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Royal Bank of Scotland


The Royal Bank of Scotland LSE: RBSis one of Scotland's four national clearing banks and one of the oldest in the UK, founded in Edinburgh in 1727 by Royal Charter.

Today it is the largest bank in Scotland, the second largest in the UK and Europe, and the fifth largest in the world by market capitalisation. Its shares have a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange.

The bank's head office is in St Andrew's Square, Edinburgh. It has offices throughout Europe, America and Asia.

History of the Royal Bank of Scotland

  • 1727- founded in Edinburgh by Royal Charter
  • 1783- first branch in Glasgow opens
  • 1874- first London branch opens
  • 1920- acquisition of various small English banks to form Williams Deacons Bank,later combined with Glyn Mills & Co. to form Williams and Glyn's Bank
  • 1972- merger with National Commercial Bank of Scotland
  • 1980- abortive hostile takeover bid by Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation fails
  • 1985- established the Direct Line insurance brand
  • 1985- Williams and Glyn's bank name merged with the Royal Bank of Scotland
  • 1988- acquisition of Citizens Financial Group of Rhode Island
  • 1997- Registrars department acquired by Australian share registry company Computershare
  • 1997- develops internet banking
  • 2000- acquisition of the National Westminster Bank after hostile takeover battle with the Bank of Scotland

Constituents of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group

  • Royal Bank of Scotland- Scottish clearing bank, head office in Edinburgh
  • NatWest - UK clearing bank, head office in London
  • Adam and Company - UK private bank
  • Citizens Financial Group - U.S. bank group based in New England
  • Direct Line - telephone financial services company
  • Ulster Bank - Belfast-based bank with branches throughout Ireland
  • Coutts - UK private bank based in London
  • WorldPay - specialised in Internet Business

Other facts

£100 banknotes of the Royal Bank of Scotland
  • The Royal Bank of Scotland, along with Clydesdale Bank and Bank of Scotland, still prints its own banknotes for Scotland
  • It is the only UK bank that still prints a 1 pound note
  • It was the first bank in the world to offer an overdraft facility
  • In June 1997, The Royal Bank of Scotland became the first high street bank in the UK to introduce an Internet banking service.
  • The bank's annual gross profit exceeds the annual budget of the Scottish Government

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. IT insiders foresee the case to be a landmark ruling in what is a fiercely competitive market. It has offices throughout Europe, America and Asia. Whilst proving that Intel holds a monopoly is simple (the company is reckoned to have an 80-90% share of the processor market) the debate over the 'scare and coercion' tactics supposedly employed by Intel is likely to be more protracted. The bank's head office is in St Andrew's Square, Edinburgh. Amongst other accusations AMD alleged that Intel was unlawfully maintaining its monopoly through unfair business practices, such as drastically lower pricing for customers on the condition that Intel microprocessors were used exclusively in their systems. Its shares have a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. In June of 2005 AMD, Intel's chief rival in the x86 microprocessor market, filed an antitrust claim against Intel and its Japanese subsidiary in a Delaware court.

Today it is the largest bank in Scotland, the second largest in the UK and Europe, and the fifth largest in the world by market capitalisation. the Green Line) and therefore is not considered disputed territory.
The Royal Bank of Scotland LSE: RBSis one of Scotland's four national clearing banks and one of the oldest in the UK, founded in Edinburgh in 1727 by Royal Charter. In fact, the city of Kiryat Gat (where the plant is located) lies well within the pre-1967 borders of Israel (a.k.a. The bank's annual gross profit exceeds the annual budget of the Scottish Government. Intel's massive manufacturing plant in Israel was built, with the help of heavy subsidies from Israel, on lands that Palestinians claim were confiscated from them. In June 1997, The Royal Bank of Scotland became the first high street bank in the UK to introduce an Internet banking service. As well, Intel is accused by Palestinians of collusion with Israel in supporting them in holding on to land confiscated illegally from the Palestinians.

