This page will contain additional articles about Shimano, as they become available.

Shimano

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components.

Cycling

Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts.

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs.

The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well.

When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments.

Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment.

In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions.

Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles.

Racing bicycle groupsets

Current road bicycle groupsets include:

  • Dura-Ace
  • Ultegra
  • 105
  • Tiagra
  • Sora

Mountain bike groupsets

Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:

  • Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes
  • Hone
  • XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes
  • XT
  • LX
  • Deore
  • Alivio
  • Acera
  • Altus
  • Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles.

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Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:. Even long after it was taken off the market, the Super Nintendo still garners attention, and is sometimes considered by old school gamers as the greatest system of all time. Current road bicycle groupsets include:. Likewise, the Gameboy Advance's library garnered a lot of success off porting games from the Super Nintendo. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles. Thanks to titles such as Final Fantasy Anthology and the Mega Man X Collection, gamers can experience some old Super Nintendo titles without having to search high and low for them and pay an outrageous price. Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. However, thanks to emulation and porting, many Super Nintendo classics haven't been forgotten.

Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions. Other titles that easily go for over $100 include Mega Man X2, Mega Man X3, Super Mario RPG, Secret of Mana, Final Fantasy III (VI), and Final Fantasy II (IV) to name a few. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. It was reported by Entertainment Weekly that the most expensive classic bought on ebay was Chrono Trigger when someone spent more than $300. In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. Many people are willing to spend the money to buy these games. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment. Games that still include the box easily sell for over one-hundred, and those still wrapped sell for more than $200.

In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. On eBay, many classics games sell for more than forty dollars used. Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. To this day, people still search for classic titles such as Mega Man X3, Chrono Trigger and Super Mario RPG. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments. However, the Super Nintendo has some of the most widely sought after games of all time. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. Many gamers argue that in today's current gaming generation, graphics are being influenced much more than gameplay.

While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. [4]. When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. The Super Nintendo is considered by many older gamers (usually those born in the late 80's and before) as the Golden Era of gaming. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well. Although 49 million Super NES units were sold worldwide [3], Nintendo was unable to recapture the preceding NES's market share. The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. This is most often characterized by an extra set of small leads under the cartridge.

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs. Rather than require a complicated upgrade procedure found in the IBM PC Compatible world of computers, these certain enhancement chips were included inside the plug-in game cartridges themselves if needed for a specific game. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts. As part of the overall plan for the SNES/SFC, rather than include an expensive CPU that would still become obsolete in a few years, the hardware designers made it easy to interface special coprocessor chips to the console. Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. It was the first console capable of applied acoustics in video game audio sold in North America, Europe, and Japan. . Developers later became accustomed to the system, and were able to take advantage of its full potential.

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components. As a result early third-party games were of low technical quality. Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles. This approach would become common in subsequent video game hardware, but at the time it was new to game developers. Altus. It featured a low-performance CPU supported by very powerful custom chips for sound and video processing. Acera. The design of the Super Nintendo/Super Famicom was unusual for its time.

Alivio. The SNES was one of the first systems to attract the attention of amateur fan translators: Final Fantasy V was the first major work of fan translation to be completed, in 1997. Deore. Most general ROM sites offer files for the SNES. LX. Since the console's discontinuation, second-hand market decline, and rapid growth of the Internet, finding the files has become less of a challenge than it had been with the NES. XT. Despite Nintendo's attempts to stop the proliferation of such projects, ROM files continue to be available on the Internet.

XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes. Starting in the 128-bit era, both Nintendo and emulation proponents began to have a less active stance on this issue. Hone. Proponents of SNES emulation cite as arguments for their continued distribution: the discontinued production of the SNES, the right of the owner of the respective game to make a personal backup, the frailty of SNES cartridges (even though cartridges are far more durable than optical discs), and the lack of certain foreign imports. Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes. Nintendo took the same stance against the distribution of SNES ROM image files and emulation as it did with the NES, insisting that they represented flagrant software piracy. Sora. From then on, these two emulators have continued to offer the most complete emulation of the system and its various add-on chips like the Super FX Chip, although development continues on other emulators as well.

Tiagra. In early 1998, SNES enthusiasts began programming a console emulator named ZSNES. 105. During that time, two competing emulation projects--Snes96 and Snes97--merged forming a new initiative entitled Snes9x. Ultegra. Emulation projects began in 1996 with projects such as "VSMC" and "Super Pasofami," which, despite some important initial gains, did not last long past 1998. Dura-Ace. The SNES has taken much the same revival path as the NES.

