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Royal Bank of Scotland


The Royal Bank of Scotland LSE: RBSis one of Scotland's four national clearing banks and one of the oldest in the UK, founded in Edinburgh in 1727 by Royal Charter.

Today it is the largest bank in Scotland, the second largest in the UK and Europe, and the fifth largest in the world by market capitalisation. Its shares have a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange.

The bank's head office is in St Andrew's Square, Edinburgh. It has offices throughout Europe, America and Asia.

History of the Royal Bank of Scotland

  • 1727- founded in Edinburgh by Royal Charter
  • 1783- first branch in Glasgow opens
  • 1874- first London branch opens
  • 1920- acquisition of various small English banks to form Williams Deacons Bank,later combined with Glyn Mills & Co. to form Williams and Glyn's Bank
  • 1972- merger with National Commercial Bank of Scotland
  • 1980- abortive hostile takeover bid by Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation fails
  • 1985- established the Direct Line insurance brand
  • 1985- Williams and Glyn's bank name merged with the Royal Bank of Scotland
  • 1988- acquisition of Citizens Financial Group of Rhode Island
  • 1997- Registrars department acquired by Australian share registry company Computershare
  • 1997- develops internet banking
  • 2000- acquisition of the National Westminster Bank after hostile takeover battle with the Bank of Scotland

Constituents of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group

  • Royal Bank of Scotland- Scottish clearing bank, head office in Edinburgh
  • NatWest - UK clearing bank, head office in London
  • Adam and Company - UK private bank
  • Citizens Financial Group - U.S. bank group based in New England
  • Direct Line - telephone financial services company
  • Ulster Bank - Belfast-based bank with branches throughout Ireland
  • Coutts - UK private bank based in London
  • WorldPay - specialised in Internet Business

Other facts

£100 banknotes of the Royal Bank of Scotland
  • The Royal Bank of Scotland, along with Clydesdale Bank and Bank of Scotland, still prints its own banknotes for Scotland
  • It is the only UK bank that still prints a 1 pound note
  • It was the first bank in the world to offer an overdraft facility
  • In June 1997, The Royal Bank of Scotland became the first high street bank in the UK to introduce an Internet banking service.
  • The bank's annual gross profit exceeds the annual budget of the Scottish Government

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. In the area of analytical chemistry, Merck played a leading role in the development of chromatographic methods. It has offices throughout Europe, America and Asia. In the chemical-research sector, work started on pearl-lustre pigments in 1957, while the company's involvement in liquid crystals was initiated ten years later leading to its market leading role today. The bank's head office is in St Andrew's Square, Edinburgh. Successful pharmaceutical agents of this time included corticoid preparations — for example Fortecortin, which is still used today —, the cold remedy Nasivin or the hormone preparations Gestafortin and Menova. Its shares have a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. For Merck this meant two-digit sales-growth figures for many years.

Today it is the largest bank in Scotland, the second largest in the UK and Europe, and the fifth largest in the world by market capitalisation. Soon afterwards the boom commonly known as the "Wirtschaftswunder" (economic miracle) set in.
The Royal Bank of Scotland LSE: RBSis one of Scotland's four national clearing banks and one of the oldest in the UK, founded in Edinburgh in 1727 by Royal Charter. Following the defeat of Germany in World War II, Merck was granted permission by the military government to produce drugs, pesticides, food preservatives, reagents, and fine chemicals for laboratory use. The bank's annual gross profit exceeds the annual budget of the Scottish Government. Attention was directed at vitamins as a new product category, and Vigantol was introduced in 1927, followed by Cebion in 1934. In June 1997, The Royal Bank of Scotland became the first high street bank in the UK to introduce an Internet banking service. Around World War I, Merck began producing and later patented MDMA (ecstasy).

It was the first bank in the world to offer an overdraft facility. Sigmund Freud, author of Über Coca (1884), was an enthusiastic collaborator in Merck's coca research, though the methodological sophistication of his self-experimentation studies has been challenged. It is the only UK bank that still prints a 1 pound note. From 1884 onwards, Merck played a vigorous role too in the production and marketing of cocaine. The Royal Bank of Scotland, along with Clydesdale Bank and Bank of Scotland, still prints its own banknotes for Scotland. After Wilhelm Adam Sertürner's isolation of morphine from opium in 1805, Merck pioneered (from 1827) the commercial manufacture of morphine for an expanding global market. WorldPay - specialised in Internet Business. Many popular and successful products have emerged from Merck's laboratories.

Coutts - UK private bank based in London. It is one of the top 5 pharmaceutical companies worldwide, much larger than its German ancestor, which employees around 28,600 people in 54 countries. Ulster Bank - Belfast-based bank with branches throughout Ireland. Today, the US company has about 70,000 employees in 120 countries and 31 factories worldwide. Direct Line - telephone financial services company. was confiscated following the First World War and set up as an independent company in the United States. bank group based in New England. Merck & Co.

Citizens Financial Group - U.S. in New York, USA. Adam and Company - UK private bank. In 1891, George Merck established his roots in the United States and set up Merck & Co. NatWest - UK clearing bank, head office in London. He and his successors gradually built up a chemical-pharmaceutical factory that produced — in addition to raw materials for pharmaceutical preparations — a multitude of other chemicals and (from 1890) medicines. Royal Bank of Scotland- Scottish clearing bank, head office in Edinburgh. He began manufacturing of these substances "in bulk" in 1827, toting them as a "Cabinet of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Innovations" for sale.

2000- acquisition of the National Westminster Bank after hostile takeover battle with the Bank of Scotland. Thanks to his good scientific education he was successful in isolating and characterizing alkaloids in the pharmacy laboratory. 1997- develops internet banking. In 1816, Emanuel Merck took over the pharmacy. 1997- Registrars department acquired by Australian share registry company Computershare. In 1668, Friedrich Jacob Merck, an apothecary, assumed ownership of the "Engel-Apotheke" (Angel Pharmacy) in Darmstadt, Germany. 1988- acquisition of Citizens Financial Group of Rhode Island. The roots of Merck reach back into the 17th Century.

1985- Williams and Glyn's bank name merged with the Royal Bank of Scotland. Merck has a colorful and varied history. 1985- established the Direct Line insurance brand. It operates under the umbrella brand EMD in North America, formed from the initials of Emanuel Merck, Darmstadt. 1980- abortive hostile takeover bid by Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation fails. The German based pharmaceutical company operates mainly in Europe. 1972- merger with National Commercial Bank of Scotland. Merck KGaA (also referred to as “German Merck” or “Merck Darmstadt”) is one of the oldest still operating chemical-pharmaceutical companies in the world established in 1668.

1920- acquisition of various small English banks to form Williams Deacons Bank,later combined with Glyn Mills & Co. to form Williams and Glyn's Bank. Merck & Co., called Merck Sharp and Dohme (MSD) outside the USA and Canada, is now an independent company. 1874- first London branch opens. subsidiary in the United States. 1783- first branch in Glasgow opens. Following World War I, Merck lost possession of its foreign sites including the Merck & Co. 1727- founded in Edinburgh by Royal Charter. Merck was founded in Germany and until going partly public in 1995 privately owned.

Merck KGaA is a German based pharmaceutical company.

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