This page will contain additional articles about Shimano, as they become available.

Shimano

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components.

Cycling

Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts.

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs.

The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well.

When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments.

Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment.

In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions.

Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles.

Racing bicycle groupsets

Current road bicycle groupsets include:

  • Dura-Ace
  • Ultegra
  • 105
  • Tiagra
  • Sora

Mountain bike groupsets

Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:

  • Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes
  • Hone
  • XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes
  • XT
  • LX
  • Deore
  • Alivio
  • Acera
  • Altus
  • Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles.

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Current mountain bicycle groupsets include:. In India, foods can be found decorated with a thin layer of silver, known as Varak. Current road bicycle groupsets include:. The widespread use of silver went out of fashion with the invention of antibiotics. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles. It is strongly advised to notify a doctor when taking silver as a form of self-medication. Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. Although mostly harmless, some people using these home-made solutions use far too much and develop argyria over a period of months or years, and several have been documented in the last few years in the medical literature, including one possible case of coma associated with a high intake of silver (see medical references).

Shimano also introduced new proprietary standards for disc brakes and hubs, and for bottom brackets and cranksets, further fueling speculation about monopolistic intentions. Today, various kinds of silver compounds, or devices to make solutions or colloids containing silver, are sold as remedies for a wide variety of diseases. This development was controversial: critics viewed it as an attempt to monopolise the mountain bike components market because the use of Dual Control integrated shifting requires the use of Shimano brakes, and the Rapid Rise derailler is believed to work more effectively with the Dual Control system. One of these is a process generally known for heavy metals called the oligodynamic effect, which goes a long way explaining the effect on microbial lifeforms but does not explain certain antiviral functions. In 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers, and reintroduced the "Rapid Rise" rear derailler which works in the opposite direction to traditional deraillers. The exact process by which this is done is still not well understood, although several different theories exist. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment. in a test tube or a petri dish).

In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. It's germicidal effects kills many microbial organisms in vitro (i.e. Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the grand tour. Silver-ions and silver compounds show a toxic effect on some bacteria, viruses, algae and fungi typical for heavy metals like lead or mercury, but without the high toxicity to humans that is normally associated with them. In contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upscale if they established themselves in the lower market segments. Argyria is rare and mild forms are sometimes mistaken for cyanosis. SunTour eventually lost the commercial battle. Although this condition does not harm a person's health, it is disfiguring and usually permanent.

While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as index shifting and front freewheel systems. Silver and compounds containing silver (like colloidal silver) can be absorbed into the circulatory system and become deposited in various body tissues leading to a condition called argyria which results in a blue-grayish pigmentation of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the American and European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. Silver compounds were used successfully to prevent infection in World War I before the advent of antibiotics, and Silver compounds are still widely used externally today to accelerate healing in burn victims. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, though they are now introducing a road groupset as well. In the early 1900's people would put silver dollars in milk bottles to prolong the milk's freshness. The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, wrote that silver had beneficial healing and anti-disease properties, and the Phoenicians used to store water, wine, and vinegar in silver bottles to prevent spoiling.

Groupsets commonly include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or derailleurs. Silver itself is not toxic but most of its salts are, and some may be carcinogenic. These components are generally organised and sold as groupsets intended to be supplied as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts. Silver plays no known natural biological role in humans, and possible health effects of silver are a subject of dispute. Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for leisure, road and mountain bikes. Pd-107 versus Ag correlations observed in bodies, which have clearly been melted since the accretion of the solar system, must reflect the presence of live short-lived nuclides in the early solar system. . The discoverers suggest that the coalescence and differentiation of iron-cored small planets may have occurred 10 million years after a nucleosynthetic event.

