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Thomas Jacob "Tommy" Hilfiger (born in Elmira, New York, on March 24, 1951) is a world-famous fashion designer best known for his eponymous "Tommy Hilfiger" and "Tommy" brands.Tommy Hilfiger logo.
Hilfiger grew up one of nine children in an Irish Catholic family in Elmira, a small town close to Cornell University. He is a graduate of Elmira Free Academy. His initial foray into fashion was a store, The People's Place. The store was a big draw for the local teen crowd in Elmira because it often held live broadcasts from local radio personalities, sold rock and roll related clothing including Kiss and Aerosmith belt buckles, and had a discreet head shop upstairs which sold drug related paraphernalia such as bongs, roach clips, and incense. After the business went bankrupt, Hilfiger moved to New York City in 1979 to pursue a career as a fashion designer.
The building in which The People's Place was located was torn down in the late 1990s to make way for First Arena, home to the United Hockey League's Elmira Jackals. Hilfiger reportedly contributed funding to the building of the arena, but declined to have it named after him, according to news reports from the time of construction.
In 1984, he founded the Tommy Hilfiger Corporation (NYSE:TOM), introducing his signature menswear collection. By 2004 the company had 5,400 employees and revenues in excess of $1.8 billion. Hilfiger was named Menswear Designer of the Year by the Council of Fashion Designers of America in 1995. In August 2005 Hilfiger announced he was selling his company. The company was purchased by Apax Partners for $1.6 billion, or $16.80 a share, all in cash.
In 2005, a CBS TV reality show called The Cut tracked the progress of sixteen contestants as they competed for a design job with Hilfiger in similar fashion to Donald Trump's The Apprentice. In the end Hilfiger chose Chris Cortez.
Hilfiger is married and has four children. His daughter Ally Hilfiger was featured in the MTV reality show Rich Girls.
Hilfiger has been criticised for manufacturing clothes in sweatshop conditions in the US territory of Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands. As a US Commonwealth, clothes made there can be labeled "Made in the USA" but federal labor laws including the minimum wage do not apply. In March 2000, the company (along with other defendants) settled a class action suit brought by Saipan garment workers which had alleged that their working conditions amounted to indentured servitude. 
In 2000, a false rumour circulated on the internet that Hilfiger had made a racist remark on The Oprah Winfrey Show along the lines that he didn't want Asians wearing his clothing.  Despite this being proven false, continued negative perceptions of Hilfiger as a fashion profiteer are reflected by his being unflatteringly portrayed as "Timmi Hilnigger" in the Spike Lee feature film Bamboozled.
True Star is a fragrance created by Tommy Hilfiger along with spokesperson Beyoncé Knowles. Hilfiger has also released True Star Gold.
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Hilfiger has also released True Star Gold.
. Commentators predict that 2006 will be the final year of new releases on VHS, as major studios continue to phase out VHS. In March 2000, the company (along with other defendants) settled a class action suit brought by Saipan garment workers which had alleged that their working conditions amounted to indentured servitude. Moreover, most television programs released as box sets are for sale in DVD format only. As a US Commonwealth, clothes made there can be labeled "Made in the USA" but federal labor laws including the minimum wage do not apply. Many films released to theaters from 2004 onwards have later been released only on DVD and not on VHS, and many other new feature films are being released solely on DVD. Hilfiger has been criticised for manufacturing clothes in sweatshop conditions in the US territory of Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands. retailers Circuit City and Best Buy stopped selling VHS tapes in 2002 and 2003, respectively.
His daughter Ally Hilfiger was featured in the MTV reality show Rich Girls. Major U.S. Hilfiger is married and has four children. The DVD format was introduced in 1997 and has since overtaken VHS in sales and rentals. In the end Hilfiger chose Chris Cortez. In addition, it offers superior audiovisual quality, and the storage of data in digital format on tape makes for improved transfer and editing. In 2005, a CBS TV reality show called The Cut tracked the progress of sixteen contestants as they competed for a design job with Hilfiger in similar fashion to Donald Trump's The Apprentice. MiniDV has largely replaced 8mm tapes as the de facto camcorder standard in more recent years as it is smaller still (some MiniDV camcorders being no larger than one's hand).
