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Tom Waits

Thomas Alan Waits, (born December 7, 1949) is an American composer, singer, musician and actor.

Early Career

Born in Pomona, California, Waits' recording career began in 1971, after he relocated to Los Angeles and signed with Herb Cohen, manager of Frank Zappa, among others. After numerous abortive recording sessions, his first record, the melancholic, country-tinged Closing Time (1973) received warm reviews, but he first gained national attention when his "Ol' 55" was recorded by The Eagles in 1974. The Heart of Saturday Night showed his roots as a nightclub singer, half speaking and half crooning ballads, often with a soft jazz background. The 1975 album Nighthawks at the Diner, recorded in a studio but with a small audience to capture the ambience of a live show, captures this phase of his career, including the lengthy spoken interludes between songs that punctuated his live act.

Small Change (1976) featuring famed drummer Shelly Manne, was jazzier still, and songs such as "The Piano Has Been Drinking" and "Bad Liver and a Broken Heart" cemented his hard living reputation, with a lyrical style pitched somewhere between Raymond Chandler and Charles Bukowski. Foreign Affairs (1977) and Blue Valentine (1978) were in a similar vein, but showed further refinement of his artistic voice. 1980 saw the commencement of a long working relationship with Francis Ford Coppola, who asked him to provide music for his film One From The Heart. Waits would also act in Coppola's Rumblefish, The Outsiders, The Cotton Club and Dracula (as the insane Renfield), and work with such directors as Jim Jarmusch and Robert Altman. In August 1980, he married Kathleen Brennan, whom he had met on the set of One From The Heart. With his wife, he wrote and performed in Big Time, a slightly surreal concert movie. His wife is regularly credited as co-author of many songs on his later released albums, and is often cited by Waits as a major influence on his work.

1980s and later

After he left Asylum Records for Island Records in 1983, his music became less mainstream. His trio of albums from the mid-1980s, Swordfishtrombones, Rain Dogs and Frank's Wild Years, all featured some degree of eclectic instrumentation -- Waits' self described "Junkyard Orchestra"--often marrying soul music horn sections to avant-garde percussion reminiscent of Harry Partch's, or the distorted guitar of Marc Ribot. He also gradually altered his singing style, sounding less like the late-night crooner of the 70s, instead adopting a gravelly voice reminiscent of Howling Wolf and Captain Beefheart. The last of these albums -- an off-Broadway musical co-written with his wife -- and the later collaboration with William S. Burroughs on The Black Rider both demonstrated the increasing interest in theatre, which has resulted in a somewhat successful acting career as well as soundtrack work.

In the popular perception, however, he and his work remain mostly characterised by his rocky voice, his strong personality and theatrical presence on stage and the "late night smoky bars" humour of his texts ("I'd rather have a free bottle in front of me than a pre-frontal lobotomy."). Waits has been reported as having bipolar disorder. In essence, however, and despite his songs having been covered by famous stars such as Bruce Springsteen and Rod Stewart, Waits remains a cult performer, steadfastly outside the mainstream.

Lawsuits

Waits has steadfastly refused to allow the use of his songs in commercials and has filed several lawsuits against advertisers who used his material without permission. The first lawsuit was filed in 1988 against Frito Lay, and resulted in a US$2.6 million judgement in Waits' favor. Frito Lay had approached Waits to use one of his songs in an advertisement. Waits declined the offer, and Frito Lay hired a Waits soundalike to sing a jingle similar to "Step Right Up," which is, ironically, a song Waits has called "an indictment of advertising." [1] (http://www.joe.trussell.com/waits/frito_lay.html) ("Step Right Up" concludes with the lyric "What the large print giveth, the small print taketh away").

In 1993, Levi's used Screamin' Jay Hawkins' version of Waits' "Heartattack and Vine" in a commercial. Waits sued, and Levis agreed to cease all use of the song, and offered a full page apology in Billboard Magazine. [2] (http://www.keeslau.com/TomWaitsSupplement/Copyright/copyrightwaitslevis.htm)

In 2000, an Audi commercial broadcast in Spain featured music very similar to Waits' "Innocent When You Dream", after Waits first had declined when they approached him about using the original. A Spanish court recognized there had been a violation of Waits’s moral rights, in addition to the infringement of copyright [3] (http://www.anti.com/news.php?newsid=86715). The production company, Tandem Campany Guasch, was ordered to pay compensation to Waits through his Spanish publisher.

