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Topaz

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).

Topaz 4 Carat Oval Shape Topaz Gemstone Ring Enhanced with Azotic(r)Treatment Heart Cut Sky Blue Topaz Ring

The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition.

Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

Etymology and historical/mythical usage

The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above.

According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan.

Topaz is also the birthstone of November.

Example of Heat Treated Topaz-Pink Topaz Pear Cut Ring

References

  • Webmineral
  • Mindat with location data
  • Mineral galleries

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Topaz is also the birthstone of November. For 2008, Toyota will create a hybrid gasoline–electric Corolla. According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan. The Altis range of the Corolla is manufactured in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above. Two versions of engine are available, the 108 bhp 1.6 and the 134 bhp 1.8. The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In Asia (excluding Hong Kong Japan & India), the Toyota Corolla is branded as the Toyota Corolla Altis and is similar to the US-spec Corolla.

It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. The Vibe, in turn, is sold with a different grille in Japan and is called the Toyota Voltz. Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. The Corolla has also spawned another multi-purpose vehicle, the Matrix, sold in Canada and the United States, and forms the basis of the Pontiac Vibe. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition. The Corolla Spacio (Verso in Europe) moved on to the new platform. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. The station wagon model is called the Toyota Corolla Fielder in Japan, and the five-door the Toyota Corolla Runx and Toyota Allex, launching in 2001.

When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. The sporty XRS model, introduced for 2004, features the high-revving 170 hp (127 kW) 127 ft·lbf (172 N·m) 2ZZ-GE engine and 6 speed manual from the Toyota Celica GT-S and Lotus Elise. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. The torsion bar suspension and drum brakes in the rear are anachronisms, however. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. This model made it to the United States in 2002. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Like the Vista, the Corolla's width is limited to 67 in (1700 mm), to avoid being in a higher tax bracket in Japan, although most of its European rivals are now wider.

The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. It is built on a shortened Toyota Vista platform—the Vista being a mid-sized, rather than compact, car. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The ninth-generation Corolla (AE120/ZZE120) appeared in August 2000 with edgier styling and a longer 102.4 in (2600 mm) wheelbase. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. In 1997, the Corolla Spacio, with its body panels stamped at long-time Toyota supplier Kanto Autoworks, was introduced as a two-box minivan version and sold as the Corolla Verso in Europe and the Toyota Spacio in New Zealand. The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. As a result, a sporting model with a six-speed gearbox was offered.

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).. A European range had different front and rear ends (this was sold in Australia and New Zealand, too), to appeal to customers there. Mineral galleries. Europe (1996-2001). Mindat with location data. The US-market 2001 Toyota Corolla has a maximum legal carrying capacity of 850lbs. Webmineral. VVT-i variable valve timing was added to the engine for 2000.

In the US market, only sedans were offered. A new all-aluminum engine powered all Corollas, making every car lighter than its predecessor. All North American Corollas were now built in California (by NUMMI) or Canada (by TMMC). USA (1998-2002).

JPN-market chassis:. The Sprinter Trueno coupé range was carried over with a facelift, while the Wagon was identical to the Corolla. This marked the beginning of the end of the Sprinter. The Japanese has a version called the "Corolla GT" which is a 4-door, 165hp, 6-speed sedan.

Due to recession, Toyota ordered that Corolla development chief Takayasu Honda cuts costs, hence the carryover engineering. The eighth generation (AE110/ZZE110), which shared its platform (and doors, on some models) with its predecessor, was introduced in May 1995, 1998 in Europe and North America. Japan (1995-1999). This model was not as successful due to a rising yen and home-market recession, blunting demand.

The three and five-door Corolla FX was also sold in Europe just as the Corolla, and was available mostly in normal (non-sports) specs unlike the FX range avaliable in Japan which were available in two models the SJ a 16 valve 1.6-litre 115bhp (4A-FE) and the GT a 20 Valve 1.6-litre 160bhp (Silvertop 4A-GE). The five-door Sprinter was sold as the Corolla Sprinter in Europe, confusingly. The US-market Geo Prizm was sold as a four-door sedan. The Corolla Levin and Sprinter Trueno were sold as two-door coupés.

