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Shimano

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components.

Cycling

Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts.

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs.

The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well.

When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments.

Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment.

In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions.

Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles.

Racing bicycle groupsets

Current road bicycle groupsets include:

  • Dura-Ace
  • Ultegra
  • 105
  • Tiagra
  • Sora

Mountain bike groupsets

Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:

  • Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes
  • Hone
  • XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes
  • XT
  • LX
  • Deore
  • Alivio
  • Acera
  • Altus
  • Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles.

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Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:. Their names were assigned by later astronomers.). Current road bicycle groupsets include:. (Uranus and Neptune were also Roman gods, but neither planet was known to the Romans as they are not visible with the naked eye from Earth. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles. In Greco-Roman pantheism, some "stars", later identified as planets, represented various important deities, from which the names of the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were taken. Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. They were thought to be the souls of the dead or gods and goddesses.

Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions. As well as certain constellations and the Sun itself, stars as a whole have their own mythology. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. For an overall reaction of:. In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. In stars with cores at 108 K and masses between 0.5 and 10 solar masses, helium can be transformed into carbon in the triple-alpha process:. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment. In more massive stars, helium is produced in a cycle of reactions catalyzed by carbon, the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle.

In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. These reactions result in the overall reaction:. Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. In the Sun, with a 107 K core, hydrogen fuses to form helium in the proton-proton chain:. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments. Stars begin as a cloud of mostly hydrogen with about 23–28% helium and a few percent heavier elements. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. A variety of different nuclear fusion reactions take place inside the cores of stars, depending upon their mass and composition (see Stellar nucleosynthesis).

While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. The apparent brightness of a star is measured by its apparent magnitude. When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. Besides the emitted visible light, the ultraviolet and infrared components are typically significant. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well. The peak frequency of the light depends on the temperature of the outer layers of the star. The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. The energy produced by stars radiates into space as electromagnetic radiation, as a stream of neutrinos from the star's core, and as a stream of particles from the star's outer layers (its stellar wind).

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs. For a list of traditional names, see the list of stars by constellation. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts. See star designations for more information on how stars are named. Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. the "International Star Registry") purport to sell names to stars; however, these names are not recognized by the scientific community, nor used by them, and many in the astronomy community view these organizations as frauds preying on people ignorant of how stars are in fact named. . A number of private companies (e.g.

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components. The only body which has been recognized by the scientific community as having competence to name stars or other celestial bodies is the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles. The names are either traditional names (mostly from Arabic), Flamsteed designations, or Bayer designations. Altus. Most stars are identified only by catalogue numbers; only a few have names as such. Acera. The Sun is taken as the prototypical star (not because it is special in any way, but because it is the closest and most studied star), and most characteristics of other stars are usually given in solar units.

Alivio. Our Sun is a G2V (yellow dwarf), being of intermediate temperature and ordinary size. Deore. These fall along a narrow band when graphed according to their absolute magnitude and spectral type. LX. Most stars fall into the main sequence which consists of ordinary hydrogen-burning stars. XT. These range from 0 (hypergiants) through III (giants) to V (main sequence dwarfs) and VII (white dwarfs).

XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes. In addition, stars may be classified by their "luminosity effects", which correspond to their spatial size. Hone. This system matches closely with temperature, but breaks down at the extreme hottest end; class O0 and O1 stars may not exist. Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes. Each letter has 10 subclassifications numbered (hottest to coldest) from 0 to 9. Sora. The most common of these are types L and T, which classify the coldest low-mass stars and brown dwarfs.

Tiagra. A variety of rare spectral types have special classifications. 105. There are many other mnemonics for star classification. Ultegra. The main classifications can be easily remembered using the mnemonic "Oh, Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me" (variant: change "girl" to "guy"), invented by Annie Jump Cannon. Dura-Ace. There are different classifications of stars according to their spectra ranging from type O, which are very hot, to M, which are so cool that molecules may form in their atmospheres.

The minimum mass a star can have is estimated to be in the vicinity of 75 Jupiters. Smaller bodies are brown dwarfs, which occupy a poorly-defined grey area between stars and gas giants. With a mass only 93 times that of Jupiter, AB Doradus C, a companion to AB Doradus A, is the smallest known star undergoing nuclear fusion in its core. This generation of supermassive stars is long extinct, however, and currently only theoretical.

The very first stars to form after the Big Bang may have been larger, up to 300 solar masses or more, due to the complete absence of elements heavier than lithium in their composition. The reason for this limit is not precisely known, but the Eddington limit is part of the answer. He used the Hubble Space Telescope to observe about a thousand stars in the Arches cluster, a massive young star cluster near the core of the Milky Way, and found no stars over that limit despite a statistical expectation that there should be several. Recent work by Donald Figer, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, suggests that 150 solar masses is the upper limit of stars in the current era of the universe.