Discography

Major releases


+ Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album


^ Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album

Collections

  • 1983 Anthology of Tom Waits (Elektra)
  • 1991 The Early Years, Volume One
  • 1993 The Early Years, Volume Two
  • 1998 Beautiful Maladies: The Island Years

Contributions

  • 1991 Sailing the Seas of Cheese, by Primus: Waits does character vocals on Tommy The Cat
  • 1992 Beautiful Mess, by Thelonious Monster: Waits appears as a guest singer on Adios Lounge
  • 1993 Jesus Blood Never Failed Me Yet, by Gavin Bryars: Waits appears as guest singer
  • 1999 Antipop, by Primus: Waits does vocals on Coattails of a Deadman
  • 2000 Helium, by Tin Hat Trio: Waits appears as guest singer on Helium Reprise
  • 2001 It's A Wonderful Life, by Sparklehorse: Waits does vocals on "Dog Door"
  • 2002 For the Kids by various artists: Waits performs the lullaby "Bring Down the Branches"
  • 2004 The Ride by Los Lobos: Waits does vocals on the track "Kitate"
  • 2004 The Late Great Daniel Johnston by various artists: Waits covers Johnston's "King Kong"

Tribute albums

  • 1995 Temptation, Holly Cole
  • 1995 Step Right Up, various artists
  • 2000 New Coat of Paint, various artists
  • 2001 Wicked Grin, John Hammond
  • 2004 Step Right Up: The Songs of Tom Waits, various artists

Filmography

  • 1978 Movie debut as 'Mumbles' in Paradise Alley.
  • 1980 Worked with Francis Ford Coppola on the soundtrack to One From The Heart.
  • 1982 Soundtrack of One From The Heart. Nominated for an Academy Award for best original score.
    • Played petrified man in carnival in The Stone Boy.
  • 1983 Played Buck Merrill in The Outsiders.
    • Played Bennie the pool hall owner in Rumble Fish.
  • 1984 Played Irving Stark in The Cotton Club.
  • 1986 Starred as Zack in Down by Law.
  • 1987 Played Rudy The Kraut in Ironweed.
    • Played Al Silk in Candy Mountain.
  • 1989 Played the 'Punch & Judy Man' in Bearskin: An Urban Fairytale.
    • Starred as Kenny the Hitman in Cold Feet.
    • Voice of the radio DJ in Mystery Train. Composer on Sea of Love
  • 1990 Played a plainclothes policeman in The Two Jakes.
  • 1991 Played Wolf in At Play in the Fields of the Lord.
    • Played a disabled Veteran beggar in The Fisher King.
    • Wrote the score of Night on Earth (With Kathleen Brennan).
    • Played Monte in Queens Logic.
  • 1992 Composer (With Kathleen Brennan) on American Heart.
    • Played R.M. Renfield in Bram Stoker's Dracula.
    • Played Earl Piggott in Short Cuts.
  • 1996 Composer on soundtrack of Dead Man Walking.
    • Composer on soundtrack of The End of Violence.
  • 1999 Mystery Men -- played an inventor who specialized in non-lethal weapons.
  • 2003 Appeared in conversation with Iggy Pop in Coffee and Cigarettes: Somewhere In America.
  • 2004 Composer (with Kathleen Brennan) on soundtrack of "Shrek 2"

Tours

  • 1973 Closing Time touring
  • 1974-1975 The Heart Of Saturday Night touring
  • 1975-1976 Small Change touring
  • 1977 Foreign Affairs touring
  • 1978-1979 Blue Valentine touring
  • 1980-1982 Heartattack and Vine touring
  • 1985 Rain Dogs touring
  • 1987 Big Time touring
  • 1999 Get Behind The Mule Tour
  • 2004 Real Gone Tour

See also:

  • Kazik Staszewski, Polish artist extensively covering Waits
  • Holly Cole, Canadian artist covering Waits' songs in jazz style

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^ Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album. One track, "The Good Things," attributed to Terry and the Lovemen, was actually XTC themselves, using yet another pseudonym.
+ Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album. The XTC tribute album A Testimonial Dinner was released in 1995. A Spanish court recognized there had been a violation of Waits’s moral rights, in addition to the infringement of copyright [3] (http://www.anti.com/news.php?newsid=86715). The production company, Tandem Campany Guasch, was ordered to pay compensation to Waits through his Spanish publisher. Adam Ant," an ironic tribute by They Might Be Giants, but did not appear on the track. In 2000, an Audi commercial broadcast in Spain featured music very similar to Waits' "Innocent When You Dream", after Waits first had declined when they approached him about using the original. They were mentioned in "XTC vs.

