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Sirius Satellite Radio

Sirius Satellite Radio NASDAQ: SIRI is a satellite radio (DARS) service in the United States that provides 68 streams (channels) of music and 55 streams of sports, news and entertainment. Music streams on Sirius carry a wide variety of music genres, broadcasting 24 hours a day, commercial free. With any Sirius-enabled radio, the user can see the artist and song information on display while listening to the stream. The streams are broadcast from three satellites in an elliptical geosynchronous orbit above North America. A subset of Sirius’ music channels are included as part of the DISH Network satellite television service. Sirius channels are identified by Arbitron with the label “XS” (e.g. “XS120”, “XS9”, “XS17”).

Sirius is based in New York City. Its business model is to provide pay-for-service radio, music channels being free of commercials, analogous to the business model for premium cable television. Subscription costs for Sirius range from $12.95/mo. to $499.99 for a lifetime subscription (of the receiver, not the subscriber). A $10 activation fee ($15 if activated by phone) is also required. Sirius currently lags behind competitor XM Satellite Radio in terms of subscribers with 3.3 million, well less than XM's current audience of more than 6 million subscribers (as of January 9, 2006). However, Sirius led the market in new satellite radio subscribers in 2005.

Sirius was previously known as CD Radio. The dog in the Sirius logo (Sirius is referred to as the "Dog Star") is unofficially named “Mongo,” a name garnered from the debut of Sirius Satellite Radio’s sponsorship on Casey Atwood’s and later Jimmy Spencer’s NASCAR entry, when the announcing cast voted on names. “Mongo” later became NASCAR driver Spencer’s nickname with the NASCAR Broadcasters in the following races.

Content

Howard Stern and other high profile content

Howard Stern Show.

A major component of Sirius’ business strategy has been to execute far-reaching and exclusive deals with big-name entertainers and personalities to create and build broadcast streams, from the ground up. Sirius has reached extensive deals with domestic diva Martha Stewart, E Street Band member Steven Van Zandt (aka Little Steven), Jimmy Buffett, and Eminem to executive produce streams on Sirius.

By far the biggest of these deals was announced on October 6, 2004 when Sirius announced that it signed a five-year, $500-million agreement with Howard Stern to move his radio show to Sirius starting on January 9, 2006. The deal, which gave Sirius exclusive rights to Stern’s radio show, also gave Stern the right to build at least two full-time programming channels. Stern stated that his move was forced by the stringent regulations of the FCC whose enforcement was intensified following the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show. Beginning with the announcement of his imminent departure, Stern began to complain of one of his employers, Infinity Broadcasting, as trying to impede the success of his departure.

In Howard Stern's first major hire for Sirius, Stern brought on board Tampa, FL based Bubba the Love Sponge, fired by Clear Channel due to a $750,000 fine proposed by the FCC Reuters, to do a show on Sirius.

In addition to the channel-programming deals, Sirius has also programmed a number of more conventional shows with well known personalities in a number of fields. These shows are hosted by personalities including skateboard legend Tony Hawk, seven-time Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong, The B-52's lead singer Fred Schneider, NBA Hall of Famer Bill Walton and longtime New York City DJ “Cousin Brucie”, who was dropped by WCBS-FM after the station changed to its format from an oldies station to a “Jack” format. Generally the personalities act as DJs hosting shows with music they personally like.

On November 18, 2004 the former COO and President of Viacom, Mel Karmazin, was named the CEO of Sirius. Stern worked under Karmazin at Infinity Radio and the two men have always had a great deal of mutual respect for each other. It was Karmazin who fiercely protected Stern in the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show (produced by MTV and aired by CBS, both co-owned with Infinity) and the FCC crackdown on shock jocks and obscenity, in general.

On October 25, 2005 Sirius announced that "E Street Radio", the exclusive channel of legendary artist Bruce Springsteen, would air from November 1, 2005 to January 31, 2006 on the Bridge - Channel 10.

Sports

NFL Radio.

Another cornerstone of Sirius’ business strategy has been to pursue exclusive sports content. Currently, Sirius has exclusive satellite radio broadcasting rights to all NFL and NBA games. Sirius also announced in December 2005 a multi-year deal with the NBA, which makes the satellite radio company the broadcaster of more live NBA games than any other radio outlet. The agreement also creates a 24-hour NBA Radio Channel, located on channel 127. NHL games will be shared with XM for the 2005–2006 season, after which XM will have exclusive broadcast rights. Starting in 2007, Sirius will have full NASCAR coverage.

Sirius also has rights to a number of major college sports conferences, including the Big Ten and the Southeastern Conference as well as schools like Notre Dame. Beginning in 2005 Sirius also has exclusive radio rights to cover the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. In August 2004, Sirius launched NFL Radio, a 24-hour radio stream dedicated exclusively to covering the NFL. Sirius has also been aggressive in creating its own in-house produced studio sports radio content.

