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Royal Bank of Scotland


The Royal Bank of Scotland LSE: RBSis one of Scotland's four national clearing banks and one of the oldest in the UK, founded in Edinburgh in 1727 by Royal Charter.

Today it is the largest bank in Scotland, the second largest in the UK and Europe, and the fifth largest in the world by market capitalisation. Its shares have a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange.

The bank's head office is in St Andrew's Square, Edinburgh. It has offices throughout Europe, America and Asia.

History of the Royal Bank of Scotland

  • 1727- founded in Edinburgh by Royal Charter
  • 1783- first branch in Glasgow opens
  • 1874- first London branch opens
  • 1920- acquisition of various small English banks to form Williams Deacons Bank,later combined with Glyn Mills & Co. to form Williams and Glyn's Bank
  • 1972- merger with National Commercial Bank of Scotland
  • 1980- abortive hostile takeover bid by Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation fails
  • 1985- established the Direct Line insurance brand
  • 1985- Williams and Glyn's bank name merged with the Royal Bank of Scotland
  • 1988- acquisition of Citizens Financial Group of Rhode Island
  • 1997- Registrars department acquired by Australian share registry company Computershare
  • 1997- develops internet banking
  • 2000- acquisition of the National Westminster Bank after hostile takeover battle with the Bank of Scotland

Constituents of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group

  • Royal Bank of Scotland- Scottish clearing bank, head office in Edinburgh
  • NatWest - UK clearing bank, head office in London
  • Adam and Company - UK private bank
  • Citizens Financial Group - U.S. bank group based in New England
  • Direct Line - telephone financial services company
  • Ulster Bank - Belfast-based bank with branches throughout Ireland
  • Coutts - UK private bank based in London
  • WorldPay - specialised in Internet Business

Other facts

£100 banknotes of the Royal Bank of Scotland
  • The Royal Bank of Scotland, along with Clydesdale Bank and Bank of Scotland, still prints its own banknotes for Scotland
  • It is the only UK bank that still prints a 1 pound note
  • It was the first bank in the world to offer an overdraft facility
  • In June 1997, The Royal Bank of Scotland became the first high street bank in the UK to introduce an Internet banking service.
  • The bank's annual gross profit exceeds the annual budget of the Scottish Government

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. At the time of writing, the market is still awaiting this move. It has offices throughout Europe, America and Asia. The state increased its stake in Gazprom to over 50% instead by paying cash for a 10.4% stake, thus fulfilling the main pre-condition for the abolition of restrictions on foreign ownership of Gazprom shares. The bank's head office is in St Andrew's Square, Edinburgh. Instead, Rosneft remained independent, to the delight of its own management. Its shares have a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. After Rosneft had appropriated such a large and controversial asset, the technicalities of merging it into Gazprom became too complicated.

Today it is the largest bank in Scotland, the second largest in the UK and Europe, and the fifth largest in the world by market capitalisation. Fearing that it would fall foul of US law, Gazprom backed away from buying Yukos' main asset when the Russian government auctioned it in December 2004, leaving the more gung-ho Rosneft to buy it.
The Royal Bank of Scotland LSE: RBSis one of Scotland's four national clearing banks and one of the oldest in the UK, founded in Edinburgh in 1727 by Royal Charter. However, Gazprom was foiled both in its attempt to acquire Rosneft, and its earlier attempt to buy the core asset of Yukos, when Yukos filed for bankruptcy in Houston. The bank's annual gross profit exceeds the annual budget of the Scottish Government. [1]. In June 1997, The Royal Bank of Scotland became the first high street bank in the UK to introduce an Internet banking service. In 2004, President Putin announced that Gazprom is acquiring the state-owned oil-company Rosneft and that this will "eventually lead to the lifting of foreign ownership restrictions on Gazprom shares", as the stake of the Russian government in Gazprom will rise from 38.37% to a contolling position.

It was the first bank in the world to offer an overdraft facility. Non-Russian investors may legally buy Gazprom shares only through American Depositary Shares, which cost more than locally traded shares. It is the only UK bank that still prints a 1 pound note. Gazprom provides 25% of all Russian tax revenues (averaging over US$ 4 billion annually between 1993-2003) and accounts for 8% of the nation’s gross domestic product. The Royal Bank of Scotland, along with Clydesdale Bank and Bank of Scotland, still prints its own banknotes for Scotland. Until 2004 the Russian government held a 38.37% stake in the company, and had a majority on the company’s board of directors. WorldPay - specialised in Internet Business. This was aided by shareholder activism by Hermitage CEO William Bowder and former Russian finance minister Boris Fyodorov.