Sprinters were available as a four-door sedan or five-door liftback, including a four-door hardtop called the Sprinter Marino (only for this generation). It was available as a four-door sedan, three- and five-door hatchback and a five-door station wagon. This model appeared in 1992 in Japan, 1993 in Europe and 1994 in North America. With its 97 in (2465 mm) wheelbase, the Corolla had moved into the compact size class once occupied by the Toyota Corona and Camry.

The next Corolla (AE10X) was larger, heavier, and more expensive, with development chief Dr Akihiko Saito wanting to develop a 'mini-Lexus', after success with that range's flagship. They generated 152 ft·lbf at 4,400rpm as opposed to the N/a 4A-GE's 100 ft·lbf at 4,800 rpm. They used the SC12 roots type supercharger and a top mounted intercooler that was fed cool air via a scoop on the bonnet. In Japan the AE92 Levin/Trueno was also fitted with a supercharged engine and designated GT-Z.

European-market chassis:. US-market chassis:. These two plants made 279,000 units, making a total of 4.5 million of this generation (AE90) made. American production of the sedan took place at NUMMI and Cambridge, Ontario.

These generations were also favored by tuners. The three-door is sold as a panel van model there, called the Toyota Carri. The sixth-generation five-door hatchback is still made in South Africa as an entry-level model called the Toyota Tazz. The Sprinter five-door liftback was re-badged as the Corolla in Europe, though for a period in Ireland (and possibly elsewhere) it was badged the "Sprinter GLS", unusually in cheap-looking decals instead of the metallic-coated plastic badges found on all other Toyotas of the time.

It was called the All-Trac in the US and sold with the Tercel or Corolla name in some countries. It was sold from 1988 to 1994 and had different bodywork to other Corollas. The all wheel drive Sprinter Carib wagon used a solid axle rear suspension with coil springs, while the rest used struts all around. The Geo Prizm shared a slightly different body with the Japan-market Sprinter.

All Corollas were front-drive for 1987, with production beginning in May 1987. Australian-market chassis: Similarity with the Holden Nova. US-market chassis: Also marketed by GM from 1985–1988 as Chevy Nova before becoming Geo Prizm. It was available with either SOHC or DOHC engines, the latter marketed as the FX-16.

A new Corolla FX, built at the US NUMMI plant, appeared in 1987. These AE86 models have been immortalized in the anime series Initial D, and have been also featured in the computer and video games Need for Speed: Underground 2, Gran Turismo 3 & 4, and Auto Modellista. The Sprinter sports cars, in two-door coupe and three-door liftback forms, were notable for the line's first use of pop-up headlamps, which the equivalent Corolla Levin sports models did not have. This engine was also combined with the front-drive transaxle to power the mid-engined Toyota MR-2.

It was a 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4 and produced an impressive 124 hp (92 kW), turning the Sprinter Trueno (Japan), Corolla GT Coupe (Europe) and Corolla GT-S into a popular sports car. A hot DOHC 16-valve engine, designated 4A-GE, was added in 1984 on the rear-drive cars. The five-door liftback was sold with the Corolla Seca name in Australia and the nameplate survived on successive five-door models. Although there was a five-door liftback model of the basic Corolla, the FX-based hatchback was sold alongside it.

The three- and five-door hatchbacks resembled the Corolla sedan with a truncated boot. A "short" hatchback range, called the Corolla FX in Japan and the Corolla Compact in Germany, arrived in 1984, on the front-wheel-drive platform. It was the first Corolla to top the New Zealand top-10 lists, ending Ford's dominance of that market. The front-wheel-drive wheelbase was now 95.6 in (2428 mm).

This model, from 1984, moved the Corolla into front wheel drive, except for the AE85 Corolla Levin (SR5 coupe and GT Coupe outside Japan) and AE86 Sprinter Trueno which continued on the older rear wheel drive platform, along with the three-door "liftback" (TE72), three-door van (KE70) and five-door wagon (KE70) of the previous generation, that were still being produced. The fifth generation (AE8x) is generally regarded as the finest Corolla when measured against its contemporaries, and some 3.3 million units were produced. The 1980-81 models had 4 lamps in the front in some markets, all 82-83 models have 2. In 1980, during this model's life, Corolla daily production reached an all-time high, averaging 2,346 units.

