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Sirius Satellite Radio

Sirius Satellite Radio NASDAQ: SIRI is a satellite radio (DARS) service in the United States that provides 68 streams (channels) of music and 55 streams of sports, news and entertainment. Music streams on Sirius carry a wide variety of music genres, broadcasting 24 hours a day, commercial free. With any Sirius-enabled radio, the user can see the artist and song information on display while listening to the stream. The streams are broadcast from three satellites in an elliptical geosynchronous orbit above North America. A subset of Sirius’ music channels are included as part of the DISH Network satellite television service. Sirius channels are identified by Arbitron with the label “XS” (e.g. “XS120”, “XS9”, “XS17”).

Sirius is based in New York City. Its business model is to provide pay-for-service radio, music channels being free of commercials, analogous to the business model for premium cable television. Subscription costs for Sirius range from $12.95/mo. to $499.99 for a lifetime subscription (of the receiver, not the subscriber). A $10 activation fee ($15 if activated by phone) is also required. Sirius currently lags behind competitor XM Satellite Radio in terms of subscribers with 3.3 million, well less than XM's current audience of more than 6 million subscribers (as of January 9, 2006). However, Sirius led the market in new satellite radio subscribers in 2005.

Sirius was previously known as CD Radio. The dog in the Sirius logo (Sirius is referred to as the "Dog Star") is unofficially named “Mongo,” a name garnered from the debut of Sirius Satellite Radio’s sponsorship on Casey Atwood’s and later Jimmy Spencer’s NASCAR entry, when the announcing cast voted on names. “Mongo” later became NASCAR driver Spencer’s nickname with the NASCAR Broadcasters in the following races.

Content

Howard Stern and other high profile content

Howard Stern Show.

A major component of Sirius’ business strategy has been to execute far-reaching and exclusive deals with big-name entertainers and personalities to create and build broadcast streams, from the ground up. Sirius has reached extensive deals with domestic diva Martha Stewart, E Street Band member Steven Van Zandt (aka Little Steven), Jimmy Buffett, and Eminem to executive produce streams on Sirius.

By far the biggest of these deals was announced on October 6, 2004 when Sirius announced that it signed a five-year, $500-million agreement with Howard Stern to move his radio show to Sirius starting on January 9, 2006. The deal, which gave Sirius exclusive rights to Stern’s radio show, also gave Stern the right to build at least two full-time programming channels. Stern stated that his move was forced by the stringent regulations of the FCC whose enforcement was intensified following the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show. Beginning with the announcement of his imminent departure, Stern began to complain of one of his employers, Infinity Broadcasting, as trying to impede the success of his departure.

In Howard Stern's first major hire for Sirius, Stern brought on board Tampa, FL based Bubba the Love Sponge, fired by Clear Channel due to a $750,000 fine proposed by the FCC Reuters, to do a show on Sirius.

In addition to the channel-programming deals, Sirius has also programmed a number of more conventional shows with well known personalities in a number of fields. These shows are hosted by personalities including skateboard legend Tony Hawk, seven-time Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong, The B-52's lead singer Fred Schneider, NBA Hall of Famer Bill Walton and longtime New York City DJ “Cousin Brucie”, who was dropped by WCBS-FM after the station changed to its format from an oldies station to a “Jack” format. Generally the personalities act as DJs hosting shows with music they personally like.

On November 18, 2004 the former COO and President of Viacom, Mel Karmazin, was named the CEO of Sirius. Stern worked under Karmazin at Infinity Radio and the two men have always had a great deal of mutual respect for each other. It was Karmazin who fiercely protected Stern in the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show (produced by MTV and aired by CBS, both co-owned with Infinity) and the FCC crackdown on shock jocks and obscenity, in general.

On October 25, 2005 Sirius announced that "E Street Radio", the exclusive channel of legendary artist Bruce Springsteen, would air from November 1, 2005 to January 31, 2006 on the Bridge - Channel 10.

Sports

NFL Radio.