[2] (http://www.keeslau.com/TomWaitsSupplement/Copyright/copyrightwaitslevis.htm). A boxed CD compilation, Coat of Many Cupboards, was released in 2002. Waits sued, and Levis agreed to cease all use of the song, and offered a full page apology in Billboard Magazine. Colin Moulding declined to contribute his demos to the series. In 1993, Levi's used Screamin' Jay Hawkins' version of Waits' "Heartattack and Vine" in a commercial. Having left Virgin, relations have improved and Andy Partridge is releasing a series of albums of "demos" of his songs (mainly from the Virgin years) under the title of Fuzzy Warbles, on a new label imprint APE (Andy Partridge Experiments). Waits declined the offer, and Frito Lay hired a Waits soundalike to sing a jingle similar to "Step Right Up," which is, ironically, a song Waits has called "an indictment of advertising." [1] (http://www.joe.trussell.com/waits/frito_lay.html) ("Step Right Up" concludes with the lyric "What the large print giveth, the small print taketh away"). Now in control of their own work and with their own small studio, they have released instrumental and demo versions of their first two albums on Idea, Apple Venus and Wasp Star (Apple Venus Volume 2).

Frito Lay had approached Waits to use one of his songs in an advertisement. Finally released from Virgin, they formed their own label, Idea Records. Dave Gregory left the band during the recording of the 1999 album Apple Venus Volume 1 after contributing to a few tracks, leaving just Partridge and Moulding in the group. The first lawsuit was filed in 1988 against Frito Lay, and resulted in a US$2.6 million judgement in Waits' favor. The settlement of the accounts provided the group with much-needed cash flow, allowing Partridge and Moulding to install fully-equipped studios and work comfortably at home; they are now able to record the majority of their work themselves, although they have used major commercial studios (including Abbey Road Studios in London) for some sessions. Waits has steadfastly refused to allow the use of his songs in commercials and has filed several lawsuits against advertisers who used his material without permission. After leaving Virgin, Partridge had their accounts audited and it was discovered that the company had withheld substantial royalty payments from them. In essence, however, and despite his songs having been covered by famous stars such as Bruce Springsteen and Rod Stewart, Waits remains a cult performer, steadfastly outside the mainstream. The band asked that Virgin either allow them to re-negotiate their contract or release them, but the label stalled for years until finally agreeing to released them after a change of management at the company.

Waits has been reported as having bipolar disorder. The final straw for the band was Virgin's scuttling of their 1992 single "Wrapped in Grey", which was pressed up in the tens of thousands, and then recalled and destroyed by the label. In the popular perception, however, he and his work remain mostly characterised by his rocky voice, his strong personality and theatrical presence on stage and the "late night smoky bars" humour of his texts ("I'd rather have a free bottle in front of me than a pre-frontal lobotomy."). Management and contractual problems had dogged the band throughout their career, and around the time of the recording of Nonsuch they had to make a legal settlement with their former manager; although most fans assume that there was some financial impropriety involved, the terms of the settlement imposed a "gag" on the band and have prevented them from speaking publicly about the matter. The last of these albums -- an off-Broadway musical co-written with his wife -- and the later collaboration with William S. Burroughs on The Black Rider both demonstrated the increasing interest in theatre, which has resulted in a somewhat successful acting career as well as soundtrack work. They issued no new material during this time, although two compilations were released: Upsy Daisy Assortment and the 2-CD set Fossil Fuel: The XTC Singles Collection, which featured remastered versions of their singles, including many tracks not issued on CD before. He also gradually altered his singing style, sounding less like the late-night crooner of the 70s, instead adopting a gravelly voice reminiscent of Howling Wolf and Captain Beefheart. Their 1992 album, Nonsuch, (named after Henry VIII's fabled palace) united them with famed UK producer Gus Dudgeon and drummer Dave Mattacks, but soon after its release a contractual dispute with their label, Virgin Records, saw XTC go "on strike" from 1992 through 1998, finally resulting in the termination of their contract.

