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Shimano

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components.

Cycling

Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts.

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs.

The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well.

When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments.

Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment.

In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions.

Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles.

Racing bicycle groupsets

Current road bicycle groupsets include:

  • Dura-Ace
  • Ultegra
  • 105
  • Tiagra
  • Sora

Mountain bike groupsets

Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:

  • Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes
  • Hone
  • XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes
  • XT
  • LX
  • Deore
  • Alivio
  • Acera
  • Altus
  • Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles.

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Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:. To the readers of the Metro section, vehicular traffic does not reinforce, but rather detracts from, the essential "street-ness" of a street. Current road bicycle groupsets include:. For instance, a New York Times writer lets casually slip the observation that automobile-laden Houston Street is "a street that can hardly be called 'street' anymore, transformed years ago into an eight-lane raceway that alternately resembles a Nascar event and a parking lot." [1] Published in the paper's Metro section, the article evidently presumes an audience with an innate grasp of the full urban role of the street. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles. the facilitation of vehicular traffic as an incidental benefit). Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. Among urban residents of the English-speaking world, the word appears to carry its original connotations (i.e.

Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions. A mother may tell her toddlers "Don't go out into the street, so you don't get hit by a car.". This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. Thus, sidewalks and tree lawns would not be thought of as part of the street. In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. In an even narrower sense, some may think of a street as only the vehicle-driven and parking part of the thoroughfare. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment. In this view, pedestrian traffic is incidental to the street's purpose; a street consists of a thoroughfare running through the middle (in essence, a road), and may or may not have sidewalks along the sides.

In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. In some parts of the English-speaking world, such as North America, many think of the street as a thoroughfare for vehicular traffic first and foremost. Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. However, modern civilization in much of the New World developed around transportation provided by motor vehicles. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments. Streets have existed for as long as humans have lived in permanent settlements (see civilization). SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. In Auckland, for example, the main shopping precinct is around Queen Street and Karangahape Road, and the main urban thoroughfare connecting the south of the city to the city centre is Dominion Road.

While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. In some other English-speaking countries, such as New Zealand and Australia, cities are often divided by a main "Road," with "Streets" leading from this "Road", or are divided by thoroughfares known as "Streets" or "Roads" with no apparent differentiation between the two. When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. Thus the town's so-called "Roads" will actually be more streetlike than a road. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well. In the United Kingdom many towns will refer to their main thoroughfare as the High Street (in the United States it would be called the Main Street), and many of the ways leading off it will be named "Road" despite the urban setting. The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. A desolate road in rural Montana, on the other hand, may bear a sign proclaiming it "Davidson Street", but this does not make it a "street".

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs. For example, London's Abbey Road serves all the vital functions of a street, despite its name, and locals are more apt to refer to the "street" outside than the "road". These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts. There is a haphazard relationship, at best, between a thoroughfare's function and its name. Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. A town square is a little more like a street, but a town square is rarely paved with asphalt and may not make any concessions for through traffic at all. . The street, not the road, is home to the homeless, and even Kerouac's hero finally returned to find his friends on a New York street.

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components. Nobody has ever seen a "road" vendor or a "road" performer, and you'll never find yourself on a long "street" to nowhere. Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles. It is "on the street" where one hears an interesting rumor, where one bumps into an old acquaintance, where one acquires smarts. Altus. One may "hit the road" to see the wonders of the world—Jack Kerouac famously chronicled one such journey—but the latest bling will "hit the streets" before it ever appears on a road. Acera. If a road connects places, then a street connects people.

Alivio. Still, even here, what is called a "street" is usually a smaller thoroughfare, such as a road within a housing development feeding directly into individual driveways. Deore. In rural and suburban environments where street life is rare, the terms "street" and "road" are frequently considered interchangeable. LX. Street performers, beggars, patrons of sidewalk cafés, peoplewatchers, and a diversity of other characters are habitual users of a street; the same people would not typically be found on a road. XT. However, a street is characterized by the degree and quality of street life it facilitates, whereas a road serves primarily as a through passage for road vehicles or (less frequently) pedestrians.

XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes. A road, like a street, is often paved and used for travel. Hone. Streets also tend to aggregate similar establishments. Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes. into north and south. Sora. For example, Yonge Street divides Toronto into east and west sides, and East Capitol Street divides Washington, D.C.

Tiagra. Other streets have marked divisions between neighborhoods of a city. 105. Similarly, the Bowery in New York City was once known as the center of the nation's underground punk scene. Ultegra. New Orleans’ Bourbon Street is famous not only for its active nightlife but also for its role as the center of the city’s French Quarter. Dura-Ace. Much as a string in a jar can precipitate a beautiful, delicate crystal, a street can serve as the catalyst for neighborhood culture and solidarity.

Jane Jacobs, an economist and prominent urbanist, wrote extensively on the ways that interaction among the people who live and work on a particular street--"eyes on the street"--can reduce crime, encourage the exchange of ideas, and generally make the world a better place. Streets assume the role of a town square for its regulars. See also: Graffiti. It is also a neutral zone where business associates can meet for coffee as easily as friends can meet for drinks.