It was the first bank in the world to offer an overdraft facility. In contrast with other hi-tech companies such as Microsoft, Intel does not allow discounted purchases of any kind by staff. It is the only UK bank that still prints a 1 pound note. However, Intel's working practices still face criticism,the company is notorious for paying extremly low wages and workplace bullying is common. The Royal Bank of Scotland, along with Clydesdale Bank and Bank of Scotland, still prints its own banknotes for Scotland. In addition, the company was named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2004 by Working Mothers magazine. WorldPay - specialised in Internet Business. They have maintained this rating in 2003 and 2004.

Coutts - UK private bank based in London. Intel received a 100% rating on the first Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign in 2002. Ulster Bank - Belfast-based bank with branches throughout Ireland. Its market capitalisation is about $154 billion (March 2005). Direct Line - telephone financial services company. However, Intel was already trademarked by a hotel chain so they had to buy the rights for that name at the beginning. bank group based in New England. They then used the name NM Electronics for almost a year, before deciding to call their company INTegrated ELectronics or "Intel" for short.

Citizens Financial Group - U.S. But the name didn't sound good in electronics—noise being associated with bad interference. Adam and Company - UK private bank. At its founding, Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce wanted to name their new company 'Moore Noyce'. NatWest - UK clearing bank, head office in London. Grove stepped down as Chairman, but will be retained as a special advisor. Royal Bank of Scotland- Scottish clearing bank, head office in Edinburgh. The board of directors elected Otellini, and Barrett replaced Grove as chairman of the board.

2000- acquisition of the National Westminster Bank after hostile takeover battle with the Bank of Scotland. The changes were made effective May 18, 2005. 1997- develops internet banking. Barrett, in turn, will retire in 2005 and hand the reigns of the company over to Paul Otellini, who is also already the company president and was responsible for Intel's design win in the original IBM PC. 1997- Registrars department acquired by Australian share registry company Computershare. In 1997 Grove succeeded Moore as Chairman and Craig Barrett, already company president, took over. 1988- acquisition of Citizens Financial Group of Rhode Island. Andy Grove became the company's President in 1979 to which he added the CEO title in 1987 when Moore became Chairman.

1985- Williams and Glyn's bank name merged with the Royal Bank of Scotland. Robert Noyce was Intel's CEO at its founding in 1969, followed by co-founder Gordon Moore in 1975. 1985- established the Direct Line insurance brand. Legal experts predict the lawsuit will most likely drag out for a number of years since Intel's response indicates they are not likely to try and settle with AMD. 1980- abortive hostile takeover bid by Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation fails. In its rebuttal, Intel layed out the skeleton of its legal defense which included a deconstruction of AMD's offensive strategy and levied the charge that AMD's long struggling market position is largely a result of bad business decisions and management incompetence including underinvestment in essential manufacturing capacity and over-reliance on outsourcing chip foundries.[2]. 1972- merger with National Commercial Bank of Scotland. Intel filed its response[1] in September to AMD's lawsuit and refuted AMD's claims, stating that its business practices are fair and lawful.

1920- acquisition of various small English banks to form Williams Deacons Bank,later combined with Glyn Mills & Co. to form Williams and Glyn's Bank. The case in Japan led to "dawn raids" by the European Commission on some European Intel offices in July 2005. 1874- first London branch opens. The Japanese Fair Trade Commission found in favour of AMD; the other case will be heard by a court in Delaware. 1783- first branch in Glasgow opens. In June 2005, AMD sued Intel in two jurisdictions for anti-competitive practices. 1727- founded in Edinburgh by Royal Charter. Some smaller competitors such as Transmeta produce low-power processors for portable equipment.

