This page will contain wikis about Sirius Radio, as they become available.

Sirius Satellite Radio

Sirius Satellite Radio NASDAQ: SIRI is a satellite radio (DARS) service in the United States that provides 68 streams (channels) of music and 55 streams of sports, news and entertainment. Music streams on Sirius carry a wide variety of music genres, broadcasting 24 hours a day, commercial free. With any Sirius-enabled radio, the user can see the artist and song information on display while listening to the stream. The streams are broadcast from three satellites in an elliptical geosynchronous orbit above North America. A subset of Sirius’ music channels are included as part of the DISH Network satellite television service. Sirius channels are identified by Arbitron with the label “XS” (e.g. “XS120”, “XS9”, “XS17”).

Sirius is based in New York City. Its business model is to provide pay-for-service radio, music channels being free of commercials, analogous to the business model for premium cable television. Subscription costs for Sirius range from $12.95/mo. to $499.99 for a lifetime subscription (of the receiver, not the subscriber). A $10 activation fee ($15 if activated by phone) is also required. Sirius currently lags behind competitor XM Satellite Radio in terms of subscribers with 3.3 million, well less than XM's current audience of more than 6 million subscribers (as of January 9, 2006). However, Sirius led the market in new satellite radio subscribers in 2005.

Sirius was previously known as CD Radio. The dog in the Sirius logo (Sirius is referred to as the "Dog Star") is unofficially named “Mongo,” a name garnered from the debut of Sirius Satellite Radio’s sponsorship on Casey Atwood’s and later Jimmy Spencer’s NASCAR entry, when the announcing cast voted on names. “Mongo” later became NASCAR driver Spencer’s nickname with the NASCAR Broadcasters in the following races.

Content

Howard Stern and other high profile content

Howard Stern Show.

A major component of Sirius’ business strategy has been to execute far-reaching and exclusive deals with big-name entertainers and personalities to create and build broadcast streams, from the ground up. Sirius has reached extensive deals with domestic diva Martha Stewart, E Street Band member Steven Van Zandt (aka Little Steven), Jimmy Buffett, and Eminem to executive produce streams on Sirius.

By far the biggest of these deals was announced on October 6, 2004 when Sirius announced that it signed a five-year, $500-million agreement with Howard Stern to move his radio show to Sirius starting on January 9, 2006. The deal, which gave Sirius exclusive rights to Stern’s radio show, also gave Stern the right to build at least two full-time programming channels. Stern stated that his move was forced by the stringent regulations of the FCC whose enforcement was intensified following the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show. Beginning with the announcement of his imminent departure, Stern began to complain of one of his employers, Infinity Broadcasting, as trying to impede the success of his departure.

In Howard Stern's first major hire for Sirius, Stern brought on board Tampa, FL based Bubba the Love Sponge, fired by Clear Channel due to a $750,000 fine proposed by the FCC Reuters, to do a show on Sirius.

In addition to the channel-programming deals, Sirius has also programmed a number of more conventional shows with well known personalities in a number of fields. These shows are hosted by personalities including skateboard legend Tony Hawk, seven-time Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong, The B-52's lead singer Fred Schneider, NBA Hall of Famer Bill Walton and longtime New York City DJ “Cousin Brucie”, who was dropped by WCBS-FM after the station changed to its format from an oldies station to a “Jack” format. Generally the personalities act as DJs hosting shows with music they personally like.

On November 18, 2004 the former COO and President of Viacom, Mel Karmazin, was named the CEO of Sirius. Stern worked under Karmazin at Infinity Radio and the two men have always had a great deal of mutual respect for each other. It was Karmazin who fiercely protected Stern in the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show (produced by MTV and aired by CBS, both co-owned with Infinity) and the FCC crackdown on shock jocks and obscenity, in general.

On October 25, 2005 Sirius announced that "E Street Radio", the exclusive channel of legendary artist Bruce Springsteen, would air from November 1, 2005 to January 31, 2006 on the Bridge - Channel 10.

Sports

NFL Radio.

Another cornerstone of Sirius’ business strategy has been to pursue exclusive sports content. Currently, Sirius has exclusive satellite radio broadcasting rights to all NFL and NBA games. Sirius also announced in December 2005 a multi-year deal with the NBA, which makes the satellite radio company the broadcaster of more live NBA games than any other radio outlet. The agreement also creates a 24-hour NBA Radio Channel, located on channel 127. NHL games will be shared with XM for the 2005–2006 season, after which XM will have exclusive broadcast rights. Starting in 2007, Sirius will have full NASCAR coverage.

Sirius also has rights to a number of major college sports conferences, including the Big Ten and the Southeastern Conference as well as schools like Notre Dame. Beginning in 2005 Sirius also has exclusive radio rights to cover the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. In August 2004, Sirius launched NFL Radio, a 24-hour radio stream dedicated exclusively to covering the NFL. Sirius has also been aggressive in creating its own in-house produced studio sports radio content.

