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R.E.M. (band)

R.E.M. is a rock band formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 by Michael Stipe (vocals), Bill Berry (drums), Peter Buck (guitar), and Mike Mills (bass). Throughout the 1980s, while signed to the independent label I.R.S., they achieved a growing cult status due mainly to Stipe's obscure (and sometimes inaudible and unintelligible) lyrics and the band's sound, most noticeably influenced by The Byrds. By the early '90s, R.E.M. was one of the world's most popular, respected, and influential bands.

The I.R.S. Years (1982-1987)

Their debut EP, Chronic Town (1982), illustrated R.E.M.'s signature musical style: jangling guitars, chords played in arpeggio, murmured vocals, and lyrics that completely avoid the standard topics of popular music - love and relationships. Their debut album, Murmur (1983), is held to be one of the best records of the 1980s. The album is stylistically unified. The jangling guitars, so prominent on Chronic Town, are used more sparingly. The melody is found in the bass notes, and the lyrics are practically indecipherable. The songs on the album blend together. Evocative words are used to create a mood instead of a narrative. The mood is grey - "Rest assured this will not last, take a turn for the worst", "martyred, misconstrued", "Not everyone can carry the weight of the world", "lies and conversation, fear". The dark mood is broken by two brighter, more hopeful songs, "Sitting Still," and "Shaking Through", marked by the return of arpeggio and jangling guitars.

R.E.M.'s second album, Reckoning (1984), explored a variety of musical styles. Song topics include cold weather, a fairy tale of brothers with magical powers and a flood, along with five laments of separation. The jangling guitars and beautiful melodies obscure the dark lyrics. The final song, "Little America," is written about driving through rural America ("another Greenville, another Magic Mart (http://www.magicmartstores.com/)"), and serves as a prelude to the Southern themes on the subsequent album.

Fables of the Reconstruction (1985) explores the mythology of the southern United States. A celebration of an eccentric individual is the subject of no less than four songs on the album ("Maps and Legends," "Life and How to Live It," "Old Man Kensey," "Wendell Gee"). "Driver 8" is a song about the scenery surrounding railroad tracks. Trains are a frequent topic of Southern music; they epitomize the freedom and promise of an escape from one's home environment. The source of the title of "Can't Get There from Here" is a curious phrase heard when asking directions in a rural area. "Kohoutek," their first song about a romantic relationship, compares the fizzled comet of 1973 to a fizzled romance. By the time this album was released, R.E.M. were critically acclaimed, and the video for "Can't Get There from Here" was played frequently on MTV. R.E.M. practically defined college rock by this time.

The next album, Lifes Rich Pageant (sic) (1986), takes its name from a Pink Panther movie ("You'll catch your death of cold!" "Yes, I probably will. But that's all part of life's rich pageant, you know."). The songs are upbeat, the tempo is fast; this is a fairly hard-rocking album. The lyrics were becoming both more intelligible and more direct, with political themes appearing more explicitly ("Begin the Begin," "Flowers of Guatemala," "Hyena"). "Cuyahoga" is about the river in Ohio that caught fire due to pollution. Ironically, the 'hit' from the album, "Superman," was a cover song that didn't appear on the original album cover. In many ways, this album marked the end of the first period in the band's history.

Document (1987) was their last album for the indie record label I.R.S., and provided their first major hit with "The One I Love," which reached No. 9 on the American pop charts. The popularity of this song of grim satisfaction over the end of an unhappy relationship was due mainly, however, to its misinterpretation as a love song. "It's the End of the World as We Know It (And I Feel Fine)" recalls the rapid-fire lyrical style of Bob Dylan's "Subterranean Homesick Blues" and can be described as pre-apocalyptic.

Dead Letter Office (1987) was a collection of B-sides and outtakes. Highlights include three Velvet Underground covers, an Aerosmith cover, an uncommissioned commercial for a barbecue restaurant in Athens, and a boozy version of "King of the Road." The CD also has the EP Chronic Town at the end. The album is described in the liner notes as "A little bit of uh-huh and a whole lot of oh-yeah." The band's early years are summarized in the compilation Eponymous, released in 1988. The compilation contains several alternative versions and mixes of songs.

Rock Superstars (1988-1996)

In 1988 R.E.M. signed to the major label Warner Brothers and released Green. This was the band's first time with heavy promotion, and they toured stadiums extensively in 1989. Some fans from the I.R.S. days complained that R.E.M. had become too commercial and that the quality of the music had decreased, but the band had now been brought to international attention. In 1990, most of R.E.M. recorded with Warren Zevon as the Hindu Love Gods.

