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Tom Waits

Thomas Alan Waits, (born December 7, 1949) is an American composer, singer, musician and actor.

Early Career

Born in Pomona, California, Waits' recording career began in 1971, after he relocated to Los Angeles and signed with Herb Cohen, manager of Frank Zappa, among others. After numerous abortive recording sessions, his first record, the melancholic, country-tinged Closing Time (1973) received warm reviews, but he first gained national attention when his "Ol' 55" was recorded by The Eagles in 1974. The Heart of Saturday Night showed his roots as a nightclub singer, half speaking and half crooning ballads, often with a soft jazz background. The 1975 album Nighthawks at the Diner, recorded in a studio but with a small audience to capture the ambience of a live show, captures this phase of his career, including the lengthy spoken interludes between songs that punctuated his live act.

Small Change (1976) featuring famed drummer Shelly Manne, was jazzier still, and songs such as "The Piano Has Been Drinking" and "Bad Liver and a Broken Heart" cemented his hard living reputation, with a lyrical style pitched somewhere between Raymond Chandler and Charles Bukowski. Foreign Affairs (1977) and Blue Valentine (1978) were in a similar vein, but showed further refinement of his artistic voice. 1980 saw the commencement of a long working relationship with Francis Ford Coppola, who asked him to provide music for his film One From The Heart. Waits would also act in Coppola's Rumblefish, The Outsiders, The Cotton Club and Dracula (as the insane Renfield), and work with such directors as Jim Jarmusch and Robert Altman. In August 1980, he married Kathleen Brennan, whom he had met on the set of One From The Heart. With his wife, he wrote and performed in Big Time, a slightly surreal concert movie. His wife is regularly credited as co-author of many songs on his later released albums, and is often cited by Waits as a major influence on his work.

1980s and later

After he left Asylum Records for Island Records in 1983, his music became less mainstream. His trio of albums from the mid-1980s, Swordfishtrombones, Rain Dogs and Frank's Wild Years, all featured some degree of eclectic instrumentation -- Waits' self described "Junkyard Orchestra"--often marrying soul music horn sections to avant-garde percussion reminiscent of Harry Partch's, or the distorted guitar of Marc Ribot. He also gradually altered his singing style, sounding less like the late-night crooner of the 70s, instead adopting a gravelly voice reminiscent of Howling Wolf and Captain Beefheart. The last of these albums -- an off-Broadway musical co-written with his wife -- and the later collaboration with William S. Burroughs on The Black Rider both demonstrated the increasing interest in theatre, which has resulted in a somewhat successful acting career as well as soundtrack work.

In the popular perception, however, he and his work remain mostly characterised by his rocky voice, his strong personality and theatrical presence on stage and the "late night smoky bars" humour of his texts ("I'd rather have a free bottle in front of me than a pre-frontal lobotomy."). Waits has been reported as having bipolar disorder. In essence, however, and despite his songs having been covered by famous stars such as Bruce Springsteen and Rod Stewart, Waits remains a cult performer, steadfastly outside the mainstream.

Lawsuits

Waits has steadfastly refused to allow the use of his songs in commercials and has filed several lawsuits against advertisers who used his material without permission. The first lawsuit was filed in 1988 against Frito Lay, and resulted in a US$2.6 million judgement in Waits' favor. Frito Lay had approached Waits to use one of his songs in an advertisement. Waits declined the offer, and Frito Lay hired a Waits soundalike to sing a jingle similar to "Step Right Up," which is, ironically, a song Waits has called "an indictment of advertising." [1] (http://www.joe.trussell.com/waits/frito_lay.html) ("Step Right Up" concludes with the lyric "What the large print giveth, the small print taketh away").

