This page will contain news stories about Topaz, as they become available.

Topaz

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).

Topaz 4 Carat Oval Shape Topaz Gemstone Ring Enhanced with Azotic(r)Treatment Heart Cut Sky Blue Topaz Ring

The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition.

Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

Etymology and historical/mythical usage

The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above.

According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan.

Topaz is also the birthstone of November.

Example of Heat Treated Topaz-Pink Topaz Pear Cut Ring

References

  • Webmineral
  • Mindat with location data
  • Mineral galleries

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Topaz is also the birthstone of November. The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "U" and "u" for upper and lower case respectively. According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan. The EBCDIC code for capital U is 228 and for lowercase u is 164. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above. The ASCII code for capital U is 85 and for lowercase u is 117; or in binary 01010101 and 01110101, correspondingly. The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In Unicode the capital U is codepoint U+0055 and the lowercase u is U+0075.

It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. The use of the two forms to distinguish the consonants and vowels which they now represent was not standardised until modern times. Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. U was originally a positional variant of the letter V, as J was of I, used only in lower-case writing and only medially, and representing both the vowels now written with U and the consonants now written with V. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition. U is the twenty-first letter of the modern Latin alphabet. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. In Internet slang, "u" or "U" is referred to as "you" due to the similarity in pronunciation.

When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. University of Utah or "U of U" (or just University in general). They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. University of Miami, owing to its distinctive split-U logo. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. In the Unicode standard, character code points are labelled "U+" followed by a number in hexadecimal. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. They were also referred to as "U-boats" by the Allies.

The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. In military science, U- is a prefix used for German submarines during World War II, (e.g., U-20), which was short for Unterseeboot. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. In metrology, u is the symbol for unified atomic mass unit. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. In mathematics, U stands for the unitary group. The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. A U-set is a set of uniqueness.

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).. In mathematics, stands for union and the upside-down stands for intersection (both are operators on sets). Mineral galleries. U also stands for the popular Shia name Umar as Umar is seen as too sacred to be said aloud. Mindat with location data. British novelist Nancy Mitford brought to popular attention the linguistic terminology "U" and "non-U" to indicate the speech markers of upper class and non-upper class British speakers respectively. Webmineral. In linguistics, U refers to speech markers of upper class British speakers.

In history, U is king of Goryeo (Korea). In electrical engineering, U is the symbol for voltage. In education, U is an unsatisfactory grade. In computing, 1 U (= 44 mm or 1.75 inch) is a standard unit of height of a piece of equipment or computer chassis in a 19-inch rack, also called a rack unit (RU) or a pizza box.

In communication, u is an abbreviation for the word "you" in SMS or instant message. In chemistry, U is the symbol for uranium. In calendars, U is often an abbreviation for Sunday, for use when S is being used for Saturday. In biochemistry, U is the symbol for uracil.

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