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Shimano

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components.

Cycling

Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts.

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs.

The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well.

When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments.

Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment.

In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions.

Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles.

Racing bicycle groupsets

Current road bicycle groupsets include:

  • Dura-Ace
  • Ultegra
  • 105
  • Tiagra
  • Sora

Mountain bike groupsets

Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:

  • Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes
  • Hone
  • XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes
  • XT
  • LX
  • Deore
  • Alivio
  • Acera
  • Altus
  • Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles.

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Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:. Because a tail bone makes the execution of an ollie more difficult and because the skateboard decks today don't last as long as in the 1980's a tail bone is today a very rare accessory. Current road bicycle groupsets include:. It's purpose is to protect the tail of the deck from wear. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles. Tail bone, aka tail guard: A piece of plastic fastened under the tail of a skateboard. Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. It's purpose is to protect the nose of the deck from being damaged when the skateboard hits an obstacle.

Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions. Nose guard: Plastic "bumpers" fastened to the nose of a skateboard. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. It's also called a "Bird" since it's shape resembles the shape your hand makes when giving someone the bird. In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. Their purpose is to prevent the skateboard from being stopped when the truck hits an obstacle (for example when rolling up a curb). World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment. Lappers: Plastic covers fastened on the inside of the truck that covered the kingpin and the baseplate.

In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. They were invented during a time when street skating was in it's infancy but were not very popular since they wore out very quickly and had to be replaced often. Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. Copers: Plastic covers fastened under the truck's hanger which provide a more slippery surface when grinding. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments. Most skateboarders no longer use rails, since the boards have become lighter and thus holding a grab during aerial tricks has become easier. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. They also provide a more slippery surface and protect the deck from scratches during board slides.

While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. They used to be popular among vert skaters to whom they provided additional grip during aerial tricks. When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. Rails: Narrow plastic strips that were fastened under the deck along the edges. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well. But desipte all of this, risers are not a necessary component on the skateboard. The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. More risers will equal a higher board which also increases the "pop" a rider gets when pushing down on the tail to perform an ollie, requiring less effort to get a higher ollie.

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs. Another reason riders install risers is that they evenly distribute impact force from the trucks to the deck, meaning less chance of the deck cracking under pressure. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts. This rises the deck from the ground slightly, helping to avoid "wheel-bite",. Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. Risers are placed in between the underside of the deck and the truck. . Risers - There are special products available to help raise the board away from the trucks and the ground.

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components. It allows less friction and top speeds. Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles. The Best Bearings are Super Swiss Six, the balls inside the case of the bearing are made of ceramic clay instead of the traditional metal. Altus. Higher numbers indicate that the bearing comforms to a higher degree of precision. Acera. Bearings are graded according to the ABEC scale, which goes from 1-9, in odd numbers.

Alivio. Bearings - Inside each wheel are seven precision ball bearings, secured by a plastic "crown". Deore. For general cruising most users prefer larger, softer wheels. LX. Smaller sizes like 52-55mm keep the board closer to the ground and are lighter which makes tricks easier to perform. XT. Larger sizes like 65-80mm roll faster which makes riding vert ramps easier.

XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes. The wheels, usually made of polyurethane and come in nine different sizes and suit different types of skating. Hone. Wheels - The wheels attach to each hanger. Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes. A bolt called a kingpin holds these parts together. Sora. The softer the bushings, the easier it is to turn.

Tiagra. The stiffer the bushings, the more stable the skateboard. 105. The bushings cushion the truck when it turns. Ultegra. Between the baseplate and the hanger are bushings, also rubbers or grommets, that provide the spring mechanism for turning the skateboard. Dura-Ace. The top part of the truck is screwed to the deck and is called the baseplate, and beneath it is the hanger.

The trucks are further composed of two parts. Trucks - Attached to the deck are two metal (usually aluminum) trucks, which connect to the wheels. The longboard, a common variant of the skateboard, has a longer deck. Skateboard decks are usually between 28 and 32.5 inches long.

Narrower decks are suited to street skaters who like to perform more technical tricks; a wide board often makes it awkward to pull off such maneuvers. Wider decks are better suited to vert skaters who need more control and stability while riding down the steep slopes and riding the transitions and walls of a halfpipe. The deck is normally 7 1/2 to 8 inches wide. An average, all wood deck costs about $50 (US) while a deck including a material such as fiberglass in it can cost up to $70 or so (US).

Sometimes other composite materials, such as fiberglass and Kevlar, are incorporated into deck construction, usually to lighten the board or increase its strength or rigidity. This is what gives the deck its strength. The plies of maple are cross-laminated, meaning the direction of the wood grain alternates between plies. Decks were originally a single piece of wood but are now usually made from seven plies of Canadian Hard Rock Maple glued together.

It is covered with grip tape, which adds friction to its surface. The deck forms the body of the skateboard and provides a place to stand. Deck - Skateboards are composed of several parts. .


.
. Another difference is that the boards of the past had a very small nose, today's boards have almost identical noses and tails (the nose is usually a bit steeper however). The trucks (axles) were also larger in size and less sturdy.

The wheels were rather large compared to most of today's sizes and were usually made of clay. Boards in the past were often in the shape of a surfboard, with little concave and had 1 ply of wood. The skateboard has evolved a lot since the 50s, not only in shape but also materials used. They are typically part of western youth culture.

It was developed in the twentieth century by surfers, who first made them using rollerskates. A skateboard is a narrow wheeled platform (usually made of 7 ply maple), used for recreation and transportation.

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