Another cornerstone of Sirius’ business strategy has been to pursue exclusive sports content. Currently, Sirius has exclusive satellite radio broadcasting rights to all NFL and NBA games. Sirius also announced in December 2005 a multi-year deal with the NBA, which makes the satellite radio company the broadcaster of more live NBA games than any other radio outlet. The agreement also creates a 24-hour NBA Radio Channel, located on channel 127. NHL games will be shared with XM for the 2005–2006 season, after which XM will have exclusive broadcast rights. Starting in 2007, Sirius will have full NASCAR coverage.

Sirius also has rights to a number of major college sports conferences, including the Big Ten and the Southeastern Conference as well as schools like Notre Dame. Beginning in 2005 Sirius also has exclusive radio rights to cover the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. In August 2004, Sirius launched NFL Radio, a 24-hour radio stream dedicated exclusively to covering the NFL. Sirius has also been aggressive in creating its own in-house produced studio sports radio content.

Other content

In June 2005, Sirius signed an agreement with BBC Radio 1 in the UK to rebroadcast the station to an American audience. Sirius also has exclusive satellite radio rights to National Public Radio, carrying two separate streams. The deal with NPR was the first high-profile deal entered into by Sirius.

With the launch of Sirius Canada in December 2005, American listeners gained five Canadian-produced stations including CBC Radio One, CBC Radio Three and Iceberg Radio in English, and Première Plus and Bandeapart in French. Iceberg Radio is programmed by Standard Broadcasting, which also provides a number of additional channels exclusive to Canada; the other four come from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

Sirius' Satellites

Sirius’ spacecraft Radiosat 1 through Radiosat 4 were manufactured by Space Systems/Loral. The first three of the series were orbited in 2000 by Proton-K Block-DM3 launch vehicles. Radiosat 4 is a ground spare, in storage at SS/Loral’s facility in Palo Alto, California. The series of satellites from which they come, the SS/Loral LS-1300, is known to have problems with their solar array cells — a similar but more severe issue affects the Boeing satellites belonging to competitor XM Radio.

Sirius Satellite in space, concept drawing.

Sirius' satellites are called Radiosat (instead of after the company name), due to there already being a previous fleet of satellites launched also named SIRIUS, launched by Sweden's NSAB (Nordiska Satellitaktiebolaget, or Nordic Satellite AB) and used for general telecommunications and satellite tv throughout Sweden and the rest of Scandinavia.

The Sirius uplink facility is located in Vernon, Sussex County, New Jersey.

Sirius does not use Geostationary satellites. Instead, its three SS/L-1300 satellites fly in geosynchronous (24-hour orbital period) inclined elliptical orbits. Sirius says the elliptical path of its satellite constellation ensures that each satellite spends about 16 hours a day over the continental United States, with at least one satellite over the country at all times. Sirius completed its three-satellite constellation on November 30, 2000. A fourth satellite will remain on the ground, ready to be launched if any of the three active satellites encounter transmission problems.

The Sirius system is similar to that of its competitor. Programs are beamed to one of the three Sirius satellites, which then transmit the signal to the ground, where your radio receiver picks up one of the channels within the signal. Signals are also beamed to ground repeaters for listeners in urban areas where the satellite signal can be interrupted.

Sirius offers car radios and home entertainment systems, as well as car and home kits for portable use. The Sirius receiver includes two parts -- the antenna module and the receiver module. The antenna module picks up signals from the ground repeaters or the satellite, amplifies the signal and filters out any interference. The signal is then passed on to the receiver module. Inside the receiver module is a chipset consisting of eight chips. The chipset converts the signals from 2.3 gigahertz (GHz) to a lower intermediate frequency. Sirius also offers an adapter that allows conventional car radios to receive satellite signals.

Receivers

SIRIUS Sportster Boombox

As of 2005, Sirius receivers are available for various new Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, Infiniti, Jaguar, Jeep, Land Rover, Lexus, Lincoln, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Mercury, Mini, Nissan, Scion, Toyota, Porsche, Volkswagen, and Volvo vehicles, and the service plans on adding availability for portable use. Starting in 2006, all Rolls-Royce vehicles sold in the United States will come with a Sirius radio and lifetime subscription as standard equipment.

