This page will contain discussion groups about Topaz, as they become available.

Topaz

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).

Topaz 4 Carat Oval Shape Topaz Gemstone Ring Enhanced with Azotic(r)Treatment Heart Cut Sky Blue Topaz Ring

The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition.

Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

Etymology and historical/mythical usage

The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above.

According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan.

Topaz is also the birthstone of November.

Example of Heat Treated Topaz-Pink Topaz Pear Cut Ring

References

  • Webmineral
  • Mindat with location data
  • Mineral galleries

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Topaz is also the birthstone of November. Currently, there are two stimulants in this class being used: modafinil and adrafinil, marketed as Provigil and Olmifon, respectively. According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan. They have minimal effect on sleep structure, and do not cause rebound hypersomnolence or "come down" effects. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above. These stimulants tend to increase alertness without the peripheral (body) effects or addiction/tolerance/abuse potential of the traditional stimulants. The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. Recently, there have been improvements in the area of stimulant pharmacology, producing a class of chemicals known as eugregorics, or good arousal.

It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. A possible exception is bupropion, whose chemical and pharmacological properties are similar to those of stimulants. Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite.
Antidepressants are not considered stimulants, as they do not act directly on the sympathetic nervous system and generally do not produce an immediate effect on mood. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition. Taking a break from dancing, cooling down and drinking water regularly (to replace that lost by sweating) can prevent this. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. Deaths that have occurred as a result of consumption of ecstasy have mainly been connected with non-stop dancing in hot, crowded clubs leading to overheating and dehydration.

When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. You may also start to hallucinate. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. The blood pressure and heart rate increase, and loss of appetite is common. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. Users of ecstasy experience brief nausea, rapid sweating, and a dry mouth and throat. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Some also have pictures, designs or logos on.

The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. The appearance varies considerably, ranging from brown, white or pink tablets to yellow, clear, red-and-black or red-and-yellow capsules. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. Ecstasy is an illegally-manufactured drug that comes in tablet or capsule form. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. Some people have suggested that children that consume a lot of caffeine may become hyperactive. The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. There have been concerns about the amount of caffeine consumed by young children particularly in soft drinks and chocolate.

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).. Caffeine is a diuretic (a drug that increases urination). Mineral galleries. It decreases tiredness and drowsiness, and makes people feel more alert and able to concentrate. Mindat with location data. Caffeine helps stimulate the body, increasing heart rate and blood pressure. Webmineral. There is no law prohibiting the sale of any of these products.

Caffeine is a drug that is found in tea, coffee, cocoa, many soft drinks, and some chocolates. Excessive doses can cause death from respiratory failure or heart failure. Common effects include dry mouth, sweating, loss of appetite, and increased heart and pulse rates. Many users say that they feel very confident and physically strong.

Both drugs tend to make users feel more alert and energetic. Crack in particular has strong but short-lived effects. Cocaine and crack are strong, but short-acting stimulant drugs. It is usually smoked in a pipe, glass tube, plastic bottle, or foil.

Crack is a smokeable form of cocaine. Most users sniff it up the nose, often through a rolled banknote or straw, but it is also sometimes made into a solution and injected. In Britain and America, the most common form of cocaine is as a white crystalline powder. Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca shrub, which grows in the mountain regions of South America in countries such as Bolivia, Colombia and Peru.

If injecting equipment is shared, there is the risk of infection including hepatitis and HIV. Injecting amphetamine is particularly dangerous. However, taking a lot, especially over a few days, can produce panic and paranoia. Then they were used to counter low blood pressure, help asthmatics breathe more easily and decrease appetite.

They were first discovered in the 1800s, but their medical uses were not recognised until the 1930s. Amphetamines are synthetic stimulants. Examples of stimulants are caffeine, amphetamines, ecstasy and cocaine. They are also used and sometimes abused to boost endurance and productivity as well as to suppress appetite.

Stimulants can be used as recreational drugs or therapeutic drugs to increase alertness. A stimulant is a drug that increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or the feeling of being more awake.

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