Other content

In June 2005, Sirius signed an agreement with BBC Radio 1 in the UK to rebroadcast the station to an American audience. Sirius also has exclusive satellite radio rights to National Public Radio, carrying two separate streams. The deal with NPR was the first high-profile deal entered into by Sirius.

With the launch of Sirius Canada in December 2005, American listeners gained five Canadian-produced stations including CBC Radio One, CBC Radio Three and Iceberg Radio in English, and Première Plus and Bandeapart in French. Iceberg Radio is programmed by Standard Broadcasting, which also provides a number of additional channels exclusive to Canada; the other four come from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

Sirius' Satellites

Sirius’ spacecraft Radiosat 1 through Radiosat 4 were manufactured by Space Systems/Loral. The first three of the series were orbited in 2000 by Proton-K Block-DM3 launch vehicles. Radiosat 4 is a ground spare, in storage at SS/Loral’s facility in Palo Alto, California. The series of satellites from which they come, the SS/Loral LS-1300, is known to have problems with their solar array cells — a similar but more severe issue affects the Boeing satellites belonging to competitor XM Radio.

Sirius Satellite in space, concept drawing.

Sirius' satellites are called Radiosat (instead of after the company name), due to there already being a previous fleet of satellites launched also named SIRIUS, launched by Sweden's NSAB (Nordiska Satellitaktiebolaget, or Nordic Satellite AB) and used for general telecommunications and satellite tv throughout Sweden and the rest of Scandinavia.

The Sirius uplink facility is located in Vernon, Sussex County, New Jersey.

Sirius does not use Geostationary satellites. Instead, its three SS/L-1300 satellites fly in geosynchronous (24-hour orbital period) inclined elliptical orbits. Sirius says the elliptical path of its satellite constellation ensures that each satellite spends about 16 hours a day over the continental United States, with at least one satellite over the country at all times. Sirius completed its three-satellite constellation on November 30, 2000. A fourth satellite will remain on the ground, ready to be launched if any of the three active satellites encounter transmission problems.

The Sirius system is similar to that of its competitor. Programs are beamed to one of the three Sirius satellites, which then transmit the signal to the ground, where your radio receiver picks up one of the channels within the signal. Signals are also beamed to ground repeaters for listeners in urban areas where the satellite signal can be interrupted.

Sirius offers car radios and home entertainment systems, as well as car and home kits for portable use. The Sirius receiver includes two parts -- the antenna module and the receiver module. The antenna module picks up signals from the ground repeaters or the satellite, amplifies the signal and filters out any interference. The signal is then passed on to the receiver module. Inside the receiver module is a chipset consisting of eight chips. The chipset converts the signals from 2.3 gigahertz (GHz) to a lower intermediate frequency. Sirius also offers an adapter that allows conventional car radios to receive satellite signals.

Receivers

SIRIUS Sportster Boombox

As of 2005, Sirius receivers are available for various new Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, Infiniti, Jaguar, Jeep, Land Rover, Lexus, Lincoln, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Mercury, Mini, Nissan, Scion, Toyota, Porsche, Volkswagen, and Volvo vehicles, and the service plans on adding availability for portable use. Starting in 2006, all Rolls-Royce vehicles sold in the United States will come with a Sirius radio and lifetime subscription as standard equipment.

They also make many receivers for aftermarket installs as well, including the Sportster Replay, Starmate Replay, Sirius S50 with built in 1GB MP3 player, and the Sirius One. Sirius' hardware lineup is available at Sirius.com

Some popular radios from Sirius:

  • SIRIUS S50
  • SIRIUS Sportster Exec. Docking Station Package
  • SIRIUS Sportster Radio with Boombox Package
  • Tivoli's SIRIUS Table Radio
  • Kenwood H2EV Radio with Car and Home Kits
  • Clarion Calypso SIRIUS Radio with Car Kit
  • XACT XTR1 Radio with Car Kit

Radio stations

  • List of Sirius Satellite Radio stations
  • Official Sirius Satellite Radio Stations List, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required
  • Black and white lineup from SiriusBackstage.com, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required

Sirius in Canada

In November, 2004, a partnership between Sirius, Standard Broadcasting and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation filed an application with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to introduce Sirius in Canada. The application was approved on June 16, 2005. The decision was appealed to the Canadian federal cabinet by a number of broadcasting, labour, and arts and culture organizations, including the Friends of Canadian Broadcasting, CHUM Limited, and the National Campus and Community Radio Association. The groups objected to Sirius’ approach to and reduced levels of Canadian content and French language programming, along with the exclusion of Canadian non-commercial broadcasting. After a lengthy debate, cabinet rejected the appeals on September 9, 2005.

Sirius Canada was officially launched December 1, 2005.