They also make many receivers for aftermarket installs as well, including the Sportster Replay, Starmate Replay, Sirius S50 with built in 1GB MP3 player, and the Sirius One. Sirius' hardware lineup is available at Sirius.com

Some popular radios from Sirius:

  • SIRIUS S50
  • SIRIUS Sportster Exec. Docking Station Package
  • SIRIUS Sportster Radio with Boombox Package
  • Tivoli's SIRIUS Table Radio
  • Kenwood H2EV Radio with Car and Home Kits
  • Clarion Calypso SIRIUS Radio with Car Kit
  • XACT XTR1 Radio with Car Kit

Radio stations

  • List of Sirius Satellite Radio stations
  • Official Sirius Satellite Radio Stations List, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required
  • Black and white lineup from SiriusBackstage.com, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required

Sirius in Canada

In November, 2004, a partnership between Sirius, Standard Broadcasting and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation filed an application with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to introduce Sirius in Canada. The application was approved on June 16, 2005. The decision was appealed to the Canadian federal cabinet by a number of broadcasting, labour, and arts and culture organizations, including the Friends of Canadian Broadcasting, CHUM Limited, and the National Campus and Community Radio Association. The groups objected to Sirius’ approach to and reduced levels of Canadian content and French language programming, along with the exclusion of Canadian non-commercial broadcasting. After a lengthy debate, cabinet rejected the appeals on September 9, 2005.

Sirius Canada was officially launched December 1, 2005.

Sirius Canada did not initially carry Howard Stern. Despite popular belief that Stern's broadcast was banned by the CRTC, this is not the case — Sirius Canada, in fact, voluntarily chose not to air the program at the time of its launch in Canada. A significant number of Canadians have purchased grey market subscriptions to Sirius' American service to listen to Stern, although owing to the nature of grey market economics a precise number is difficult to verify. Howard 100 News has stated on air that they estimate at least 60,000 grey market satellite subscriptions in Canada; in December, the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail reported that business analysts in Canada estimate a total of 60,000 grey market subscribers to both Sirius and XM combined. [1] (It should be noted that this figure also includes an unverified number of listeners who subscribed before the Canadian satellite radio services launched at all — the analysts' figures did not offer any estimate of how many Canadians chose a grey market subscription over Sirius Canada specifically because of Stern.)

On January 11, 2006, a Canadian writer interviewed on Stern's show announced an online petition to bring Stern to Sirius Canada.

On February 1, 2006, The Globe and Mail reported the announcement that Stern's show on Howard 100 would become available in Canada as of February 6, 2006. [2]

Sirius had previously disabled the Howard Stern channels on radios with a Canadian ESN number, even if they are subscribed to American content from an American address. Most of these radios have a 'C' suffix in the model name. For example, the Sirius ONE radio is model "SV1" in the United States, but "SV1C" in Canada. However, Sirius cannot stop grey market receivers from picking up the American programming. The blocking of the Howard Stern channels is anticipated to change once the announced return of Stern to Canada takes place.


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The blocking of the Howard Stern channels is anticipated to change once the announced return of Stern to Canada takes place.
. However, Sirius cannot stop grey market receivers from picking up the American programming.
. For example, the Sirius ONE radio is model "SV1" in the United States, but "SV1C" in Canada.
. Most of these radios have a 'C' suffix in the model name.

.

Sirius had previously disabled the Howard Stern channels on radios with a Canadian ESN number, even if they are subscribed to American content from an American address.
. [2]. Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews. On February 1, 2006, The Globe and Mail reported the announcement that Stern's show on Howard 100 would become available in Canada as of February 6, 2006. There is a growing population of Jews and Muslims in Italy, many of whom speak Hebrew and Arabic, respectively. On January 11, 2006, a Canadian writer interviewed on Stern's show announced an online petition to bring Stern to Sirius Canada. Even today, variations in local accents allow people from one town to distinguish people from a neighbouring town which may be only a few miles away.

