a high vacuum to ultra high vacuum is by the use of cryopumps. Yet more specialized pumps become useful:.
Even higher vacuums are possible, but they generally require custom-built equipment, strict operational procedures, and a fair amount of trial-and-error. With careful design and operation, 1μPa is possible. With these standard precautions, vacuums of 1 mPa are easily achieved with off-the-shelf molecular pumps. As a result, many materials that work well in low vacuums, such as epoxy, will become a problematic source of outgassing when attempting to achieve high vacuums.
All materials, solid or liquid, have a small vapour pressure, and their outgassing becomes important when the vacuum pressure falls below this vapour pressure. The system must be clean and free of organic matter to minimize outgassing. High vacuum systems generally require metal chambers with metal O-ring seals such as Klein flanges or ISO flanges. As with mechanical pumps, the base pressure will be reached when leakage, outgassing, and backstreaming equal the pump speed, but now minimizing leakage and outgassing to a level comparable to backstreaming becomes much more difficult.
Both of these pumps will stall and fail to pump if exhausted directly to atmospheric pressure, so they must be exhausted to a lower grade vacuum created by a mechanical pump. Diffusion pumps blow out molecules with jets of oil, while turbomolecular pumps use high speed fans. Both types of pumps blow out gas molecules that diffuse into the pump. The two main types of molecular pumps are the diffusion pump and the turbomolecular pump.
In high vacuum, however, pressure gradients have little effect on fluid flows, and molecular pumps can attain their full potential. Since there is no seal, a small pressure at the exhaust can easily force flow backstream through the pump; this is called stall. They do this at the expense of the seal between the vacuum and their exhaust. Molecular pumps sweep out a larger area than mechanical pumps, and do so more frequently, making them capable of much higher pumping speeds as measured in volume per time.
This regime is generally called high vacuum.. When the distance between the molecules increases, the molecules interact with the walls of the chamber more often than the other molecules, and molecular pumping becomes more effective than compression pumping. At atmospheric pressure and mild vacuums, molecules interact with each other and push on their neighboring molecules in what is known as viscous flow. Matter flows differently at different pressures based on the laws of fluid dynamics.
Fortunately, once the pressure has dropped below 1 kPa or so, another vacuum pumping technique becomes possible. Better pumping technologies must be used to go beyond this barrier. Adding more pumps in parallel or bigger pumps of the same type can still improve the pump-down speed, but they will not reduce the base pressure below ultimate. In this situation, the vacuum will approach the pump's ultimate pressure - the best vacuum that this type of pump can achieve under ideal conditions.
However, there is a point where backstream leakage through the pump and outgassing of the pump oils become the dominant mass flows into the chamber. If the dominant mass flow into the vacuum system is chamber leakage or outgassing of materials under vacuum, then the vacuum can be improved simply by installing bigger pumps with a higher volume flow rate. The base pressure of a rubber- and plastic-sealed piston pump system is typically 1 to 50 kPa, while a scroll pump might reach 10 Pa and a rotary vane oil pump with a clean and empty metallic chamber can easily achieve 0.1 Pa. Outgassing can be reduced by desiccation prior to vacuum pumping.
When the pump's mass flow drops to the same level as the mass flows into the chamber, the system asymptotically approaches a constant pressure called the base pressure. Evaporation and sublimation into a vacuum is called outgassing, and the most common source is water absorbed by materials in the chamber. Meanwhile, the leakage rates, evaporation rates, and sublimation rates produce a constant mass flow into the system. So although the pumping speed remains constant when measured in litres/second, it drops exponentially when measured in kilograms/second. A mechanical vacuum pump moves the same volume of gas with each cycle, but as the chamber's pressure drops, this volume contains less and less mass.
The pump's cavity is then sealed from the chamber, opened to the atmosphere, and squeezed back to a minute size. Because of the pressure differential, some air from the chamber is pushed into the pump's small cavity. Inside the pump, a mechanism expands a small sealed cavity to create a deep vacuum. This is the principle behind most mechanical vacuum pumps.