Sirius Canada did not initially carry Howard Stern. Despite popular belief that Stern's broadcast was banned by the CRTC, this is not the case — Sirius Canada, in fact, voluntarily chose not to air the program at the time of its launch in Canada. A significant number of Canadians have purchased grey market subscriptions to Sirius' American service to listen to Stern, although owing to the nature of grey market economics a precise number is difficult to verify. Howard 100 News has stated on air that they estimate at least 60,000 grey market satellite subscriptions in Canada; in December, the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail reported that business analysts in Canada estimate a total of 60,000 grey market subscribers to both Sirius and XM combined. [1] (It should be noted that this figure also includes an unverified number of listeners who subscribed before the Canadian satellite radio services launched at all — the analysts' figures did not offer any estimate of how many Canadians chose a grey market subscription over Sirius Canada specifically because of Stern.)

On January 11, 2006, a Canadian writer interviewed on Stern's show announced an online petition to bring Stern to Sirius Canada.

On February 1, 2006, The Globe and Mail reported the announcement that Stern's show on Howard 100 would become available in Canada as of February 6, 2006. [2]

Sirius had previously disabled the Howard Stern channels on radios with a Canadian ESN number, even if they are subscribed to American content from an American address. Most of these radios have a 'C' suffix in the model name. For example, the Sirius ONE radio is model "SV1" in the United States, but "SV1C" in Canada. However, Sirius cannot stop grey market receivers from picking up the American programming. The blocking of the Howard Stern channels is anticipated to change once the announced return of Stern to Canada takes place.


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The blocking of the Howard Stern channels is anticipated to change once the announced return of Stern to Canada takes place. Icing of wings, downbursts and low visibility are often major contributors to weather related crashes. However, Sirius cannot stop grey market receivers from picking up the American programming. Adverse weather is the third largest cause of accidents. For example, the Sirius ONE radio is model "SV1" in the United States, but "SV1C" in Canada. After human error, mechanical failure is the biggest cause of air accidents, which sometimes also can involve a human component (ie: negligence of the airline in carrying out proper maintenance). Most of these radios have a 'C' suffix in the model name. The majority of aircraft accidents occur due to human error, that is, an error of the pilot(s) or control tower.

Sirius had previously disabled the Howard Stern channels on radios with a Canadian ESN number, even if they are subscribed to American content from an American address. Furthermore, car crashes rarely feature outside local news whereas air crashes are reported internationally, making the risk seem greater. [2]. Many people have a fear of flying because the risk of death in an aircraft accident, if there is one, is extremely high. On February 1, 2006, The Globe and Mail reported the announcement that Stern's show on Howard 100 would become available in Canada as of February 6, 2006. An accident while driving to the airport in a car is more likely than an accident during the flight. On January 11, 2006, a Canadian writer interviewed on Stern's show announced an online petition to bring Stern to Sirius Canada. Statistics show that the risk of an air accident is very small.

[1] (It should be noted that this figure also includes an unverified number of listeners who subscribed before the Canadian satellite radio services launched at all — the analysts' figures did not offer any estimate of how many Canadians chose a grey market subscription over Sirius Canada specifically because of Stern.). With this final test, the aircraft is ready to receive the "final touchups" (internal configuration, painting, etc), and is then ready to be sent to the customer. Howard 100 News has stated on air that they estimate at least 60,000 grey market satellite subscriptions in Canada; in December, the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail reported that business analysts in Canada estimate a total of 60,000 grey market subscribers to both Sirius and XM combined. When complete, an aircraft goes through a set of rigorous inspection, to search for imperfections and defects, and after being approved by the inspectors, the aircraft is tested by a pilot, in a flight test, in order to assure that the controls of the aircraft are working properly. A significant number of Canadians have purchased grey market subscriptions to Sirius' American service to listen to Stern, although owing to the nature of grey market economics a precise number is difficult to verify. In the case of large aircraft, production lines dedicated to the assembly of certain parts of the aircraft can exist, especially the wings and the fuselage. Despite popular belief that Stern's broadcast was banned by the CRTC, this is not the case — Sirius Canada, in fact, voluntarily chose not to air the program at the time of its launch in Canada. The parts are sent to the main plant of the aircraft company, where the production line is located.

Sirius Canada did not initially carry Howard Stern. The production of such parts is not limited to the same city or country; in the case of large aircraft manufacturing companies, such parts can come from all over of the world. Sirius Canada was officially launched December 1, 2005. For example, one company can be responsible for the production of the landing gear, while another one is responsible for the radar. After a lengthy debate, cabinet rejected the appeals on September 9, 2005. However, the production of an aircraft for one company is a process that actually involves dozens, or even hundreds, of other companies and plants, that produce the parts that go into the aircraft. The groups objected to Sirius’ approach to and reduced levels of Canadian content and French language programming, along with the exclusion of Canadian non-commercial broadcasting. There are few companies that produce aircraft on a large scale.