Shimano ((OTCBB: SHMDF), FWB: SHM) is a Japanese manufacturer of cycling, fishing, snowboarding, and until 2005, golf components. Radiogenic Ag-107 was first discovered in the Santa Clara meteorite in 1978. Tourney - this includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles. Iron meteorites are the only objects with a high enough Pd/Ag ratio to yield measurable variations in Ag-107 abundance. Altus. The palladium isotope Pd-107 decays by beta emission to Ag-107 with a half-life of 6.5 million years. Acera. The primary decay products before Ag-107 are palladium (element 46) isotopes and the primary products after are cadmium (element 48) isotopes.

Alivio. The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, Ag-107, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. Deore. Isotopes of silver range in atomic weight from 93.943 u (Ag-94) to 123.929 u (Ag-124). LX. This element also has numerous meta states with the most stable being Ag-128m (t* 418 years), Ag-110m (t* 249.79 days) and Ag-107m (t* 8.28 days). XT. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lifes that are less than an hour and the majority of these have half lifes that are less than 3 minutes.

XTR - This is the top of the range for CrossCountry(XC) mountain bikes. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterised with the most stable being Ag-105 with a half-life of 41.29 days, Ag-111 with a half-life of 7.45 days, and Ag-112 with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Hone. Naturally occurring silver is composed of the two stable isotopes Ag-107 and Ag-109 with Ag-107 being the more abundant (51.839% natural abundance). Saint - This is the top of the range for DownHill(DH)/FreeRide(FR) bikes. In December 2001 the silver price was $4.15 per ounce, and in February 2006 it had risen to $9.50 per ounce [1]. Sora. In 1980 the silver price rose to an all-time high of $49.45 per troy ounce.

Tiagra. Over the last 100 years the price of silver and the gold/silver ratio has fluctuated greatly due to competing industrial and store of value demands. 105. In turn, copper is about 1/70th as valuable as silver. Ultegra. However, now silver is relatively cheap compared to other precious metals, with a mass of silver worth only about 1/60th the same mass of gold. Dura-Ace. Because the majority of the world's silver deposits are concentrated in the Americas, silver was far more valuable before the Age of Discovery; on average, about 1/6th or 1/7th the price of gold.

According to the Secretary of Economics of Mexico, it produced 80,120,000 troy ounces (2492 metric tons) in 2000, about 15% of the annual production of the world. Mexico is the largest silver producer. Commercial grade fine silver is at least 99.9% pure silver and purities greater than 99.999% are available. This metal is also produced during the electrolytic refining of copper.

The principal sources of silver are copper, copper-nickel, gold, lead and lead-zinc ores obtained from Canada, Cobalt, Ontario , Mexico, Peru, Australia and the United States. Silver is found in native form, combined with sulfur, arsenic, antimony, or chlorine and in various ores such as argentite (Ag2S) and horn silver (AgCl). The largest silver ore deposits in the United States were discovered at the Comstock Lode in Virginia City, Nevada, in 1859. Notable "silver rushes" were in Colorado, Nevada, Cobalt, Ontario , California and the Kootenay region of British Columbia, notably in the Boundary and "Silvery Slocan".

Silver mining was a driving force in the settlement of western North America, with major booms for silver and associated minerals (lead, mostly) in the galena ore silver is most commonly found in. The Rio de la Plata was named after silver (in Spanish, plata), and in turn lent the meaning of its name to Argentina. The rise and fall of its value affected the world market. Silver, which was extremely valuable in China, became a global commodity, contributing to the rise of the Spanish Empire.

The conquistador Pizarro was said to have resorted to having his horses shod with silver horseshoes due to the metal's abundance, in contrast to the relative lack of iron in Peru. Europeans found a huge amount of silver in the New World in Zacatecas and Potosí, which triggered a period of inflation in Europe. Occasionally, the word "silver" is used rather than argent; sometimes this is done across-the-board, sometimes to avoid repetition of the word "argent" in blazon. In heraldry, the argent, in addition to being shown as silver (this has been shown at times with real silver in official representations), can also been shown as white.