The street is a place for expression, protest, and revolution. Such assembly need not be as dramatic as marching, parading, or erecting barricades as Parisians are wont to do. Streets are also a forum for public assembly. The length of a lot of land along a street is referred to as the frontage of the lot.

Alleys typically do not have names. Practically all public streets are given a name or at least a number to identify them and any addresses located along the streets. Beyond these public strips of land are bordered the front of lots commonly owned by private parties. Streets are often lighted at night with streetlights, which are typically located far overhead on tall poles.

Alternatively, there may be openings in wider sidewalks in which trees grow. Grass and trees are often grown there for landscaping the sides of the street. There may be an unpaved strip of land between the vehicle-driveable part of the street and the sidewalk on either side of the street, which can be called the tree lawn. Sidewalks are often located on these public land strips beyond the curbs on one or usually both sides of the street.

Usually, there are strips of land beyond the driving/parking parts of the streets owned by the government entity owning the streets. Bordering the driving/parking sides of many urban streets, there are curbs. Where vehicular traffic is allowed on a street, traffic and parking regulatory signs are often placed near the sides. Occasionally, a street may have enough width on the side that there is angle parking.

There may be parking lane markings on the pavement effectively designating which meter a parking space corresponds to. On the side of some streets, particularly in business areas, there may be parking meters into which coins must be paid to allow parking in the adjacent space for a limited time. Signs off to the side of the street often state regulations about parking. Sometimes parking on the sides of streets is allowed only at certain times.

Some streets are too busy or not wide enough for to allow parking on the side. A somewhat recent trend has been to start marking off parking lanes on more important streets. Most minor side streets allowing free parallel parking do not have pavement markings designating the parking lane. Many streets, especially side streets in residential areas, have an extra lane's width on either or both sides for a parallel parking vehicles.

Side streets often do not have center lines or lane lines. If there is more than one lane going in one direction on a main street, these lanes may be separated by intermittent lane lines marked on the street pavement. Occasionally, there may be a median strip separating lanes of opposing traffic. On broader two-way streets, there is often a center line marked down the middle of the street separating those lanes on which vehicular traffic goes in one direction from other lanes in which traffic goes in the opposite direction.

Which lane is for which direction of traffic depends on what country the street is located in. Two-way streets are wide enough for at least two lanes of traffic. One way streets typically have signs reading "ONE WAY" and an arrow showing the direction of allowed travel. As far as concerns the driver, a street can be one-way or two-way: vehicles on one-way streets may travel in only one direction, while on two-way streets may travel both ways.

Despite this, the operator of a motor vehicle may (incompletely) regard a street as merely a thoroughfare for vehicular travel or parking. A feature universal to all streets is a human-scale design that gives its users the space and security to feel engaged in their surroundings, whatever through traffic may pass. These measures are often taken in a city's busiest areas, the "destination" districts, when the volume of activity outgrows the capacity of private passenger vehicles to support it. Many streets are bracketed by bollards or Jersey barriers so as to prevent passage unless on foot.

A street may be temporarily blocked to all through traffic in order to secure the space for other uses, such as a street fair, a flea market, or children at play. This has never been the case, and even in the automobile age, is still demonstrably false. Transportation is often misunderstood to be the defining characteristic, or even the sole purpose, of a street. These plans were never implemented on a large scale, a fact which today's urban theorists regard as fortunate for vitality and diversity.

Such an arrangement, it was said, would allow for even denser development in the future. To this end, proposals were advanced to build "vertical streets" where road vehicles, pedestrians, and trains would each occupy their own levels. Le Corbusier, for one, perceived an ever-stricter segregation of traffic as an essential affirmation of social order--a desirable, and ultimately inevitable, expression of modernity. In the mid-20th century, as the automobile threatened to overwhelm city streets with pollution and ghastly accidents, many urban theorists came to see this segregation as not only helpful but necessary in order to maintain mobility.

This is usually done by carving a road through the middle for motorists, reserving sidewalks on either side for pedestrians; other arrangements allow for streetcars, trolleys, and even wastewater and rainfall runoff ditches (common in Japan and India). In the interest of order and efficiency, an effort may be made to segregate different types of traffic. The unrestricted movement of people and goods within a city is essential to its commerce and vitality, and streets provide the physical space for this activity. Circulation, or less broadly transportation, is perhaps a street's most visible use, and certainly among the most important.

Side streets are quieter, often residential in use and character, and may be used for vehicular parking. Commerce and public interaction are more visible on main streets, and vehicles may use them for longer-distance travel. Main streets are usually broad with a relatively high level of activity. Streets can be loosely categorized as main streets and side streets.

Its roles are as numerous and diverse as its ever-changing cast of characters. As a component of the built environment as ancient as human habitation, the street sustains a range of activities vital to civilization. The street is a relentlessly public environment, one of the few shared between all sorts of people. .

Conversely, highways and motorways are examples of roads but not streets. Examples of streets include pedestrian streets, alleys, and center-city streets too crowded for road vehicles to pass, none of which are usually considered roads. A street is superficially similar to a road, but they are not the same. Portions may also be smoothed with asphalt, embedded with rails, or otherwise prepared to accommodate non-pedestrian traffic.

A street can be as simple as a level patch of dirt, but is more often paved with a hard, durable surface such as cobblestone or brick. A street is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about.

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