In 1993, Levi's used Screamin' Jay Hawkins' version of Waits' "Heartattack and Vine" in a commercial. Waits sued, and Levis agreed to cease all use of the song, and offered a full page apology in Billboard Magazine. [2] (http://www.keeslau.com/TomWaitsSupplement/Copyright/copyrightwaitslevis.htm)

In 2000, an Audi commercial broadcast in Spain featured music very similar to Waits' "Innocent When You Dream", after Waits first had declined when they approached him about using the original. A Spanish court recognized there had been a violation of Waits’s moral rights, in addition to the infringement of copyright [3] (http://www.anti.com/news.php?newsid=86715). The production company, Tandem Campany Guasch, was ordered to pay compensation to Waits through his Spanish publisher.

Discography

Major releases


+ Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album


^ Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album

Collections

  • 1983 Anthology of Tom Waits (Elektra)
  • 1991 The Early Years, Volume One
  • 1993 The Early Years, Volume Two
  • 1998 Beautiful Maladies: The Island Years

Contributions

  • 1991 Sailing the Seas of Cheese, by Primus: Waits does character vocals on Tommy The Cat
  • 1992 Beautiful Mess, by Thelonious Monster: Waits appears as a guest singer on Adios Lounge
  • 1993 Jesus Blood Never Failed Me Yet, by Gavin Bryars: Waits appears as guest singer
  • 1999 Antipop, by Primus: Waits does vocals on Coattails of a Deadman
  • 2000 Helium, by Tin Hat Trio: Waits appears as guest singer on Helium Reprise
  • 2001 It's A Wonderful Life, by Sparklehorse: Waits does vocals on "Dog Door"
  • 2002 For the Kids by various artists: Waits performs the lullaby "Bring Down the Branches"
  • 2004 The Ride by Los Lobos: Waits does vocals on the track "Kitate"
  • 2004 The Late Great Daniel Johnston by various artists: Waits covers Johnston's "King Kong"

Tribute albums

  • 1995 Temptation, Holly Cole
  • 1995 Step Right Up, various artists
  • 2000 New Coat of Paint, various artists
  • 2001 Wicked Grin, John Hammond
  • 2004 Step Right Up: The Songs of Tom Waits, various artists

Filmography

  • 1978 Movie debut as 'Mumbles' in Paradise Alley.
  • 1980 Worked with Francis Ford Coppola on the soundtrack to One From The Heart.
  • 1982 Soundtrack of One From The Heart. Nominated for an Academy Award for best original score.
    • Played petrified man in carnival in The Stone Boy.
  • 1983 Played Buck Merrill in The Outsiders.
    • Played Bennie the pool hall owner in Rumble Fish.
  • 1984 Played Irving Stark in The Cotton Club.
  • 1986 Starred as Zack in Down by Law.
  • 1987 Played Rudy The Kraut in Ironweed.
    • Played Al Silk in Candy Mountain.
  • 1989 Played the 'Punch & Judy Man' in Bearskin: An Urban Fairytale.
    • Starred as Kenny the Hitman in Cold Feet.
    • Voice of the radio DJ in Mystery Train. Composer on Sea of Love
  • 1990 Played a plainclothes policeman in The Two Jakes.
  • 1991 Played Wolf in At Play in the Fields of the Lord.
    • Played a disabled Veteran beggar in The Fisher King.
    • Wrote the score of Night on Earth (With Kathleen Brennan).
    • Played Monte in Queens Logic.
  • 1992 Composer (With Kathleen Brennan) on American Heart.
    • Played R.M. Renfield in Bram Stoker's Dracula.
    • Played Earl Piggott in Short Cuts.
  • 1996 Composer on soundtrack of Dead Man Walking.
    • Composer on soundtrack of The End of Violence.
  • 1999 Mystery Men -- played an inventor who specialized in non-lethal weapons.
  • 2003 Appeared in conversation with Iggy Pop in Coffee and Cigarettes: Somewhere In America.
  • 2004 Composer (with Kathleen Brennan) on soundtrack of "Shrek 2"