[1] (It should be noted that this figure also includes an unverified number of listeners who subscribed before the Canadian satellite radio services launched at all — the analysts' figures did not offer any estimate of how many Canadians chose a grey market subscription over Sirius Canada specifically because of Stern.). The arrival of immigrants has generated a plethora of new languages, including Arabic, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, Turkish, Kurdish, Mandarin Chinese, and others. Howard 100 News has stated on air that they estimate at least 60,000 grey market satellite subscriptions in Canada; in December, the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail reported that business analysts in Canada estimate a total of 60,000 grey market subscribers to both Sirius and XM combined. Finally, the largest group of non-Italian speakers (some 1.6 million people) are the ones who speak Sardinian - a romance language which evolved quite independently from Italian. A significant number of Canadians have purchased grey market subscriptions to Sirius' American service to listen to Stern, although owing to the nature of grey market economics a precise number is difficult to verify. Around 100,000 (the Arbëreshë) in Southern Italy and in central Sicily speak Albanian - the result of past migrations. Despite popular belief that Stern's broadcast was banned by the CRTC, this is not the case — Sirius Canada, in fact, voluntarily chose not to air the program at the time of its launch in Canada. Some 15,000 Catalan speakers reside around the area of Alghero in the north-west corner of Sardinia - believed to be the result of a migration of a large group of Catalans from Barcelona in ages past.

Sirius Canada did not initially carry Howard Stern. Scattered across Southern Italy are a number of some 30,000 Greek-speakers - considered to be the last surviving traces of the region's Greek heritage (Ancient Greek colonists reached Southern Italy and Sicily about 1500 BC). Sirius Canada was officially launched December 1, 2005. In the Molise region of central-south Italy some 4,000 people speak Serbo-Croatian - these are the descendants of a group of people who migrated from the Balkans in the Middle Ages. After a lengthy debate, cabinet rejected the appeals on September 9, 2005. A very large community of some 700,000 people in Friuli speak Friulian - another Rhaetian language. The groups objected to Sirius’ approach to and reduced levels of Canadian content and French language programming, along with the exclusion of Canadian non-commercial broadcasting. Some 40,000 Ladin-speakers (Ladin is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains) also live in the Trentino-South Tyrol region and in the Veneto region.

The decision was appealed to the Canadian federal cabinet by a number of broadcasting, labour, and arts and culture organizations, including the Friends of Canadian Broadcasting, CHUM Limited, and the National Campus and Community Radio Association. About 80,000 Slovene-speakers live in the north-eastern region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia near the border with Slovenia. The application was approved on June 16, 2005. Some 120,000 or so people live in the Aosta Valley region, where a Franco-Provençal dialect very similar to French called Patois is spoken. In November, 2004, a partnership between Sirius, Standard Broadcasting and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation filed an application with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to introduce Sirius in Canada. In total some 300,000 or so Italians speak German as their first language and indeed identify themselves as ethnic Austrians. Some popular radios from Sirius:. Pockets of German speakers also persist in other north-eastern Italian regions - a remnant of the old Austrian influence on this area of Italy.

Sirius' hardware lineup is available at Sirius.com. In the north, the province of South Tyrol (Südtirol in German, Alto Adige in Italian) is almost entirely German-speaking; the area was awarded to Italy following the First World War and her defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. They also make many receivers for aftermarket installs as well, including the Sportster Replay, Starmate Replay, Sirius S50 with built in 1GB MP3 player, and the Sirius One. Apart from standard Italian and regional variations, a number of truly separate languages do exist. Starting in 2006, all Rolls-Royce vehicles sold in the United States will come with a Sirius radio and lifetime subscription as standard equipment. In addition, particular dialects have become cherished beacons of regional variation and are becoming recently more protected (especially the Neapolitan dialect which is extensively used for the singing of popular folk-songs). As of 2005, Sirius receivers are available for various new Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, Infiniti, Jaguar, Jeep, Land Rover, Lexus, Lincoln, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Mercury, Mini, Nissan, Scion, Toyota, Porsche, Volkswagen, and Volvo vehicles, and the service plans on adding availability for portable use. Today, Italian is fully comprehensible to all throughout the country, but regional variations in the form of accents and vowel emphasis persist.

Sirius also offers an adapter that allows conventional car radios to receive satellite signals. It was not until the 60s, with the advent of the state television broadcaster, RAI, that Italian truly became standardised. The chipset converts the signals from 2.3 gigahertz (GHz) to a lower intermediate frequency. A national education system was established - leading to a decrease in variation in the Italian spoken throughout the country over time. Inside the receiver module is a chipset consisting of eight chips. Given the variation in Italian language throughout the peninsula, it was quickly established that 'proper' or 'standard' Italian would be based on the Florentine dialect spoken in most of Tuscany (given that it was the first region to produce authors such as Dante Alighieri, who between 1308 and 1321 wrote the Divina Commedia). The signal is then passed on to the receiver module. Massimo d'Azeglio, one of Cavour's ministers, is said to have stated, following Italian unification, that having created Italy, all that remained was to create Italians.