Other content

In June 2005, Sirius signed an agreement with BBC Radio 1 in the UK to rebroadcast the station to an American audience. Sirius also has exclusive satellite radio rights to National Public Radio, carrying two separate streams. The deal with NPR was the first high-profile deal entered into by Sirius.

With the launch of Sirius Canada in December 2005, American listeners gained five Canadian-produced stations including CBC Radio One, CBC Radio Three and Iceberg Radio in English, and Première Plus and Bandeapart in French. Iceberg Radio is programmed by Standard Broadcasting, which also provides a number of additional channels exclusive to Canada; the other four come from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

Sirius' Satellites

Sirius’ spacecraft Radiosat 1 through Radiosat 4 were manufactured by Space Systems/Loral. The first three of the series were orbited in 2000 by Proton-K Block-DM3 launch vehicles. Radiosat 4 is a ground spare, in storage at SS/Loral’s facility in Palo Alto, California. The series of satellites from which they come, the SS/Loral LS-1300, is known to have problems with their solar array cells — a similar but more severe issue affects the Boeing satellites belonging to competitor XM Radio.

Sirius Satellite in space, concept drawing.

Sirius' satellites are called Radiosat (instead of after the company name), due to there already being a previous fleet of satellites launched also named SIRIUS, launched by Sweden's NSAB (Nordiska Satellitaktiebolaget, or Nordic Satellite AB) and used for general telecommunications and satellite tv throughout Sweden and the rest of Scandinavia.

The Sirius uplink facility is located in Vernon, Sussex County, New Jersey.

Sirius does not use Geostationary satellites. Instead, its three SS/L-1300 satellites fly in geosynchronous (24-hour orbital period) inclined elliptical orbits. Sirius says the elliptical path of its satellite constellation ensures that each satellite spends about 16 hours a day over the continental United States, with at least one satellite over the country at all times. Sirius completed its three-satellite constellation on November 30, 2000. A fourth satellite will remain on the ground, ready to be launched if any of the three active satellites encounter transmission problems.

The Sirius system is similar to that of its competitor. Programs are beamed to one of the three Sirius satellites, which then transmit the signal to the ground, where your radio receiver picks up one of the channels within the signal. Signals are also beamed to ground repeaters for listeners in urban areas where the satellite signal can be interrupted.

Sirius offers car radios and home entertainment systems, as well as car and home kits for portable use. The Sirius receiver includes two parts -- the antenna module and the receiver module. The antenna module picks up signals from the ground repeaters or the satellite, amplifies the signal and filters out any interference. The signal is then passed on to the receiver module. Inside the receiver module is a chipset consisting of eight chips. The chipset converts the signals from 2.3 gigahertz (GHz) to a lower intermediate frequency. Sirius also offers an adapter that allows conventional car radios to receive satellite signals.

Receivers

SIRIUS Sportster Boombox

As of 2005, Sirius receivers are available for various new Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, Infiniti, Jaguar, Jeep, Land Rover, Lexus, Lincoln, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Mercury, Mini, Nissan, Scion, Toyota, Porsche, Volkswagen, and Volvo vehicles, and the service plans on adding availability for portable use. Starting in 2006, all Rolls-Royce vehicles sold in the United States will come with a Sirius radio and lifetime subscription as standard equipment.

They also make many receivers for aftermarket installs as well, including the Sportster Replay, Starmate Replay, Sirius S50 with built in 1GB MP3 player, and the Sirius One. Sirius' hardware lineup is available at Sirius.com

Some popular radios from Sirius:

  • SIRIUS S50
  • SIRIUS Sportster Exec. Docking Station Package
  • SIRIUS Sportster Radio with Boombox Package
  • Tivoli's SIRIUS Table Radio
  • Kenwood H2EV Radio with Car and Home Kits
  • Clarion Calypso SIRIUS Radio with Car Kit
  • XACT XTR1 Radio with Car Kit

Radio stations

  • List of Sirius Satellite Radio stations
  • Official Sirius Satellite Radio Stations List, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required
  • Black and white lineup from SiriusBackstage.com, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required

Sirius in Canada

In November, 2004, a partnership between Sirius, Standard Broadcasting and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation filed an application with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to introduce Sirius in Canada. The application was approved on June 16, 2005. The decision was appealed to the Canadian federal cabinet by a number of broadcasting, labour, and arts and culture organizations, including the Friends of Canadian Broadcasting, CHUM Limited, and the National Campus and Community Radio Association. The groups objected to Sirius’ approach to and reduced levels of Canadian content and French language programming, along with the exclusion of Canadian non-commercial broadcasting. After a lengthy debate, cabinet rejected the appeals on September 9, 2005.

