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Sirius Satellite Radio

Sirius Satellite Radio NASDAQ: SIRI is a satellite radio (DARS) service in the United States that provides 68 streams (channels) of music and 55 streams of sports, news and entertainment. Music streams on Sirius carry a wide variety of music genres, broadcasting 24 hours a day, commercial free. With any Sirius-enabled radio, the user can see the artist and song information on display while listening to the stream. The streams are broadcast from three satellites in an elliptical geosynchronous orbit above North America. A subset of Sirius’ music channels are included as part of the DISH Network satellite television service. Sirius channels are identified by Arbitron with the label “XS” (e.g. “XS120”, “XS9”, “XS17”).

Sirius is based in New York City. Its business model is to provide pay-for-service radio, music channels being free of commercials, analogous to the business model for premium cable television. Subscription costs for Sirius range from $12.95/mo. to $499.99 for a lifetime subscription (of the receiver, not the subscriber). A $10 activation fee ($15 if activated by phone) is also required. Sirius currently lags behind competitor XM Satellite Radio in terms of subscribers with 3.3 million, well less than XM's current audience of more than 6 million subscribers (as of January 9, 2006). However, Sirius led the market in new satellite radio subscribers in 2005.

Sirius was previously known as CD Radio. The dog in the Sirius logo (Sirius is referred to as the "Dog Star") is unofficially named “Mongo,” a name garnered from the debut of Sirius Satellite Radio’s sponsorship on Casey Atwood’s and later Jimmy Spencer’s NASCAR entry, when the announcing cast voted on names. “Mongo” later became NASCAR driver Spencer’s nickname with the NASCAR Broadcasters in the following races.

Content

Howard Stern and other high profile content

Howard Stern Show.

A major component of Sirius’ business strategy has been to execute far-reaching and exclusive deals with big-name entertainers and personalities to create and build broadcast streams, from the ground up. Sirius has reached extensive deals with domestic diva Martha Stewart, E Street Band member Steven Van Zandt (aka Little Steven), Jimmy Buffett, and Eminem to executive produce streams on Sirius.

By far the biggest of these deals was announced on October 6, 2004 when Sirius announced that it signed a five-year, $500-million agreement with Howard Stern to move his radio show to Sirius starting on January 9, 2006. The deal, which gave Sirius exclusive rights to Stern’s radio show, also gave Stern the right to build at least two full-time programming channels. Stern stated that his move was forced by the stringent regulations of the FCC whose enforcement was intensified following the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show. Beginning with the announcement of his imminent departure, Stern began to complain of one of his employers, Infinity Broadcasting, as trying to impede the success of his departure.

In Howard Stern's first major hire for Sirius, Stern brought on board Tampa, FL based Bubba the Love Sponge, fired by Clear Channel due to a $750,000 fine proposed by the FCC Reuters, to do a show on Sirius.

In addition to the channel-programming deals, Sirius has also programmed a number of more conventional shows with well known personalities in a number of fields. These shows are hosted by personalities including skateboard legend Tony Hawk, seven-time Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong, The B-52's lead singer Fred Schneider, NBA Hall of Famer Bill Walton and longtime New York City DJ “Cousin Brucie”, who was dropped by WCBS-FM after the station changed to its format from an oldies station to a “Jack” format. Generally the personalities act as DJs hosting shows with music they personally like.

On November 18, 2004 the former COO and President of Viacom, Mel Karmazin, was named the CEO of Sirius. Stern worked under Karmazin at Infinity Radio and the two men have always had a great deal of mutual respect for each other. It was Karmazin who fiercely protected Stern in the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show (produced by MTV and aired by CBS, both co-owned with Infinity) and the FCC crackdown on shock jocks and obscenity, in general.

On October 25, 2005 Sirius announced that "E Street Radio", the exclusive channel of legendary artist Bruce Springsteen, would air from November 1, 2005 to January 31, 2006 on the Bridge - Channel 10.

Sports

NFL Radio.

Another cornerstone of Sirius’ business strategy has been to pursue exclusive sports content. Currently, Sirius has exclusive satellite radio broadcasting rights to all NFL and NBA games. Sirius also announced in December 2005 a multi-year deal with the NBA, which makes the satellite radio company the broadcaster of more live NBA games than any other radio outlet. The agreement also creates a 24-hour NBA Radio Channel, located on channel 127. NHL games will be shared with XM for the 2005–2006 season, after which XM will have exclusive broadcast rights. Starting in 2007, Sirius will have full NASCAR coverage.

Sirius also has rights to a number of major college sports conferences, including the Big Ten and the Southeastern Conference as well as schools like Notre Dame. Beginning in 2005 Sirius also has exclusive radio rights to cover the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. In August 2004, Sirius launched NFL Radio, a 24-hour radio stream dedicated exclusively to covering the NFL. Sirius has also been aggressive in creating its own in-house produced studio sports radio content.

Other content

In June 2005, Sirius signed an agreement with BBC Radio 1 in the UK to rebroadcast the station to an American audience. Sirius also has exclusive satellite radio rights to National Public Radio, carrying two separate streams. The deal with NPR was the first high-profile deal entered into by Sirius.

With the launch of Sirius Canada in December 2005, American listeners gained five Canadian-produced stations including CBC Radio One, CBC Radio Three and Iceberg Radio in English, and Première Plus and Bandeapart in French. Iceberg Radio is programmed by Standard Broadcasting, which also provides a number of additional channels exclusive to Canada; the other four come from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

Sirius' Satellites

Sirius’ spacecraft Radiosat 1 through Radiosat 4 were manufactured by Space Systems/Loral. The first three of the series were orbited in 2000 by Proton-K Block-DM3 launch vehicles. Radiosat 4 is a ground spare, in storage at SS/Loral’s facility in Palo Alto, California. The series of satellites from which they come, the SS/Loral LS-1300, is known to have problems with their solar array cells — a similar but more severe issue affects the Boeing satellites belonging to competitor XM Radio.

Sirius Satellite in space, concept drawing.

Sirius' satellites are called Radiosat (instead of after the company name), due to there already being a previous fleet of satellites launched also named SIRIUS, launched by Sweden's NSAB (Nordiska Satellitaktiebolaget, or Nordic Satellite AB) and used for general telecommunications and satellite tv throughout Sweden and the rest of Scandinavia.

The Sirius uplink facility is located in Vernon, Sussex County, New Jersey.

Sirius does not use Geostationary satellites. Instead, its three SS/L-1300 satellites fly in geosynchronous (24-hour orbital period) inclined elliptical orbits. Sirius says the elliptical path of its satellite constellation ensures that each satellite spends about 16 hours a day over the continental United States, with at least one satellite over the country at all times. Sirius completed its three-satellite constellation on November 30, 2000. A fourth satellite will remain on the ground, ready to be launched if any of the three active satellites encounter transmission problems.

The Sirius system is similar to that of its competitor. Programs are beamed to one of the three Sirius satellites, which then transmit the signal to the ground, where your radio receiver picks up one of the channels within the signal. Signals are also beamed to ground repeaters for listeners in urban areas where the satellite signal can be interrupted.

Sirius offers car radios and home entertainment systems, as well as car and home kits for portable use. The Sirius receiver includes two parts -- the antenna module and the receiver module. The antenna module picks up signals from the ground repeaters or the satellite, amplifies the signal and filters out any interference. The signal is then passed on to the receiver module. Inside the receiver module is a chipset consisting of eight chips. The chipset converts the signals from 2.3 gigahertz (GHz) to a lower intermediate frequency. Sirius also offers an adapter that allows conventional car radios to receive satellite signals.

Receivers

SIRIUS Sportster Boombox

As of 2005, Sirius receivers are available for various new Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, Infiniti, Jaguar, Jeep, Land Rover, Lexus, Lincoln, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Mercury, Mini, Nissan, Scion, Toyota, Porsche, Volkswagen, and Volvo vehicles, and the service plans on adding availability for portable use. Starting in 2006, all Rolls-Royce vehicles sold in the United States will come with a Sirius radio and lifetime subscription as standard equipment.