The antenna module picks up signals from the ground repeaters or the satellite, amplifies the signal and filters out any interference. Indeed, each historical region of Italy had its own dialect, with variants existing at the township-level. The Sirius receiver includes two parts -- the antenna module and the receiver module. Prior to unification in 1861, Italian spoken throughout the country was incredibly varied - with dialects being virtually mutually incomprehensible in most of the country. Sirius offers car radios and home entertainment systems, as well as car and home kits for portable use. The official language of Italy is Standard Italian - a direct descendant of Latin (some 75% of Italian words are of Latin origin). Signals are also beamed to ground repeaters for listeners in urban areas where the satellite signal can be interrupted. See the separate article: Culture of Italy..

Programs are beamed to one of the three Sirius satellites, which then transmit the signal to the ground, where your radio receiver picks up one of the channels within the signal. It has moved slowly, however, on implementing certain structural reforms favoured by economists, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling Italy's rigid labour market and expensive pension system, because of the current economic slowdown and opposition from labour unions. The Sirius system is similar to that of its competitor. Italy's economic performance has at times lagged behind that of its EU partners, and the current government has enacted numerous short-term reforms aimed at improving competitiveness and long-term growth. A fourth satellite will remain on the ground, ready to be launched if any of the three active satellites encounter transmission problems. Italy joined the Euro from its conception in 1999. Sirius completed its three-satellite constellation on November 30, 2000. Over the past decade, Italy has pursued a tight fiscal policy in order to meet the requirements of the Economic and Monetary Union and has benefited from lower interest and inflation rates.

Sirius says the elliptical path of its satellite constellation ensures that each satellite spends about 16 hours a day over the continental United States, with at least one satellite over the country at all times. Most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. Instead, its three SS/L-1300 satellites fly in geosynchronous (24-hour orbital period) inclined elliptical orbits. In comparison to its western European neighbours, it has a high number of small to medium sized enterprises (SMEes). Sirius does not use Geostationary satellites. This capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less developed agricultural south (with 20% unemployment). The Sirius uplink facility is located in Vernon, Sussex County, New Jersey. Italy has a diversified industrial economy with roughly the same total and per capita output as France and the United Kingdom.

Sirius' satellites are called Radiosat (instead of after the company name), due to there already being a previous fleet of satellites launched also named SIRIUS, launched by Sweden's NSAB (Nordiska Satellitaktiebolaget, or Nordic Satellite AB) and used for general telecommunications and satellite tv throughout Sweden and the rest of Scandinavia. Around 30,000 Jews, and 30,000 Buddhists live in Italy. The series of satellites from which they come, the SS/Loral LS-1300, is known to have problems with their solar array cells — a similar but more severe issue affects the Boeing satellites belonging to competitor XM Radio. The Muslim population currently stands at 825,000[3] (legal immigrants) or 1.4% of the population, lower than many Western European nations. Radiosat 4 is a ground spare, in storage at SS/Loral’s facility in Palo Alto, California. Recent immigration from the North Africa has led to an increasing number of Muslims, but has cooled off due to larger immigration from Eastern Europe. The first three of the series were orbited in 2000 by Proton-K Block-DM3 launch vehicles. There are few Protestant denominations in Italy, mostly Waldensians.

Sirius’ spacecraft Radiosat 1 through Radiosat 4 were manufactured by Space Systems/Loral. The second largest Christian group in Italy are Jehovah's Witnesses with some 400,000 [2] active members, and are growing annually. Iceberg Radio is programmed by Standard Broadcasting, which also provides a number of additional channels exclusive to Canada; the other four come from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. According to many other books (Reference) surveys (from Gallup, Christian Science Monitor, and others) Italy can claim above 40% weekly church attendance rate. With the launch of Sirius Canada in December 2005, American listeners gained five Canadian-produced stations including CBC Radio One, CBC Radio Three and Iceberg Radio in English, and Première Plus and Bandeapart in French. Italy also has some important pilgrimages and famous Roman Catholic churches, cathedrals and sites. The deal with NPR was the first high-profile deal entered into by Sirius. According to estimates by (CIA World Fact Book 2005, Italian polls, Adherents.com, BBCNews and others), it is safe to conclude that 87% of the Italian population self-identify as Roman Catholic, whereas around 13% identify with either other religions or none at all.