Many gamers discovered the SNES after its decline. It has continued to thrive on the second-hand market and through console emulation. Like the NES before it, the SNES has retained interest among its fans even following its decline in the marketplace. Ultimately, negotiations with both Sony and Philips fell through, and the two companies went on to develop their own consoles based on their initial dealings with Nintendo (the PlayStation and the CD-i respectively), Philips also gaining the right to release a series of CD-i titles based on popular Nintendo franchises.

During the SNES's life, Nintendo contracted with two different companies to develop a CD-ROM-based peripheral for the console. Satellaview signals were broadcast from April 23, 1995 through June 30, 2000. Users of the Satellaview could download gaming news and specially designed games, which were frequently either remakes of or sequels to older Famicom titles, released in instalments. GIGA satellite radio station.

Japan saw the release of the Satellaview, a modem which attached to the Super Famicom's expansion port and connected to the St. In general, Nintendo proved to be somewhat more tolerant of unlicensed SNES peripherals than they had been with NES peripherals. Like the NES before it, the SNES saw its fair share of unlicensed third-party peripherals, including a new version of the Game Genie cheat cartridge designed for use with SNES games and a variety of game copier devices. The Super Game Boy touted a number of feature enhancements over the Game Boy, including color support (in reality, merely the ability to substitute a different color palette: the games themselves were still limited to four colors) and custom screen borders.

One of the most interesting and successful first-party peripherals released for the SNES was the Super Game Boy, an adaptor cartridge allowing games designed for Nintendo's portable Game Boy system to be played on the SNES. Nintendo also released the SNES Mouse in conjunction with its Mario Paint title, and Hudson Soft, under license from Nintendo, released the Super Multitap, a multiplayer adaptor that allowed games to support up to eight players. Many of these devices were modelled after earlier add-ons for the NES: the Super Scope was a light gun similar to the NES Zapper (though the Super Scope featured wireless capabilities) and the Super Advantage was an arcade-style joystick with adjustable turbo settings akin to the NES Advantage. Throughout the course of its life, a number of peripherals were released which added to the functionality of the SNES.

The adaptor would read the game from the front port and use the regional lockout chip programming from the second. Then, in the back part, the player would put in another game that would work on this SNES unit. a rectangular cartridge that would not run in the SNES unit designed for round cartridges) into the front. A player could plug the device into the SNES (either version) and then place a game that would normally not run on that particular SNES unit (e.g.

There was an adaptor made by various third parties designed to circumvent the regional lockout issues. The solution was to start the game in the native speed and then flick the switch once the region check had successfully completed. PAL games would refuse to run on 60Hz machines and vice versa. As an additional form of region lockout, later games would check that the SNES was running at the speed the game was expecting.

As most PAL TVs support NTSC and the SNES hardware made such a thing quite simple to add, a switch to select 50 or 60Hz operation was often added. This practice was common across all consoles at the time, but created a squashed and out of proportion picture. Additionally, PAL's higher resolution was not taken advantage of, and the extra scanlines were blank, creating large black bars that letterboxed the image. Instead of being re-coded, most PAL games were simply slowed down from 60Hz to 50Hz, resulting in 17% slower gameplay and sound effects.

PAL consoles often faced another modification. Games towards the end of the console's lifecycle, such as Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars could detect this deadlock situation and refuse to run, so it later became common to install a switch that disconnected and connected the lockout chip as required. This meant that the lockout chips would not operate and could not halt the console. Disconnecting pin 4 of the console's lockout chip caused a situation where there were two keys and no locks.

The chip lockout system worked by having hardware in the console act as a lock and the chip inside the cartridge act as the key. Alternatively, various other adapters or physical modification of the console could overcome regional lockout. This not only circumvents the problem of different cartridge shapes but also removes any problem with lockout chips due to the internal design of the Game Genie. The simplest way to play the Japanese and European cartridges in the North American system was to use a Game Genie cheat device with the small rectangular piece of plastic from its top removed.