They also make many receivers for aftermarket installs as well, including the Sportster Replay, Starmate Replay, Sirius S50 with built in 1GB MP3 player, and the Sirius One. Sirius' hardware lineup is available at Sirius.com

Some popular radios from Sirius:

  • SIRIUS S50
  • SIRIUS Sportster Exec. Docking Station Package
  • SIRIUS Sportster Radio with Boombox Package
  • Tivoli's SIRIUS Table Radio
  • Kenwood H2EV Radio with Car and Home Kits
  • Clarion Calypso SIRIUS Radio with Car Kit
  • XACT XTR1 Radio with Car Kit

Radio stations

  • List of Sirius Satellite Radio stations
  • Official Sirius Satellite Radio Stations List, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required
  • Black and white lineup from SiriusBackstage.com, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required

Sirius in Canada

In November, 2004, a partnership between Sirius, Standard Broadcasting and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation filed an application with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to introduce Sirius in Canada. The application was approved on June 16, 2005. The decision was appealed to the Canadian federal cabinet by a number of broadcasting, labour, and arts and culture organizations, including the Friends of Canadian Broadcasting, CHUM Limited, and the National Campus and Community Radio Association. The groups objected to Sirius’ approach to and reduced levels of Canadian content and French language programming, along with the exclusion of Canadian non-commercial broadcasting. After a lengthy debate, cabinet rejected the appeals on September 9, 2005.

Sirius Canada was officially launched December 1, 2005.

Sirius Canada did not initially carry Howard Stern. Despite popular belief that Stern's broadcast was banned by the CRTC, this is not the case — Sirius Canada, in fact, voluntarily chose not to air the program at the time of its launch in Canada. A significant number of Canadians have purchased grey market subscriptions to Sirius' American service to listen to Stern, although owing to the nature of grey market economics a precise number is difficult to verify. Howard 100 News has stated on air that they estimate at least 60,000 grey market satellite subscriptions in Canada; in December, the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail reported that business analysts in Canada estimate a total of 60,000 grey market subscribers to both Sirius and XM combined. [1] (It should be noted that this figure also includes an unverified number of listeners who subscribed before the Canadian satellite radio services launched at all — the analysts' figures did not offer any estimate of how many Canadians chose a grey market subscription over Sirius Canada specifically because of Stern.)

On January 11, 2006, a Canadian writer interviewed on Stern's show announced an online petition to bring Stern to Sirius Canada.

On February 1, 2006, The Globe and Mail reported the announcement that Stern's show on Howard 100 would become available in Canada as of February 6, 2006. [2]

Sirius had previously disabled the Howard Stern channels on radios with a Canadian ESN number, even if they are subscribed to American content from an American address. Most of these radios have a 'C' suffix in the model name. For example, the Sirius ONE radio is model "SV1" in the United States, but "SV1C" in Canada. However, Sirius cannot stop grey market receivers from picking up the American programming. The blocking of the Howard Stern channels is anticipated to change once the announced return of Stern to Canada takes place.


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The blocking of the Howard Stern channels is anticipated to change once the announced return of Stern to Canada takes place. Along with the named companies, a few companies who were prominent in the earlier stages of airsoft include:. However, Sirius cannot stop grey market receivers from picking up the American programming. Some of these companies' placements may be disputable, but are based on overall quality of all their products. For example, the Sirius ONE radio is model "SV1" in the United States, but "SV1C" in Canada. Entry level companies, which mainly produce springers and low powered electric guns (LPEG), include:. Most of these radios have a 'C' suffix in the model name. Middle-range companies, which produce lower budget alternatives to higher priced guns with the tradeoff that they have a slightly lower fps (depending on the brand), include:.

Sirius had previously disabled the Howard Stern channels on radios with a Canadian ESN number, even if they are subscribed to American content from an American address. High end companies, which mostly manufacture AEGs and Gas Blowbacks, include:. [2]. Airsoft guns are also prevalent at swap meets, which usually carry Chinese-made airsoft guns that have plastic bodies. On February 1, 2006, The Globe and Mail reported the announcement that Stern's show on Howard 100 would become available in Canada as of February 6, 2006. However, small street airsoft stores can be found in many areas. On January 11, 2006, a Canadian writer interviewed on Stern's show announced an online petition to bring Stern to Sirius Canada. The majority of quality manufacturers can be found on the internet, but have little to no street presence, except at specialty shops.

[1] (It should be noted that this figure also includes an unverified number of listeners who subscribed before the Canadian satellite radio services launched at all — the analysts' figures did not offer any estimate of how many Canadians chose a grey market subscription over Sirius Canada specifically because of Stern.). There is a great divide between airsoft companies. Howard 100 News has stated on air that they estimate at least 60,000 grey market satellite subscriptions in Canada; in December, the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail reported that business analysts in Canada estimate a total of 60,000 grey market subscribers to both Sirius and XM combined. No big incidents have occured, but this is very annoying to the real airsoft players who want to get airsoft's rather bad reputation higher than it currently is in Finland. A significant number of Canadians have purchased grey market subscriptions to Sirius' American service to listen to Stern, although owing to the nature of grey market economics a precise number is difficult to verify. There has been some problems with kids playing with a "toy" what can be somewhat dangerous. Despite popular belief that Stern's broadcast was banned by the CRTC, this is not the case — Sirius Canada, in fact, voluntarily chose not to air the program at the time of its launch in Canada. This has caused children even as young as 11-12 years old to get airsoft guns.

Sirius Canada did not initially carry Howard Stern. Some countries have specific restrictions such as maximum muzzle energy, rules against using the trademarks of real firearms, and special marking requirements (such as brightly colored barrel tips). Sirius Canada was officially launched December 1, 2005. Airsoft guns and playing airsoft is legal in many parts of the world, but not all. After a lengthy debate, cabinet rejected the appeals on September 9, 2005. Despite the competitive status between the two hobbies, Airsoft continues to grow in popularity both in the United States and around the world. The groups objected to Sirius’ approach to and reduced levels of Canadian content and French language programming, along with the exclusion of Canadian non-commercial broadcasting. The reason for this is a combination of profitability (paintball fields derive large amounts of money selling paintballs while 1,000 airsoft BBs can be purchased for about $25) as well as insurance issues.

The decision was appealed to the Canadian federal cabinet by a number of broadcasting, labour, and arts and culture organizations, including the Friends of Canadian Broadcasting, CHUM Limited, and the National Campus and Community Radio Association. Commercial paintball fields are common in nearly all parts of the country while airsoft gaming is almost exclusively limited to private property. The application was approved on June 16, 2005. Perhaps the biggest advantage paintball has over airsoft in the United States is playing locations. In November, 2004, a partnership between Sirius, Standard Broadcasting and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation filed an application with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to introduce Sirius in Canada. But, the higher cost of this ammunition has proven to deter this type of ammunition across the Airsoft community. Some popular radios from Sirius:. Technological developments such as seamless 6mm paintballs could counter the potential problem of the breakdown of the honor system since these paintballs have a potential to work reliably in AEGs.

Sirius' hardware lineup is available at Sirius.com. Most Airsofters that gather regularly to play in skirmishes have known each other for some time, making the games more fun and relaxed. They also make many receivers for aftermarket installs as well, including the Sportster Replay, Starmate Replay, Sirius S50 with built in 1GB MP3 player, and the Sirius One. THE CHALLENGE being for the player to recognize the hit and in the spririt of the scenario, rise above the need to win and remove themselves from the action as an eliminated opponent. Starting in 2006, all Rolls-Royce vehicles sold in the United States will come with a Sirius radio and lifetime subscription as standard equipment. But in all cases, an honor system is required to be used among players which (when properly enforced) is known to work very well. As of 2005, Sirius receivers are available for various new Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, Infiniti, Jaguar, Jeep, Land Rover, Lexus, Lincoln, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Mercury, Mini, Nissan, Scion, Toyota, Porsche, Volkswagen, and Volvo vehicles, and the service plans on adding availability for portable use. Other methods like the audible sound of a hit or seeing a BB bounce off are also clear tell-tale indications.

Sirius also offers an adapter that allows conventional car radios to receive satellite signals. Many people ask how players know they know they hit their target or have been hit by an opponent? Unlike paintball, which would leave paint on impact, (and depending upon shot distance) it is possible airsofters take a hit to the chest and because of their apparrel or gear, not be able feel the BB strike. The chipset converts the signals from 2.3 gigahertz (GHz) to a lower intermediate frequency. Many airsoft games are played on paintball fields and many paintball games are scenario based. Inside the receiver module is a chipset consisting of eight chips. However, this is not the rule. The signal is then passed on to the receiver module. Airsoft is often scenario based and played in large areas of wooded land and abandoned complexes for CQB.