Currently, the only major competitor to Intel on the x86 processor market is Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), with which Intel has had full cross-licensing agreements since 1976: each partner can use the other's patented technological innovations without charge. Intel's market dominance (at one time it controlled over 85% of the market for 32-bit PC microprocessors), combined with Intel's own hardball legal tactics (such as its infamous 338 patent suit versus PC manufacturers) made it an attractive target for litigation, but few of the lawsuits ever amounted to anything. Intel's dominance in the x86 microprocessor market led to numerous charges of antitrust violations over the years, including FTC investigations in both the late 1980s and in 1999, and civil actions such as the 1997 suit by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and a patent suit by Intergraph. The switchover to Intel will begin in mid 2006, reportedly appearing first in Apple's low-end machines and portables.

In particular, the large power requirement of the G5 chips was seen as a major stumbling block, preventing the placement of such a chip in one of Apple's laptop computers, the PowerBook and iBook. Also, it was implied that the future PowerPC roadmap was unable to satisfy Apple's needs in terms of computing power. Reasons stated for the change were vague, but included thermal issues, as recent G5-class PowerPC chips are well-known for running hot. On June 6, 2005, Apple Computer CEO Steve Jobs announced in his keynote address at WWDC that Apple would be switching from its long-favored PowerPC Architecture to Intel CPUs.

The competition between Intel and Microsoft was revealed in testimony at the Microsoft anti-trust trial. IAL's software efforts met with a more mixed fate; its video and graphics software was important in the development of software digital video, but later its efforts were largely overshadowed by competition from Microsoft. During the 1990s, Intel's Intel Architecture Labs (IAL) was responsible for many of the hardware innovations of the personal computer, including the PCI Bus, the PCI Express (PCIe) bus, the Universal Serial Bus (USB), and the now-dominant architecture for multi-processor servers. When the PC industry exploded in the late 1980s and 1990s, Intel was the primary beneficiary.

Until then, manufacture of complex integrated circuits was not reliable enough for customers to depend on a single supplier, but Grove began producing processors in three geographically-distinct factories, and ceased licensing the chip designs to competitors such as Zilog and AMD. A key element of his plan was the notion, then considered radical, of becoming the single-source for successors to the popular 8086 microprocessor. Grove described this transition in the book Only the Paranoid Survive. In 1983, at the dawn of the personal computer era, Intel's profits came under increased pressure from Japanese memory-chip manufacturers, and then-President Andy Grove drove the company into a focus on microprocessors.

(Note: Intel is usually given credit with Texas Instruments for the almost-simultaneous invention of the microprocessor). Originally developed for the Japanese company Busicom to replace a number of ASIC's in a calculator already produced by Busicom, the Intel 4004 was introduced to the mass market on November 15, 1971, though the microprocessor did not become the core of Intel's business until the mid-1980s. Concurrently, Intel engineers Marcian Hoff, Federico Faggin, Stanley Mazor and Masatoshi Shima invented the first microprocessor. The company's first products were random-access memory integrated circuits, and Intel grew to be a leader in the fiercely competitive DRAM, SRAM, and ROM markets throughout the 1970s.

Intel by the end of the 1990s was one of the largest and most successful businesses in the world, though fierce competition within the semiconductor industry has since diminished its position somewhat. It is Grove who is now remembered as the company's key leader. Intel's employee number four was Andy Grove (a chemical engineer), who ran the company through much of the 1980s and the high-growth 1990s. It is noteworthy that Intel competitor AMD was also founded by Fairchild defectors, in 1969.

Moore (a chemist and physicist) and Robert Noyce (a physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit) when they left Fairchild Semiconductor. Intel was founded in 1968 by Gordon E. . Intel has advanced research projects in all aspects of semiconductor manufacturing, including MEMS.

Intel also makes networking cards, motherboard chipsets, components, and other devices. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC) (founded 1968) is a U.S.-based multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. GSTI Software Index. SOX (PHLX Semiconductor Sector).

Nasdaq 100. S&P 500. Dow Industrials. Intel is publicly traded at NASDAQ with the symbol INTC.

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