The Japanese and North American machines had the same region chip, so once the difference in the shape of the cartridges was overcome, cartridges were interchangeable. Additionally, a regional lockout chip within the console and in each cartridge prevented European games from being played on Japanese/North American consoles and vice versa despite the fact that European and Japanese Cartridges fit in each other's consoles. Since the North American console has protruding grooves, the Japanese/European cartridges could not be inserted without the removal of these grooves and North American cartridges being completely rectangular could not fit into the slightly curved opening of the Japanese and European console units. The North American model had a rectangular bottom that had inset grooves which when inserted complemented the console's shape whereas the Japanese, Korean, and European cartridges had a smoothed curve on the front of the cartridges with no inset grooves.

Game cartridges, depending on which market they were released in, were of different shapes. Nintendo employed several types of regional lockout. Some video game critics consider the SNES era "the golden age of video games," citing the many groundbreaking games and classics made for the system,[1] whereas others question this romanticism.[2] See video game player for more. In recent years, many SNES titles have been ported to the handheld Game Boy Advance, which has similar video capabilities.

In Japan, the Super Famicom continued to be produced until September 2003 (also some new games were produced until the year 2000).
Nintendo of America ceased production of the SNES in 1999. All the American cases from the original NES to the SNES 2 were designed by Lance Barr. A similar redesigned Super Famicom Jr. was released in Japan around the same time.

Like the earlier NES 2, the new model was designed to be slimmer and lighter than its predecessor but lacked S-Video and RGB output, and would prove to be among the last major SNES-related releases in America. In October 1997, Nintendo released a redesigned SNES 2 in North America for $99 USD (which included the pack-in game Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island). By 1996, the 16-bit era of gaming had ended, and a new generation of consoles, including Nintendo's own Nintendo 64, caused the popularity of the SNES to wane.
.

Nintendo fixed all units aftermarket free of charge, but the theory held on for years. The SNES was incompatible with several American-brand TVs, causing the screen to hop 3-5 times a second. While the NES was accused of shoddy construction and poor planning, the SNES was rumored to be a tool of outright economic war. In the period of the early 1990s, a blue-collar anti-Japanese sentiment had grown to maturity.

until 1994, benefiting from Sega pulling out of the market and its continued production of SNES and its games well after the 32-bit era of gaming had started. Nintendo would never achieve market leadership in Europe and did not manage to do so in the U.S. Rivalry between Nintendo and Sega produced what is possibly the most notorious console war in history. In addition many US gamers had come to expect backwards compatibility from console developers (as was the case with the Atari 2600 and 7800), but the SNES was not designed to play NES cartridges.

By the time of launch the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis had already become firmly entrenched in the US and European marketplace, helped by the lower cost of the Mega Drive/Genesis console and games and Sega's aggressive marketing in North America. Nintendo's Japanese market dominance was not repeated in the American and European markets. The PAL versions of the console looked identical to the Japanese Super Famicom, except for labelling. The SNES was released in the United Kingdom and Ireland in April 1992 for £150, with a German release following a few weeks later.

Initially sold for a price of $200 US, the North American package included the game Super Mario World. Nine months later, on August 13, 1991, Nintendo released the Super Famicom in North America with a new redesigned case as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. In Japan, the Super Famicom easily outsold its chief rival, the Mega Drive, and Nintendo retained control over approximately 80% of the Japanese console market thanks, in part, to Nintendo's retention of most of its key third party developers from the Famicom, including Capcom, Konami, Tecmo, Square Co., Ltd., Koei and Enix. The system was so popular that it was said to have attracted the attention of the Yakuza, leading to the decision to ship the devices at night in order to avoid robbery.

An instant success, Nintendo's initial shipment of 300,000 units quickly sold out. Masayuki Uemura, the man responsible for designing the Famicom several years earlier, was put in charge of the design of the console and the Super Famicom was released in Japan on November 21, 1990 for ¥25,000. Although the NES would continue to dominate the video game industry for years to come, Nintendo's hardware was beginning to show its age, and though Nintendo executives initially showed little interest in developing a new system, Sega and NEC's growing market share soon forced Nintendo to reconsider. In 1987 and 1988 respectively, NEC and Sega launched their contenders, the PC Engine and the Mega Drive, one of the first 16-bit home gaming systems.

Even as the original NES/Famicom was at the height of its popularity, several companies were launching their own consoles. . Despite its relatively late start, the SNES became the best selling console of the 16-bit era but only after its competitor Sega had pulled out of the 16-bit market to focus on its 32-bit next generation console. Whereas the earlier system had struggled in Europe and large parts of Asia the SNES proved to be a global success, albeit one that could not match its predecessor's popularity in South East Asia and North America—due in part to increased competition from Sega's Mega Drive console (released in North America as the Genesis).