His trio of albums from the mid-1980s, Swordfishtrombones, Rain Dogs and Frank's Wild Years, all featured some degree of eclectic instrumentation -- Waits' self described "Junkyard Orchestra"--often marrying soul music horn sections to avant-garde percussion reminiscent of Harry Partch's, or the distorted guitar of Marc Ribot. During their long career, XTC have also released material under a variety of pseudonyms, including two albums of psychedelic parodies as "The Dukes of Stratosphear" (released on a single CD, Chips from the Chocolate Fireball, simultaneous with the second album's vinyl release), a Viz comics promotional single as "Johnny Japes and his Jesticles," a Christmas-themed single as "The Three Wise Men" and a guest appearance on their own tribute album Testimonial Dinner as "Terry and the Lovemen." In 1979 Partridge also released a solo album of radical dub-oriented remixes of material from the Drums + Wires LP, credited to "Mr Partridge" and titled Takeaway: The Lure Of Salvage. After he left Asylum Records for Island Records in 1983, his music became less mainstream. The band's followup, Oranges & Lemons, was their biggest seller yet, with "Mayor of Simpleton" and "King for a Day" getting heavy airplay on MTV. His wife is regularly credited as co-author of many songs on his later released albums, and is often cited by Waits as a major influence on his work. ("Dear God" replaced "Mermaid Smiled", which was absent from the album until it was finally reinstated for the remastered "Skylarking" CD in 2000.). With his wife, he wrote and performed in Big Time, a slightly surreal concert movie. Skylarking revived the band's commercial fortunes, earning critical accolades and spawning the controversial hit "Dear God", which was originally issued as the B-side of the album's first single, "Grass." Interest in the song saw the album re-pressed with "Dear God" included and the new version of the LP sold 250,000 copies in the USA.

In August 1980, he married Kathleen Brennan, whom he had met on the set of One From The Heart. Partridge has since softened his view, describing the album as "a summer's day baked into one cake.". Waits would also act in Coppola's Rumblefish, The Outsiders, The Cotton Club and Dracula (as the insane Renfield), and work with such directors as Jim Jarmusch and Robert Altman. The two egos of Rundgren and Partridge clashed frequently during the recording of Skylarking and when it was finished Partridge said that he was not at all happy with the resulting product. 1980 saw the commencement of a long working relationship with Francis Ford Coppola, who asked him to provide music for his film One From The Heart. This did not sit well with the band, Partridge in particular. Foreign Affairs (1977) and Blue Valentine (1978) were in a similar vein, but showed further refinement of his artistic voice. True to his "hands-on" studio production style, Rundgren insisted that everyone adhere to his scheme.

Small Change (1976) featuring famed drummer Shelly Manne, was jazzier still, and songs such as "The Piano Has Been Drinking" and "Bad Liver and a Broken Heart" cemented his hard living reputation, with a lyrical style pitched somewhere between Raymond Chandler and Charles Bukowski. When the band got to Woodstock, Rundgren had already worked out a running order for both the recording and sequence of the album itself. The 1975 album Nighthawks at the Diner, recorded in a studio but with a small audience to capture the ambience of a live show, captures this phase of his career, including the lengthy spoken interludes between songs that punctuated his live act. Rundgren had insisted that the band send him, in advance, demos of all the songs that they thought they might tackle for the record. The Heart of Saturday Night showed his roots as a nightclub singer, half speaking and half crooning ballads, often with a soft jazz background. Although the pairing of XTC and Rundgren was highly anticipated by fans, the sessions were less than enjoyable for the band. After numerous abortive recording sessions, his first record, the melancholic, country-tinged Closing Time (1973) received warm reviews, but he first gained national attention when his "Ol' 55" was recorded by The Eagles in 1974. In 1986, the band travelled to Todd Rundgren's studio-in-the-woods in Woodstock, New York to record what many consider to be the best album of their career, Skylarking.