The antenna module picks up signals from the ground repeaters or the satellite, amplifies the signal and filters out any interference. Many paintball games are played as speedball games on designated paintball fields. The Sirius receiver includes two parts -- the antenna module and the receiver module. Airsoft players often wear camouflage and military gear to more closely replicate a soldier of a certain period while many paintballers wear brightly colored sport clothing. Sirius offers car radios and home entertainment systems, as well as car and home kits for portable use. Style of play also greatly differs between airsoft and paintball. Signals are also beamed to ground repeaters for listeners in urban areas where the satellite signal can be interrupted. Often the advantages of expensive airsoft guns are mostly aesthetic only perhaps representing a rare firearm model.

Programs are beamed to one of the three Sirius satellites, which then transmit the signal to the ground, where your radio receiver picks up one of the channels within the signal. While high end paintball guns costing in excess of $1,000 give paintball players significant playing advantages, the same can not be said of airsoft guns. The Sirius system is similar to that of its competitor. This is because AEGs are generally manufactured to the same specifications. A fourth satellite will remain on the ground, ready to be launched if any of the three active satellites encounter transmission problems. This is because at an airsoft playing field, players who use rental guns are not at as much of a disadvantage as paintball players who use rental guns. Sirius completed its three-satellite constellation on November 30, 2000. Airsoft is somewhat easier to introduce new players to.

Sirius says the elliptical path of its satellite constellation ensures that each satellite spends about 16 hours a day over the continental United States, with at least one satellite over the country at all times. Generally, airsoft is inherently much cleaner than paintball. Instead, its three SS/L-1300 satellites fly in geosynchronous (24-hour orbital period) inclined elliptical orbits. Airsoft can also be played in indoor areas that are more confined because the only thing needed to clean up after an airsoft match is a good vacuum cleaner. Sirius does not use Geostationary satellites. Airsoft BBs are much less expensive than paintballs. The Sirius uplink facility is located in Vernon, Sussex County, New Jersey. Airsoft rounds, on the other hand, are smaller and hence have less kinetic energy, are also affected by the wind considerably but have longer range and a flatter trajectory.

Sirius' satellites are called Radiosat (instead of after the company name), due to there already being a previous fleet of satellites launched also named SIRIUS, launched by Sweden's NSAB (Nordiska Satellitaktiebolaget, or Nordic Satellite AB) and used for general telecommunications and satellite tv throughout Sweden and the rest of Scandinavia. Paintball rounds contain more mass and therefore carry more kinetic energy than airsoft rounds. The series of satellites from which they come, the SS/Loral LS-1300, is known to have problems with their solar array cells — a similar but more severe issue affects the Boeing satellites belonging to competitor XM Radio. Airsoft rounds are a lesser threat to players, they do not leave as much bruising as paintball rounds, and are less painful than paintball rounds. Radiosat 4 is a ground spare, in storage at SS/Loral’s facility in Palo Alto, California. Both sports offer upsides and downsides. The first three of the series were orbited in 2000 by Proton-K Block-DM3 launch vehicles. It should be noted that while airsofters and paintballers are serious about their sport, the debate between them is often not.

Sirius’ spacecraft Radiosat 1 through Radiosat 4 were manufactured by Space Systems/Loral. However, in Asia, airsoft is much more popular and paintball is nearly non-existent. Iceberg Radio is programmed by Standard Broadcasting, which also provides a number of additional channels exclusive to Canada; the other four come from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Paintball has gained greater popularity more quickly than airsoft in the United States. With the launch of Sirius Canada in December 2005, American listeners gained five Canadian-produced stations including CBC Radio One, CBC Radio Three and Iceberg Radio in English, and Première Plus and Bandeapart in French. Paintball first came on to the scene in the United States in the mid-1980s through the use of utility companies' paint marking guns, which mark power/utility poles. The deal with NPR was the first high-profile deal entered into by Sirius. Most people do not realize that airsoft has been around much longer than paintball.

Sirius also has exclusive satellite radio rights to National Public Radio, carrying two separate streams. See also:. In June 2005, Sirius signed an agreement with BBC Radio 1 in the UK to rebroadcast the station to an American audience. This can be verified in wind tunnels and is very well documented in fluid dynamics physics textbooks. Sirius has also been aggressive in creating its own in-house produced studio sports radio content. The air on the bottom of the ball is slowed down, so when the separated air comes back together, it is lower than the middle of the ball appearing like a comet's tail pointing down. In August 2004, Sirius launched NFL Radio, a 24-hour radio stream dedicated exclusively to covering the NFL. According to the Magnus explanation, the rotating ball would throw air downward and to the rear, thus giving lift.

Beginning in 2005 Sirius also has exclusive radio rights to cover the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. A spinning object that is not moving will also experience Magnus Forces. Sirius also has rights to a number of major college sports conferences, including the Big Ten and the Southeastern Conference as well as schools like Notre Dame. This is not true either. Starting in 2007, Sirius will have full NASCAR coverage. Also, the Bernoulli explanation requires that the object be moving through the air as well as spinning. NHL games will be shared with XM for the 2005–2006 season, after which XM will have exclusive broadcast rights. We know that this is not true.

The agreement also creates a 24-hour NBA Radio Channel, located on channel 127. In the case of a pellet spinning with a backspin, Bernoulli would predict that the ball would move downward because the bottom of the pellet is moving in the same direction that the pellet is moving and therefore less pressure would be present on the bottom of the pellet and it would drop. Sirius also announced in December 2005 a multi-year deal with the NBA, which makes the satellite radio company the broadcaster of more live NBA games than any other radio outlet. Newton's laws say that in order for air to be thrown in one direction, the ball has to move in the other direction. Currently, Sirius has exclusive satellite radio broadcasting rights to all NFL and NBA games. With the case of a spinning ball, this layer gets thrown off at an angle. Another cornerstone of Sirius’ business strategy has been to pursue exclusive sports content. This is why a golf ball has dimples; this layer acts like ball bearings.

On October 25, 2005 Sirius announced that "E Street Radio", the exclusive channel of legendary artist Bruce Springsteen, would air from November 1, 2005 to January 31, 2006 on the Bridge - Channel 10. There is a layer of non-moving air on the surface of the pellet (boundary layer). It was Karmazin who fiercely protected Stern in the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show (produced by MTV and aired by CBS, both co-owned with Infinity) and the FCC crackdown on shock jocks and obscenity, in general. The real cause of the apparent lift on an airsoft pellet is The Magnus Effect. Stern worked under Karmazin at Infinity Radio and the two men have always had a great deal of mutual respect for each other. Bernoulli's principle is often mis-applied in the case of spinning balls. On November 18, 2004 the former COO and President of Viacom, Mel Karmazin, was named the CEO of Sirius. This is usually adjustable so that the effect can be tuned.

Generally the personalities act as DJs hosting shows with music they personally like. As the pellet moves past this piece it tends to roll, inducing a backspin. These shows are hosted by personalities including skateboard legend Tony Hawk, seven-time Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong, The B-52's lead singer Fred Schneider, NBA Hall of Famer Bill Walton and longtime New York City DJ “Cousin Brucie”, who was dropped by WCBS-FM after the station changed to its format from an oldies station to a “Jack” format. In airsoft guns this is often implemented as a rubber piece at the rear of the barrel that is thicker at the top of the barrel than the bottom. In addition to the channel-programming deals, Sirius has also programmed a number of more conventional shows with well known personalities in a number of fields. This causes the pellet to fall less over a given distance than it would without the spin applied to it. In Howard Stern's first major hire for Sirius, Stern brought on board Tampa, FL based Bubba the Love Sponge, fired by Clear Channel due to a $750,000 fine proposed by the FCC Reuters, to do a show on Sirius. Airsoft hop-up devices apply a backspin to the pellet so that the pressure force acts on the pellet opposite to the direction that gravity is pulling it.

Beginning with the announcement of his imminent departure, Stern began to complain of one of his employers, Infinity Broadcasting, as trying to impede the success of his departure. Bernoulli's principle says this difference in fluid velocity implies a difference in pressures, which is a force that will cause the pellet to move in a direction perpendicular to the velocity vector. Stern stated that his move was forced by the stringent regulations of the FCC whose enforcement was intensified following the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show. a backspin) the air will be rushing faster (relative to the pellet surface) on the side that is spinning away from the velocity vector and slower on the side that is spinning towards the velocity vector. The deal, which gave Sirius exclusive rights to Stern’s radio show, also gave Stern the right to build at least two full-time programming channels. If a spin is applied to the pellet about an axis perpendicular to the velocity vector (i.e. By far the biggest of these deals was announced on October 6, 2004 when Sirius announced that it signed a five-year, $500-million agreement with Howard Stern to move his radio show to Sirius starting on January 9, 2006. As a spinless spherical pellet flies along its trajectory through the air (the air being the "fluid" in this case) the pressures on all sides of the pellet are equal because the air is traveling the same velocity relative to the surface of the pellet.

