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Topaz

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).

Topaz 4 Carat Oval Shape Topaz Gemstone Ring Enhanced with Azotic(r)Treatment Heart Cut Sky Blue Topaz Ring

The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition.

Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

Etymology and historical/mythical usage

The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above.

According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan.

Topaz is also the birthstone of November.

Example of Heat Treated Topaz-Pink Topaz Pear Cut Ring

References

  • Webmineral
  • Mindat with location data
  • Mineral galleries

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Topaz is also the birthstone of November. [1], [2]. According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word "Leshem" in the verse Exodus 28:19 means "Topaz" and was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Dan. This veil is never removed, even in front of family members. In the Middle Ages the name topaz was used to refer to any yellow gemstone, but now the name is only properly applied to the silicate described above. Men begin wearing a veil at age 25 which conceals their entire face excluding their eyes. The name "topaz" is derived from the Greek topazos, "to seek," which was the name of an island in the Red Sea that was difficult to find and from which a yellow stone (now believed to be a yellowish olivine) was mined in ancient times. The men's facial covering originates from the belief that such action wards off evil spirits, but most probably relates to protection against the harsh desert sands as well; in any event, it is a firmly established tradition.

It can be found in the Ural and Ilmen mountains, Czech Republic, Saxony, Norway, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Among the Tuareg of West Africa, women do not traditionally wear the veil, while men do. Topaz is found associated with the more acid rocks of the granite and rhyolite type and may be found with fluorite and cassiterite. Sexual interest in veiled women is veil fetishism. A recent trend in jewelry is the manufacture of topaz specimens that display iridescent colors, by applying a thin layer of titanium oxide via physical vapor deposition. An example of the veil's erotic potential is the dance of the seven veils. It can also be irradiated, turning the stone a light and distinctive shade of blue. Here, rather than the virginity of the bride's veil, modesty of the Muslim scarf or the piety of the nun's headdress, the mysterious veil hints at sensuality and the unknown.

When heated, yellow topaz often becomes reddish-pink. Conversely, veils are often part of the stereotypical image of the courtesan and harem woman. They may also be white, gray, green, blue, or reddish-yellow and transparent or translucent. Toward the end of the main temple ceremony, the congregation will each pass through the veil curtain into the Celestial Room through an elaborate series of rituals. Pure topaz is transparent but is usually tinted by impurities; typical topaz is wine or straw-yellow. It often separates the temple congregation from the Celestial Room (most holy room of the temple). Topaz has a hardness of 8, a specific gravity of 3.4-3.6, and a vitreous lustre. Another type of veil in Mormonism is the veil of the temple, which is an actual cloth structure which is suspended from the ceiling.

The fracture is conchoidal to uneven. Immediately prior to the closing and sealing of the casket, the veil is lowered over the face of the deceased. It has an easy and perfect basal cleavage and so gemstones or other fine specimens should be handled with care to avoid developing cleavage flaws. During the viewing of the body, the veil remains lifted up and on top of the head of the deceased. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and its crystals are mostly prismatic terminated by pyramidal and other faces, the basal pinacoid often being present. However, Mormons who have completed the temple rituals will be typically buried in this clothing. The mineral topaz is a silicate of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. The veil is only lowered to cover the face of the woman during one part of the temple ritual and then is returned (thrown back over the top of the head).

This article is about the mineral or gemstone, for other uses see: Topaz (disambiguation).. This veil, along with the entire temple ritual clothing, is only worn inside the temple and is rarely seen. Mineral galleries. Mormon women also wear a veil as part of ritual temple clothing. Mindat with location data. Brides used to wear their hair flowing down their back at their wedding to symbolise their virginity, now the white diaphanous veil is often said to represent this. Webmineral. An occasion on which a Western, non-Muslim woman is likely to wear a veil is on her wedding day, if she follows the traditions of a white wedding.

It has been suggested that the practice of wearing a veil - uncommon among the Arab tribes prior to the rise of Islam - originated in the Byzantine Empire, and then spread among the Arabs. The boushiya is a veil that may be worn over a headscarf, it covers the entire face and is made of a sheer fabric so the wearer is able to see through it. The Afghan burqa covers the entire body, obscuring the face completely, except for a grille or netting over the eyes to allow the wearer to see. The niqab and burqa are two kinds of veils that cover most of the face except for a slit or hole for the eyes.

Many of these garments cover the hair, ears and throat, but do not cover the face (for example the dupatta, khimar and buknuk). A variety of headdresses worn by Muslim women in accordance with hijab (the principle of dressing modestly) are sometimes referred to as veils or headscarves. In Eastern Orthodoxy, a veil called an epanokamelavkion is used by both nuns and monks, the former using it to cover their necks and shoulders as well as their heads. In Western Christianity, it does not wrap around the neck or face.

The nun's veil covers the top of the head and flows down around and over the shoulders. A similar veil forms part of a nun's headdress; this is why a woman who becomes a nun can be said "to take the veil". Mantillas are still worn by Spanish women during religious ceremonies. However, these veils are generally made of netting or another material not actually designed to hide the face from view, even if the veil can be pulled down, which is not always the case.

Veils pinned to hats have survived the changing fashions of the centuries and are still common today on occasions when women wear hats. More pragmatically, veils were also sometimes worn to protect the complexion from sun and wind damage (when un-tanned skin was fashionable), or to keep dust out of a woman's face. They would also have been used, as an alternative to a mask, as a simple method of hiding the identity of a woman who was traveling to meet a lover, or doing anything she didn't want other people to find out about. Sometimes a veil of this type was draped over and pinned to the bonnet or hat of a woman in mourning, especially at the funeral and during the period of "high mourning".

For centuries, women have worn sheer veils, but only under certain circumstances. It was not until the Tudor period (1485), when hoods became increasingly popular, that veils of this type became less common. For many centuries (until around 1175) Anglo-Saxon and then Anglo-Norman women, with the exception of young unmarried girls, wore veils that entirely covered their hair, and often their necks up to their chins. .

Veils are articles of clothing, worn almost exclusively by women, which cover some part of the head or face.

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