The year 1983 introduced the Corolla's first overhead cam engine, the 1.6 L (1587 cc/96 in³) 4A-C in the AE71 model range. A new 1.8 L (1770 cc/108 in³) 3T engine was optional to some markets, producing 75 hp (56 kW), whilst parts of the world retained the old 4K. This generation (apart from the wagon) got a new rear coil spring five-link rear end with panhard rod, and the wheelbase was longer at 94.5 in (2400 mm). The car were also avaliable in coupe versions (TE71 and TE72).

Equally, there was a Daihatsu Charmant variant. Although most of the fourth generation was replaced by 1984, the station wagon and van versions soldiered on into 1987. The fourth-generation model (Ke70) released in 1979 in Japan, was a boxy, rear-wheel-drive offering. US-market chassis:.

A sporty 2T-G engine was also in the lineup in the Japanese model hardtop (AKA Levin) producing 124hp with a DOHC performance head, and later models with fuel injection. The TE3x series 2T-C engines had an additional bump in horsepower thanks to their hemi-design and larger displacement (1588cc)giving the engines 75hp at the flywheel outmatching rival Datsun B210s engine output. These figures are fairly optimistic (probably tested without ancillaries such as alternators or water pumps) to make the car look good for sales, in reality most Corollas of the time produced about 30 hp (22 kW) at the wheels, which can be estimated to 45 hp (34 kW) at the flywheel. However emissions became a problem further into the 1970s, and the 4K engine in the KE5x series produced only 60 hp (45 kW), despite and increased capacity of 1290 cc.

Early Corollas in this range (KE3x) with 3K engines produced 73 hp (54 kW) from just 1166 cc. The base model cost US$2,711 in 1975, but one needed to step up to the $2,989 "deluxe" to get features comparable to the contemporary pack. They also criticized the "relatively crude rear suspension" and lack of interior space and poor fuel economy when compared to the VW Rabbit. Road & Track was critical of the 1975 Corolla, calling it "large and heavy" and "expensive" compared to the Honda Civic and Datsun B210.

USA (1974-1979). JPN-market chassis:. The KE40 series was assigned to the Sprinter variants. A three-door "liftback" (KE50) was added in 1976, along with a sporty-looking "sport coupe" body style.

A "Toyoglide" 2/3-speed automatic transmission was added as well as four-speed and for the "E/5, and "SR5" a five-speed manual transmissions. These model codes were designated "TE3x". All body styles—two- and four-door sedan (KE30), two-door hardtop (KE35) and three/five-door station wagon (KE36/KE38)—still used the 1.2 L (1166 cc/71 in³) 3K engine in certain markets, while most Japanese and American models got the stronger 1.6 L (1588 cc/96 in³) 2T engine. While there were certain fourth-generation models with a longer model life, this generation, when considered as a whole, was the longest-lived one, possibly due to the worldwide recession in the 1970s.

In addition to the Sprinter, there was a rebodied version built by Toyota affiliate Daihatsu, called the Daihatsu Charmant. The third-generation Toyota Corolla, built from 1974–81 (worldwide versions) (KE3x/KE5x), marked Toyota's greatest growth in the United States in the wake of the fuel crisis. Japan (1974-1981). * TE-27 - Hardtop Coupe, SR5.

* TE-25 - Wagon, DX. * TE-21 - Sedan, 2 Door Sedan. US-market chassis:. Corollas with this engine were designated TE21 or TE27.

A 1.6 L (1588 cc/96 in³) 102 hp (76 kW) 2T engine came in 1971, quite impressive for the time, and the sporty SR5 (aka: Levin in Japan) was introduced in 1973. The above models were available, as well as a hardtop coupe called the "SR-5". USA (1971-1974). * TE-27 - Hardtop Coupe (Levin/Trueno).

* TE-25 - Wagon, DX. * TE-21 - Sedan, 2 Door Sedan. JPN-market chassis:. The Corolla became the second-best selling car in the world that year.