Tours

  • 1973 Closing Time touring
  • 1974-1975 The Heart Of Saturday Night touring
  • 1975-1976 Small Change touring
  • 1977 Foreign Affairs touring
  • 1978-1979 Blue Valentine touring
  • 1980-1982 Heartattack and Vine touring
  • 1985 Rain Dogs touring
  • 1987 Big Time touring
  • 1999 Get Behind The Mule Tour
  • 2004 Real Gone Tour

See also:

  • Kazik Staszewski, Polish artist extensively covering Waits
  • Holly Cole, Canadian artist covering Waits' songs in jazz style

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^ Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album. The cover track of the 1999 album The Ladder, Homeworld (The Ladder) was used in Relic Entertainment's Homeworld real-time strategy as the credits and outro theme.
+ Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album. In 2003 a further remastering effort was begun by Rhino Records, this time including more original art, extensive booklet liner notes, and rare bonus tracks. A Spanish court recognized there had been a violation of Waits’s moral rights, in addition to the infringement of copyright [3] (http://www.anti.com/news.php?newsid=86715). The production company, Tandem Campany Guasch, was ordered to pay compensation to Waits through his Spanish publisher. The initial CD releases appeared in the late 1980s, and the first remasters were released in the mid 1990s, with dramatically improved sound and much original album art restored. In 2000, an Audi commercial broadcast in Spain featured music very similar to Waits' "Innocent When You Dream", after Waits first had declined when they approached him about using the original. The Yes Atlantic Records catalog has undergone at least two remasterings and re-releases on CD.

[2] (http://www.keeslau.com/TomWaitsSupplement/Copyright/copyrightwaitslevis.htm). Sleeve artwork for many of these albums was done by Roger Dean, who also designed the band's logo. Waits sued, and Levis agreed to cease all use of the song, and offered a full page apology in Billboard Magazine. The classic line up is currently enjoying a somewhat revitalized presence in the public consciousness, especially after the celebration of their 35th anniversary in 2004. In 1993, Levi's used Screamin' Jay Hawkins' version of Waits' "Heartattack and Vine" in a commercial. Fans short-changed in 1996 were delighted as Wakeman announced his return to the group in 2002 and a world tour for Yes followed, including a return to Australia after more than 30 years absence. Waits declined the offer, and Frito Lay hired a Waits soundalike to sing a jingle similar to "Step Right Up," which is, ironically, a song Waits has called "an indictment of advertising." [1] (http://www.joe.trussell.com/waits/frito_lay.html) ("Step Right Up" concludes with the lyric "What the large print giveth, the small print taketh away"). The band was not only backed by a 60-piece orchestra, but specific parts and arrangements were written and executed by the orchestra, sounding as if the orchestra was a permanent band member.

Frito Lay had approached Waits to use one of his songs in an advertisement. Both Sherwood and Khoroshev left the band before the recording of the 2001 orchestral release Magnification. Magnification, the only Yes album without keyboards, is considered by many as the best Yes studio album since the 1970s. The first lawsuit was filed in 1988 against Frito Lay, and resulted in a US$2.6 million judgement in Waits' favor. The 1999 tour resulted in a live DVD from The House of Blues in Los Angeles. Waits has steadfastly refused to allow the use of his songs in commercials and has filed several lawsuits against advertisers who used his material without permission. While Sherwood's influence seemed to take the band back in the direction of the 90125 lineup, the tour also featured keyboards from Russian keyboard player Igor Khoroshev, who was later made a full time member for the following album The Ladder. In essence, however, and despite his songs having been covered by famous stars such as Bruce Springsteen and Rod Stewart, Waits remains a cult performer, steadfastly outside the mainstream. Open Your Eyes was released in 1997.