The decision was appealed to the Canadian federal cabinet by a number of broadcasting, labour, and arts and culture organizations, including the Friends of Canadian Broadcasting, CHUM Limited, and the National Campus and Community Radio Association. For example, aircraft from Airbus need to be certified by the FAA to be flown in the United States and vice versa, aircraft of Boeing need to be approved by the JAA to be flown in the European Union. The application was approved on June 16, 2005. In the case of the international sales of aircraft, a license from the public agency of aviation or transports of the country where the aircraft is also to be used is necessary. In November, 2004, a partnership between Sirius, Standard Broadcasting and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation filed an application with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to introduce Sirius in Canada. In Canada, the public agency in charge and authorizing the mass production of aircraft is the Department of Transport. Some popular radios from Sirius:. In the United States, this agency is the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and in the European Union, Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA).

Sirius' hardware lineup is available at Sirius.com. Then, the governing public agency of aviation of the country authorizes the company to begin production of the aircraft. They also make many receivers for aftermarket installs as well, including the Sportster Replay, Starmate Replay, Sirius S50 with built in 1GB MP3 player, and the Sirius One. The flight-tests continue until the aircraft has fulfilled all the necessary requirements. Starting in 2006, all Rolls-Royce vehicles sold in the United States will come with a Sirius radio and lifetime subscription as standard equipment. Representatives from an aviation governing agency often make a first flight. As of 2005, Sirius receivers are available for various new Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, Infiniti, Jaguar, Jeep, Land Rover, Lexus, Lincoln, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Mercury, Mini, Nissan, Scion, Toyota, Porsche, Volkswagen, and Volvo vehicles, and the service plans on adding availability for portable use. When the design has passed through these processes, the company constructs a limited number of these aircraft for testing on the ground.

Sirius also offers an adapter that allows conventional car radios to receive satellite signals. Small models and mockups of all or certain parts of the aircraft are then tested in wind tunnels to verify the aerodynamics of the aircraft. The chipset converts the signals from 2.3 gigahertz (GHz) to a lower intermediate frequency. Computers are used by companies to draw, plan and do initial simulations of the aircraft. Inside the receiver module is a chipset consisting of eight chips. First the construction company uses a great number of drawings and equations, simulations, wind tunnel tests and experience to predict the behavior of the aircraft. The signal is then passed on to the receiver module. During this process, the objectives and design specifications of the aircraft are established.

The antenna module picks up signals from the ground repeaters or the satellite, amplifies the signal and filters out any interference. The design and planning process, including safety tests, can last up to four years for small turboprops, and up to 12 years for aircraft with the capacity of the A380. The Sirius receiver includes two parts -- the antenna module and the receiver module. Most aircraft are constructed by companies with the objective of producing them in quantity for customers. Sirius offers car radios and home entertainment systems, as well as car and home kits for portable use. Other aviators with less knowledge make their aircraft using complete kits, with pre-manufactured parts, and assemble the aircraft themselves. Signals are also beamed to ground repeaters for listeners in urban areas where the satellite signal can be interrupted. Small aircraft can be designed and constructed at home.

Programs are beamed to one of the three Sirius satellites, which then transmit the signal to the ground, where your radio receiver picks up one of the channels within the signal. The Boeing 727 was another widely used passenger aircraft, and the Boeing 747, was the biggest commercial aircraft in the world up to 2005, when it was surpassed by the Airbus A380. The Sirius system is similar to that of its competitor. Boeing 707 would develop into the later in Boeing 737. A fourth satellite will remain on the ground, ready to be launched if any of the three active satellites encounter transmission problems. The first commercial jet, the de Havilland Comet, was introduced in 1952, and the first successful commercial jet, the Boeing 707, is still in use 50 years later. Sirius completed its three-satellite constellation on November 30, 2000. Aircraft, in a civil military role, continued to feed and supply Berlin in 1948, when access to railroads and roads to the city, completely surrounded by Eastern Germany, were blocked, by order of the Soviet Union.

Sirius says the elliptical path of its satellite constellation ensures that each satellite spends about 16 hours a day over the continental United States, with at least one satellite over the country at all times. The Boeing X-43 is an experimental scramjet with a world speed record for a jet-powered aircraft - Mach 9.6, or nearly 7,000 mph. Instead, its three SS/L-1300 satellites fly in geosynchronous (24-hour orbital period) inclined elliptical orbits. In October 1947, Chuck Yeager, in the Bell X-1, was the first person to exceed the speed of sound. Sirius does not use Geostationary satellites. They were also an essential part of several of the military strategies of the period, such as the German Blitzkrieg or the American and Japanese Aircraft carriers. The Sirius uplink facility is located in Vernon, Sussex County, New Jersey. Aircraft played a primary role in the Second World War, having a presence in all the major battles of the war, especially in the Attack on Pearl Harbor, the battles of the Pacific and D-Day.

