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Shimano

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components.

Cycling

Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts.

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs.

The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well.

When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments.

Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment.

In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions.

Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles.

Racing bicycle groupsets

Current road bicycle groupsets include:

  • Dura-Ace
  • Ultegra
  • 105
  • Tiagra
  • Sora

Mountain bike groupsets

Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:

  • Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes
  • Hone
  • XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes
  • XT
  • LX
  • Deore
  • Alivio
  • Acera
  • Altus
  • Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles.

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Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:. Also, often the kilt is worn without underwear; the uniforms of several Scottish military regiments mandate wearing no underwear with the kilt except at specified occasions. Current road bicycle groupsets include:. Wearing no underwear may have a sexual connotation, playing with the boundaries of modesty, motivated by mild exhibitionism. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles. Skirts and dresses are, like other outer clothing, usually worn with underwear. Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. Their main exhibition was the Bravehearts: Men in Skirts exhibit (Nov 2003 to Feb 2004) at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.[3].

Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions. The other is an effort by certain fashion houses such as Jean-Paul Gaultier to increase public awareness that unbifurcated garments such as skirts and dresses are only recently and only regionally considered solely a women's garment. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. They are called kilts, but have several differences from the traditional Scottish kilt. In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. One is an effort by companies such as Utilikilt to sell and promote a line of "masculine" unbifurcated garments. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment. There are two recent movements to legitimize the wearing of unbifurcated garments by men in Western society.

In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. Exceptions include:. Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. Skirts, dresses, and their like are still considered primarily women's garments in many parts of the world, and the wearing of them by men is sometimes considered cross-dressing. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments. Dresses however can be cooler and less confining than many trouser styles, and they are still very popular for special occasions such as proms or weddings. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. A disadvantage of skirts and dresses that contributes to many girls and women preferring trousers and shorts is that they may be either too long and therefore limit freedom of movement such as when climbing ladders, or too short, in which case one, because of modesty will need to take the trouble when sitting down, such as crossing legs, to avoid exposure of the underwear.

While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. In traditional societies, such as in many countries in Africa, the Middle East and Central and South America, it is considered inappropriate for girls and women to wear trousers rather than a skirt or dress. When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. In cold climates, girls and women may wear trousers for warmth, with dresses on top to mark their femininity. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well. Skirts or dresses are the garments of choice for many women in formal situations, such as weddings and geopolitical summits. The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. A skirt may be worn as part of a suit.

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs. In Europe and America skirts and dresses can be worn by females of all ages when they are not wearing pants. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts. Fads and fashions:. Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. Basic shapes:. . Fads and fashions:.

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components. Basic shapes:. Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles. Styles of dresses and skirts of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries include:. Altus. Since the 1970s and the rise of pants as an option for all but the most formal of occasions, no one skirt length has dominated fashion for long, with short and ankle-length styles often appearing side-by-side in fashion magazines and catalogs. Acera. For the next fifty years, fashionable skirts became short (1920s), then long (1930s), then shorter (the War Years with their restrictions on fabric), then long (the New Look), then shortest of all during the 1960s, when skirts became as short as possible while avoiding exposure of underwear, which is considered taboo.

Alivio. Beginning around 1915, hemlines for daytime dresses left the floor for good. Deore. Throughout this period, the length of fashionable dresses varied only slightly, between ankle-length and floor-sweeping. LX. Dresses were generally one-piece garments from 1800 through the 1840s; after that it became common for a dress to be made as a separate skirt and bodice, and many dresses had a "day" bodice with a high neckline and long sleeves, and an "evening" bodice with a low neckline (decollete) and very short sleeves. XT. Skirts started fairly narrow and increased dramatically to the hoopskirt and crinoline-supported styles of the 1860s; then fullness was draped and drawn to the back by means of bustles.

XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes. Waistlines started just below the bust and gradually sank to the natural waist. Hone. During the nineteenth century, the cut of women's dresses in western culture varied more widely than in any other century. Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes. . Sora. At the other extreme, the miniskirts of the 1960s were minimal garments that may barely cover the underwear when seated.

Tiagra. Some medieval upper-class women wore skirts over 3 metres in diameter at the bottom. 105. The hemline of skirts and dresses can be as high as the upper thigh or as low as the ground, depending on the whims of fashion and the modesty or personal taste of the wearer. Ultegra. Skirts and dresses of thin or clingy fabrics are worn with slips to make the material of the skirt drape better. Dura-Ace. Modern skirts and dresses are usually made of light to mid-weight fabrics, such as denim, jersey, worsted, or poplin.