Their next records, Out of Time (1991) and Automatic for the People (1992), were both international hits, despite the fact that R.E.M. did not tour for either album. These two critically acclaimed albums featured hit singles including "Losing My Religion," "Shiny Happy People," "Everybody Hurts," and "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite." Out of Time also includes emotional, contemplative tracks such as "Belong," "Half A World Away," and "Country Feedback." On Automatic, the band developed a reserved, meditative sound that took them back to their roots, and the record's 15 million copies were sold in spite of such melancholy themes as death, suicide, and sexual jealousy.

The band's 1994 release, the grunge-influenced Monster, including "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?," proved to be a crossover hit and their best selling album to date, though many critics disliked the band's foray into glam rock. The album was followed by a massive tour during which drummer Bill Berry suffered a brain hemorrhage on stage, which would eventually lead to his leaving the band. While on this tour the band recorded the album New Adventures in Hi-Fi (1996), a long, roughly produced and decidedly bleak record which featured, in the seven-minute "Leave," perhaps the band's most intense song. Other notable tracks on that record include "E-Bow the Letter" (a collaboration with the legendary Patti Smith) and the intense western-themed rock of "Low Desert." The band re-signed with Warner Brothers in 1996 for the largest recording contract advance in history: 80 million dollars for 5 albums.

R.E.M. After Berry (1997-present)

After Berry's departure, the band returned with Krautrock-influenced Up (1998), another long and reflective record, with the lead single "Daysleeper." Many tracks contained drum machines, and Peter Buck played guitar only a little. The band was no longer selling well in United States, though in Europe they stayed popular. 2001's Reveal, confirms the return to an even mellower songwriting approach, with songs such as "Imitation of Life," "All The Way To Reno (You're Gonna Be A Star)," and "She Just Wants To Be" garnering some radio play. The album gained mixed reviews. Recent R.E.M. soundtrack appearances have found them revisiting some of their earliest material, hitherto available only on live bootlegs; their single, "Bad Day" (2003), was the prototype for "It's the End of the World As We Know It (And I Feel Fine)," with some of the same lyrics. In 2004, the band returned with Around the Sun, which once again met with generally only mild critical praise. Singles from this album include "Leaving New York" and "Aftermath". R.E.M.'s Around the Sun World Tour is the first tour since the infamous Monster Tour that R.E.M. needed to cancel shows, on account of Mike Mills's flu and ear infection. "Electron Blue," the third single from the Around the Sun album, has been getting much airplay in the UK.

The Future

In a recent interview, Peter Buck said that their next album would be very different from current R.E.M., and based on the single "I'm Gonna DJ", played live on the 2004-2005 world tour, we can expect it to be another rock album, which, if successful, could possibly lead to Warner resigning R.E.M. after the two albums left on their contract. In the same interview, Michael Stipe said he has lyrics to three new songs on his cell phone and one is almost complete and may be debuted live. Currently, there have been two songs played live supposedly on the next album, rumored for a 2006 release; "I'm Gonna D.J.", the catchy rocking song with multiple guitars, and "Weatherman", played once live and then stopped due to the 'lyrics not fitting the song'. Not replacing Berry, R.E.M. are currently using drummer Bill Rieflin on Around the Sun and the tour, and his drums may help a 2006 release. R.E.M. currently are touring outside of the United States on their world tour, which is currently to end in July 2005 at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff.

Trivia

  • The band members picked the name R.E.M. out of the dictionary. They liked the name because it was so ambiguous. They started out as Twisted Kites for the first show they played at a party, but, according to "It Crawled From the South," considered Negro Eyes, Slut Bank, and Cans of Piss before settling for R.E.M.
  • "Losing My Religion" may have been the biggest hit song that uses a mandolin as the main instrument.

Samples

  • Download sample of "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?" from Monster.