Sirius' satellites are called Radiosat (instead of after the company name), due to there already being a previous fleet of satellites launched also named SIRIUS, launched by Sweden's NSAB (Nordiska Satellitaktiebolaget, or Nordic Satellite AB) and used for general telecommunications and satellite tv throughout Sweden and the rest of Scandinavia. The turbine or the jet engine was in development in the 1930's, military jet aircraft began operating in the 1940's. The series of satellites from which they come, the SS/Loral LS-1300, is known to have problems with their solar array cells — a similar but more severe issue affects the Boeing satellites belonging to competitor XM Radio. The first commercial flights took place between the United States and Canada, in 1919. Radiosat 4 is a ground spare, in storage at SS/Loral’s facility in Palo Alto, California. Charles Lindbergh became the first person to cross the Atlantic Ocean in solo flight nonstop, on 20 May 1927. The first three of the series were orbited in 2000 by Proton-K Block-DM3 launch vehicles. After the First World War, aircraft continued to advance their technology.

Sirius’ spacecraft Radiosat 1 through Radiosat 4 were manufactured by Space Systems/Loral. On the side of the allies, the ace with the highest number of downed aircraft was René Fonck, of France. Iceberg Radio is programmed by Standard Broadcasting, which also provides a number of additional channels exclusive to Canada; the other four come from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. In the first war, great aces appeared, of which the greatest was the German Red Baron. With the launch of Sirius Canada in December 2005, American listeners gained five Canadian-produced stations including CBC Radio One, CBC Radio Three and Iceberg Radio in English, and Première Plus and Bandeapart in French. First seen by generals and commanders as a "toy", the aircraft proved to be a machine of war capable of causing serious casualties to enemy lines. The deal with NPR was the first high-profile deal entered into by Sirius. Wars in Europe, in particular World War I, served as initial tests for the use of the aircraft as a weapon.

Sirius also has exclusive satellite radio rights to National Public Radio, carrying two separate streams. Most Brazilians, as well as admirers of Santos-Dumont, consider him to be the true inventor of the aircraft, although the very concept of the invention of the first flying machine has substantial ambiguity. In June 2005, Sirius signed an agreement with BBC Radio 1 in the UK to rebroadcast the station to an American audience. Though launched after the Wright Brothers' attempts, his 14-bis was the first to take off, fly, and land without the use of catapults, high winds, or other external assistance. Sirius has also been aggressive in creating its own in-house produced studio sports radio content. However, in some countries today, particularly Brazil, Alberto Santos-Dumont is considered to be the "Father of Aviation". In August 2004, Sirius launched NFL Radio, a 24-hour radio stream dedicated exclusively to covering the NFL. This was later superseded by the development of ailerons, devices which performed a similar function but were attached to an otherwise rigid wing.

Beginning in 2005 Sirius also has exclusive radio rights to cover the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. Strictly speaking, the Flyer's wings were not completely fixed, as it depended for stability on a flexing mechanism named wing warping. Sirius also has rights to a number of major college sports conferences, including the Big Ten and the Southeastern Conference as well as schools like Notre Dame. They made their first successful test flights on December 17, 1903 and by 1904 Flyer III was capable of fully controllable, stable flight for substantial periods. Starting in 2007, Sirius will have full NASCAR coverage. The Wright Brothers are commonly credited with the invention of the aircraft, but like Alexander Graham Bell's telephone, theirs was rather the first sustainable and well documented attempt. NHL games will be shared with XM for the 2005–2006 season, after which XM will have exclusive broadcast rights. On August 28, 1903 in Hanover, the German Karl Jatho made his first flight.

The agreement also creates a 24-hour NBA Radio Channel, located on channel 127. In August 1892 the Avion II flew for a distance of 200 metres, and on October 14, 1897, Avion III flew a distance of more than 300 metres. Sirius also announced in December 2005 a multi-year deal with the NBA, which makes the satellite radio company the broadcaster of more live NBA games than any other radio outlet. On October 9, 1890, Ader attempted to fly the Éole, which succeeded in taking off and flying a distance of approximately 50 meters before witnesses. Currently, Sirius has exclusive satellite radio broadcasting rights to all NFL and NBA games. Sir George Cayley, the inventor of the science of aerodynamics, was building and flying models of fixed wing aircraft as early as 1803, and he built a successful passenger-carrying glider in 1853, but it is known the first practical self-powered aeroplanes were designed and constructed by Clément Ader. Another cornerstone of Sirius’ business strategy has been to pursue exclusive sports content. Other aviators who had made similar flights at that time were Otto Lilienthal, Percy Pilcher and Octave Chanute.

On October 25, 2005 Sirius announced that "E Street Radio", the exclusive channel of legendary artist Bruce Springsteen, would air from November 1, 2005 to January 31, 2006 on the Bridge - Channel 10. Montgomery made a controlled flight in a glider. It was Karmazin who fiercely protected Stern in the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show (produced by MTV and aired by CBS, both co-owned with Infinity) and the FCC crackdown on shock jocks and obscenity, in general. On 28 August 1883, the American John J. Stern worked under Karmazin at Infinity Radio and the two men have always had a great deal of mutual respect for each other. In 1856, Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Bris made the first powered flight, by having his glider "L'Albatros artificiel" pulled by a horse on a beach. On November 18, 2004 the former COO and President of Viacom, Mel Karmazin, was named the CEO of Sirius. In 1853, Englishman George Cayley made the first manned glider flight.