Sirius also has exclusive satellite radio rights to National Public Radio, carrying two separate streams. Roman Catholicism is by far the most popular religion in the country. In June 2005, Sirius signed an agreement with BBC Radio 1 in the UK to rebroadcast the station to an American audience. Remaining groups include those who are Tunisian, Macedonians, Serbians, and Filipinos etc. Sirius has also been aggressive in creating its own in-house produced studio sports radio content. According to these statistics, the largest foreign minorities are Albanians (316,659), Moroccan (294,945), Romanian (248,8491), Chinese (111,712), and Ukrainian (93,441). In August 2004, Sirius launched NFL Radio, a 24-hour radio stream dedicated exclusively to covering the NFL. They currently make up a little more than 4 % of the official total population.

Beginning in 2005 Sirius also has exclusive radio rights to cover the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. The number of immigrants or foreign residents in Italy have steadily increased to reach 2,402,157, according to the latest figures (1/2005) of ISTAT. Sirius also has rights to a number of major college sports conferences, including the Big Ten and the Southeastern Conference as well as schools like Notre Dame. However, they have all been absorbed in a homogeneous Italian ethnic group. Starting in 2007, Sirius will have full NASCAR coverage. Since the beginning of Roman civilisation, important ethnic groups like Greek settlers, Germanic and Celtic invaders and plunderers, and Norman colonisers have all left important impressions on the people today. NHL games will be shared with XM for the 2005–2006 season, after which XM will have exclusive broadcast rights. For a country of 58.4 million people, Italy has a smaller number of migrants compared to France and Germany.

The agreement also creates a 24-hour NBA Radio Channel, located on channel 127. Indigenous minority groups are small. Sirius also announced in December 2005 a multi-year deal with the NBA, which makes the satellite radio company the broadcaster of more live NBA games than any other radio outlet. The country has the fifth-highest population density in Europe at 194 persons per square kilometre. Currently, Sirius has exclusive satellite radio broadcasting rights to all NFL and NBA games. Italy is largely homogeneous in language and religion but is diverse culturally, economically, and politically. Another cornerstone of Sirius’ business strategy has been to pursue exclusive sports content. Sicily and Sardinia are the two major islands of Italy (comprehensive list).

On October 25, 2005 Sirius announced that "E Street Radio", the exclusive channel of legendary artist Bruce Springsteen, would air from November 1, 2005 to January 31, 2006 on the Bridge - Channel 10. Its highest point is Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) at 4,810 m, but Italy is more typically associated with two famous volcanoes: the currently dormant Vesuvius near Naples and the very active Etna on Sicily. It was Karmazin who fiercely protected Stern in the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show (produced by MTV and aired by CBS, both co-owned with Infinity) and the FCC crackdown on shock jocks and obscenity, in general. Other well-known rivers include the Tiber, Adige and Arno. Stern worked under Karmazin at Infinity Radio and the two men have always had a great deal of mutual respect for each other. Here is also found a large alluvial plain, the Po-Venetian plain, drained by the Po River--which is the Italy's biggest river--and its many tributaries flowing down from the Alps, Apennines and Dolomites. On November 18, 2004 the former COO and President of Viacom, Mel Karmazin, was named the CEO of Sirius. The Apennine mountains form the backbone of this peninsula, leading north-west to where they join the Alps, the mountain range that then forms an arc enclosing Italy from the north.