Sirius has reached extensive deals with domestic diva Martha Stewart, E Street Band member Steven Van Zandt (aka Little Steven), Jimmy Buffett, and Eminem to executive produce streams on Sirius. Bernoulli's principle as applied to an airsoft pellet is as follows. A major component of Sirius’ business strategy has been to execute far-reaching and exclusive deals with big-name entertainers and personalities to create and build broadcast streams, from the ground up. For guns with Hop-Up, you should turn off your Hop-Up if you are not planning to use your gun within two to three days so that it will not expand your O-Ring to make the Hop-Up not work as well and eventually snap. . Empty the magazine in order to preserve the strength of the magazine spring. “Mongo” later became NASCAR driver Spencer’s nickname with the NASCAR Broadcasters in the following races. After playing airsoft, you should fire two to three shots in semi-automatic mode to decompress the gearbox spring.

The dog in the Sirius logo (Sirius is referred to as the "Dog Star") is unofficially named “Mongo,” a name garnered from the debut of Sirius Satellite Radio’s sponsorship on Casey Atwood’s and later Jimmy Spencer’s NASCAR entry, when the announcing cast voted on names. Barrels should be cleaned after every extended use especially in sandy environments. Sirius was previously known as CD Radio. Since airsoft guns have the exact external frame as real guns you can use these external upgrades meant for real guns. However, Sirius led the market in new satellite radio subscribers in 2005. Some common upgrades added are flashlights, scopes, laserpointers etc. Sirius currently lags behind competitor XM Satellite Radio in terms of subscribers with 3.3 million, well less than XM's current audience of more than 6 million subscribers (as of January 9, 2006). Airsoft guns commonly come with mounts on which you can add external accessories.

A $10 activation fee ($15 if activated by phone) is also required. As with any modification, an upgrade on one internal part means the other internal components might have to be upgraded as well. to $499.99 for a lifetime subscription (of the receiver, not the subscriber). The velocity of the pellets is increased by installing a stronger spring. Subscription costs for Sirius range from $12.95/mo. In Tokyo Marui AEGs, the stock gears would have to be replaced with stonger gears since the higher rate of fire could strip the OEM types. Its business model is to provide pay-for-service radio, music channels being free of commercials, analogous to the business model for premium cable television. The rate of fire is increased by using a battery with a voltage of 9.6 volts or higher.

Sirius is based in New York City. Internal modifications revolve around increasing the rate of fire and the velocity of the pellets. “XS120”, “XS9”, “XS17”). Most non-upgraded AEG's using the Tokyo Marui system are in the middle, producing velocities from 270 to 300 ft/s (80 to 90 m/s), but upgrades to the internal components can increase the pellet velocity significantly. Sirius channels are identified by Arbitron with the label “XS” (e.g. Airsoft guns shoot 0.2 g BBs at velocities from 100 ft/s (30 m/s) for a low-end spring pistol, to 550 ft/s (170 m/s) and beyond for heavily-upgraded customized sniper rifles. A subset of Sirius’ music channels are included as part of the DISH Network satellite television service. On another document also regarding firearms, "The Eleventh Annual Report of the Firearms Consultative Committee", the penetration levels lies between 2 and 3 J based on a research for US Army and DiMaio's work in "Minimal Velocities Necessary for Perforation of Skin by Air Pellets and Bullets, Journal of Forensic Sciences".

The streams are broadcast from three satellites in an elliptical geosynchronous orbit above North America. Based on the Firearms Act 1968, the 3 J limit is indicated by Forensic Science Agency for Northern Ireland as the lower limit to inflict a lethal (paragraph 123) /penetrating (paragraph 26) wound. With any Sirius-enabled radio, the user can see the artist and song information on display while listening to the stream. However, we note above that the Forensic Science Agency of Northern Ireland has more recently assessed the power level at which a barrelled weapon is capable of inflicting a lethal wound as between 2.2 and 3 ft·lbf, and the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland has proposed that the law relating to firearms in Northern Ireland be amended to take this into account.[201]". Music streams on Sirius carry a wide variety of music genres, broadcasting 24 hours a day, commercial free. The power level at and above which an air weapon is considered a firearm in law is presently set at 1 ft·lbf. Sirius Satellite Radio NASDAQ: SIRI is a satellite radio (DARS) service in the United States that provides 68 streams (channels) of music and 55 streams of sports, news and entertainment. "123.

Black and white lineup from SiriusBackstage.com, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required. The Home Office and the Forensic Science Service considers that the lowest level of muzzle energy capable of inflicting a penetrating wound is one foot pound force (1.35 J): below these power levels, weapons are "incapable of penetrating even vulnerable parts of the body, such as the eye".[54] However, more recent analysis by the Forensic Science Agency for Northern Ireland has indicated that a more reasonable assessment of the minimum muzzle energy required to inflict a penetrating wound lies between 2.2 and 3.0 ft·lbf (3 to 4 J).[55] We will deal more fully with this discrepancy at paragraphs 123 to 130 below.". Official Sirius Satellite Radio Stations List, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required. "26. List of Sirius Satellite Radio stations. with a force sufficient to puncture the skin.[52] The force with which a firearm :is able to deliver a projectile is normally expressed in terms of the kinetic energy it generates at its muzzle—the "muzzle energy". :This energy is normally expressed in units of foot-pounds (ft·lbf) or joules (J).[53]. XACT XTR1 Radio with Car Kit. The Firearms Act 1968 defines a firearm "a lethal barrelled weapon of any description from which any shot, bullet or other :missile can be discharged".[51] In this context, a "lethal weapon" means a weapon capable of firing a projectile with sufficient :force to inflict more than a trivial injury, i.e.

Clarion Calypso SIRIUS Radio with Car Kit. "25. Kenwood H2EV Radio with Car and Home Kits. The following excerpts are from the United Kingdom Parliament's "Principles of firearms control", Home Affairs Select Committee Second Report, 6th April 2000, expound on the level of danger involved with low-energy projectiles:. Tivoli's SIRIUS Table Radio. It is also often recommended that full face masks be used during airsoft matches to protect the players' teeth and ears as on very rare occasions players have had teeth chipped or knocked out or ears injured by a well-placed pellet. SIRIUS Sportster Radio with Boombox Package. Eye protection is universally required to prevent damage to eyes.

Docking Station Package. While mildly painful, pellets aren't especially damaging to the skin. SIRIUS Sportster Exec. Airsoft pellets typically leave small welts on human targets. SIRIUS S50. notes:. Unit equivalents.

Here are some common levels of airsoft gun pellet velocity. The most common airsoft velocity limits are between 300 to 400 fps for AEGs and 400 to 500 fps for single shot guns (sniper rifles). The pellet velocity of automatic electric guns is determined in large part by the tension of their main spring and so there tends to be a stratification of values. NOTE: All BB weights are in grams (g).


. 8 mm pellet weights and their usage. 6 mm pellet weights and their usage. Paint is very unpopular with airsofters because it tends to stain gear and clothes.

Paint pellets are available but are incompatible with guns with hop-up features as the hop-up will break the pellet in the gun. Compatibility with other airsoft guns is highly limited, especially due to their inability to be used with hop-up features. These were designed to be shot from the short-lived Asahi M700 and M40 premium grade rifles, which were produced in 1993. The best known of these is the Asahi "Blade Bullet", which are now extremely difficult to find and quite expensive to buy.

There have also been guns made that shoot aspherical pellets. Tracer BBs have been made and leave a white streak behind the BBs path while it's airborne to see where your BBs are hitting for better accuracy. Glow-in-the-dark tracer pellets are also used in conjunction with a special device that "charges" the pellets up by flashing it with a quick burst of UV light prior to firing so that they remain luminescent in flight for use during nocturnal games/operations. For 0.43 g BB's, you will need a powerful airsoft gun, or get upgrades on your gun so that it can effectively shoot this heavy BB.