The Super Nintendo Entertainment System was Nintendo's second home console, following the Nintendo Entertainment System (often abbreviated to NES, released as the Famicom in Japan). That console was licensed and distributed by Hyundai Electronics. In South Korea, it is known as the Super Comboy (슈퍼컴보이). In Japan it is known as the Super Famicom (スーパーファミコン).

The Super Nintendo Entertainment System, also known as Super NES or SNES, is a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, and Australia. Retrieved 9 September 2005. SNES-CD. Bayer, Glen.

Retrieved 1 February 2005. The Golden era - Just for the nostalgics?. Silent Axis. Retrieved 1 February 2005.

The Golden Era. Mattias Liedholm. Retrieved 9 February 2005. History of Sony Playstation.

Mary Bellis. The SA-1 was a multipurpose chip that allowed games such as Kirby Super Star, Kirby's Dream Land 3, and Super Mario RPG, as well as the Super Game Boy to stay competitive in the changing marketplace during the aging SNES/SFC's final years. SA-1 chip: This is an ASIC chipset with a 65c816 8/16-bit processor core, clocked at 10MHz, containing some extra circuitry specified by Nintendo, including some fast RAM, a memory mapper, DMA, several programmable timers, and the region lockout chip. The chip was used in Mega Man X2 and Mega Man X3.

This chip was used to handle the wireframe effects, perform more general trigonometric calculations, and to help out with sprite positioning and rotation. C4 chip: A chip created by Capcom. Games that used this chip were Street Fighter Alpha 2 and Star Ocean. This allowed games to be bigger than normal by compressing the data.

S-DD1 chip : Other than its normal processing and copy protection duties, this chip was primarily a memory compression chip. It primarily helped out with drawing the race track, especially during the times that the track branched into multiple paths, which was a unique feature of this type of game at the time. DSP-4 chip: A DSP used in only one game cartridge, Top Gear 3000. Although this chip does handle graphics decompression and bitplane conversion, a large portion of memory inside this chip is dedicated to rendering a very complicated title screen, leading one to the likely conclusion that its inclusion was more intended to prevent the game from being easily pirated.

DSP-3 chip: An assistant chip used only in one Japanese game for the Super Famicom titled SD Gundam GX. DSP-2 chip: A bitmap scaling and bitplane conversion chip used only in one game cartridge, Atari's port of Dungeon Master to the SNES console. Later revisions of the chip, the 1A and 1B, were functionally the same but included bugfixes in their internal math calculations. The chip can be found most notably in Pilotwings and Super Mario Kart, as well as a few other games.

DSP-1 chip: This fixed-point Digital Signal Processor chip was created to allow programmers to generate more enhanced Mode 7 rotation and scaling effects in their games, and to perform very fast vector-based calculations. Star Fox 2, Comanche, and FX Fighter, all games designed to take advantage of the increased power of the Super FX GSU-2, were developed but never released for the SNES/SFC, disappointing many followers of the technology at the time. Although the pinouts and maximum clock speed differ, the instruction set for the FX 1 and FX 2 chips are identical. Finally, the design was tweaked to become the Super FX GSU-2 chip, which had a larger address bus and was manufactured with an improved semiconductor process to allow it to reach its target clock speed of 21MHz.

Rather quickly, it was given a more conventional surface-mount package and labeled as the Super FX GSU-1, which was used in various games. This chip went through three revisions, first starting out as a Chip-on-Board glob in the earliest Star Fox cartridges. The chip however could also be used to enhance 2D games such as Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island. Some 3D game carts that this chip can be found in are Star Fox, Doom, Dirt Trax FX, Stunt Race FX, Vortex, and Winter Gold.

The chip was primarily used to create 3D game worlds made with polygons, texture mapping and light source shading. Super FX: Developed by Argonaut, the Super FX chip is a supplemental RISC CPU that was included in certain game cartridges to perform functions that the main CPU could not feasibly do. 2 seven-pin controller ports in the front of the machine. Controller Response: 16ms.

Game controllers

    . Transformer Output: 10 volts DC, 850 mA (NTSC), 9 volts DC (PAL). Transformer Input: NTSC: 120 volts AC, 60Hz, 17 watts, PAL: 240 volts AC, 50Hz. Power adapter
      .

