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Shimano

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components.

Cycling

Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts.

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs.

The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well.

When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments.

Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment.

In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions.

Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles.

Racing bicycle groupsets

Current road bicycle groupsets include:

  • Dura-Ace
  • Ultegra
  • 105
  • Tiagra
  • Sora

Mountain bike groupsets

Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:

  • Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes
  • Hone
  • XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes
  • XT
  • LX
  • Deore
  • Alivio
  • Acera
  • Altus
  • Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles.

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Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:. Snocross, where snomobiles race on motocross-like courses is very popular. Current road bicycle groupsets include:. Grass drags are held every summer, with the largest event being haydays in lino lakes, MN. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles. They are powered by strong 4-, 6- or 8-cylinder diesel or petrol engines. Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. Unlike the recreational snowmobile, they are completely tracked and have no skis in the front.

Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions. They are large enclosed vehicles which can carry passengers and cargo, and tow sleds. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. Industrial-type snowmobiles for grooming cross-country ski trails and right of way maintenance are also made. In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. [5]. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment. In Saskatchewan, 16 out of 21 deaths in snowmobile collisions between 1996 and 2000 were alcohol-related.

In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. Around 10 people a year die in such crashes in Minnesota alone with alcohol a contributing factor in many (but not all) cases. Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. People die every year when they crash into other snowmobiles, automobiles, pedestrians, or trees or fall through ice. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments. [4]. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. It is very often the only source of income for some smaller towns that rely solely on tourism during the summer and winter months, while it still has a major economic impact on larger cities and towns as well.

While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. This includes expenditures on equipment, clothing, accessories, snowmobiling vacations, etc. When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. Snowmobilers in Canada and the United States spend over $27 billion on snowmobiling each year. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well. The plan will be in effect for three winters, allowing snowmobile and snowcoach use through the winter of 2006-2007. The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. With minor exceptions, all snowmobiles would be required to meet NPS Best Available Technology (BAT) requirements.

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs. Rockefeller, Jr., Memorial Parkway, 140 snowmobiles would be allowed. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts. In Grand Teton National Park and the John D. Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. This decision allows 720 snowmobiles per day in Yellowstone, all commercially guided. . The Final Rule implementing this decision was published in the Federal Register on November 10, 2004.

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components. Rockefeller, Jr., Memorial Parkway. Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles. On November 4, 2004, the National Park Service of the United States approved a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Temporary Winter Use Plans and Environmental Assessment for Winter Use in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks and the John D. Altus. The industry is also working on direct injected "clean two strokes" which are actually an improvement on carbureted four strokes in terms of NOX emissions. Acera. Polaris is using a fuel injection technology called "Cleanfire Injection" on their 2 strokes.

Alivio. Bombardier’s SDI two stroke motors emit 50 percent less pollutants than previous carburated 2-strokes. Deore. Yamaha and Arctic-Cat were the first to mass produce four-stroke models, which are significantly less polluting than the early two-stroke machines. LX. In the last decade several manufacturers have been experimenting with less polluting motors, and putting most of them in production. XT. Most snowmobiles are still powered by two-stroke engines, although almost all of Yamaha's lineup is now powered by four-strokes with the exception of a few models.

XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes. The environmental impact of snowmobiles has been the subject of much debate. Hone. The number of snowmobiles in Europe and other parts of the world is relatively low, though they are growing in popularity. Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes. Most of the annual snowmobile production is sold for recreative purposes much further south, in those parts of North America where the snow cover is stable during the winter months. Sora. However, the small population of the Arctic areas makes for a correspondingly small market.

Tiagra. Snowmobiles are widely used in arctic territories for travel. 105. (Racing snowmobiles reach speeds in excess of 241 km/h [150mph]). Ultegra. Modern snowmobiles can achieve speeds in excess of 193 km/h (120mph). Dura-Ace. The snowmobile market is now divided up between four big makers: Bombardier, Arctic Cat, Yamaha, and Polaris.

Bombardier Recreational Products, a former division of the first company, still makes snowmobiles, outboard motors, personal watercraft, and ATVs. Sales reached a peak of 260,000 in 1997 and went down gradually, influenced by warmer winters and the use during all four seasons of small one- or two-person ATVs. Most of these companies went bankrupt during the gasoline crisis of 1973 and succeeding recessions, or were bought up by the larger ones. Many of the snowmobile companies were small outfits and the biggest manufacturers were often attempts by motorcycle makers and outboard motor makers to branch off in a new market.

From 1970 to 1973 they sold close to two million machines, a sales summit never since equalled. In the 1970s there were hundreds of snowmobile manufacturers. Competitors sprang up and copied and improved his design. It was only in 1959 that he invented what we know as the modern snowmobile in its open-cockpit one- or two-person form, and started selling it as the "Ski-doo".

[3]) He started production of a large, enclosed, seven-passenger snowmobile in 1937, and introduced another enclosed twelve-passenger model in 1942. It was developed by France and used in a variety of combat vehicles by the U.S. (The Kegresse track, a similar rubber track, was used on off-road halftrack military trucks before and during World War Two. This led Joseph-Armand Bombardier of the small town of Valcourt in Quebec, Canada, to invent a different caterpillar track system suitable for all kinds of snow conditions.

The relatively dry snow conditions of the United States Midwest made the converted model Ts and other like vehicles not suitable for operation in more humid snow areas such as Southern Quebec. Polaris Industries in Roseau, Minnesota, in the United States Midwest, was a pioneer in the production of purpose-built snowmobiles. patent in 1927. He was granted a U.S.

This early history [1] can be traced to Carl Eliason [2] in Saynor, Wisconsin with his first hand built model completed in 1924. They were popular for rural mail delivery for a time. The earliest snowmobiles were modified Ford Model Ts with the undercarriage replaced with tracks and skis. .

Summertime occupations for snowmobile enthusiasts can involve drag racing on grass or even asphalt strips. Even though they are not designed for it, snowmobiles will skim on top of water if the speed is high enough, as demonstrated by the annual snowmobile river drag race in Kautokeino, Norway. Most snowmobiles are typically powered by two-stroke gasoline/petrol internal combustion engines. They are designed to be operated on snow and ice, and require no road or trail.

A snowmobile (or snow scooter, often referred to by enthusiasts as a 'sled' and in the Canadian north and Alaska as a 'snowmachine') is a land vehicle propelled by one or two rubber tracks, with skis for steering.

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