Waits has been reported as having bipolar disorder. As fans waited for a tour of the classic lineup, Wakeman left the group again before the release of Keys To Ascension 2. Wakeman was replaced by Sherwood, who not only played guitar, but also now handled keyboard duties. In the popular perception, however, he and his work remain mostly characterised by his rocky voice, his strong personality and theatrical presence on stage and the "late night smoky bars" humour of his texts ("I'd rather have a free bottle in front of me than a pre-frontal lobotomy."). The new studio cuts from those two albums were later reissued on a single CD called "Keystudio.". The last of these albums -- an off-Broadway musical co-written with his wife -- and the later collaboration with William S. Burroughs on The Black Rider both demonstrated the increasing interest in theatre, which has resulted in a somewhat successful acting career as well as soundtrack work. The resultant live recordings were released, together with new music, on the Keys To Ascension albums, considered by many fans to be their finest music since their 1970s zenith. He also gradually altered his singing style, sounding less like the late-night crooner of the 70s, instead adopting a gravelly voice reminiscent of Howling Wolf and Captain Beefheart. Proving the truth of the old adage never say "never again," the band surprised and delighted fans by reforming with the classic '70s line-up of Anderson, Squire, White, Howe and Wakeman for a live performance in the Californian town of San Luis Obispo in 1996.

His trio of albums from the mid-1980s, Swordfishtrombones, Rain Dogs and Frank's Wild Years, all featured some degree of eclectic instrumentation -- Waits' self described "Junkyard Orchestra"--often marrying soul music horn sections to avant-garde percussion reminiscent of Harry Partch's, or the distorted guitar of Marc Ribot. On the 1994 tour, guitarist/vocalist Billy Sherwood joined as a sixth member. After he left Asylum Records for Island Records in 1983, his music became less mainstream. In 1994, Yes released Talk, one of the group's poorest selling releases. His wife is regularly credited as co-author of many songs on his later released albums, and is often cited by Waits as a major influence on his work. Yes was suddenly back down to its popular 1980s lineup of Anderson, Squire, Rabin, Kaye, and White. With his wife, he wrote and performed in Big Time, a slightly surreal concert movie. After the tour, Bruford quit the band, followed shortly by Howe and then Wakeman.

In August 1980, he married Kathleen Brennan, whom he had met on the set of One From The Heart. Featuring tracks spanning the band's entire career, it was one of the highest grossing concert tours of 1991 and 1992. Waits would also act in Coppola's Rumblefish, The Outsiders, The Cotton Club and Dracula (as the insane Renfield), and work with such directors as Jim Jarmusch and Robert Altman. Law suits were followed by a remarkable turn of events, as Bruford, Wakeman, and Howe joined Anderson and the rest of Yes, which resulted in the album Union and a world tour which united all eight members in a short-lived "mega-Yes". 1980 saw the commencement of a long working relationship with Francis Ford Coppola, who asked him to provide music for his film One From The Heart. While Yes was on break after the 1988 tour, Anderson began working with former Yes members Rick Wakeman, Steve Howe, and Bill Bruford. The group wanted to be called Yes, but Yes was technically still a current group with other members, so the group called themselves "Anderson Bruford Wakeman Howe." Legal battles ensued. Foreign Affairs (1977) and Blue Valentine (1978) were in a similar vein, but showed further refinement of his artistic voice. By the end of the 1980s, Anderson grew tired of the new Yes sound and wanted the band to return to its classic sound.

Small Change (1976) featuring famed drummer Shelly Manne, was jazzier still, and songs such as "The Piano Has Been Drinking" and "Bad Liver and a Broken Heart" cemented his hard living reputation, with a lyrical style pitched somewhere between Raymond Chandler and Charles Bukowski. Yes had major success throughout the rest of the 1980s, playing arenas and scoring major hits with "Leave It," "Love Will Find a Way," and "It Can Happen.". The 1975 album Nighthawks at the Diner, recorded in a studio but with a small audience to capture the ambience of a live show, captures this phase of his career, including the lengthy spoken interludes between songs that punctuated his live act. Fans of this line-up are called "Generators", from this line-up's second album, Big Generator. The Heart of Saturday Night showed his roots as a nightclub singer, half speaking and half crooning ballads, often with a soft jazz background. The song Owner of a Lonely Heart from this album was even a hit in discos, resulting in the band's only number one single. After numerous abortive recording sessions, his first record, the melancholic, country-tinged Closing Time (1973) received warm reviews, but he first gained national attention when his "Ol' 55" was recorded by The Eagles in 1974. It was simpler and harder, with modern (for the time) electronic effects.