One of the most massive stars known is Eta Carinae, with 100–150 times as much mass as the Sun. However, these have a much lower density than the Sun. (See Big Bang theory and stellar evolution.) They range in size from the tiny neutron stars (which are actually dead stars) no bigger than a city, to supergiants like the North Star (Polaris) and Betelgeuse, in the Orion constellation, which have a diameter about 1,000 times larger than the Sun—about 1.6 billion kilometers. Some stars may even be close to 13.7 billion years old, which is the observed age of the universe.

Many stars are between 1 billion and 10 billion years old. Larger (giant) stars have much bigger, much more obvious starspots, and also exhibit strong stellar limb-darkening (the brightness decreases towards the edge of the stellar disk). Small (dwarf) stars such as the Sun generally have essentially featureless disks with only small starspots. Stars can be much closer to each other in the centres of galaxies and globular clusters, or much further apart in galactic halos.

Distances like this are typical inside galactic discs, where the Sun and Earth are located. Travelling at the orbit speed of the Space Shuttle (5 miles per second -- almost 30,000 kilometers per hour), it would take about 150,000 years to get there. The nearest star to the Earth, apart from the Sun, is Proxima Centauri, which is 39.9 trillion kilometers, or 4.2 light years away (light from Proxima Centauri takes 4.2 years to reach Earth). That is 70 000 000 000 000 000 000 000, or 230 billion times as many as the 300 billion in our own Milky Way.

Astronomers estimate that there are at least 70 sextillion (7×1022) stars in the known universe [1]. Larger groups called star clusters also exist. The majority of stars are gravitationally bound to other stars, forming binary stars. A typical galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars.

Stars are not spread uniformly across the universe, but are typically grouped into galaxies. The Sun is also a star, but it is close enough to Earth to appear as a disk instead, and to provide daylight. Interferometer telescopes are required in order to produce images of these objects. All stars except the Sun appear to the human eye as shining points in the nighttime sky that twinkle because of the effect of the Earth's atmosphere.

The outflow from supernovae and the stellar wind of large stars play an important part in shaping the interstellar medium. These heavy elements allow the formation of rocky planets. The blown-off outer layers of dying stars include heavy elements which may be recycled during new star formation. Eventually, most of the matter in a star is blown away by the explosion (forming nebulae such as the Crab Nebula) and what remains will be a neutron star (sometimes a pulsar or X-ray burster) or, in the case of the largest stars, a black hole.

When they occur within the Milky Way, supernovae have historically been observed by naked-eye observers as "new stars" where none existed before. Supernovae are so bright that they may briefly outshine the star's entire home galaxy. The shockwave formed by this sudden collapse causes the rest of the star to explode in a supernova. This core will suddenly collapse as its electrons are driven into its protons, forming neutrons and neutrinos in a burst of inverse beta decay.

In larger stars, fusion continues until an iron core accumulates that is too large to be supported by electron degeneracy pressure. These too will fade into black dwarfs over very long stretches of time. The core that remains will be a tiny ball of degenerate matter not massive enough for further fusion to take place, supported only by degeneracy pressure, called a white dwarf. An average-size star will then shed its outer layers as a planetary nebula.

In old, very massive stars, a large core of inert iron will accumulate in the center of the star. Likewise, since they are more tightly bound than all lighter nuclei, energy cannot be released by fission. Since iron nuclei are more tightly bound than any heavier nuclei, they cannot be fused to release energy. Larger stars will also fuse heavier elements, all the way to iron, which is the end point of the process.

Eventually the core is compressed enough to start helium fusion, and the star heats up and contracts. In about 5 billion years, when the Sun is a red giant, it will be so large that it will consume both Mercury and Venus. As most stars exhaust their supply of hydrogen, their outer layers expand and cool to form a red giant. However, since the lifespan of such stars is greater than the current age of the universe (13.6 billion years), no black dwarfs exist yet.

At the end of their lives, they simply become dimmer and dimmer, fading into black dwarfs. Small stars (called red dwarfs) burn their fuel very slowly and last tens to hundreds of billions of years. Such stars are said to be on the main sequence. Stars spend about 90% of their lifetime fusing hydrogen to produce helium in high-temperature and high-pressure reactions near the core.

One example of such a nebula is the Orion Nebula. High mass stars powerfully illuminate the clouds from which they formed. Star formation begins with gravitational instability inside those clouds, often triggered by shockwaves from supernovae or collision of two galaxies (as in a starburst galaxy). Star formation occurs in molecular clouds, large regions of high density in the interstellar medium (though still less dense than the inside of an earthly vacuum chamber).

. Stellar astronomy is the study of stars. Scientifically, stars are defined as self-gravitating spheres of plasma in hydrostatic equilibrium, which generate their own energy through the process of nuclear fusion. Unlike a planet, from which most light is reflected, a star emits light because of its intense heat.

A star is a massive body of plasma in outer space that is currently producing or has produced energy through nuclear fusion. John Gribbin, Mary Gribbin (2001) "Stardust: Supernovae and Life — The Cosmic Connection", Yale University Press. Cliff Pickover (2001) "The Stars of Heaven", Oxford University Press.

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