Born in Pomona, California, Waits' recording career began in 1971, after he relocated to Los Angeles and signed with Herb Cohen, manager of Frank Zappa, among others. Owen"). Thomas Alan Waits, (born December 7, 1949) is an American composer, singer, musician and actor. Rather than finding a replacement, XTC has used a series of session drummers over the years, including Peter Phipps, Prairie Prince, Dave Mattacks, Pat Mastelotto, Chuck Sabo, and Dave Gregory's brother, Ian Gregory (as "E.I.E.I. Holly Cole, Canadian artist covering Waits' songs in jazz style. Another major factor was his burgeoning relationship with his Australian girlfriend--they subsequently married and Chambers migrated to Australia and settled in Newcastle, New South Wales. Kazik Staszewski, Polish artist extensively covering Waits. Chambers left the band shortly thereafter, unhappy with the confines of the studio, and also feeling the loss of income that resulted from their withdrawal from touring--he did not write, and so received no publishing royalties.

2004 Real Gone Tour. Since then, XTC has been almost exclusively a studio band, although they have given occasional live-to-air performances from radio stations. 1999 Get Behind The Mule Tour. The European and British dates were cancelled and after one show in San Diego the whole US leg was also abandoned. 1987 Big Time touring. Concerned about her husband's dependence on the drug, his wife ill-advisedly threw his tablets away just before the concert without seeking medical advice -- the result was, not surprisingly, anxiety attacks of such severity that it soon forced Partridge to withdraw from touring permanently. 1985 Rain Dogs touring. The breakdown, accompanied by uncontrollable stage fright, was reportedly precipitated by Partridge's wife throwing away his supply of Valium. According to the band's biography, Andy had become dependent upon the drug after it was prescribed to him as a teenager during his parents' divorce, but it had never been withdrawn.

1980-1982 Heartattack and Vine touring. Just after its release and at the peak of their popularity, the band embarked on a major tour, but Partridge suffered a breakdown on stage during one of the first concerts of the tour in Paris on March 18, 1982. 1978-1979 Blue Valentine touring. XTC's last major hit in the touring phase of their career was "Senses Working Overtime," the first single from their brilliant double album English Settlement and a Top 20 hit in the UK in 1982. 1977 Foreign Affairs touring. Other hits from this era include the non-LP single "Life Begins at the Hop" and singles lifted from Black Sea--"Sgt. Rock (Is Going to Help Me)" and "Generals & Majors." The promotional clip for the latter single (written by Colin Moulding) features an cameo appearance by the then owner of Virgin Records, Richard Branson. 1975-1976 Small Change touring. The album showcased a flawless set of classic power-pop that included enduring XTC favourites including "Rocket From A Bottle," "No Language In Our Lungs," and "Towers Of London"; the strong material was greatly enhanced by more superb production and engineering by Lillywhite and Padgham.

1974-1975 The Heart Of Saturday Night touring. Their 1980 LP, Black Sea, saw the band's new sound and style come together with superb results. 1973 Closing Time touring. The studio was at the time much sought after for its highly reverberant "live" drum room, and it was greatly favoured by their producer of the time, Steve Lillywhite and his engineer Hugh Padgham, who also recorded successful albums there with Peter Gabriel and Kate Bush. 2004 Composer (with Kathleen Brennan) on soundtrack of "Shrek 2". It also saw them finding the basis of a new sound for the group and marked their first sessions at London's celebrated Townhouse Studios. 2003 Appeared in conversation with Iggy Pop in Coffee and Cigarettes: Somewhere In America. The resulting album, Drums and Wires, produced the band's first big hit, "Making Plans for Nigel", which caused a minor controversy because of its lyrical reference to British Steel.

1999 Mystery Men -- played an inventor who specialized in non-lethal weapons. The loss of Andrews' keyboard madness started the band on a path towards more traditional guitar power-pop, although Gregory also contributed occasional keyboards (and later, string arrangements). Composer on soundtrack of The End of Violence. Andrews went on to form Shriekback and he also worked with Robert Fripp's League of Gentlemen. 1996 Composer on soundtrack of Dead Man Walking.

    . After their second effort, Go2, Andrews left and was replaced by guitarist Dave Gregory. Played Earl Piggott in Short Cuts. By the time of the punk explosion in 1977, the group's lineup had been filled out by Barry Andrews (keyboards) and Terry Chambers (drums), and the band got picked up by Virgin Records. They recorded the 3D EP later that year, and followed it up with White Music in January 1978.