Born in Pomona, California, Waits' recording career began in 1971, after he relocated to Los Angeles and signed with Herb Cohen, manager of Frank Zappa, among others. The album, 90125 (produced by Trevor Horn), was a radical departure from their earlier sound. Thomas Alan Waits, (born December 7, 1949) is an American composer, singer, musician and actor. In late 1982, two years after the breakup of Yes, Squire and White met guitarist Trevor Rabin (late of the band Rabbitt) and formed a new group, initially dubbed Cinema, which also included original Yes keyboardist Tony Kaye. They played Jon Anderson some of their new music, who was very impressed and decided to join the project, thus resulting in the reformation Yes in 1983. Holly Cole, Canadian artist covering Waits' songs in jazz style. The band was to be called XYZ, but nothing came of the sessions. Kazik Staszewski, Polish artist extensively covering Waits. Downes and Howe went on to form Asia, Horn went into producing, and Squire and White began sessions with Jimmy Page and Robert Plant, fresh from Led Zeppelin's recent breakup.

2004 Real Gone Tour. After the Drama tour, Yes broke up. 1999 Get Behind The Mule Tour. While Drama was well received by many fans (named "Panthers" after a feature of the album's artwork), many other Yes followers missed Anderson's unique lyrics and vocal style. 1987 Big Time touring. To their surprise, Downes and Horn were invited to join Yes as full-time members; they accepted the invitation and performed on the Drama album in 1980. 1985 Rain Dogs touring. Eventually though, Howe, Squire and White confessed that their singer and keyboards player had actually left the band.

1980-1982 Heartattack and Vine touring. Initally, the plan was that Downes and Horn would help shape the material, ready for the return of Wakeman and Anderson. 1978-1979 Blue Valentine touring. Howe invited Buggles duo Geoffrey Downes (keyboards) and Trevor Horn (bass/vocals) to help out on a new Yes album. 1977 Foreign Affairs touring. Meanwhile, Howe had heard an album called Age of Plastic by a band called The Buggles which contained the world-wide Number One hit, "Video Killed The Radio Star". 1975-1976 Small Change touring. This left Squire, Howe and White to start sessions for a new album without a singer or a keyboard player.

1974-1975 The Heart Of Saturday Night touring. Wakeman had again grown disenchanted with the band, but this time so had Jon Anderson, who was enjoying success out of the band in partnership with Vangelis. 1973 Closing Time touring. In 1980, the band's career took a serious left turn, even by its own standards. 2004 Composer (with Kathleen Brennan) on soundtrack of "Shrek 2". Ironically, Yes outlasted almost all the groups of that era as well. 2003 Appeared in conversation with Iggy Pop in Coffee and Cigarettes: Somewhere In America. The album, along with 1978's Tormato, was successful in spite of being released at the height of the punk rock era in Britain, during which Yes were often critisised by the music press as representing the most bloated excesses of early 1970s progressive rock.

1999 Mystery Men -- played an inventor who specialized in non-lethal weapons. Apart from the 15 minute track, "Awaken," the album Going for the One was mostly made up of shorter songs. Composer on soundtrack of The End of Violence. However after hearing and being impressed by the new material he once again became a permanent band member. 1996 Composer on soundtrack of Dead Man Walking.

    . When Moraz left in 1976, the group commenced sessions for a new album without a keyboard player. After a considerable amount of negotiation Rick Wakeman rejoined the band on a "session musician" basis. Played Earl Piggott in Short Cuts. Following an extended tour through 1975-76, each member of the group released their own solo album.

    Renfield in Bram Stoker's Dracula. This reached no.1 in the Spanish charts. Played R.M. Wakeman was replaced by Swiss musician Patrick Moraz for Relayer in 1974. Again, the album featured a side-long track, "The Gates of Delirium," from which the "Soon" section was put out as a limited single release. 1992 Composer (With Kathleen Brennan) on American Heart.