Sirius Canada was officially launched December 1, 2005.

Sirius Canada did not initially carry Howard Stern. Despite popular belief that Stern's broadcast was banned by the CRTC, this is not the case — Sirius Canada, in fact, voluntarily chose not to air the program at the time of its launch in Canada. A significant number of Canadians have purchased grey market subscriptions to Sirius' American service to listen to Stern, although owing to the nature of grey market economics a precise number is difficult to verify. Howard 100 News has stated on air that they estimate at least 60,000 grey market satellite subscriptions in Canada; in December, the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail reported that business analysts in Canada estimate a total of 60,000 grey market subscribers to both Sirius and XM combined. [1] (It should be noted that this figure also includes an unverified number of listeners who subscribed before the Canadian satellite radio services launched at all — the analysts' figures did not offer any estimate of how many Canadians chose a grey market subscription over Sirius Canada specifically because of Stern.)

On January 11, 2006, a Canadian writer interviewed on Stern's show announced an online petition to bring Stern to Sirius Canada.

On February 1, 2006, The Globe and Mail reported the announcement that Stern's show on Howard 100 would become available in Canada as of February 6, 2006. [2]

Sirius had previously disabled the Howard Stern channels on radios with a Canadian ESN number, even if they are subscribed to American content from an American address. Most of these radios have a 'C' suffix in the model name. For example, the Sirius ONE radio is model "SV1" in the United States, but "SV1C" in Canada. However, Sirius cannot stop grey market receivers from picking up the American programming. The blocking of the Howard Stern channels is anticipated to change once the announced return of Stern to Canada takes place.


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The blocking of the Howard Stern channels is anticipated to change once the announced return of Stern to Canada takes place. The Spanish Aerocar, built in 1916 from a design by Spanish engineer Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, is a cable car which takes passengers over the whirlpool on the Canadian side, below the Falls. However, Sirius cannot stop grey market receivers from picking up the American programming. The Maid of the Mist cruises, named for an ancient Ongiara Indian mythical character, have carried passengers into the whirlpools beneath the Falls since 1846. For example, the Sirius ONE radio is model "SV1" in the United States, but "SV1C" in Canada. Along the Niagara River, the Niagara River Recreational Trail runs the 56 km (35 miles) from Fort Erie to Fort George, and includes many historical sites from the War of 1812. Most of these radios have a 'C' suffix in the model name. The observation deck of the nearby Skylon Tower offers the highest overhead view of the Falls, and in the opposite direction gives views as far as distant Toronto.6 With the Konica Minolta Tower, it is one of two towers in Canada with a view of the Falls.

Sirius had previously disabled the Howard Stern channels on radios with a Canadian ESN number, even if they are subscribed to American content from an American address. On the Canadian side, Queen Victoria Park features manicured gardens, platforms offering spectacular views of both the American and Horseshoe Falls, and underground walkways leading into observation rooms which yield the illusion of being within the falling waters. [2]. The Niagara Scenic Trolley offers guided trips along the American Falls. On February 1, 2006, The Globe and Mail reported the announcement that Stern's show on Howard 100 would become available in Canada as of February 6, 2006. Nearby, the Cave of the Winds trail leads hikers down some three hundred steps to a point beneath Bridal Veil Falls. On January 11, 2006, a Canadian writer interviewed on Stern's show announced an online petition to bring Stern to Sirius Canada. From the American side, the American Falls can be viewed from walkways along Prospect Park, which also features an observation tower.

[1] (It should be noted that this figure also includes an unverified number of listeners who subscribed before the Canadian satellite radio services launched at all — the analysts' figures did not offer any estimate of how many Canadians chose a grey market subscription over Sirius Canada specifically because of Stern.). From the Canadian side, floodlights illuminate both sides of the Falls for several hours after dark (until midnight). Howard 100 News has stated on air that they estimate at least 60,000 grey market satellite subscriptions in Canada; in December, the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail reported that business analysts in Canada estimate a total of 60,000 grey market subscribers to both Sirius and XM combined. Peak numbers of visitors occur in the summertime, when Niagara Falls are both a daytime and evening attraction. A significant number of Canadians have purchased grey market subscriptions to Sirius' American service to listen to Stern, although owing to the nature of grey market economics a precise number is difficult to verify. On August 4, 2005, professional golfer John Daly attempted to drive a golf ball over Niagara Falls, an approximate distance of 362 yards (331 m), falling just short in 20 attempts. Despite popular belief that Stern's broadcast was banned by the CRTC, this is not the case — Sirius Canada, in fact, voluntarily chose not to air the program at the time of its launch in Canada. With the recent influx of more international tourists, annual visits exceeded 14 million in 2003.