Generally the personalities act as DJs hosting shows with music they personally like. Italy consists predominantly of a large peninsula (the Italian peninsula) with a distinctive boot shape that extends into the Mediterranean Sea, where together with its two main islands Sicily and Sardinia it creates distinct bodies of water, such as the Adriatic Sea to the north-east, the Ionian Sea to the south-east, the Tyrrhenian Sea to the south-west and finally the Ligurian Sea to the north-west. These shows are hosted by personalities including skateboard legend Tony Hawk, seven-time Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong, The B-52's lead singer Fred Schneider, NBA Hall of Famer Bill Walton and longtime New York City DJ “Cousin Brucie”, who was dropped by WCBS-FM after the station changed to its format from an oldies station to a “Jack” format. All regions except the Aosta Valley are further subdivided into two or more provinces. In addition to the channel-programming deals, Sirius has also programmed a number of more conventional shows with well known personalities in a number of fields. Five of these regions enjoy a special autonomous status that enables them to enact legislation on some of their specific local matters, and are marked by an *:. In Howard Stern's first major hire for Sirius, Stern brought on board Tampa, FL based Bubba the Love Sponge, fired by Clear Channel due to a $750,000 fine proposed by the FCC Reuters, to do a show on Sirius. Italy is subdivided into 20 regions (regioni, singular regione).

Beginning with the announcement of his imminent departure, Stern began to complain of one of his employers, Infinity Broadcasting, as trying to impede the success of his departure. To vote for the senate, the voter must be at least 25. Stern stated that his move was forced by the stringent regulations of the FCC whose enforcement was intensified following the Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show. All the Italian citizens older than 18 can vote. The deal, which gave Sirius exclusive rights to Stern’s radio show, also gave Stern the right to build at least two full-time programming channels. A constitutional court, the Corte Costituzionale, passes on the constitutionality of laws, and is a post-World War II innovation. By far the biggest of these deals was announced on October 6, 2004 when Sirius announced that it signed a five-year, $500-million agreement with Howard Stern to move his radio show to Sirius starting on January 9, 2006. The Italian judicial system is based on Roman law modified by the Napoleonic code and later statutes.

Sirius has reached extensive deals with domestic diva Martha Stewart, E Street Band member Steven Van Zandt (aka Little Steven), Jimmy Buffett, and Eminem to executive produce streams on Sirius. Legislative bills may originate in either house and must be passed by a majority in both. A major component of Sirius’ business strategy has been to execute far-reaching and exclusive deals with big-name entertainers and personalities to create and build broadcast streams, from the ground up. Both houses are elected for a maximum of 5 years, but either may be dissolved before the expiration of its normal term. . In addition to 315 senators, elected members, the Senate includes former presidents and several other persons (no more than 5) appointed for life by the President of the Republic according to special constitutional provisions. “Mongo” later became NASCAR driver Spencer’s nickname with the NASCAR Broadcasters in the following races. The Chamber of Deputies has officially 630 members (de facto, 619 only after the 2001 elections).

The dog in the Sirius logo (Sirius is referred to as the "Dog Star") is unofficially named “Mongo,” a name garnered from the debut of Sirius Satellite Radio’s sponsorship on Casey Atwood’s and later Jimmy Spencer’s NASCAR entry, when the announcing cast voted on names. Under 1993 legislation, Italy has single-member districts for 75% of the seats in parliament; the remaining 25% of seats are allotted on a proportional basis. Sirius was previously known as CD Radio. The houses of parliament are popularly and directly elected by a mixed majoritarian and proportional representation system. However, Sirius led the market in new satellite radio subscribers in 2005. The Council of Ministers must retain the support (fiducia) of both houses. Sirius currently lags behind competitor XM Satellite Radio in terms of subscribers with 3.3 million, well less than XM's current audience of more than 6 million subscribers (as of January 9, 2006). The president nominates the prime minister, who proposes the other ministers (formally named by the president).

A $10 activation fee ($15 if activated by phone) is also required. The President of the Republic (Presidente della Repubblica) is elected for 7 years by the parliament sitting jointly with a small number of regional delegates. to $499.99 for a lifetime subscription (of the receiver, not the subscriber). The 1948 Constitution of Italy established a bicameral parliament (Parlamento), consisting of a Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati) and a Senate (Senato della Repubblica), a separate judiciary, and an executive branch composed of a Council of Ministers (cabinet) (Consiglio dei ministri), headed by the prime minister (Presidente del consiglio dei ministri). Subscription costs for Sirius range from $12.95/mo. The Vatican is now an independent enclave surrounded by Rome. Its business model is to provide pay-for-service radio, music channels being free of commercials, analogous to the business model for premium cable television. Rome itself remained for a decade under the Papacy, and became part of the Kingdom of Italy only on September 20, 1870.