      . Rick Wakeman, in particular, was not pleased with the album and increasing interpersonal tensions between him and the rest of the band led Wakeman to quit at the end of the Tales tour. Played Monte in Queens Logic. Although extended compositions were by now a Yes hallmark -- the title track of Close To The Edge took up the entire first side of that album -- the four tracks, each roughly 20 minutes long, that comprised the two-disc Topographic Oceans earned mixed reviews and left many feeling that the band was beginning to overreach itself.

      Wrote the score of Night on Earth (With Kathleen Brennan). Their next studio album, Tales from Topographic Oceans marked a sea change in the band's fortunes, polarising fans and critics alike. Played a disabled Veteran beggar in The Fisher King. The album was another best seller. 1991 Played Wolf in At Play in the Fields of the Lord.

        . Presented in one of the most lavish album packages to date, Roger Dean's artwork spread across a triple gatefold cover, and continued the cosmic-organic design concepts of the two previous albums. 1990 Played a plainclothes policeman in The Two Jakes. It was one of the first rock triple-album sets, featuring live versions of all-original material from the previous three studio albums.

        Composer on Sea of Love. Yessongs was a hugely ambitious project and undoubtedly a major gamble for their label, Atlantic Records. Voice of the radio DJ in Mystery Train. Shortly after the release of Close To The Edge, at the height of the band's success, Bill Bruford stunned fans with the news that he was quitting to join King Crimson; he was replaced by former Plastic Ono Band drummer Alan White who debuted on their next release, the three-record live collection Yessongs, recorded on their world tour in late 1972 and early 1973. Starred as Kenny the Hitman in Cold Feet. Fans of this era commonly describe themselves as "Troopers", after the 3-part track "Starship Trooper" from The Yes Album. 1989 Played the 'Punch & Judy Man' in Bearskin: An Urban Fairytale.

          . Some consider the album Close to the Edge to be the high point of the whole progressive rock genre.

          Played Al Silk in Candy Mountain. Fragile also marked the beginning of a long collaboration with artist Roger Dean, who designed the group's logo and their album covers, as well as their light shows. 1987 Played Rudy The Kraut in Ironweed.

            . They also notably benefitted from the tremendous advances in live music technology that were taking place at that time, and they were renowned for the high quality of both their sound and lighting. 1986 Starred as Zack in Down by Law. Yes enjoyed enormous commercial and critical success around the world and became one of the most popular concert attractions of the day. 1984 Played Irving Stark in The Cotton Club. Fragile (1971) went Top Ten in America, and Close to the Edge (1972) was also a huge seller.

            Played Bennie the pool hall owner in Rumble Fish. With Wakeman on board, Yes entered what some consider their most fertile and successful period, cutting two highly acclaimed LPs. 1983 Played Buck Merrill in The Outsiders.

              . It was both the end of one era -- their last non-original track -- and the beginning of another, showcasing all the elements of the new Yes sound in place. Played petrified man in carnival in The Stone Boy. The first recording by this 'classic' lineup of the group (Anderson, Bruford, Howe, Squire and Wakeman) was a dynamic ten-minute interpretation of Paul Simon's America. Nominated for an Academy Award for best original score.
                . Surrounded by banks of keyboards, his flowing blonde hair and sequinned cape provided a strong visual focus on stage, although they later became the object of ridicule in some quarters.

                1982 Soundtrack of One From The Heart. He also brought two vital new additions to the group's instrumentation -- the Mellotron and the Minimoog synthesiser. 1980 Worked with Francis Ford Coppola on the soundtrack to One From The Heart. As a soloist, Wakeman proved to be a perfect foil for Steve Howe. 1978 Movie debut as 'Mumbles' in Paradise Alley. He was replaced by classically trained Rick Wakeman, who had just left The Strawbs and was already a noted studio musician with credits including David Bowie and Lou Reed. 2004 Step Right Up: The Songs of Tom Waits, various artists. In 1971 original keyboard player Tony Kaye left to form his own group, Badger.