The company was purchased by Apax Partners for $1.6 billion, or $16.80 a share, all in cash. 8mm tapes, introduced in the early 1980s, succeeded as a format for camcorders (both in the consumer, and to an extent, professional market), as VHS and Betamax camcorders were unsuitably large and heavy in comparison. In August 2005 Hilfiger announced he was selling his company. As these cassettes are much more compact in design — which also means the hardware to play and record the tapes has to be more compact than VHS, and therefore more expensive — they are much more suited to portable applications such as camcorders. Hilfiger was named Menswear Designer of the Year by the Council of Fashion Designers of America in 1995. Other formats such as 8mm video cassettes and MiniDV have emerged since, but these formats are by no means in complete competition with VHS. By 2004 the company had 5,400 employees and revenues in excess of $1.8 billion. Netscape.
In 1984, he founded the Tommy Hilfiger Corporation (NYSE:TOM), introducing his signature menswear collection. Windows and Microsoft vs. Hilfiger reportedly contributed funding to the building of the arena, but declined to have it named after him, according to news reports from the time of construction. IBM, Macintosh vs. The building in which The People's Place was located was torn down in the late 1990s to make way for First Arena, home to the United Hockey League's Elmira Jackals. The format war and the "marketing over technology" claims have taken on a life of their own, and have been used as analogies in the battles of the computer industry, including Apple vs. After the business went bankrupt, Hilfiger moved to New York City in 1979 to pursue a career as a fashion designer. Sony ultimately conceded the fight in the late '80s, bringing out a line of VHS VCRs.
The store was a big draw for the local teen crowd in Elmira because it often held live broadcasts from local radio personalities, sold rock and roll related clothing including Kiss and Aerosmith belt buckles, and had a discreet head shop upstairs which sold drug related paraphernalia such as bongs, roach clips, and incense. Ultimately Betamax did manage to make up some of the difference on recording time, but this was too little, too late. His initial foray into fashion was a store, The People's Place. The longer tape time is sometimes cited as the defining factor in the format war, as the longer VHS tapes allowed consumers to record entire programs unattended, and arguably created the entire video rental industry by providing sufficient playing time for most feature films to be distributed on a single cassette. He is a graduate of Elmira Free Academy. Betamax held an early lead in the format war, offering some technical advantages, but by 1980 VHS was gaining due to its longer tape time (3 hours maximum, compared to just 60 minutes for Betamax) and JVC's less strict licensing program. Hilfiger grew up one of nine children in an Irish Catholic family in Elmira, a small town close to Cornell University. In fact, however, the root causes of VHS' victory are somewhat more complex.
Thomas Jacob "Tommy" Hilfiger (born in Elmira, New York, on March 24, 1951) is a world-famous fashion designer best known for his eponymous "Tommy Hilfiger" and "Tommy" brands. Since Betamax was widely perceived at the time as the better format, it is often stated that VHS' eventual victory was a victory of marketing over technical excellence. As mentioned, VHS was the winner of a protracted and somewhat bitter format war during the early 1980s against Sony's Betamax format. Conversely, an E-300 tape runs for 300 minutes in PAL-SP, but 200 minutes in NTSC-SP. For example, a T-120 tape runs for 120 minutes in NTSC-SP, but 180 minutes in PAL-SP.
It can easily be derived by multiplying with 3/2 or 2/3, respectively. It is perfectly possible to record and play back a blank T-XXX tape in a PAL machine or a blank E-XXX tape in an NTSC machine, but the resulting playing time will be different than indicated. In order to avoid confusion, manufacturers indicate the playing time in minutes that can be expected for the market the tape is sold in:. Both NTSC and PAL/SECAM VHS cassettes are physically identical (although the signals recorded on the tape are incompatible.) However, as tape speeds differ between NTSC and PAL/SECAM, the playing time for any given cassette will vary accordingly between the systems.
Likewise, S-VHS machines for the Brazilian market record in NTSC and convert to/from PAL-M. S-VHS machines sold in SECAM markets record internally in PAL, and convert to/from SECAM during record/playback, respectively. S-VHS only exists in PAL/625/25 and NTSC/525/30. Dedicated multistandard machines can usually handle all standards listed, some high end model can even convert a tape from one standard to another by using a built-in standards converter.
regular VHS machines sold in Europe nowadays can typically handle PAL, MESECAM for record and playback, plus NTSC for playback only. E.g. These can handle VHS tapes of more than one standards. Since the 1990s dual- and multistandard VHS machines have become more and more common.