Discography

Studio Albums

  • Chronic Town EP (1982)
  • Murmur (1983); #178 US
  • Reckoning (1984); #27 US
  • Fables of the Reconstruction (1985) #28 US, #35 UK
  • Lifes Rich Pageant (1986) #21 US
  • Dead Letter Office (outtakes and b-sides, incl. Chronic Town EP) (1987) #52 US
  • Document (1987); #28 UK, #10 US
  • Green (1988); #27 UK, #12 US
  • Out of Time (1991); #1 UK, #1 US
  • Automatic for the People (1992); #1 UK, #2 US
  • Monster (1994); #1 UK, #1 US
  • New Adventures in Hi-Fi (1996); #1 UK, #2 US
  • Up (1998); #2 UK, #3 US
  • Reveal (2001); #1 UK, #6 US
  • Around the Sun (2004); #1 UK, #13 US

Compilations

  • Eponymous (compilation) (1988) #44 US
  • The Best of R.E.M. (1991); #7 UK
  • Singles Collected (1994);
  • R.E.M. In The Attic (rarities compilation) (1997)
  • R.E.M.IX (Web Only Remixes)
  • In Time - The Best of R.E.M. 1988-2003 (compilation) (2003); #1 UK, #8 US

Hit Singles

  • 1983 "Radio Free Europe" #78 US
  • 1984 "South Central Rain (I'm Sorry)" #85 US
  • 1986 "Fall On Me" #94 US
  • 1987 "The One I Love" #9 US
  • 1989 "Stand" #6 US
  • 1989 "Orange Crush" #28 UK
  • 1989 "Pop Song 89" #86 US
  • 1991 "Losing My Religion" #4 US, #19 UK
  • 1991 "Shiny Happy People" #10 US; #6 UK
  • 1991 "Near Wild Heaven" #27 UK
  • 1991 "The One I Love" (re-issue) #16 UK
  • 1991 "Radio Song" #28 UK
  • 1991 "It's The End Of The World As We Know It" #39 UK; #69 US (1988)
  • 1992 "Drive" #28 US; #11 UK
  • 1993 "Man on the Moon" #30 US; #18 UK
  • 1993 "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite" #17 UK
  • 1993 "Everybody Hurts" #29 US; #7 UK
  • 1993 "Nightswimming" #27 UK
  • 1994 "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?" #21 US; #9 UK
  • 1994 "Bang and Blame" #19 US; #15 UK
  • 1995 "Crush with Eyeliner" #23 UK
  • 1995 "Strange Currencies" #47 US; #9 UK
  • 1995 "Tongue" #13 UK
  • 1996 "E-Bow the Letter" #4 UK
  • 1996 "Bittersweet Me" #46 US; #19 UK
  • 1996 "Electrolite" #96 US; #29 UK
  • 1998 "Daysleeper" #57 US; #6 UK
  • 1998 "Lotus" #26 UK
  • 1999 "At My Most Beautiful" #10 UK
  • 2000 "The Great Beyond" #57 US; #3 UK
  • 2001 "Imitation of Life" #83 US; #6 UK
  • 2001 "All the Way to Reno" #24 UK
  • 2001 "I'll Take the Rain" #51 UK
  • 2003 "Bad Day" #8 UK
  • 2004 "Animal" #33 UK
  • 2004 "Leaving New York" #5 UK
  • 2004 "Aftermath" #41 UK
  • 2005 "Electron Blue" #26 UK

External Links

  • Official R.E.M. website (http://www.remhq.com/)
  • Murmurs : R.E.M. news, multimedia, file sharing & largest R.E.M. forum (http://www.murmurs.com/)
  • R.E.M. fan site (http://www.rem-fan.com/)
  • R.E.M. news & multimedia (http://www.remison.com/)
  • The R.E.M. Collector's Guide (http://www.svs.com/rem/)
  • R.E.M. Rock (http://www.remrock.com/)
  • File Under R.E.M. - The RetroWeb R.E.M. Page (http://www.retroweb.com/rem.html)
  • 2nd Largest R.E.M. Forum (http://www.myrem.com)
  • rec.music.rem FAQ (http://people2.clarityconnect.com/webpages6/ronhenry/remfaq.htm)
  • R.E.M. Lyric Annotations FAQ (http://www.flim.com/remlafaq.html)



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. Only records which charted are listed. currently are touring outside of the United States on their world tour, which is currently to end in July 2005 at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. This does not include collaborations with Cliff Richard, nor solo recordings, nor those made under the name Marvin Welch & Farrar. R.E.M. From British Hit Singles & Albums, 17th Edition (except Life Story). are currently using drummer Bill Rieflin on Around the Sun and the tour, and his drums may help a 2006 release. Marvin declined the same offer for personal reasons.