Pellets other than 6 mm, 0.12 g, 0.20 g, or 0.25 g plastic or biodegradable pellets are not commonly used outside of Japan. In addition to standard plastic pellets, starch-based biodegradable, metal coated, and graphite coated (often used by snipers), steel pellets are also available. Pellets of a given size come in different weights ranging from 0.12 to 0.43 g. Airsoft pellets are typically made of plastic and are almost always 6mm spheres.

Two well-known American manufacturers of BB guns are Crosman Corporation and Daisy Outdoor Products. These vary widely in shape, but generally have a flared back end for stability in flight and either a sharp point or blunt tip. Some also use shaped pieces of lead called pellets. "BB" (0.18 inch) was the size between "B" and "BBB"; modern rounds are made of non-toxic steel, plastic or copper, and are usually .177 caliber (4.5 mm).

The name of the gun is due to the original ammunition it used, which came from the lead shot used in a shotgun shell. Some BB guns have reservoirs to store ammunition, some are breechloaders, and still others are muzzleloaders. BB guns are never used in airsoft skirmishes, because they fire at an unsafe velocity, despite sharing a similar design to some airsoft pistols. Most BB guns are shaped like normal guns but can look like toys.

This pneumatic gun is usually powered by a compressed gas, an electric revolution, or a spring. Not all of these parts apply to all airsoft types (spring and gas-powered guns don't use batteries, for example). The following is a short list of commonly referred to parts. The various internal components of airsoft guns can usually be replaced or upgraded.

They have become very popular in recent years, and are now being imitated by the Chinese company HFC, which are still funtional but less sturdy. Even among experienced airsofters, they are great for impromptu games and for kids. Also, although they have a small ammo capacity (50 or so shots), they have good range and funtional hopup. They are made in both realistic versions and clear versions that are great for playing small games inside or in a neighborhood where a real looking gun is unacceptable.

Although at first glance they appear to be like the low end Chinese made Airsoft guns, they are quality weapons. They are often called "pee-wees" by experienced airsofters, but they average about 120 feet per second and fire quite well. Recently, the company UHC, well known for its AEGs and top of the line spring guns, began manufacturing a very nice range of Electric guns firing only full auto in miniature size. Mini Electrics.

Remember not to confuse these guns with Mini Electrics, as described below. Since spring action guns that can notably outperform LPEGs can be found at comparable prices, it is generally accepted that the spring guns are a better choice. They are often an attractive option for newcomers who are looking for a fully automatic rifle but do not want to pay the high prices for the top quality models. While these are much less expensive than the high-end Tokyo Marui guns and come with all sorts of bells and whistles (laser sights, silencers, etc.) they are of much lower quality and are not well suited for competitive use like their Japanese counterparts.

Also they are generally made of only plastic and break relatively easily. The "LPEGS" typically shoot at about 150-210 fps making a major gap between them and true AEG's. This distinction is made because of the large gap in quality and performance when compared with "true" AEGs. Though technically these guns are AEGs by definition, they are often referred to as "LPEGs," or "Low Price/Power Electric Guns".

Becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to the Japanese Tokyo Marui guns are the Chinese airsoft guns, made by manufacturers such as CYMA, MATRIX, BE (Both Elephant), and WELL although WELL guns are known to be made of lesser quality parts and are more likely to break so you should consider that before purchasing an LPEG. LPEG. However, the advanced hop up units on these new guns tend to compensate for the low power and can produce an effective range comparable to those of an AEG. The velocity of the AEP is usually between 200 to 225 feet per second.

Because the AEP technology is relatively new, the velocity of the pellets is considered slow for airsoft play. The AEP is the first handgun to incorporate an electric powered system, capable of full-automatic operation. New to the world of Airsoft is the AEP - for Automatic Electric Pistol, first introduced by Tokyo Marui with their Glock-18C. AEP.

The third most common AEG is the Heckler & Koch MP5 series for the same reason. The two most common AEG fielded by players everywhere are the AR-15 series (M16, M4, et cetera; sometimes referred to as the Armalite or Colt series) and the AK or Kalashnikov series (AK-74, AK-47 etc.) as parts for repairs or modifications/customization options for these two types of AEGs are commonly available. Most AEGs produced as of late are designed to be as realistic as possible. AEG manufacturers such as Classic Army (Yick Fung) and ICS (I Chih Shivan) produce replicas that are nearly identical to their real counterparts.

External modifications, such as metal bodies and reinforced plastics that make AEGs look and feel even more realistic, have become very popular. The rule of thumb usually is the higher the mAh, the longer the battery lasts while the higher voltage, the higher rate of fire (RoF). Other options include 7.2v and 9.6v ranging from 600mAh to over 3000mAh. The most common battery combination is 8.4v 600mAh, which is a small type battery, in comparison to other available mAhs.

These are Nickel Cadmium (NiCad) or Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMh) and come in ranging voltages and milli-Ampere hours. These weapons are powered primarily by two types of rechargable battery packs. Many manufacturers have now more or less replicated this basic model, adding reinforced parts or minor improvements. Once the piston is released, the spring drives it forward through the cylinder to push a pellet into the chamber, through the barrel, and forward from the muzzle.

The gears then compress a piston assembly against a spring. In a Marui AEG, the motor drives a series of 3 gears mounted inside a gearbox. These guns were originally developed in Japan, and the Japanese model giant Tokyo Marui dominates the market today with many quality models. These guns often attain muzzle velocities of 200 to 400 feet per second (60 to 120 m/s) (fps measure by a chronograph) and fire rates of 300 to 900 rounds per minute and are by far the most common and widely available airsoft guns in serious competition use today.

Automatic and semi-automatic operation is possible which gives these guns the popular name "automatic electric guns" or AEGs. Electric-powered airsoft guns typically use a bank of rechargeable batteries to drive an electric motor, which cycles an internal piston/spring assembly in order to launch pellets. Because of the mechanical complexities involved with distributing and regulating gas, these guns have largely given way to electric guns for less specialized applications, however, they still remain a cult favorite amongst airsofters and no game is ever complete without a 'pistols-only' match. A blowback feature is a mechanism which cycles a slide or bolt to better simulate a real firearm's operation.

Other instances where gas is favored are where adjustable velocities are required or where a blowback feature is desired.
Gas power tends to be used in airsoft pistols where size constraints make electric-powered mechanisms impractical. Also gas is very cold and if a gas gun is used to much without allowing the gun to heat up the valves can freeze and eventually damage the gun. One of the reasons of this is because Gas for the guns is costly.

However, these guns have largely been superceded by the newer and more versatile AEGs, or automatic electric guns. Later users modified these old guns to be powered by regulated CO2 cannisters to increase power and consistency. These guns are powered by R-12 (Which was marketed by the Japanese as FLON-12) freon feed system with a majority of the configurations containing two tanks, one containing the R-12 and one used as an expansion tank, and the gun itself. The first ever gas powered airsoft guns are commonly referred to as 'classic' guns, owing to their age.

Less commonly used gases include CO2 and nitrogen. The most common gases used are propane (usually referred to as "green gas" by airsoft players) and HFC134a, HFC-22 and in modifyed guns "Red Gas" refrigerant. These guns are capable of automatic and semi-automatic operation. Gas-powered airsoft guns use pressurized gas to propel pellets.

Higher-end spring-powered airsoft rifles can be quite expensive; these guns are typically suited for "marksman" applications in airsoft matches and can provide competitive muzzle velocities. These guns are less suited for competition because they are at a disadvantage against automatic guns in close combat and do not provide enough accuracy and power for long-range uses. Low-end spring guns tend to be much cheaper than their electric-powered equivalents due to their simplicity and cost of components (spring assembly, electric motor, battery, and battery charger) and thus are widely available. While most electric guns also use springs for this, they are not considered to be in the same category as the single-shot spring-powered guns.

Because of this, these guns are incapable of automatic or semi-automatic fire. This is typically achieved by pulling back the slide (pistols) or bolt (rifles), which in turn compresses the spring and makes the gun ready to fire. The user must cock a spring gun prior to each shot much as you would a real shotgun or bolt-action rifle. Spring-powered airsoft guns (often called "springers" or "spring guns") are single-shot devices that use potential energy stored in a spring to launch an airsoft pellet down the barrel of the gun.

Airsoft guns can be divided into three groups by what powers them: spring powered, electric powered, and gas-powered. The guns used in airsoft are typically replicas of real firearms. If someone was to replace all of the parts necessary to use a real bullet, they could have simply built a real gun from scratch. Also, airsoft barrels are too thin to use a real bullet.