Sirius is based in New York City. The architects of Italian unification were Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, the Chief Minister of Victor Emmanuel, and Giuseppe Garibaldi, a general and national hero. “XS120”, “XS9”, “XS17”). Modern Italy became a nation-state belatedly — on March 17, 1861, when most of the states of the peninsula were united under king Victor Emmanuel II of the Savoy dynasty, which ruled over Sardinia and Piedmont. Sirius channels are identified by Arbitron with the label “XS” (e.g. After Magna Graecia, the Etruscan civilization and especially the Roman Republic and Empire that dominated this part of the world for many centuries, Italy was central to European science and art during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. A subset of Sirius’ music channels are included as part of the DISH Network satellite television service. Important cultures and civilizations have existed there since prehistoric times.

The streams are broadcast from three satellites in an elliptical geosynchronous orbit above North America. Italy has influenced the cultural and social development of the whole Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. With any Sirius-enabled radio, the user can see the artist and song information on display while listening to the stream. . Music streams on Sirius carry a wide variety of music genres, broadcasting 24 hours a day, commercial free. Presently, Italy is a modern country with the 6th GDP in 2004, a member of G8 and a founding member of what is now the European Union signing the Treaty of Rome in 1957. Sirius Satellite Radio NASDAQ: SIRI is a satellite radio (DARS) service in the United States that provides 68 streams (channels) of music and 55 streams of sports, news and entertainment. Italy is called Belpaese (Italian for beautiful country) by their inhabitants, due to the beauty and variety of its landscapes and for its world's largest artistic patrimony; the country is home to the greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites (40 until January 1, 2006).

Black and white lineup from SiriusBackstage.com, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required. Italy was also home to many well-known and influential civilisations, including the Etruscans, Greeks and the Romans. Official Sirius Satellite Radio Stations List, Adobe Acrobat Reader Required. For more than 3,000 years Italy witnessed many migrations and invasions from Germanic, Celtic, Frankish, Byzantine Greek, Norman, and the French Angevin, and Lombard peoples. List of Sirius Satellite Radio stations. The independent countries of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italian territory. XACT XTR1 Radio with Car Kit. It comprises the boot-shaped Italian peninsula, the Po River valley, and two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia, and shares its northern alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia.

Clarion Calypso SIRIUS Radio with Car Kit. Italy, officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Italia or Repubblica Italiana), is a country in southern Europe. Kenwood H2EV Radio with Car and Home Kits. 2 Prior to 1999: Italian Lira.. Tivoli's SIRIUS Table Radio. Travel guide to Italy from Wikitravel. SIRIUS Sportster Radio with Boombox Package. Istituto nazionale di statistica - National statistics office, (in Italian).

Docking Station Package. Ministero degli Affari Esteri - Italian Foreign Office. SIRIUS Sportster Exec. Italia.gov.it - Main governmental portal (in Italian). SIRIUS S50. Parlamento - Official site of the Italian parliament (Senate in Italian only). Presidenza della Repubblica - Official site of the Italian president (in Italian).

Retrieved October 31, 2005. Evenimentul Zilei, October 31, 2005. Mitrica, Mihai Un milion de romani s-au mutat in Italia ("One million Romanians have moved to Italy"). List of Italian companies.

Veneto (Venice, Venezia). Umbria (Perugia). Tuscany, Toscana (Florence Firenze). Trentino-South Tyrol*, Trentino-Alto Adige / Südtirol (Trento).

Sicily*, Sicilia (Palermo). Sardinia*, Sardegna (Cagliari). Piedmont, Piemonte (Turin, Torino). Molise (Campobasso).

Marche (Ancona). Lombardy Lombardia (Milan, Milano). Liguria (Genoa, Genova). Latium, Lazio (Rome, Roma).

Friuli-Venezia Giulia* (Trieste). Emilia-Romagna (Bologna). Campania (Naples, Napoli). Calabria (Catanzaro).

Basilicata (Potenza). Apulia, Puglia (Bari). Aosta Valley*, Valle d'Aosta / Vallée d'Aoste (Aosta). Abruzzo (with capital L'Aquila).

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