There was a two and four-door sedan (KE20) available, as well as a two-door coupe (KE25), and three-door wagon (KE26). The front suspension design was improved greatly, using a swaybar, however the rear remained relatively the same. It had a longer 91.9 in (2334 mm) wheelbase, and used the 1.2 L (1166 cc/71 in³) 3K I4 which made 73 hp (54 kW). The second-generation KE2x model , launched 1970, had "coke-bottle" styling.

Japan (1969-1978). Exports to the United States began in 1968 at about US$1,700, and the car has been popular since. Toyota has been almost steadfast in facelifting each generation after two years, and replacing it with an all-new model every four years. USA (1968-1970).

The suspension in front was MacPherson struts supported by a transverse leaf spring beneath the engine crossmember, with leaf springs connected to a solid axle in back. A 4-speed manual transmission or 2 speed automatic transmission was available, and the car used rear wheel drive. Power came from either a 1.1 L (1077 cc/65 in³) OHV I4, the K, which produced 60 hp (45 kW), or the 1.2 L (1166 cc/71 in³) 3K in later models. The initial car, the KE1x series, was small, with a 90 in (2286 mm) wheelbase, and came in two- and four-door sedan (KE10 and KE11), two-door coupe (KE15), and three-door station wagon (KE16 and KE18) versions.

Eiji Toyoda, chairman of the company, said it worked hard to create popular demand, and disputes that Toyota rode a wave of private car ownership that was taking off in the mid-1960s. The Corolla was launched in Japan in October 1966. Japan (1966-1969). In Australia, the Corolla liftback (TE72) was at one point badged the T-18.

Over the years, there have been rebadged versions of the Corolla, including the 1980s’ Holden Nova of Australia, and the Sprinter-based Chevrolet Nova, Geo Prizm and Chevrolet Prizm of the United States. There have also been several spin-offs over the years, including the Corolla II hatchback, Corolla Ceres (and similar Sprinter Marino) hardtop, Corolla Levin and Sprinter Trueno sports coupes and hatchbacks, and the Corolla FX hatckback (now Corolla Runx). It was replaced in 2001 by the Toyota Allex. A slightly upmarket version is called the Toyota Sprinter, sold in the Japanese home market.

. The Corolla's chassis designation code is "E", as described in Toyota's chassis and engine codes. Corollas are currently manufactured in the United States (California), the United Kingdom, Canada (Cambridge, Ontario), India, South Africa, Brazil, Turkey and Thailand. [1].

Toyota has made 30 million cars under the Corolla name since its launch in 1966, making it the best selling car of all time. In 1997, the Corolla became the best selling nameplate in the world. The Toyota Corolla is a compact car produced by Toyota of Japan, known worldwide for its reliability, conventional engineering and low fuel consumption. AE-114 - AWD Sedan.

AE-110 - Sedan. AE-111 - Sedan, GT. AE95 - 4WD 5-Door Wagon with the 4A-F or 4A-FE engines. AE92 - with the 4A-F engine and the 4A-GE engine (GTi).

CE90 - with the C1 engine. EE90 - with the 2E engine. AE95 - 4WD 5-Door Wagon. AE92 - Sedan, SR5/GT-S Coupé, 2WD 5-Door Wagon.

AE-86 - FWD 4-door Sedan /5-door Hatchback. AE-82 - FWD 4-door Sedan /5-door Hatchback. AE-80 - FWD 4-door Sedan /5-door Hatchback. AE-86 - RWD GT-S/SR5 Coupé.

AE-84 - 4WD 5-door wagon. AE-82 - FWD Sedan, FWD 4/2-door hatchback (FX/FX16), FWD 5-door wagon. TE-55 - Liftback, SR5. TE-51 - Sport Coupe SR5.

TE-37 - Hardtop Coupe SR5,SR. TE-35 - Wagon, DX. TE-31 - Sedan, E/5,DX 2 Door Sedan, E/5,DX. TE-55 - Liftback.

TE-51 - Sport Coupe (Levin/Treuno). TE-37 - Hardtop Coupe (Levin/Trueno). TE-35 - Wagon. TE-31 - Sedan,2 Door Sedan.

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