Most rumors are driven by the realistic look of the airsoft gun and ignorance about the internals beneath the gun's "skin", a simple mechanism that cannot seriously injure people. It is impossible to convert any airsoft replica to fire a real bullet due to its materials, internal design, and construction. There are also rumors that the Japanese Yakuza (Mafia) converted airsoft guns to fire real pistol cartridges, but are limited to a single shot. Airsoft guns are classified as "toys." There are rumors that these "toys" can be modified to kill; however, airsoft enthusiasts know this is far from the truth.

Other serious airsofters play historical reenactments that replicate a combat zone or historical event where players wear camo and play scenario based games with squads, objectives and realistic missions. Games listed above may or may not be mil-sim. This is obviously not a complete list; many more game modes may be invented every time a few friends get together to play. Not all players have such structure in their games and may simply be there to have fun, not to compete.

This type of game often takes an entire weekend of play time, where the gameplay may be maintained during nighttime, so even more strategic elements like setting up observation posts and the like become key. This is airsoft combined with live action role-playing elements, where multiple missions have to be carried out by all teams of players while the mission objectives of each team are very likely to interfere with each other. Examples: Manhunt or Foxhunt (one player tries to reach flag - escape), prisoners escape (multiple players trying to reach flag - escape). The player/team that first reaches (grabs) the flag alive wins.

The objective is to be the first to reach the flag. One flag is placed in a location away from all teams. Examples: president rescue/walk (single flag carrier), Drag the doll (multiple flag carriers), Arm&Destroy objective/Bombing run/place the bomb (flag/bomb carrier). The game ends when no more players can carry the flag (long version) or when the flag carrier is killed (short version).

Games can be longer if anyone can be flag carrier or shorter if only one flag carrier exists. There are two variants of this game type, one for long games and another for short games. The interception team objective is to prevent the flag from reaching point B. Objective is to take the flag from point A (normally team base) to point B.

One flag and one team carrying it. Examples: Hostage rescue (SWAT team). The Defender team is given a usually fortified position while the Attacking team has to kill all of the Defenders in order to win. In this game type, there are two teams: Attackers and Defenders.

Examples: Capture explosives (1st goal) + Commando raid (2nd goal). For extra long games, multiple flags can be used. If the flag carrier is eliminated, anyone can pick up the flag. When the flag reaches the enemy base, the enemy loses.

Second goal: take the flag to the enemy base. First goal: capture the flag. Similar to capture the flag but only one flag is placed in the middle of the two teams bases. Examples: Traitors (each team has one player that is a traitor).

Usually, if a player is "killed," they can return to their base and start again. The players are divided into teams and have to steal the flag from the other team's base and return it to their own. The classic kid's game with a twist: (usually) two "bases" are set up with a flag (or similar objective) in each one. Examples: Last team standing.

A variation on this is seek and destroy, where one team hides and the other team must find them. This continues until all teams are eliminated. When all of the players on a team are out, that team is eliminated. The members of a given team have to work together to eliminate all the other players in the game.

Usually the teams are balanced (no team has more players than the other). In this mode, teams are formed between several players. Examples: Last man standing (Ultimos homo statans). This mode is usually the most frantic because players have only themselves to rely on, meaning dealing with fire from numerous directions and more difficulty gaining solid cover.

In this mode, all players are set against each other; there are no teams and alliances between players are usually frowned upon. Several common game modes are as follows:. Airsoft also serves to familiarize a younger generation with firearms and their proper handling in an age where firearms have a certain stigma attached to them. There are also not as many restrictions on selling airsoft such as the required criminal background check along the required 4473 form and the restrictions on sales to people who live out-of-state which slows down business.

This is because airsoft guns often sell much faster than their real counterparts. Some gun shops are expanding their business into airsoft to increase the somewhat thin profit margins from gun sales. On the Internet, the online auction site eBay has noticed airsoft as well, and has created several categories specifically for the thousands of listings of airsoft gear and guns. US-based manufacturers of tactical gear and equipment have also begun to recognize the game, some marketing products specifically for use in airsoft.

This and other models have begun appearing en mass in major brick and mortar distributors, expanding what in the US was traditionally a generally Internet based operation. Starting with early 2003, Daisy has once again begun marketing airsoft guns for sale in the United States, under their "Powerstrike" brand name. Most modern airsoft technology developments were created in 20 years of expanding interest in Japan. However, the sport continued to prosper in Asia and gained significant popularity.

market, and the Daisy SoftAir guns are now so rare as to command premium prices when they very rarely appear on GunBroker and other online auctions, typically selling for far more than their original retail price when new. The products did not prove popular in the U.S. These spring guns used the plastic shell and BB design. It was known then as "Replisoft" and "SoftAir," a name which airsoft is now rarely known by.

Airsoft in American culture began with several abortive attempts in the 1980s by the Daisy BB gun company of the USA to market a BB gun that could be safely shot by opposing players at each other. The caps were only used for noise, not propulsion. These were circular paper caps with adhesive on the back that could be attached to the rear of the Shootin' Shells to make a bang when fired. Mattel also marketed Greenie Stik-M-Caps for use with these toys.

It could be fired from a number of toy guns, including rifles, revolvers, and even a Remington-Derringer hidden in a belt buckle. A plastic bullet was pushed into a brass spring-loaded shell, and held by two small locks on the bullet. The American toy company Mattel had a product in the 1950s called Shootin' Shells, which was identical to the spring-loaded shells described above. Eventually, the plastic shell was altogether removed from the design to evolve into the airsoft guns we know of today.

BBs were plentiful and easier to manufacture compared to the plastic pellet. A rubber O-ring in the lip of the hollow shell held the BB in place. The shell was kept and the BB was inserted into the shell to make a cartridge. The next evolutionary design step was to replace the plastic bullet with a round BB.

The shells were easy to lose, and the pellets were few and expensive. Unfortunately, this process had some drawbacks. By repeating this process, another pellet can be fired until the magazine was empty. By continuing pulling back the trigger, the locking mechanism for the slide would release, the slide moving rearward and the empty plastic shell would be ejected.

Pulling the trigger of the gun released the spring piston, the air went through the rear of the hollow cartridge and expelled the plastic pellet through the barrel. The gun was spring-powered normally by pushing the slide forward to strip the cartridge off the magazine, loading it into the chamber to fire, and simultaneously cocking back the spring air piston. The number of cartridges loaded into the magazine would be similar to a real firearm magazine. These guns were based on semi-auto pistols, and the plastic cartridges were loaded into a magazine which was then inserted into the gun.

Early Japanese air-driven pellet guns had a soft plastic bullet shaped like a pointed mushroom, which was then inserted into a hollow cylindrical plastic shell, which approximated the size of a real gun cartridge and had the look of one. But since these guns only cycle the action and make a bang, the popularity of these cap-type guns never really caught on because no projectile was fired from it. These guns were good alternate movie-prop guns. One US based importer of these guns in the 1980's was The Collector's Armory, located in Virginia.

More sophisticated versions included the MAC-11, and CAR15 with a fully loaded magazine, can fire fully automatic. Two prominent manufacturers of such replicas were MGC Bondshop of Japan and Marushin. These were known as PFC guns, or Plug Fire Cap guns. The cap-type guns used a powerful explosive cap to make the noise of the gun and in later versions, to actually eject the spent cartridge from the gun.

The drawback with this design was that this bullet would have a maximum range of 20 feet (6m). Pulling back the slide would cycle the next cartridge. The spring would propel the bb forward. Placing the loaded cartridge into the chamber, and firing the gun, would force the cartridge forward and releasing the locks on the bb.

The bullet was forced into the shell and held by two small locks. The guns, which had bullets driven by a spring, had a spring in each shell. From that point on it went into three separate directions: air-driven pellet guns, cap-type guns, and pellets driven by a spring. Its root can be traced to 1:1 scale plastic model kits of popular real firearms.

It then spread to China, becoming especially popular in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau. Airsoft began in Japan during the mid-1970s when real gun ownership was severely restricted due to changes in Japanese law. . There is currently a growing interest in the West, especially in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, France, Spain, Portugal, Finland, Norway, Italy, Belgium (where the Dutch players also go, since in the Netherlands it is illegal) and Denmark, bolstered by an active and expanding Internet scene.

Despite rumors that Airsoft has been made illegal in mainland China, it is actually legal and very popular, both in mainland China and in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macao as well. For this reason, the vast majority of airsoft guns, accessories, and aftermarket upgrade parts are made in these countries. The game is highly popular in several Asian countries, such as Japan, China (including Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macao), South Korea, and, to a certain extent, Philippines, where real arms are difficult or impossible to obtain due to local laws. Airsoft is a term used interchangeably to refer to one or both of the following subjects:.