Sirius Canada did not initially carry Howard Stern. The Falls, or more particularly, the tourist-supported complex near the Falls, was the setting of the short-lived American television show Wonderfalls in early 2004. Sirius Canada was officially launched December 1, 2005. Much of the episode Return of the Technodrome in the 1987 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles cartoon series take place near the Niagara Falls and its hydroelectric plant. After a lengthy debate, cabinet rejected the appeals on September 9, 2005. Later in the 20th century, the Falls was a featured location in 1980's movie Superman II, and was itself the subject of a popular IMAX movie. The groups objected to Sirius’ approach to and reduced levels of Canadian content and French language programming, along with the exclusion of Canadian non-commercial broadcasting. Already a huge tourist attraction and favorite spot for honeymooners, Niagara Falls visits rose sharply in 1953 after the release of Niagara, a movie starring Marilyn Monroe.

The decision was appealed to the Canadian federal cabinet by a number of broadcasting, labour, and arts and culture organizations, including the Friends of Canadian Broadcasting, CHUM Limited, and the National Campus and Community Radio Association. All survivors and stunters have passed over the Horseshoe Falls, where there are fewer boulders and the current can "throw" a person farther away from the brink and (hopefully) avoid the boulders. The application was approved on June 16, 2005. No human has ever survived a plunge over the American Falls, due to the many boulders and the relatively weak current. In November, 2004, a partnership between Sirius, Standard Broadcasting and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation filed an application with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to introduce Sirius in Canada. While it is still not known whether Jones was determined to commit suicide, he survived the 16-story fall with only battered ribs, scrapes, and bruises. Some popular radios from Sirius:. Kirk Jones became the first person to plunge over the Horseshoe Falls without a flotation device on October 20, 2003.

Sirius' hardware lineup is available at Sirius.com. His survival, which no one thought possible, made news throughout the world. They also make many receivers for aftermarket installs as well, including the Sportster Replay, Starmate Replay, Sirius S50 with built in 1GB MP3 player, and the Sirius One. Roger was plucked from the roiling plunge pool beneath the Horseshoe Falls after grabbing a life ring thrown to him by the crew of the Maid of the Mist boat. Starting in 2006, all Rolls-Royce vehicles sold in the United States will come with a Sirius radio and lifetime subscription as standard equipment. In what some called the "Miracle at Niagara", Roger Woodward, a seven-year-old American boy, was swept over the Horseshoe Falls protected only by a life vest in July, 1960, as two tourists pulled his 17-year-old sister Deanne from the river at the lip of the American Falls. As of 2005, Sirius receivers are available for various new Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, Infiniti, Jaguar, Jeep, Land Rover, Lexus, Lincoln, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Mercury, Mini, Nissan, Scion, Toyota, Porsche, Volkswagen, and Volvo vehicles, and the service plans on adding availability for portable use. Englishman Captain Matthew Webb, the first man to swim the English Channel, drowned in 1883 after unsuccessfully trying to swim across the whirlpools and rapids downriver from the Falls.

Sirius also offers an adapter that allows conventional car radios to receive satellite signals. Their wires ran across the gorge, near the current Rainbow Bridge, not over the waterfall itself. The chipset converts the signals from 2.3 gigahertz (GHz) to a lower intermediate frequency. Starting with the successful passage by Jean François "Blondin" Gravelet in 1859, tightrope walkers have drawn large crowds to their exploits. Inside the receiver module is a chipset consisting of eight chips. Other daredevils have made crossing the Falls their goal. The signal is then passed on to the receiver module. Magician David Copperfield more recently added his name to the list of these daredevils, successfully travelling (or perhaps, appearing to travel) over the Falls in 1990.

The antenna module picks up signals from the ground repeaters or the satellite, amplifies the signal and filters out any interference. Survivors of such stunts face charges and stiff fines, as it is illegal, on both sides of the border, to attempt to go over the Falls. The Sirius receiver includes two parts -- the antenna module and the receiver module. Some have survived unharmed, but others have drowned or been severely injured. Sirius offers car radios and home entertainment systems, as well as car and home kits for portable use. Since Taylor's historic ride, 14 other people have intentionally gone over the Falls in or on a device. Signals are also beamed to ground repeaters for listeners in urban areas where the satellite signal can be interrupted. In 1901, 63-year-old Annie Edson Taylor was the first person to go over the Falls in a barrel; she survived virtually unharmed.

Programs are beamed to one of the three Sirius satellites, which then transmit the signal to the ground, where your radio receiver picks up one of the channels within the signal. This began a long tradition of daredevils trying to go over the Falls and survive. The Sirius system is similar to that of its competitor. In October 1829, Sam Patch, who called himself The Yankee Leaper, jumped over the Horseshoe Falls and became the first known person to survive the plunge. A fourth satellite will remain on the ground, ready to be launched if any of the three active satellites encounter transmission problems. It will be very difficult to solve the problem. Sirius completed its three-satellite constellation on November 30, 2000. The result is that the viewing areas on the Canadian side are now often obscured by a layer of mist from the falls.