    Renfield in Bram Stoker's Dracula. First coming together in 1972, the core duo of Andy Partridge (guitars, vocals) and Colin Moulding (bass, vocals) went through various band names and personnel changes over the next five years as they built up their unique brand of hyperactive pop spiked with funk, punk, ska, reggae, and art rock. Played R.M. (The name of the band predates the use of "XTC" as a drug term.). 1992 Composer (With Kathleen Brennan) on American Heart.

      . They are considered the forefathers of the Britpop movement of the 1980s and are one of the most influential bands still working today. Played Monte in Queens Logic. XTC is an innovative new wave band from Swindon, UK.

      Wrote the score of Night on Earth (With Kathleen Brennan). For the energy drink, see XTC (drink).. Played a disabled Veteran beggar in The Fisher King. For the drug, see Ecstasy. 1991 Played Wolf in At Play in the Fields of the Lord.

        . Voice of the Beehive. 1990 Played a plainclothes policeman in The Two Jakes. The Woodentops.

        Composer on Sea of Love. The Residents. Voice of the radio DJ in Mystery Train. The Lilac Time. Starred as Kenny the Hitman in Cold Feet. L'Affaire Louis Trio. 1989 Played the 'Punch & Judy Man' in Bearskin: An Urban Fairytale.

          . The following bands have worked with members of XTC:
            .

            Played Al Silk in Candy Mountain. David Yazbek. 1987 Played Rudy The Kraut in Ironweed.

              . Jennifer Trynin. 1986 Starred as Zack in Down by Law. Saeko Suzuki. 1984 Played Irving Stark in The Cotton Club. Ryuichi Sakamoto.

              Played Bennie the pool hall owner in Rumble Fish. Hugh Padgham. 1983 Played Buck Merrill in The Outsiders.

                . Todd Rundgren. Played petrified man in carnival in The Stone Boy. Martin Newell. Nominated for an Academy Award for best original score.
                  . Aimee Mann.

                  1982 Soundtrack of One From The Heart. Steve Lillywhite. 1980 Worked with Francis Ford Coppola on the soundtrack to One From The Heart. Peter Gabriel. 1978 Movie debut as 'Mumbles' in Paradise Alley. Thomas Dolby. 2004 Step Right Up: The Songs of Tom Waits, various artists. Captain Sensible.

                  2001 Wicked Grin, John Hammond. Harold Budd. 2000 New Coat of Paint, various artists. Peter Blegvad. 1995 Step Right Up, various artists. Joan Armatrading. 1995 Temptation, Holly Cole. The following artists have worked with members of XTC:

                    .

                    2004 The Late Great Daniel Johnston by various artists: Waits covers Johnston's "King Kong". both of the above compiled as: Chips from the Chocolate Fireball (CD only, 1987). 2004 The Ride by Los Lobos: Waits does vocals on the track "Kitate". Psonic Psunspot (vinyl only, 1987). 2002 For the Kids by various artists: Waits performs the lullaby "Bring Down the Branches". 25 O'Clock (vinyl only 12" EP, 1985). 2001 It's A Wonderful Life, by Sparklehorse: Waits does vocals on "Dog Door". 3D (1977).

                    2000 Helium, by Tin Hat Trio: Waits appears as guest singer on Helium Reprise. Tunes to Help You Breathe More Easily (Recording rumoured to be in progress. Scheduled release date unknown). 1999 Antipop, by Primus: Waits does vocals on Coattails of a Deadman. Coat of Many Cupboards (2002). 1993 Jesus Blood Never Failed Me Yet, by Gavin Bryars: Waits appears as guest singer. Homegrown (2001). 1992 Beautiful Mess, by Thelonious Monster: Waits appears as a guest singer on Adios Lounge. Wasp Star (Apple Venus Volume 2) (2000).

                    1991 Sailing the Seas of Cheese, by Primus: Waits does character vocals on Tommy The Cat. Homespun (1999). 1998 Beautiful Maladies: The Island Years. Apple Venus Volume 1 (1999). 1993 The Early Years, Volume Two. Fossil Fuel: The Singles (1992). 1991 The Early Years, Volume One. Nonsuch (1992).

                    1983 Anthology of Tom Waits (Elektra). Rag and Bone Buffet (1991). Oranges and Lemons (album) (1989). Skylarking (1986). The Big Express (1984).

                    Mummer (1983). English Settlement (1982). Black Sea (1980). Drums And Wires (1979).

                    Go 2 (1978). White Music (1978).

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