                2001 Wicked Grin, John Hammond. The group's emerging style coalesced on their next LP, the critically acclaimed The Yes Album, which for the first time consisted entirely of original compositions by the band; it was also the record that united them with long-serving producer and engineer Eddie Offord; his studio expertise was a key factor in creating the Yes sound. 2000 New Coat of Paint, various artists. The departure of Peter Banks in 1970 and his replacement by ex-Tomorrow guitarist Steve Howe gave Yes a new edge. 1995 Step Right Up, various artists. Their first two Yes LPs (recorded with the lineup of Anderson, Banks, Bruford, Kaye and Squire) mixed original material with covers of songs by their major influences, including The Beatles, The Byrds and Simon & Garfunkel. 1995 Temptation, Holly Cole. The rhythm section of Squire and Bruford was considered by many to be one of the best in rock music at this time.

                2004 The Late Great Daniel Johnston by various artists: Waits covers Johnston's "King Kong". Squire was one of the first rock bass players to successfully adapt electronic guitar effects such as tremolo, phasing and the wah-wah pedal to the instrument. 2004 The Ride by Los Lobos: Waits does vocals on the track "Kitate". The most recognisable sonic features of this 'classic' period are Anderson's distinctive high-register lead vocals, their strong vocal harmonies, Wakeman and Howe's respective keyboard and guitar solos, Bruford's polyrhythmic drumming and the distinctive sound of Squire's Rickenbacker model 4001 stereo bass. 2002 For the Kids by various artists: Waits performs the lullaby "Bring Down the Branches". Vocal verses alternated with atmospheric instrumental interludes, frenetic ensemble passages and extended guitar, keyboard and bass improvisations. 2001 It's A Wonderful Life, by Sparklehorse: Waits does vocals on "Dog Door". Their repertoire often exceeded the standard three-minute pop-song structure with lengthy multi-part suites lasting 20 minutes or more.

                2000 Helium, by Tin Hat Trio: Waits appears as guest singer on Helium Reprise. These albums feature complex classically-influenced arrangements, unusual time signatures, virtuoso musicianship, dramatic dynamic and metrical changes and oblique, stream-of-consciousness lyrics. 1999 Antipop, by Primus: Waits does vocals on Coattails of a Deadman. The early 1970s Yes recordings are still considered the classic Yes sound by many fans. 1993 Jesus Blood Never Failed Me Yet, by Gavin Bryars: Waits appears as guest singer. Keep in mind that Yes was split up in 1981 and 1982. 1992 Beautiful Mess, by Thelonious Monster: Waits appears as a guest singer on Adios Lounge. The following explains the different lineups of Yes.

                1991 Sailing the Seas of Cheese, by Primus: Waits does character vocals on Tommy The Cat. Rick Wakeman, on the other hand, has joined and left the band at least four times. 1998 Beautiful Maladies: The Island Years. Founding members Jon Anderson and Chris Squire are often considered the core of the band since Squire has performed on all official Yes albums and Anderson has performed on all but one. 1993 The Early Years, Volume Two. Despite many lineup changes, occasional splits and many changes in popular music, the band has endured for over 30 years and still retains a strong international following. 1991 The Early Years, Volume One. The popular music group Yes is a progressive rock band that formed in London in 1968.

                1983 Anthology of Tom Waits (Elektra). Projected live retrospective CD box set. 2005

                  . The Ultimate Yes: 35th Anniversary Collection (3-CD compilation). 2004
                    .

                    2003 Yes Remixes (assembled by Virgil Howe, son of Steve). In a Word — Yes (5-CD compilation). Yestoday (Anderson Squire White Howe Sherwood Khoroshev). 2002

                      .