Coutts - UK private bank based in London. Russian Presindent Vladimir Putin was actively pursuing reforms in the management of the company in the years following the scandals. Ulster Bank - Belfast-based bank with branches throughout Ireland. The real figure is around 10 percent so that's good news". Direct Line - telephone financial services company. The investment fund Hermitage Capital Management, a minority shareholder of Gazprom, reported on the scandals in October 2000: "Investors are valuing this company as if 99 percent of its assets have been stolen. bank group based in New England. The Gazprom auditor PwC apparently had signed off and covered these transactions.

Citizens Financial Group - U.S. Additionally, large-scale asset-stripping of Gazprom was going on by corrupt management and board members through various transactions involving the Gazprom daughter Stroitansgaz and the regional gas company Sibneftegaz. Adam and Company - UK private bank. Gazprom conducted dubious transactions with Florida-based gas-trading company Itera and a Gazprom/Itera joint-venture, Purgaz, in the late 1990s, which allegedly benefited various management members and their relatives. NatWest - UK clearing bank, head office in London. The reasons were not clear and were explained either by an aging pipeline transport network, by a management that was becoming increasingly corrupt or by pre-existing losses that appeared because of more transparent accounting policies. Royal Bank of Scotland- Scottish clearing bank, head office in Edinburgh. Furthermore, the company's records started showing a loss for the first time at this point in time.

2000- acquisition of the National Westminster Bank after hostile takeover battle with the Bank of Scotland. When tax prosecutors started to seize assets of Gazprom, the company had to give in and pay. 1997- develops internet banking. At the same time, the Russian government suddenly started demanding billions of dollars in back taxes from Gazprom. 1997- Registrars department acquired by Australian share registry company Computershare. In 1998 Chernomyrdin was fired from his position by Russia's Prime Minister Boris Yeltsin. 1988- acquisition of Citizens Financial Group of Rhode Island. Gazprom slowly established credibility in the western capital markets with an offering of 1% of its equity to foreigners in October 1996 in the form of London Depository Receipts and a successful large bond issue of US$ 2.5 billion in 1997.

1985- Williams and Glyn's bank name merged with the Royal Bank of Scotland. However, trading these shares was extremely heavily regulated and the by-laws of the company prohibited foreigners to own more than 9% of the shares. 1985- established the Direct Line insurance brand. As the new government was committed to economic reform, Gazprom began to be privatized, becoming a joint-stock company in November 1992, and starting to distribute shares under the voucher method, where every Russian citizen received vouchers to purchase shares of formerly state-owned companies. 1980- abortive hostile takeover bid by Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation fails. After the new Russian President Boris Yeltsin appointed Chernomirdin to be his Prime Minister in December 1992, the political influence of Gazprom increased markedly. 1972- merger with National Commercial Bank of Scotland. After the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, Gazprom lost a large part of its assets outside of Russia - one third of its pipelines and one fourth of its compression capacity.

1920- acquisition of various small English banks to form Williams Deacons Bank,later combined with Glyn Mills & Co. to form Williams and Glyn's Bank. Viktor Chernomyrdin was made head of the operation. 1874- first London branch opens. In July 1989, as part of his economic reforms, President Mikhail Gorbachev combined the ministries for oil and gas, and later carved out Gazprom as the entity responsible for gas production, distribution and sales. 1783- first branch in Glasgow opens. Gas exploration, development and distribution were centralized in a state ministry. 1727- founded in Edinburgh by Royal Charter. Due to large natural gas reserves discovered in Siberia, in the Urals and in the Volga region in the 1970s and 1980s, the Soviet Union became a major gas producer.

. Gazprom supplies almost all the gas needs of central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. With sales of US$ 31 billion in 2004, it accounts for about 94% of Russian natural gas production and with reserves of 17,800 km³, it controls 25% of the world's gas reserves. Газпром, sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is a major Russian company and the biggest natural gas extractor.

Gazprom (russ.

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