Sirius says the elliptical path of its satellite constellation ensures that each satellite spends about 16 hours a day over the continental United States, with at least one satellite over the country at all times. Students at the University of Guelph demonstrated, using scale models, that the air passes overtop of the new hotels, which causes a breeze to roll forward down the south sides of the buildings and spill down into the gorge under the falls, where it feeds into a whirlpool of moisture and air. Instead, its three SS/L-1300 satellites fly in geosynchronous (24-hour orbital period) inclined elliptical orbits. Recent construction of several tall buildings (most of them hotels) on the Canadian side of the falls has caused the airflow over the falls to change direction. Sirius does not use Geostationary satellites. Even after this undertaking, Luna Island, the small piece of land between the main waterfall and the Bridal Veil, remained off limits to the public for years owing to fears that it was unstable and could collapse into the gorge at any time. The Sirius uplink facility is located in Vernon, Sussex County, New Jersey. A plan to remove the huge mound of talus deposited in 1954 was abandoned owing to cost, and in November 1969, the temporary dam was dynamited, restoring flow to the American Falls.

Sirius' satellites are called Radiosat (instead of after the company name), due to there already being a previous fleet of satellites launched also named SIRIUS, launched by Sweden's NSAB (Nordiska Satellitaktiebolaget, or Nordic Satellite AB) and used for general telecommunications and satellite tv throughout Sweden and the rest of Scandinavia. In June of that year, the Niagara River was completely diverted away from the American Falls for several months through the building of a temporary rock and earth dam (clearly visible in the photo at right), effectively shutting off the American Falls.5 While the Horseshoe Falls absorbed the extra flow, the US Army Corps of Engineers studied the riverbed and mechanically bolted faults which would otherwise have hastened the retreat of the American Falls. The series of satellites from which they come, the SS/Loral LS-1300, is known to have problems with their solar array cells — a similar but more severe issue affects the Boeing satellites belonging to competitor XM Radio. The most dramatic such work was performed in 1969. Radiosat 4 is a ground spare, in storage at SS/Loral’s facility in Palo Alto, California. In addition to the effects of diversion of water to the power stations, erosion control efforts have included underwater weirs to redirect the most damaging currents, and actual mechanical strengthening of the top of the Falls. The first three of the series were orbited in 2000 by Proton-K Block-DM3 launch vehicles. In 1950, the two countries signed the Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty, which more specifically addressed the issue of water diversion.

Sirius’ spacecraft Radiosat 1 through Radiosat 4 were manufactured by Space Systems/Loral. On January 2, 1929 Canada and the United States reached an agreement on an action plan to preserve the Falls. Iceberg Radio is programmed by Standard Broadcasting, which also provides a number of additional channels exclusive to Canada; the other four come from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. This process was slowed initially by diversion of increasing amounts of flow from the Niagara River into hydroelectric plants in both the United States and Canada. With the launch of Sirius Canada in December 2005, American listeners gained five Canadian-produced stations including CBC Radio One, CBC Radio Three and Iceberg Radio in English, and Première Plus and Bandeapart in French. Until the modern era, the Falls were receding southward owing to erosion from two to ten feet (0.6 to 3.0 m) per year. The deal with NPR was the first high-profile deal entered into by Sirius. On the Canadian side, the Niagara Parks Commission governs land usage along the entire course of the Niagara River, from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario.

Sirius also has exclusive satellite radio rights to National Public Radio, carrying two separate streams. Both organizations have proved remarkably successful operations that have restricted development on both sides of the Falls and the Niagara River. In June 2005, Sirius signed an agreement with BBC Radio 1 in the UK to rebroadcast the station to an American audience. In the same year, Ontario established the Queen Victoria Niagara Falls Park for the same purpose. Sirius has also been aggressive in creating its own in-house produced studio sports radio content. In 1885, New York state to begin to purchase land from developers, under the charter of the Niagara Reservation State Park. In August 2004, Sirius launched NFL Radio, a 24-hour radio stream dedicated exclusively to covering the NFL. A series of Harrison's letters to newspapers in Boston and New York (collected in the 1882 pamphlet The Condition of Niagara Falls, and the Measures Needed to Preserve Them) were particularly influential in turning public opinion in favor of preservation [3].