Generally the personalities act as DJs hosting shows with music they personally like. With the first flight made by man (Francois Pilatre de Rozier and Francois d'Arlandes) in an aircraft lighter than air, a balloon, the biggest challenge became to create other craft, capable of controlled flight. These shows are hosted by personalities including skateboard legend Tony Hawk, seven-time Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong, The B-52's lead singer Fred Schneider, NBA Hall of Famer Bill Walton and longtime New York City DJ “Cousin Brucie”, who was dropped by WCBS-FM after the station changed to its format from an oldies station to a “Jack” format. Leonardo da Vinci drew an aircraft in the 15th century. In addition to the channel-programming deals, Sirius has also programmed a number of more conventional shows with well known personalities in a number of fields. Many stories from antiquity involve flight, such as the legend of Icarus. In Howard Stern's first major hire for Sirius, Stern brought on board Tampa, FL based Bubba the Love Sponge, fired by Clear Channel due to a $750,000 fine proposed by the FCC Reuters, to do a show on Sirius. The dream of flight goes back to the days of pre-history.

Beginning with the announcement of his imminent departure, Stern began to complain of one of his employers, Infinity Broadcasting, as trying to impede the success of his departure. The X-43A set the record on 16 November 2004. Stern stated that his move was forced by the stringent regulations of the FCC whose enforcement was intensified following the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show. The Boeing X-43 is an experimental scramjet with a world speed record for a jet-powered aircraft - Mach 9.6, or nearly 7,000 mph. The deal, which gave Sirius exclusive rights to Stern’s radio show, also gave Stern the right to build at least two full-time programming channels. The last SR-71 flight was in October 2001. By far the biggest of these deals was announced on October 6, 2004 when Sirius announced that it signed a five-year, $500-million agreement with Howard Stern to move his radio show to Sirius starting on January 9, 2006. The SR-71's Pratt & Whitney J58 engines acted as ramjets at high-speeds (Mach 3.2).

Sirius has reached extensive deals with domestic diva Martha Stewart, E Street Band member Steven Van Zandt (aka Little Steven), Jimmy Buffett, and Eminem to executive produce streams on Sirius. The D-21 Tagboard was an unmanned Mach 3+ reconnaissance drone that was put into production in 1969 for spying, but due to the poor level of success and the development of better spy satellites, it was cancelled in 1971. A major component of Sirius’ business strategy has been to execute far-reaching and exclusive deals with big-name entertainers and personalities to create and build broadcast streams, from the ground up. Ramjet (and the Scramjet variant) aircraft are mostly in the experimental stage. . SpaceShipOne is the most famous current rocket aircraft that is the testbed for developing a commercial sub-orbital passenger service. “Mongo” later became NASCAR driver Spencer’s nickname with the NASCAR Broadcasters in the following races. Rocket aircraft are not in common usage today, although rocket-assisted takeoffs are somewhat common for military aircraft.

The dog in the Sirius logo (Sirius is referred to as the "Dog Star") is unofficially named “Mongo,” a name garnered from the debut of Sirius Satellite Radio’s sponsorship on Casey Atwood’s and later Jimmy Spencer’s NASCAR entry, when the announcing cast voted on names. The later North American X-15 was another important rocket plane, that broke many speed and altitude records and laid much of the groundwork for later aircraft and spacecraft design. Sirius was previously known as CD Radio. The first fixed wing aircraft to break the sound barrier was the rocket powered Bell X-1. However, Sirius led the market in new satellite radio subscribers in 2005. Experimental rocket powered aircraft were developed by the Germans as early as World War II, although they were never mass produced by any power during that war. Sirius currently lags behind competitor XM Satellite Radio in terms of subscribers with 3.3 million, well less than XM's current audience of more than 6 million subscribers (as of January 9, 2006). It appears that supersonic aircraft will remain in use almost exclusively by militaries around the world for the foreseeable future.

A $10 activation fee ($15 if activated by phone) is also required. Due to the high costs, limited areas of use and low demand there are no longer any supersonic aircraft in use by any major airline, and the last Concorde flight was on 26 November 2003. to $499.99 for a lifetime subscription (of the receiver, not the subscriber). When approaching an area of heavier population density, supersonic aircraft are obliged to fly at subsonic speed. Subscription costs for Sirius range from $12.95/mo. This limits supersonic flights to areas of minimal population density or open ocean. Its business model is to provide pay-for-service radio, music channels being free of commercials, analogous to the business model for premium cable television. Flight at supersonic speed creates more sound pollution than flight at subsonic speeds, due to the phenomenon of sonic booms.