The following signal varieties exist in conventional VHS:. Typically, a VHS machine can only handle signals of the country it was sold in. However, a machine must be designed to record a given standard. VHS can record and play back all varieties of analogue television signals in existence at the time VHS was devised.
This format is most notably used by Fox for some of its cable networks. This format is the least expensive format to support a pre-read edit. There is also a JVC-designed component digital professional production format known as Digital-S or (officially) D9 that uses a VHS form factor tape and essentially the same mechanical tape handling techniques as an S-VHS recorder. This development hampered the sales of the Betamax system somewhat, because the Betamax cassette geometry prevented a similar development.
The magnetic tape on VHS-C cassettes is wound on one main spool and uses a gear wheel to advance the tape; the wheel and spool can also be moved by hand. Since VHS-C tapes are based on the same magnetic tape as full size tapes, they can be played back in standard VHS players using a mechanical adapter, without the need of any kind of signal conversion. Another variant is VHS-C (C for compact), used in some camcorders. W-VHS caters for high definition video.
Devices have also been invented which directly connect a personal computer to VHS tape recorders for use as a data backup device. Several improved versions of VHS exist, most notably S-VHS, an improved analog standard, and D-VHS, which records digital video onto a VHS form factor tape. There was a time when higher-end VCRs provided functions for manually removing and adding these index marks — so that, for example, they coincide with the actual start of the program — but this feature has become hard to find in recent models. These are normally written at the beginning of each recording session, and can be found using the VCR's index search function: this will fast-wind forward or backward to the nth specified index mark, and resume playback from there.
The control track can additionally hold index marks. Since good tracking depends on the exact distance between the rotating drum and the fixed control/audio head reading the linear tracks, which usually varies by a couple of micrometers between machines due to manufacturing tolerances, most VCRs offer tracking adjustment, either manual or automatic, to correct such mismatches. Another linear control track, at the tape's lower edge, holds pulses that mark the beginning of every frame of video; these are used to fine-tune the tape speed during playback and to get the rotating heads exactly on their helical tracks rather than having them end up somewhere between two adjacent tracks (a feature called tracking). These advanced features are impossible to find on later-model VCRs due to the rise of digital video formats.
Another high-end feature was manual audio level control, which made the VHS HiFi format much more useful for high-quality audio-only recording purposes as discussed above. (Due to the different ways in which linear and HiFi audio are recorded, these kinds of dubbing were not possible with the HiFi tracks). Without the dubbing features, this task would've required the tape to be copied to another tape which would cause generational loss. This was useful, for example, for laying a song over a previously edited-together montage of short video clips that were the same total duration as that song.
These would move the tape past the heads and keep the video unchanged while recording new linear audio or keep the linear audio unchanged while recording new video, respectively. Some higher-end VHS and S-VHS VCRs once offered "audio dubbing" and "video dubbing" functions. Of course, for backward compatibility, hi-fi VCRs still write the linear audio track during recording, and can automatically read it during playback if the hi-fi audio is not present. The excellent sound quality of hi-fi VHS has gained it some popularity as an audio format in certain applications; in particular, ordinary home hi-fi VCRs are sometimes used by home recording enthusiasts as a handy and inexpensive medium for making high-quality stereo mixdowns and master recordings from multitrack audio tape.
When the video signal is written by the following video head, it erases and overwrites the audio signal at the surface of the tape, but leaves the deeper portion of the signal undisturbed. These audio tracks take advantage of depth multiplexing: since they use lower frequencies than the video, their magnetization signals penetrate deeper into the tape. More recent hi-fi VCRs add higher-quality stereo audio tracks which are read and written by heads located on the same spinning drum that carries the video heads, frequency modulated to the unused frequency range in between the chroma and luma signals. In the original VHS format, audio was recorded unmodulated in a single (monaural) linear track at the upper edge of the tape, which was limited in frequency response by the tape speed.
The video bandwidth is achieved with a relatively low tape speed by the use of helical scan recording of a frequency modulated luminance (black and white) signal, to which a frequency-reduced "color under" chroma (hue and saturation) signal is added. The vertical resolution of VHS (and all other analog recording methods) is determined by the TV standard — a maximum of 486 lines are visible in NTSC and a maximum of 576 lines in PAL. The frequency modulation of the luminance signal makes higher resolutions impossible within the VHS standard, no matter how advanced the recorder's technology. VHS tapes have approximately 3 MHz of video bandwidth, and a horizontal resolution of about 240 discernible lines per scanline .