Beginning in 2005 Sirius also has exclusive radio rights to cover the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. Public dissatisfaction led to the Free Niagara movement, which included the artist Frederick Church, the landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, and the journalist Jonathan Baxter Harrison. Sirius also has rights to a number of major college sports conferences, including the Big Ten and the Southeastern Conference as well as schools like Notre Dame. Development and commercial ventures threatened the natural beauty of the area, and visitors sometimes had to pay entrepreneurs a fee to view the Falls through holes in a fence. Starting in 2007, Sirius will have full NASCAR coverage. For the first two centuries after European settlement of the area, land on both sides of Niagara Falls was privately owned. NHL games will be shared with XM for the 2005–2006 season, after which XM will have exclusive broadcast rights. Nearby Niagara Falls International Airport and Buffalo Niagara International Airport were named after the waterfall, as were Niagara University, countless local businesses, and even one celestial body.4.

The agreement also creates a 24-hour NBA Radio Channel, located on channel 127. The twin cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario and Niagara Falls, New York are connected by three bridges, including the Rainbow Bridge, just downriver from the Falls, which affords the closest view of the Falls, the Whirpool Bridge, and the newest bridge, the Lewiston-Queenston Bridge, located near the escarpment. Sirius also announced in December 2005 a multi-year deal with the NBA, which makes the satellite radio company the broadcaster of more live NBA games than any other radio outlet. Since then the region has declined economically. Currently, Sirius has exclusive satellite radio broadcasting rights to all NFL and NBA games. While the seaway diverted water traffic from nearby Buffalo and led to the demise of its steel and grain mills, other industries in the Niagara River valley flourished until the 1970s with the help of the electric power produced by the river. Another cornerstone of Sirius’ business strategy has been to pursue exclusive sports content. Ships can bypass Niagara Falls by means of the Welland Canal, which in the 1960s was improved and incorporated into the Saint Lawrence Seaway.

On October 25, 2005 Sirius announced that "E Street Radio", the exclusive channel of legendary artist Bruce Springsteen, would air from November 1, 2005 to January 31, 2006 on the Bridge - Channel 10. The project is expected to be completed in 2009, and will increase Sir Adam Beck's yearly output by about 1.6 TW·h. It was Karmazin who fiercely protected Stern in the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show (produced by MTV and aired by CBS, both co-owned with Infinity) and the FCC crackdown on shock jocks and obscenity, in general. In August 2005, Ontario Power Generation, which is now responsible for the Sir Adam Beck stations, announced plans to build a new 10.4 km tunnel to tap water from farther up the Niagara river than is possible with the existing arrangement. Stern worked under Karmazin at Infinity Radio and the two men have always had a great deal of mutual respect for each other. All together, Niagara's generating stations can produce about 4.4 GW of power. On November 18, 2004 the former COO and President of Viacom, Mel Karmazin, was named the CEO of Sirius. The most powerful hydroelectric stations on the Niagara River are Sir Adam Beck 1 and 2 on the Canadian side, and the Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant and the Lewiston Pump Generating Plant on the American side.

Generally the personalities act as DJs hosting shows with music they personally like. The water then passes through hydroelectric turbines that supply power to nearby areas of the United States and Canada before returning to the river well past the Falls. These shows are hosted by personalities including skateboard legend Tony Hawk, seven-time Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong, The B-52's lead singer Fred Schneider, NBA Hall of Famer Bill Walton and longtime New York City DJ “Cousin Brucie”, who was dropped by WCBS-FM after the station changed to its format from an oldies station to a “Jack” format. Currently between 50% and 75% of the Niagara River's flow is diverted via four huge tunnels that arise far upstream from the waterfalls. In addition to the channel-programming deals, Sirius has also programmed a number of more conventional shows with well known personalities in a number of fields. The Government of Ontario eventually brought power transmission operations under public control in 1906, distributing Niagara's energy to various parts of that province. In Howard Stern's first major hire for Sirius, Stern brought on board Tampa, FL based Bubba the Love Sponge, fired by Clear Channel due to a $750,000 fine proposed by the FCC Reuters, to do a show on Sirius. Private companies on the Canadian side also began to harness the energy of the Falls, employing both domestic and American firms in their efforts.

Beginning with the announcement of his imminent departure, Stern began to complain of one of his employers, Infinity Broadcasting, as trying to impede the success of his departure. Morgan, John Jacob Astor IV, and the Vanderbilts, they had constructed giant underground conduits leading to turbines generating upwards of 100,000 horsepower (75 MW), and were sending power as far as Buffalo, twenty miles (32 km) away. Stern stated that his move was forced by the stringent regulations of the FCC whose enforcement was intensified following the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show. By 1896, with financing from moguls like J.P. The deal, which gave Sirius exclusive rights to Stern’s radio show, also gave Stern the right to build at least two full-time programming channels. In 1883, the Niagara Falls Power Company, a descendant of Schoellkopf's firm, hired George Westinghouse to design a system to generate alternating current. By far the biggest of these deals was announced on October 6, 2004 when Sirius announced that it signed a five-year, $500-million agreement with Howard Stern to move his radio show to Sirius starting on January 9, 2006. When Nikola Tesla, for whom a memorial was later built at Niagara Falls, invented the three-phase system of alternating current power transmission, distant transfer of electricity became possible.