[4] Firearms Consultative Committee, Eleventh Annual Report of the Firearms Consultative Committee, 2002. [3] UK government - Home Office, Controls on firearms - A consultation paper, 2004. [2] - Home Affairs, Second Report - Principles of firearms control, Home Affairs Committee Publications, 2000. [1] Ronny "Thinker" Ohlsson, Airsoft for rookies - A short handbook on the subject of Airsoft, 1998.

Asahi. JAC. Kokusai. Marukoshi.

Maruzen. Marushin. MGC Bondshop of Japan. Falcon/Hudson.

LS. Yonezawa. Tokyo Marui. Neonfire.

CSI. JLS. Double Eagle. CYMA/WELL.

MATRIX. HFC (Ho Feng Company). UHC. Both Elephant.

SoftAir USA (CyberGun). SRC. UTG. Marushin.

Maruzen. KSC/KWA, largely a pistol manufacturing company, though endeavors to rifles have been made. G&P, specializes in aftermarket upgrades and external accessories. Systema, which specializes in training weapons and aftermarket upgrades.

Star, specializing in more expensive, highly realistic, easy-to-disassemble airsoft guns. TOP, specializes in manufacture of light and heavy machine gun airsoft replicas. Classic Army, an emerging rival to Tokyo Marui that focuses on very realistic guns. Tanaka, which specializes in high-powered gas gun revolvers.

Western Arms, largely specializing on the 1911 .45 and its derivatives. G&G (Guay Guay Gunshop), specializes in internal and external upgrades and accessories. ICS (I Chih Shivan). Tokyo Marui, the very pinnacle of airsoft technology and durability.

The ABA are asking people to show their support by filling in a Supporters Form [1] and those people who are a part of the sport to register at the site in case membership is required by the government in the future to enable Airsofters to take part in their sport. Due to the VCR bill, British Airsoft players, retailers and sites have had to look to the future by forming associations, the first and prior to VCR was UK Airsoft Sites Governing Body UKASGB, followed by the retailers UK Airsoft Retailers Asociation UKARA, with the first official players body for the South West region UKSAPA, latest to be formed is the Association of British Airsoft ABA which is currently along with UKASGB in talks with the Government with regards to gaining an exemption for the sport. The Airsoft community in the UK and other countries have started a public campaign in order to try and save Airsoft there. This would mean the eventual end of the sport in the UK, as guns break and could not be legally replaced.

The Violent Crime Reduction Bill, now under debate, may prohibit the sale, manufacture and import of any replica weapon, including those used for Airsoft. The prohibition of self contained gas cartridge weapons similar to that made by Brocock can arguably apply to Moscarts and BB-Shower grenade systems, however a formal case precedent has yet to be set. In the United Kingdom there are currently certain restrictions on the possession of airsoft replicas, which came in with the introduction of the ASBA (Anti-Social Behaviour Act) Amendments, which prohibit the possession of any firearms replica in a public place without good cause. Due to this reality, most crimes involving a threat of physical violence are often perpetrated with edged weapons, as firearms seen in public are (by default) believed to be toys by the public at large.

These standards have proven successful within Japan, as it has been found that criminal elements discovered that it is significantly easier to purchase an actual illegal weapon in comparison to modifying a comparatively fragile replica into a functional firearm. The overall litmus test used by the Japanese National Police Authority is whether the replica weapon can be made to chamber and fire an actual round of ammunition. Standards include (but are not limited to) use of low-melting point metals and non-ballistic plastics in structural components and incompatibility of mechanical components with actual firearm components and mechanisms. Legal requirements are set on airsoft model manufacturers to prevent any possibility of a replica weapon being converted into an actual firearm.

In Japan following regulations apply:

    . However, a martial-law era Letter of Instruction has strictly banned the importation, sale and public display of gun replicas, owing to the seized shipments. No direct regulations have been placed on the airsoft community, and players of all ages are welcomed to play. Purchase of airsoft guns and the movement of airsoft players are largely untouched by the government, with a few confiscated shipments only marring that record.

    Airsoft teams are often very clannish, with an unofficial superbody governing, to a certain extert, and coordinating between the hundreds of local teams all over the country, especially during the annual Kalis and Megaball events where hundreds of players from teams all over the country converge on selected venues for friendly tournaments. In the Philippines, the airsoft gaming community is highly secretive and underground, but has seen a tremendous surge of newbies in the last 2 years. Please note that all kind of laser sights are forbidden. Airsoft guns are not considered as subject to the weapon legislation and no permission is necessary.

    In Switzerland following regulations apply:

      . Players in Sweden are often very protective about this, and do not like players under 18. In Sweden, one must be at least 18 years old to buy airsoft guns. Other automatic electric guns: less than 1.00 joules and local police validation.

      Semiautomatic rifles and pistols: less than 24.4 joules. In Spain airsoft guns are regarded as low power weapons and AEGs must have:

        . Additionaly Air Soft Clubs and National Shooters Association in Slovenia recommend that airsoft gun velocities should not be above 100 m/s (1 J). If the velocity is higher than 100 m/s (328 ft/s), the airsoft gun is classified as a section D weapon in the Firearms control legislation of Slovenia.

        equivalent to 1 joule, it is considered to be a toy. If the velocity of an airsoft gun is below 100 m/s (328 ft/s) i.e. One has to be at least 18 years to buy airsoft guns. In Slovenia following regulations apply:

          .

          The law specifies that, should you attempt to use a non-lethal or replica gun to perform (or attempt to perform) armed robbery, you shall be prosecuted as if a real gun was used. The law, however, does not restrict in any way the use of aiming devices not designed for military use. such as on an airsoft gun). The law specifies that usage of night vision (infrared) or laser aiming devices designed for military use is completely restricted to members of the army and associated entities even if the aiming device is used on a lower-restriction cathegory weapon (e.g.

          sport/competition use, that use a metal projectile) under "non-lethal" cathegory and solely requires that you (1) are at least 18 years old and (2) register your weapon at the police precinct nearest from your location. The law regulates the use of air-powered weapons (e.g. The law is quite unclear (in what concerns airfsoft weapons) as to whether this kind of weapon clasifies as "non-lethal weapon" or "toy". 295 from 2004 (Regimul Armelor şi Muniţiilor) regulates all use of weapons and associated ammunition:

            .

            In Romania, law nr. A firearms certificate is not required. One to be at least 18 years old to buy, hand over, possess and use airsoft guns. The Norwegian Arms control legislation (Våpenforskrift) requires:

              .

              Dutch Airsoft players therefore frequently visit Belgium, where they also store their guns. Even when issued a permit to own firearms, airsoft weapons are still illegal, with no excemption possible. In The Netherlands the law places full restrictions on Airsoft Weapons, rendering the possession illegal. In Luxembourg all airsoft guns are treated under the national weapon law and demand a personal user certificate.

              You can play in a private property outside public eyes, or in a well-delimited private or state property after having asked to the local authorities for a limited-time permit (usually from 6 to 48 hours), and having alerted the local police command, to avoid alarmed citizens to call for emergency. Usage and open carrying of air soft guns in public places is forbidden. The minimum age to purchase airsoft and/or use it during a regular match is 18, or 14 if accompanied by a parent or legal tutor. Airsoft used to commit a crime is treated as if you had the real gun, assault weapons carry an extra mandatory sentance in addition to the regular punishment for the crime committed.

              Once you own the airsoft gun, you may remove the orange tip; however, the similarity between genuine firearms and airsoft replicas is close enough to provoke interaction with law enforcement personnel if an airsoft gun is mistaken for its real counterpart. Orange tips must be present on the barrel ends of the airsoft gun when they are imported and sold by a store. You can buy and sell it both from stores and from another private citizen.

                . equivalent to 1 joule: under the Law, airsoft guns are not classified as firearms.

                In Italy, airsoft guns and pistols are allowed a velicity below 100 m/s (328 ft/s) i.e. Laser sights as well as flashlights are not allowed. Guns must be marked with the trader's weapon abbreviation and a F-pentagon as well as the airsoft gun caliber such as 6mm. Sales of guns of more than 0.5 joules are allowed only in weapon shops.