By repeatedly closing off a compartment of the vacuum and exhausting it, it is possible to pump air out of a chamber of fixed size in a manner analogous to pumping a milkshake out of a glass. For example, your muscles expand your lungs to create a partial vacuum inside them, and air rushes in to fill the vacuum. The easiest way to create an artificial vacuum is to expand the volume of a container.
Astrophysicists prefer to use density to describe these environments, in units of particles per cubic metre. In interplanetary and interstellar space, isotropic gas pressure is insignificant when compared to solar pressure, solar wind, and dynamic pressure. This vacuum state is called high vacuum, and the study of fluid flows in this regime is called particle gas dynamics. When the MFP is greater than the chamber, pump, spacecraft, or other objects present, the continuum assumptions of fluid mechanics do not apply.
As gas pressure decreases, the mean free path (MFP) of the gas molecules increases. Here, 29.92 inHg means perfect vacuum. Thus a vacuum of 26 inHg is equivalent to a pressure of (29.92 - 26) or 3.92 inHg. This means that the pressure in vacuum, when specified in inches of mercury, is equal to the specified inches of mercury subtracted from 29.92.
For commercial purposes, vacuum is often measured in inches of mercury (inHg). It is often also measured using the barometric scale, or as a percentage of atmospheric pressure in bars or atms. The SI unit of pressure is the pascal (abbreviation Pa), but vacuum is usually measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or Torr, with 1 mmHg or 1 Torr equaling 133.3223684 pascals. Engineers measure the degree of vacuum in units of pressure.
In engineering, a vacuum is any region where the gas pressure is less than atmospheric pressure. The antithesis of a vacuum, which is also an ideal unachievable state, is called a plenum. A complete characterization of the physical state would require further parameters, such as temperature. Physicists use the term partial vacuum to describe real-life non-ideal vacuum.
In modern day usage vacuum is considered to exist in an enclosed space or chamber, when the pressure of gaseous environment is lower than atmospheric pressure (760 Torr or 101 kPa), or has been reduced as much as necessary to prevent the influence of some gas on a process being carried out in that space. A perfect vacuum is an ideal state that cannot practically be obtained in a laboratory, nor even in outer space where there are a few hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter at 10−14 pascal or 10−16 torr. Vacuum ranges do not have universally agreed definitions and often depend on the size of the vacuum chamber, but a typical distribution is as follows:. .
A perfect vacuum with a gaseous pressure of absolute zero is a philosophical concept with no physical reality; see sections below on Vacuum in Space and The Quantum Mechanical Vacuum. vacua) which means "empty," but space can never be perfectly empty. The root of the word vacuum is the Latin word vacuus (pl.
For other uses, see vacuum cleaner, vacuum exercise and Vacuum (musical group).'. Converting them to solids by electrically combining them with other materials, called ion pumping. Converting the molecules of gas to their solid phase by freezing them, called cryopumping or cryotrapping. light bulb.
vacuum tube. vacuum welding. process purging. ultra-clean inert storage.
adhesive preparation. vacuum deposition as in semiconductor fabrication. thermal insulation as in a thermos. freeze drying.
Interstellar space = approximately 1 fPa (10−17 Torr) . Pressure on the Moon = approximately 1 nPa (10−11 Torr). Cryopumped MBE chamber = 100 nPa to 1 nPa (10−9 Torr to 10−11 Torr). Near earth outer space = approximately 100 µPa (10−6 Torr).
Mechanical vacuum pump = approximately 100 Pa to 100 µPa (1 Torr to 10−6 Torr). Mechanical water-sealed liquid ring vacuum pump = approximately 3.2 kPa (24 Torr). Vacuum cleaner = approximately 80 kPa (600 Torr). Atmospheric pressure = variable, but standardised at 101.325 kPa (760 Torr) or 760 mm of mercury.