Sirius has reached extensive deals with domestic diva Martha Stewart, E Street Band member Steven Van Zandt (aka Little Steven), Jimmy Buffett, and Eminem to executive produce streams on Sirius. In 1881, under the leadership of Jacob Schoellkopf, enough power was produced to send direct current to illuminate both the Falls themselves and nearby Niagara Falls village. A major component of Sirius’ business strategy has been to execute far-reaching and exclusive deals with big-name entertainers and personalities to create and build broadcast streams, from the ground up. In 1853, the Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Mining Company was chartered, which eventually constructed the canals which would be used to generate electricity. . Augustus and Peter Porter purchased this area and all of American Falls in 1805 from the New York state government, and enlarged the original canal to provide hydraulic power for their gristmill and tannery. “Mongo” later became NASCAR driver Spencer’s nickname with the NASCAR Broadcasters in the following races. The first known effort to harness the waters was in 1759, when Daniel Joncairs built a small canal above the Falls to power his sawmill.

The dog in the Sirius logo (Sirius is referred to as the "Dog Star") is unofficially named “Mongo,” a name garnered from the debut of Sirius Satellite Radio’s sponsorship on Casey Atwood’s and later Jimmy Spencer’s NASCAR entry, when the announcing cast voted on names. The enormous energy of the Falls was long recognized as a potential source of power. Sirius was previously known as CD Radio. The story of Niagara Falls in the 20th century is largely that of efforts to harness the energy of the Falls for hydroelectric power and to control the rampant development on both the American and Canadian sides which threatened the area's natural beauty. However, Sirius led the market in new satellite radio subscribers in 2005. Especially after World War One, tourism boomed again as automobiles made getting to the Falls much easier. Sirius currently lags behind competitor XM Satellite Radio in terms of subscribers with 3.3 million, well less than XM's current audience of more than 6 million subscribers (as of January 9, 2006). In 1941 the Niagara Falls Bridge Commission completed the third current crossing in the immediate area of Niagara Falls with the Rainbow Bridge, carrying both pedestrian and vehicular traffic.

A $10 activation fee ($15 if activated by phone) is also required. just below the Falls. to $499.99 for a lifetime subscription (of the receiver, not the subscriber). Known today as the Whirlpool Rapids Bridge, it carries vehicles, trains, and pedestrians between Canada and the U.S. Subscription costs for Sirius range from $12.95/mo. The first steel archway bridge near the Falls was completed in 1897. Its business model is to provide pay-for-service radio, music channels being free of commercials, analogous to the business model for premium cable television. In 1886 Leffert Buck replaced Roebling's wood and stone bridge with the predominantly steel bridge that still carries trains over the Niagara River today.

Sirius is based in New York City. This was supplanted by German-American John Augustus Roebling's Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge in 1855. “XS120”, “XS9”, “XS17”). Demand for passage over the Niagara River led in 1848 to the building of a footbridge and then Charles Ellet's Niagara Suspension Bridge. Sirius channels are identified by Arbitron with the label “XS” (e.g. Napoleon's brother visited with his bride in the early 19th century. A subset of Sirius’ music channels are included as part of the DISH Network satellite television service. During the 19th century tourism became popular, and it was the area's main industry by mid-century.

The streams are broadcast from three satellites in an elliptical geosynchronous orbit above North America. Hennepin County in Minnesota was named after Father Louis Hennepin. With any Sirius-enabled radio, the user can see the artist and song information on display while listening to the stream. His subsequently discredited claim that he also traveled the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico cast some doubt on the validity of his writings and sketches of Niagara Falls. Music streams on Sirius carry a wide variety of music genres, broadcasting 24 hours a day, commercial free. Hennepin also first described the Saint Anthony Falls in Minnesota. Sirius Satellite Radio NASDAQ: SIRI is a satellite radio (DARS) service in the United States that provides 68 streams (channels) of music and 55 streams of sports, news and entertainment. Some credit Finnish-Swedish naturalist Pehr Kalm with the original first-hand description, penned during an expedition to the area early in the 18th century.3 Most historians however agree that Father Louis Hennepin observed and described the Falls much earlier, in 1677, after traveling in the region with explorer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, thus bringing them to the world's attention.

Black and white lineup from SiriusBackstage.com, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required. Members of his party reported to him on the spectacular waterfalls, which he wrote of in his journals but may never have actually visited. Official Sirius Satellite Radio Stations List, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required. The area was visited by Samuel de Champlain as early as 1604. List of Sirius Satellite Radio stations. Some controversy exists over which European first gave a written, eyewitness description of the Falls. XACT XTR1 Radio with Car Kit. He-No caught her as she plummeted, and together their spirits are said to live forever in the Thunder God's sanctuary behind the Falls.