      48-Mbit for Star Ocean and Tales of Phantasia. Custom address decoders employed bank switching techniques to allow for larger sizes, eg. This allowed ROM techology to scale with the system, as all early games were SlowROM, and then most became FastROM towards the end of the SNES/SFC's commercial market lifetime. Upon power up, the SlowROM speed is selected by default, unless the game's program code tells it to run at the faster speed.

      2 to 32-Mbit (0.25 to 4MB) which can be accessed at two selectable speeds ('SlowROM' and 'FastROM'). Game cartridge size

        . Most common display modes: Pixel-to-pixel Mode1 (16 colors (4-bit) per tile; 3 scrolling layers) and affine mapped Mode7 (256 colors per tile; one rotating/scaling layer). The renderer was designed such that it would drop the frontmost sprites instead of the rearmost sprites if a scanline exceeded the limit, allowing for creative clipping effects.

        Maximum number of sprite pixels on one scanline: 256. Maximum onscreen objects (sprites): 128 (32 per line, up to 34, 8x8 tiles per line). Most games used 256x224 or 512x224 pixels since higher resolutions caused slowdown, flicker, and/or had increased limitations on layers and colors (due to memory bandwidth constraints); the higher resolutions were used for less processor-intensive games, in-game menus, text, and high resolution images. Resolution: between 256x224 and 512x448.

        Maximum colors per sprite: 128. Maximum colors on-screen: 4,096 without alpha and 32,768 (using color arithmetic for transparency effects). Maximum colors per layer per scanline: 256. Palette: 256 entries; 15-bit color depth (RGB555) for a total of 32,768 colors.

        512 + 32 bytes of 'OAM' (Object Attribute Memory) for objects; 512 bytes of 'CGRAM' for palette data. 64KB of VRAM for screen maps (for 'background' layers) and tile sets (for backgrounds and objects);. Video RAM: 64KB

          . Picture Processor Unit: 15-bit.

          Video

            . Note - while not directly related to SNES hardware, the standard extension for SNES audio subsystem state files saved by emulators is .SPC, a format used by SPC players. Pulse Code Modulator: 16-bit ADPCM (if programmer uses 4-bit compressed ADPCM samples, expanded to 16-bit resolution, processed with an additional 4-point Gaussian sound interpolation). Low-pass filter for improved quality of low-frequency (bass) tones.

            3-channel PCM. SFx sound chip : SonyNintendo S-DSP

              . Polyphony of 8 notes per voices. Hardware sound effects pitch modulation, echo effect with feedback (for reverberation) with 8-tap FIR filter, and ADSR and 'GAIN' (discretely controlled) volume envelopes.

              8-channel PCM. Hardware ADPCM decompression,. Main Sound Chip : Sony S-SMP

                . Memory Cycle Time: 279 milliseconds.

                Sound RAM: 64KB shared between SPC700 and S-SMP. Sound Controller Chip: 8-bit Sony SPC700 CPU for controlling the DSP; running at an effective clock rate around 1.024MHz.

                  . Sound
                    . The SNES/SFC 5A22 CPU has direct access to 128KB of Work RAM.

                    RAM

                      . It works at approximately 1.5 MIPS (using strictly 16-bit instructions) and has a theoretical peak of 1.79 million 16-bit adds per second. But for most purposes the bus runs at 2.68 MHz and drops to 1.79MHz when accessing certain PPU registers. The possible clock speeds were 1.79, 2.68 and 3.58 Megahertz.

                      The CPU, as a whole, employs a variable-speed system bus, with bus access times determined by the memory location accessed. Multiplication and division registers. DMA unit, supporting two primary modes, general DMA (for block transfers, at a rate of 2.68MB/s) and Hblank DMA (for transferring small data sets at the end of each scanline, outside of the active display period);. For generating IRQ interrupts on screen positions;.

                      For generating PSG sound with included 2A03 core. For generating NMI interrupts on Vblank;. For interfacing with controller ports;. The CPU additionly contains support hardware, including circuitry:

                        .

                        Core: Nintendo custom '5A22', believed to be produced by Ricoh; based around a 16-bit CMD/GTE 65c816 (a predecessor of the WDC 65C816, used by the Apple IIGS personal computer). CPU

                          .

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