                      Magnification (Anderson Squire White Howe with orchestra). Keystudio (compilation of studio material from both Keys to Ascension albums). 2001

                        . The Best of (compilation).

                        House Of Yes - Live from the House of Blues (live). The Masterworks — Mix Your Own CD (compilation). 2000

                          . 1999 The Ladder (Anderson Squire White Howe Sherwood Khoroshev).

                          Something's Coming / Beyond and Before (old live material - Anderson Squire Bruford Kaye Banks). Open Your Eyes (Anderson Squire White Howe Sherwood). Keys to Ascension Volume 1 & 2 (live/studio - Anderson Squire White Howe Wakeman). Keys to Ascension 2 (live/studio - Anderson Squire White Howe Wakeman).

                          1997

                            . 1996 Keys to Ascension (live/studio - Anderson Squire White Howe Wakeman). 1994 Talk (Anderson Squire White Kaye Rabin). An Evening of Yes Music Plus* (live - Anderson Bruford Wakeman Howe).

                            Highlights — The Very Best of Yes (compilation). 1993

                              . 1992 Yesstory (2-CD abridgement of Yesyears). Yesyears (4-CD compilation).

                              Union (Anderson Squire White Howe Wakeman Kaye Bruford Rabin). 1991

                                . 1987 Big Generator (Anderson Squire White Kaye Rabin). 1985 9012Live: The Solos (live - Anderson Squire White Kaye Rabin).

                                1983 90125 (Anderson Squire White Kaye Rabin; produced by Horn). 1981 Classic Yes (compilation). Yesshows (live double - Anderson Squire White Howe Wakeman/Moraz). Drama (Horn Squire White Howe Downes).

                                1980

                                  . 1978 Tormato (Anderson Squire White Howe Wakeman). 1977 Going for the One (Anderson Squire White Howe Wakeman). Story of I (Patrick Moraz).

                                  Fish out of Water (Chris Squire— Moraz and Bruford also play on the album). Beginnings (Steve Howe — White, Moraz and Bruford guest). Olias of Sunhillow (Jon Anderson — Anderson plays all instruments and sings all parts). Ramshackled (Alan White — Anderson and Howe guest on one track).

                                  These were:

                                    . 1976 In this year, rather than release a group album, each of the band members released a solo project, often guesting on each other's albums. 1975 Yesterdays (compilation from first two albums, plus Paul Simon's America). 1974 Relayer (Anderson Squire White Howe Moraz).

                                    Tales from Topographic Oceans (double - Anderson Squire White Howe Wakeman). Yessongs (live triple - Anderson Squire Bruford/White Howe Wakeman). 1973

                                      . Close to the Edge (Anderson Squire Bruford Howe Wakeman).

                                      Fragile (Anderson Squire Bruford Howe Wakeman). 1972

                                        . 1971 The Yes Album (Anderson Squire Bruford Kaye Howe). 1970 Time and a Word (Anderson Squire Bruford Kaye Banks).

                                        1969 Yes (Anderson Squire Bruford Kaye Banks). Igor Khoroshev - keyboards (1998-2000). Billy Sherwood - guitar/vocals/keyboard (1994-1995, 1997-1999). Trevor Rabin - guitar/vocals (1983-1995).

                                        Trevor Horn - vocals (1980). Geoff Downes - keyboards (1980). Patrick Moraz - keyboards (1975-1976). Bill Bruford - drums (1968-1972, 1991-1992).

                                        Peter Banks - guitar (1968-1970). Tony Kaye - keyboards (1968-1971, 1983-1995). Chris Squire - bass/vocals (1968-present). Jon Anderson - lead vocals (1968-1979, 1983-present).

                                        Alan White - drums (1972-present). Rick Wakeman - keyboards (1971-1974, 1977-1979, 1991-1992, 1996, 2002-present). Steve Howe - guitar/vocals (1970-1980, 1991-1992, 1996-present). Chris Squire - bass/vocals (1968-present).

                                        Jon Anderson - lead vocals (1968-1979, 1983-present).

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