Sirius is based in New York City. Moreover, the design of the supersonic aircraft is substantially different to the design of sub-sonic aircraft, in order to make the transition to supersonic flight smoother and to make supersonic flight more efficient. “XS120”, “XS9”, “XS17”). Supersonic aircraft, such as military fighters and bombers, Concorde, and others, make use of special turbines (often utilizing afterburners), that generate the huge amounts of power for flight faster than the speed of the sound. Sirius channels are identified by Arbitron with the label “XS” (e.g. Due to the high speeds needed for takeoff and landing, the jet aircraft makes use of flaps and leading edge devices for the control of lift and speed, and has engine reversers (or thrust reversers) (to direct the airflow forward) to slow down the aircraft upon landing, as well as the wheel brakes. A subset of Sirius’ music channels are included as part of the DISH Network satellite television service. Jet aircraft possess high cruising speeds (700 to 900 km/h) and high speeds for take-off and landing (150 to 250 km/h).

The streams are broadcast from three satellites in an elliptical geosynchronous orbit above North America. Wide-body aircraft, such as the Airbus A340 and Boeing 777, can carry hundreds of passengers and several tons of cargo, and are able to travel for distances of up to 13 thousand kilometers. With any Sirius-enabled radio, the user can see the artist and song information on display while listening to the stream. In the early 1950's,only a few years after the first jet to be produced in large numbers arrived, the De Havilland Comet became the world's first jet airliner. Music streams on Sirius carry a wide variety of music genres, broadcasting 24 hours a day, commercial free. In 1943 the Messerschmitt Me 262, the first jet fighter aircraft, went into service in the German Luftwaffe. Sirius Satellite Radio NASDAQ: SIRI is a satellite radio (DARS) service in the United States that provides 68 streams (channels) of music and 55 streams of sports, news and entertainment. The first jet was the Heinkel He 178, which was tested at Germany's Marienehe Airfield in 1939.

Black and white lineup from SiriusBackstage.com, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required. The jet aircraft was developed in England and Germany in 1931. Official Sirius Satellite Radio Stations List, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required. One drawback, however, is that they are noisy; this makes jet aircraft a source of noise pollution. List of Sirius Satellite Radio stations. As a consequence, they have greater weight capacity and fly faster than propeller driven aircraft. XACT XTR1 Radio with Car Kit. These engines are much more powerful than a reciprocating engine.

Clarion Calypso SIRIUS Radio with Car Kit. Jet aircraft make use of turbines for the creation of thrust. Kenwood H2EV Radio with Car and Home Kits. These aircraft are popular with commuter and regional airlines, as they tend to be more economical on shorter journeys. Tivoli's SIRIUS Table Radio. Turboprop aircraft are a sort of halfway house between propeller and jet: they use a turbine engine similar to a jet to turn propellers. SIRIUS Sportster Radio with Boombox Package. They are also the aircraft of choice for pilots who wish to own their own aircraft.

Docking Station Package. However, they are significantly cheaper and much more economic than jets, and are generally the best option for people who need to transport a few passengers and/or small amounts of cargo. SIRIUS Sportster Exec. They are quiet, but they fly at lower speeds, and have lower load capacity compared to similar sized jet powered aircraft. SIRIUS S50. Smaller and older propeller aircraft make use of reciprocating internal combustion engines that turn a propeller to create thrust. Any textbook claiming to be a serious work on the topic will never promote the Equal Transit-time fallacy.

The explanation also fails to account for aerofoils which are fully symmetrical yet still develop significant lift. Such an explanation would predict that an aircraft could not fly inverted, which is demonstrably not the case. It has recently been dubbed the "Equal transit-time fallacy." There is no requirement that divided parcels of air rejoin again, and in fact they do not do so. Despite the fact that this "explanation" is probably the most common of all, it is false.

Therefore, because of its higher speed the pressure of the air above the airfoil must be lower. Known as the "equal transit-time" explanation, it states that the parcels of air which are divided by an airfoil must rejoin again; because of the greater curvature (and hence longer path) of the upper surface of an aerofoil, the air going over the top must go faster in order to "catch up" with the air flowing around the bottom. A false explanation for lift has been put forward in mainstream books, and even in scientific exhibitions. One of the primary goals of wing design is to devise a shape that produces the most lift while producing the least lift-induced drag.

However, most shapes will be very inefficient and create a great deal of drag. Nearly any shape will produce lift if curved or tilted with respect to the air flow direction. The deflection of airflow downward during the creation of lift is known as downwash. The force created by this deflection of the air creates an equal and opposite force upward on the wing according to Newton's third law of motion.

Lift is created as an airstream passes by something which deflects it downward. This shape, called an airfoil or aerofoil, creates lift when a wing travels through the air. If a cross-section of an aircraft wing is viewed, the top of the wing can be seen to be curved, while the bottom of the wing is less curved or straight. An aircraft flies due to the aerodynamic reactions that happen when air passes over the wing.