Clarion Calypso SIRIUS Radio with Car Kit. She paddled her canoe into the swift current of the Niagara River and was swept over the brink. Kenwood H2EV Radio with Car and Home Kits. Rather than marry, Lelawala chose to sacrifice herself to her true love He-No, the Thunder God, who dwelled in a cave behind the Horseshoe Falls. Tivoli's SIRIUS Table Radio. Native American legend tells of Lelawala, a beautiful maid betrothed by her father to a brave she despised. SIRIUS Sportster Radio with Boombox Package. The name "Niagara" is said to originate from an Iroquois word "Onguiaahra" meaning "The Strait." The region's original inhabitants were the Ongiara, an Iroquois tribe named the Neutrals by French settlers, who found them helpful in mediating disputes with other tribes.

Docking Station Package. This volume is further halved at night, when most of the diversion to hydroelectric facilities occur. SIRIUS Sportster Exec. The volume of water approaching the Falls during peak flow season is 202,000 ft³/s (5,720 m³/s).1,2 During the summer months, when maximum diversion of water for hydroelectric power occurs, 100,000 ft³/s (2,832 m³/s) of water actually traverses the Falls, some 90% of which goes over the Horseshoe Falls. SIRIUS S50. The larger Canadian Falls are about 2,600 feet (792 m) wide, while the American Falls are 1,060 feet (323 m) wide. The Falls drop about 170 feet (52 m), although the American Falls have a clear drop of only 70 feet (21 m) before reaching a jumble of fallen rocks which were deposited by a massive rock slide in 1954.

Engineers are working to reduce the rate of erosion to retard this event as long as possible. Although erosion and recession have been slowed in this century by engineering, the falls will eventually recede far enough to drain most of Lake Erie, the bottom of which is higher than the bottom of the falls. Just upstream from the Falls' current location, Goat Island splits the course of the Niagara River, resulting in the separation of the Horseshoe Falls to the west from the American and Bridal Veil Falls to the east. The original Niagara Falls were near the sites of present-day Lewiston, New York, and Queenston, Ontario, but erosion of their crest has caused the waterfalls to retreat several miles southward.

All three formations were laid down in an ancient sea, and their differences of character derive from changing conditions within that sea. Submerged in the river in the lower valley, hidden from view, is the Queenston Formation (Upper Ordovician), which is composed of shales and fine sandstones. Because it erodes more easily, the river has undercut the hard cap rock and created the falls. It is mainly shale, though it has some thin limestone layers, and contains large quantities of fossils.

Immediately below, comprising about two thirds of the cliff is the weaker, softer and more crumbly and sloping Rochester Formation (Lower Silurian). It is composed of very dense, hard and very strong limestone and dolostone. The aerial photo clearly shows the hard caprock, the Lockport Formation (Middle Silurian), which underlies the rapids above the falls and approximately the upper third of the gorge wall. When the newly established river encountered the erosion-resistant Lockport dolostone, the hard layer eroded much more slowly than the underlying softer rocks.

Three major formations are exposed in the gorge that was cut by the Niagara River. In doing so it exposed old marine rocks that are much older than the geologically recent glaciation. In time the river cut a gorge across the Niagara Escarpment, the north facing cliff or cuesta formed by erosion of the southwardly dipping (tilted) and resistant Lockport formation between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. After the ice melted back, drainage from the upper Great Lakes became the present-day Niagara River, which could not follow the old filled valley, so it found the lowest outlet on the rearranged topography.

It is thought that there is an old valley, buried by glacial drift, at the approximate location of the present Welland Canal. It dammed others with debris, forcing these rivers to make new channels. The glacier drove through the area like a giant bulldozer, grinding up rocks and soil, moving them around, and deepening some river channels to make lakes. Both the North American Great Lakes and the Niagara River are effects of this last continental ice sheet, an enormous glacier that crept across the area from eastern Canada.

The historical roots of Niagara Falls lie in the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended some 10,000 years ago. . A popular tourist site for over a century, the natural wonder is shared between the twin cities of Niagara Falls, New York and Niagara Falls, Ontario. Niagara Falls is renowned for its beauty, and is both a valuable source of hydroelectric power and a challenging project for environmental preservation.

With more than 168,000 cubic metres (6 million cubic feet) of water falling over the crestline every minute [1] it is the most powerful waterfall in North America [2] and possibly the best-known in the world. While not exceptionally high, Niagara Falls is very wide. Niagara Falls (French: chutes Niagara) comprises three separate waterfalls: the Horseshoe Falls (sometimes called the Canadian Falls), the American Falls, and the smaller, adjacent Bridal Veil Falls. Niagara Falls (43°4′54.68″N, 79°4′19.5″W) is a set of massive waterfalls located on the Niagara River in eastern North America, on the border between the United States and Canada.

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