An unofficial LP mode with half the standard speed exists on some NTSC machines, but is not part of the VHS standard. Because of this, commercial prerecorded tapes were almost always recorded in SP mode. Of course, these speed reductions cause corresponding reductions in video quality; also, tapes recorded at the lower speed often exhibit poor playback performance on recorders other than the one they were produced on. More recent machines usually allow the selection of longer recording times by lowering the tape speed: LP mode (for PAL and some NTSC machines) halves the tape speed and doubles the recording time, while EP mode (for NTSC and some newer PAL machines, aka SLP mode) drops the tape speed to one-third, for triple the recording time.
Most cassettes have lower recording times because they use thicker tape, which helps avoid jams; careful users generally avoid the thinnest tapes. A cassette holds a maximum of about 430 m of tape at the lowest acceptable tape thickness, giving a maximum playing time of about 3.5 hours for NTSC and 5 hours for PAL at "standard" (SP) quality. The tape speed is 3.335 cm/s for NTSC, 2.339 cm/s for PAL. A VHS cassette contains a ½ inch (12.7 mm) wide magnetic tape wound between two spools, allowing it to be slowly passed over the various playback and recording heads of the video cassette recorder.
. Most newer VHS machines do not perform this unthreading step, as due to improved engineering, head-tape contact is no longer an impediment to fast winding. Early VHS machines could rewind and fast forward the tape considerably faster than a Betamax VCR since they unthreaded the tape from the playback heads before commencing any high-speed winding. VHS initially offered a longer playing time than the Betamax system, and it also had the advantage of a far less complex tape transport mechanism.
VHS became a standard format for consumer recording and viewing in the 1980s and 1990s after competing in a fierce format war with Sony's Betamax and, to a lesser extent, Philips' Video 2000. Some early reports claim the name originally stood for Victor Helical Scan System. VHS officially stands for Video Home System, but it initially stood for Vertical Helical Scan, after the relative head/tape scan technique. The Video Home System, first released in September 1976, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard for video cassette recorders (VCRs), developed by JVC (with some of its critical technology under lucrative licensing agreements with Sony) and launched in 1976.
Viz Video (1993-). Buena Vista Home Entertainment (1989-). Miramax Home Entertainment, a unit of Buena Vista Home Entertainment (1989-). New Line Home Entertainment, a TimeWarner Company (1989-).
Carolco Home Video, a division of Artisan Entertainment, a Lions Gate Company (1988-1995). Orion Home Video, a Sony Pictures Entertainment Company (1988-1997). Anchor Bay Entertainment (1980s-). Hi-Tops Video, a Heron Communications Company (1985-1992).
Simitar Entertainment (1980s-1990s). Touchstone Home Entertainment, a unit of the Walt Disney Company (1984-). Artisan Entertainment, a Lions Gate Company (1984-). Family Home Entertainment, a division of Artisan Entertainment, a Lions Gate Company (1982-).
NBC Home Video, an NBC/Universal Company (1981-). Universal Studios Home Video, an NBC/Universal Company (1980-). Magnetic Video, the first duplicator/distributor of movies on video cassette for home use (1977-1981). Vestron Video, a division of Artisan Entertainment, a Lions Gate Company (1979-).
MGM Home Entertainment, a Sony Pictures Entertainment Company (1979-). Media Home Entertainment, a Heron Communications Company (1978-1992). Warner Home Video, a TimeWarner Company (1978-). HBO Video, a TimeWarner Company (1978-).
Sony Pictures Home Entertainment (1978-). Walt Disney Home Entertainment (1978-). Twentieth (20th) Century-Fox Home Entertainment, a News Corporation Company (1977-). Paramount Home Video, a Viacom Company (1976-).
E-XXX indicates playing time for PAL or SECAM in SP speed. T-XXX indicates playing time for NTSC or PAL-M in SP speed. PAL-M, Brazil). PAL/525/30 (i.e.
NTSC/525/30 (Most parts of North and South America, Japan, South Korea). MESECAM/625/25 (most other SECAM countries, notably Eastern Europe and Middle East). SECAM/625/25 (SECAM, French variety). PAL/625/25 (most of Western Europe, many parts of Asia and Africa).