                All airsoft guns above 0.5 joules must be semiautomatic only and can only be sold to people 18 years or older. Airsoft guns under 0.5 joules can be freely sold to and used by persons of at least 14 years of age. In Germany following regulations apply:

                  . Minors (under the age of 18) are able to purchase airsoft guns only with written permission from their parents.

                  Land owner's permission is needed to play airsoft in any area. All replica firearms must be covered with something, for example, a weapon case. Visible transportation of replica firearms in public areas is forbidden. In Finland following regulations apply:

                    .

                    A firearms certificate is not required. You have to be at least 18 years old to buy, hand over, possess and use airsoft guns. In Denmark airsoft guns are mentioned in the Danish "Våbenlov" (Arms control legislation).

                      . Usage and open carrying of air soft guns in public places.

                      The use of laser sights is forbidden. Airsoft guns may not have an energy greater than 16 joules. If children of at least 15 years want to play, an adult must supervise the game. The use of airsoft guns is allowed for players that are least 18 years old.

                      Airsoft guns have the same status as real weapons, described as sport weapons. Trade with them is regulated under the weapon law and all airsoft guns must be authorized by the Czech Gun and Ammunition Testing House before usage. In the Czech Republic following regulations apply:

                        . In Ontario the minimum age to purchase airsoft is 18.

                        Airsoft used to commit a crime is treated as if you had the real gun, assault weapons carry an extra mandatory sentance in addition to the regular punishment for the crime committed. Guns that fire above 500fps/5.7 joules are considered Controlled Firearms and must be registered Federally. The lower end of this threshold may drop as testing continues. Currently, airsoft guns documented to fire between 407fps and 500fps are classified as Uncontrolled Firearms and do not require licensing.

                        Importing Prohibited Replica Airsoft guns as defined above is controlled by Firearms Licenses issued by Province. However, if an under-407fps Airsoft closely resembles a real firearm, it will be classified as a Replica, making it prohibited for import, sale and possession. Using this test, Airsoft guns that fire under 407fps are not currently classified as Firearms. For a gun to be classified as a Firearm, the FPS must be high enough for a fired projectile to penetrate the eye of a pig.

                        In Canada following regulations apply:

                          . Airsoft guns and pistols can only be bought at officially licensed dealers, who carry a government permit to import and sell firearms. In Belgium following regulations apply:
                            . Airsoft guns and pistols more than 0.08 joules can be purchased in specialised weapon shops only and all users have to be at least 18 years old.

                            All users that are at least 14 years old, do not need their parents permission. Airsoft guns and pistols are allowed up to 0.08 joules. In Austria following regulations apply:

                              . Michigan restricts the purchase of these guns so that they may only be purchased from a licensed retailer.

                              New York City has a total ban on airsoft guns. If someone were to, for example, attempt a robbery with an airsoft gun, they would be charged as if the airsoft gun were a real firearm. In addition, the similarity between genuine firearms and airsoft replicas is close enough to provoke interaction with local law enforcement personnel if an airsoft gun is carried openly in public. You might get an "unlicensed" gun through customs with Trademarks intact, while a Licensed gun might be held in Customs by an "underinformed" customs agent.).

                              In practice enforcement is hit or miss. (Example: Classic Army has a licensing agreement with Arsenal Arms, so the trademarks can stay on imported replicas of Arsenal's SLR 105 A1. Airsoft guns' trademarks must be removed where the manufacturer does not have an existing license agreement with the "Real Steel" gun's manufacturer in the US. Once you own the airsoft gun, you may not remove the orange tip, however, many people do and reattach it later.

                              Orange tips must be present on the barrel ends of the airsoft gun when they are shipped in a manner that crosses state lines. Airsoft guns are not classified as firearms subject to the Gun Control Act. Under Federal Law,

                                . In the United States, different localities have their own regulations:
                                  .

                                  Anyone found in Australia possessing an unlicensed airsoft pistol faces the same charge as a person who unlawfully possesses an actual firearm. Australian law classes the replica weapons as firearms, and acquiring a licence to possess (e.g.) a pistol requires a rigorous and laborious process of police background checks and fingerprinting. In Australia airsoft is illegal for most practical purposes. http://wings.avkids.com/Tennis/Book/magnus-01.html
                                  .

                                  http://www.rap.ucar.edu/staff/crook/magnus.html
                                  . Magnus force is pointing the wrong direction in the picture or the ball is spinning the wrong way.)
                                  . http://www.unc.edu/~whitdoug/Physics/Curve_Ball.html (Given as a bad example. http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath258/kmath258.htm (skip the calculus and scroll down to the bottom)
                                  .

                                  http://landau1.phys.virginia.edu/classes/311/notes/aero/node2.html
                                  . Red lines are the usual Crony (cronograph) weights for 6mm - 0,20 g and 8mm - 0,45 g. Higher energy but different collisions read Elastic collisions (airsoft) and Inelastic collisions (paintball) topics for further information. This weight is for comparison purposes only and is not used on Airsoft.

                                  3.00 g is the typical weight for a paintball pellet. 0.60 g - Heaviest weight for 8m sniper rifles. 0.45 g - Standard weight for 8m sniper rifles. 0.34 g - Low weight for 8mm sniper rifles.

                                  Usually graphite coated. 0.43 g - For the highest level of upgrades in spring and gas sniper rifles. Very slow but have high stability. 0.36 g - Heavier pellets for sniper rifles.

                                  Uncommon. Western Arms pellets for their gas blowback pistol series. 0.30 g - Standard weight for most sniper rifles. For Tokyo Marui airsoft, they usually send 200 of these with one of their AEGs and spring guns.

                                  Tokyo Marui standard AEG, gas, and spring weapons use 0.25 BB's. For some AEGs, you will usually need an upgrade to effectively fire 0.25 BB's. 0.25 g - Heaviest weight for standard AEGs, blowback and spring guns. Blends speed of 0.20g with range and accuracy of 0.25g.

                                  0.23 g - Heavier pellets for AEGs. AEGs uses these or slightly heavier pellets. 0.20 g - Standard weight for most weapons. Not to be used in high end AEGs such as Tokyo Marui and Classic Army.

                                  Uncommon. 0.15 g - Same uses as 0.12 g. Not to be used in high end AEGs such as Tokyo Marui and Classic Army. High velocity and low stability.

                                  0.12 g - Used by some gas and spring weapons. Valve - high-flow valves are often added to gas guns to increase power (although on blow back guns these usually need to be coupled with a metal slide upgrade, as the high-flow valve increases blow back power as well as bb velocity and will break a plastic slide). The stronger the spring, the more powerful a gun will be, but rate of fire will decrease with the spring's stiffness increasing. Spring - Spring and electric guns both use springs to propel the pellets.

                                  Air nozzle - A plastic or metal piece that connects the hop-up assembly to the air piston. The rack gear is the piston assembly, which displaces the air from the cylinder assembly through the nozzle in order to fire the projectile. The sector gear has a set of half teeth which pulls and releases the final gear, which is a rack gear. The bevel gear connects to the spur gear which, in turn, connects to the sector gear.

                                  The immediate gear it connects to is the bevel gear. The first gear, the pinion gear, is located on the tip of the motor. Gearset - Airsoft guns contain a set of 5 gears used to fire the weapon. Electric motor - Used to provide rotational energy to turn the gearset in AEG's, ultimately compressing the spring and firing the weapon.

                                  The level of hop-up is adjustable on many models of airsoft guns. Hop-up - A small rubber bucking that applies a backspin to the pellets to improve range and accuracy. Sometimes referred to as "Mechbox". Gearbox - Typically a metal housing that contains a gear assembly that transfers the electric motor's drive to the air piston assembly.

                                  There is also a growing trend towards Lithium Polymer batteries, which have the advantage of high capacity and high discharge packaged in cells of a smaller dimension. These are typically NiCad rechargeable batteries but may also be NiMH. Battery - Powers the motor that moves the spring assembly. Barrel - Serves the same purpose as in real firearms: guides the pellet and maintains the stream of pressure behind it.

                                  MilSim. Grab the flag. Carry the flag. Siege or King of the hill.

                                  Center Flag. Capture the Flag. Team Deathmatch / Teams. Deathmatch / Free For All.

                                  It may be of metal or plastic, and usually fires 6 mm or 8 mm spherical projectiles weighing 110-600 milligrams (known as "BB"s). A replica firearm scaled either 1:1 (or perhaps as a 'mini' or '3/4'). A game in which players participate in the simulation of military or law enforcement combat with replica military firearms and military-style tactics.

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