For example: lifting body, canard, V-tail and flying wing. Unconventional aircraft have been built in a variety of forms. Other common parts of aircraft include trim tabs, air brakes, spoilers, winglets and canards. Conventional aircraft -- from small planes such as the Bumble Bee II and Cessna 140 to a gigantic Antonov 225 -- consist of a fuselage, one or more wings to provide the majority of lift, a tailplane for stability, and a one or more vertical surfaces at the tail for stability.

. Supersonic aircraft, currently only military, research and a few private aircraft, can reach speeds faster than sound. Single-engined aircraft are capable of reaching 175 km/h or more at cruise speed. Commercial jet aircraft can reach up to 875 km/h, and cover one fourth of the earth's circumference in a matter of hours.

The aircraft is the fastest method of transport. While the vast majority of aircraft land and take off on land, some are capable of take off and landing on ice, snow and calm water. The majority of aircraft, however, also need an airport with the infrastructure to receive maintenance, restocking, refueling and for the loading and unloading of crew, cargo and/or passengers. Two necessities for all aircraft are air flow over the wings for lifting of the aircraft, and an open area for landing.

There are also rare examples of aircraft which can vary the angle of incidence of their wings in flight, such the F-8 Crusader, which are also considered to be "fixed-wing". When the wings of these aircraft are fully swept, usually for high speed cruise, the trailing edges of their wings abut the leading edges of their tailplanes, giving an impression of a single delta wing if viewed from above or below. In the early days of their development, these were termed "variable geometry" aircraft. It also embraces an even smaller number of aircraft, such as the General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark, Grumman F-14 Tomcat and the Panavia Tornado, which can vary the sweep angle of their wings during flight.

This is usually to ease stowage or facilitate transport on, for example, a vehicle trailer or the powered lift connecting the hangar deck of an aircraft carrier to its flight deck. The term also embraces a minority of aircraft with folding wings that are intended to fold when on the ground. Some aircraft use fixed wings to provide lift only part of the time and may or may not be referred to as fixed-wing. Fixed-wing aircraft include a large range of craft from small trainers and recreational aircraft to large airliners and military cargo aircraft.

All aircraft wings flex, and some aircraft have wings that can tilt, sweep back, or fold, but if none of these movements are used to generate lift, the wing is considered to be a "fixed-wing". An aircraft is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the wings in relation to the aircraft is not used to generate lift. Fixed-wing aircraft is a generic term used to refer to what are more commonly known as airplanes in North American English and aeroplanes in Commonwealth English. The flaps change the profile of the wing of the aircraft, maximizing lift and control of the speed of the aircraft in air, particularly in operations of low speed - especially important in landing and take-off.

Some aircraft are equipped with special landing gear, such as pontoons or skis, to allow them to land on water, snow or ice. They usually retract during flight to reduce drag; however, on smaller aircraft the gear are often fixed. The landing gear allow the aircraft to take off and land. The rudder is located on the vertical stabilizer and controls movement around the vertical axis called yaw.

On delta-wing aircraft the ailerons and elevators are combined together to perform the same actions and are called elevons. The elevator and horizontal stabilizer may be combined into a stabilator. The elevators are located on the horizontal stabilizer to control the rotation around the lateral axis called pitch. Many larger aircraft use spoilers to achieve the same effect.

Because roll changes the direction of lift of the wings, it is the primary method of changing the direction of travel. This movement is called roll. They always act at the same time, but in inverse directions, so that the aircraft can be turned along its longitudinal axis. Ailerons are movable surfaces on the wings of the aircraft.

A rudder is attached to the vertical stabilizer. Some aircraft have two vertical stabilizers attached to the horizontal stabilizer or boom structures. The vertical stabilizer is a small vertical wing that is usually attached to the rear of the fuselage. It may be a fixed horizontal stabilizer with a movable elevator or a stabilator that rotates on a shaft to change the angle of incidence.

Most often it is configured to provide negative lift. The tailplane is a small wing that provides positive or negative lift to stabilize the aircraft in flight. A few aircraft have engines attached to the vertical or horizontal stabilizer. The engines are usually located under or on the wings or attached to the fuselage.

Aircraft use a variety of engines, including turbine, reciprocating, and radial engines. An engine (or engines): Also known as powerplants, engines serve to propel the aircraft on the ground and the air. In smaller aircraft, fuel is sometimes stored in the fuselage (or main body). Fuel is often stored in tanks in the wing.

Biplanes (two wings) or triplanes (three wings) were popular in the past, and some are still made for special purposes like aerobatics. Most aircraft are monoplanes having one wing structure for providing lift. left wing and right wing. Sometimes, the half of a wing on either side of the fuselage is referred to as a wing, e.g.

Each wing is a single structure integrated into the fuselage of the aircraft.

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