The metal mercury was thought of as a kind of silver, though the two elements are chemically unrelated; its Latin and English names, hydrargyrum ("watery silver") and quicksilver, respectively, reflect this history. One of the alchemical symbols for silver is a crescent moon with the open part on the left (see picture, right). Associated with the moon, as well as with the sea and various lunar goddesses, the metal was referred to by alchemists by the name luna. In Ancient Egypt and Medieval Europe, it was often more valuable than gold.

Its value as a precious metal was long considered second only to gold. Silver has been used for thousands of years for ornaments and utensils, for trade, and as the basis for many monetary systems. It is mentioned in the book of Genesis, and slag heaps found in Asia Minor and on the islands of the Aegean Sea indicate that silver was being separated from lead as early as the 4th millennium BC. Silver (from Anglo-Saxon seolfor, compare Old High German silabar; Ag is from the Latin argentum) has been known since ancient times.

Some other uses for silver are as follows:. Its salts, especially silver nitrate and silver halides, are also widely used in photography (which is the largest single end use of silver). The principal use of silver is as a precious metal. The most common oxidation state of silver is +1; a few +2 compounds are known as well.

This metal is stable in pure air and water, but does tarnish when it is exposed to ozone, hydrogen sulfide, or air with sulfur in it. Silver halides are photosensitive and are remarkable for the effect of light upon them. Pure silver also has the highest thermal conductivity, whitest colour, the highest optical reflectivity (although it is a poor reflector of ultraviolet light), and the lowest contact resistance of any metal. It has the highest electrical conductivity of all metals, even higher than copper, but its greater cost and tarnishability has prevented it from being widely used in place of copper for electrical purposes.

Silver is a very ductile and malleable (slightly harder than gold) univalent coinage metal with a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high degree of polish. . This metal is used in coins, jewelry, tableware, and photography. A soft white lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal and occurs in minerals and in free form.

Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag (from the traditional abbreviation for the Latin argentum). Los Alamos National Laboratory – Silver. Now, Acticoat Burn Dressings (activated silver dressings) have largely replaced those earlier treatments. Silver nitrate (liquid) and silver sulfadiazine cream (SSD Cream) were the "standard of care" for the antibacterial/antibiotic treatment of serious burns until the late 1990's.

Colloidal silver is a possible antibacterial / antibiotic treatment that requires further clinical testing to support actual efficacy. Silver oxide is used as a positive electrode (cathode) in watch batteries. The use of silver fashioned into bullets for firearms is a popular application. In legend, silver is traditionally seen as harmful to supernatural creatures like werewolves and vampires.

Silver iodide has been used in attempts to seed clouds to produce rain. Silver chloride is also a widely used electrode for pH testing and potentiometric measurement. Silver chloride can be made transparent and is used as a cement for glass. Silver fulminate is a powerful explosive.

Silver sulfide, also known as Silver Whiskers, is formed when silver electrical contacts are used in an atmosphere rich in hydrogen sulfide. Used to make solder and brazing alloys, electrical contacts, and high capacity silver-zinc and silver-cadmium batteries. Silver's catalytic properties make it ideal for use as a catalyst in oxidation reactions; for example, the production of formaldehyde from methanol and air by means of silver screens or crystallites containing a minimum 99.95 weight-percent silver. The malleability, non-toxicity and beauty of silver make it useful in dental alloys for fittings and fillings.

The metal is chosen for its beauty in the manufacture of jewelry and silverware, which are traditionally made from the silver alloy known as Sterling silver, which is 92.5% silver. The words for "silver" and "money" are the same in at least 14 languages. Later, silver was refined and coined in its pure form. Silver has been coined to produce money since 700 BC by the Lydians, in the form of electrum.

Common mirrors are backed with aluminium. Mirrors which need silver's superior reflectivity for visible light are made with silver as the reflecting material in a process called silvering. Silver is also used in high voltage contacts because it is the only metal that will not arc across contacts, hence it is extremely safe. For example, printed circuits are made using silver paints, and computer keyboards use silver electrical contacts.

Electrical and electronic products, which need silver's superior conductivity, even when tarnished.

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