At its simplest, a skirt can be a draped garment made out of a single piece of material (such as sarongs or pareos), but most skirts are fitted to the body at the waist and fuller below, with the fullness introduced by means of darts, gores, pleats, or panels. [2]. The kilt is considered a traditional men's garment in Scotland, and is growing in fashion in other parts of the world.[1] Additionally, garments which are identified as skirts are being proposed as men's clothing by some of the trendier fashion houses such as Jean-Paul Gaultier. However, there are exceptions.

In Western culture, skirts and dresses are usually considered women's clothing. A dress (also frock, gown) is a garment consisting of a skirt with an attached bodice or with a matching bodice giving the effect of a one-piece garment. Unlike trousers, a skirt is "unbifurcated" — that is, not divided into separate legs. A skirt is a tube- or cone-shaped garment which hangs from the waist and covers all or part of the legs.

The pareu, a dress worn by both men and women in Tahiti. The foustanella is worn by men in Greece and Albania. The thobe is commonly worn by men in Arabia. The djellaba is worn by men in Morocco and other parts of Africa.

The kaftan is worn by men in the eastern Mediterranean. Throughout most of Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, sarongs are worn by both men and women. The Scottish kilt. Trouser skirt, a straight skirt with the part above the hips tailored like men's trousers, with belt loops, pockets, and fly front.

Sarong, a square of fabric wrapped around the body and tied on one hip to make a skirt; worn as a skirt or as a cover-up over a bathing suit in tropical climates. Broomstick skirt, a skirt with many crumpled pleats formed by compressing and twisting the garment while wet (1980s and on). Maxiskirt, a midcalf-length skirt (1970s). Miniskirt, a thigh-length skirt, and micromini, an extremely short version (1960s).

Though traditionally designed as women's wear, it is fashioned to mimic somewhat closely the general appearance of a (man's) kilt, including the usage of a plaid pattern more or less closely resembling those of recognized tartan patterns of Scotland. Kilt-skirt, a wrap-around skirt with overlapping aprons in front and pleated around the back. Prairie skirt, a flared skirt with one or more flounces or tiers (1970s and on). Dirndl, a skirt made of a straight length of fabric gathered at the waist.

Poodle skirt, a circle or near-circle skirt with an appliqued poodle or other decoration (1950s). Hobble skirt, a fashion of the early 20th century, with fullness at the hips narrowing to the ankles. Circle skirt, a skirt cut in sections to make one or more circles with a hole for the waist, so the skirt is very full but hangs smoothly from the waist without darts, pleats, or gathers. Pleated skirt, a skirt with fullness reduced to fit the waist by means of regular pleats ('plaits') or folds, which can be stitched flat to hip-level or free-hanging.

A-line skirt, a skirt with a slight flare, roughly in the shape of a capital letter A. Full skirt, a skirt with fullness gathered into the waistband. Straight skirt, a tailored skirt hanging straight from the hips and fitted from the waist to the hips by means of darts or a yoke; may have a kick-pleat for ease of walking. Granny gown, an ankle-length, often ruffled, day dress of printed calico, cut like a Victorian nightgown, popularized by designer Laura Ashley (late 1960s-1970s).

Cocktail dress, a semiformal party dress of the current street length (1950s and sporadically popular since). Kitty Foyle, a dark-colored dress with contrasting (usually white) collar and cuffs (1940s, after a dress worn by Ginger Rogers in the movie of the same name). Ball gown, a long dress with a full, sweeping, or trained skirt for dancing. Evening gown or formal, a long dress for formal occasions.

Dinner dress, a semiformal dress worn when fashionable people "dressed for dinner" (men in tuxedos or dinner jackets, even at home). Tea gown, a frothy, feminine semiformal dress. Chanel's Little Black Dress (1920s and on). Tent, a dress flared from above the bust, sometimes with a yoke (1960s).

Sundress, a sleeveless dress of any shape, with a low neckline in a lightweight fabric, for summer wear. Shift, a straight dress with no waist shaping or seam (1960s). Sheath, a fitted, often sleeveless dress, sometimes without a waistseam (1960s). Shirtwaist, a dress with a bodice (waist) like a tailored shirt and an attached straight or full skirt.

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