Not replacing Berry, R.E.M. Also at this time, it was revealed that Bruce Welch and Brian Bennett were to receive the O.B.E. Currently, there have been two songs played live supposedly on the next album, rumored for a 2006 release; "I'm Gonna D.J.", the catchy rocking song with multiple guitars, and "Weatherman", played once live and then stopped due to the 'lyrics not fitting the song'. A further (European) farewell tour is planned for 2005. In the same interview, Michael Stipe said he has lyrics to three new songs on his cell phone and one is almost complete and may be debuted live. After having not performed as Cliff and the Shadows since 1989/1990, Cliff joined the Shadows on stage on June 14, 2004, at the London Palladium. after the two albums left on their contract. The last one, at London's Palladium, concluded their 45 year career.

In a recent interview, Peter Buck said that their next album would be very different from current R.E.M., and based on the single "I'm Gonna DJ", played live on the 2004-2005 world tour, we can expect it to be another rock album, which, if successful, could possibly lead to Warner resigning R.E.M. In 2004, The Shadows did their final tour in Britain (37 concerts). "Electron Blue," the third single from the Around the Sun album, has been getting much airplay in the UK. He also produced and wrote for the Who's Roger Daltrey. needed to cancel shows, on account of Mike Mills's flu and ear infection. This did however lead to the first performances of the shadows with a live keyboard player, something they have stuck with ever since, even after Bruce re-joined. The Shadows reunited with Cliff in 1978 and 1984 and 1988 for more concerts, and toured and recorded frequently throughout the 1980s. Singles from this album include "Leaving New York" and "Aftermath". R.E.M.'s Around the Sun World Tour is the first tour since the infamous Monster Tour that R.E.M. The Shadows split in 1968, leading to a commercially successful Japanese tour (which Hank Marvin says he did 'for the Yen') though this was not an artistic success due to the absence of Bruce Welch on rhythm guitar.

In 2004, the band returned with Around the Sun, which once again met with generally only mild critical praise. A number of other strong albums were produced, and in 1979 he went to number one with We Don't Talk Anymore, produced by Bruce Welch and written by former Shadow Alan Tarney. soundtrack appearances have found them revisiting some of their earliest material, hitherto available only on live bootlegs; their single, "Bad Day" (2003), was the prototype for "It's the End of the World As We Know It (And I Feel Fine)," with some of the same lyrics. People like Jimmy Page, Eric Clapton, and Elton John began being seen sporting big "I'm Nearly Famous" badges on their clothes, so pleased that their icon was getting heavily back into the heavy rock that he began his career in. Recent R.E.M. It wasn't just Cliff and the fans who were excited that the man who had begun and led British rock from the start, was back in strength, but also a host of big music names. The album gained mixed reviews. The collaboration produced the landmark Cliff album "I'm Nearly Famous", which brought about the classic rock guitar driven track "Devil Woman" and the haunting "Miss You Nights",.

2001's Reveal, confirms the return to an even mellower songwriting approach, with songs such as "Imitation of Life," "All The Way To Reno (You're Gonna Be A Star)," and "She Just Wants To Be" garnering some radio play. He was in everyone's homes, and gave enjoyment to all the family, and although still recording and being successful, Cliff and others like his former Shadow Bruce Welch decided that they would once again bring Cliff out as a "rock" artist again. The band was no longer selling well in United States, though in Europe they stayed popular. The tv shows made Cliff into a tv personality and not necessarily primarily a recording singer. After Berry's departure, the band returned with Krautrock-influenced Up (1998), another long and reflective record, with the lead single "Daysleeper." Many tracks contained drum machines, and Peter Buck played guitar only a little. During the 1970s, Cliff became heavily involved in tv shows, like 'It's Cliff Richard', many of which also starred Hank Marvin in comedy sketches. Other notable tracks on that record include "E-Bow the Letter" (a collaboration with the legendary Patti Smith) and the intense western-themed rock of "Low Desert." The band re-signed with Warner Brothers in 1996 for the largest recording contract advance in history: 80 million dollars for 5 albums. The Beatles had became huge once America took to them, and this in turn opened up the path across the Atlantic.

While on this tour the band recorded the album New Adventures in Hi-Fi (1996), a long, roughly produced and decidedly bleak record which featured, in the seven-minute "Leave," perhaps the band's most intense song. Throughout the '60s, Cliff and the Shadows stayed at the top, even at the height of Mersey music, however they did not have the advantage the new acts had of being able to release music and having it go directly to the USA as well. The album was followed by a massive tour during which drummer Bill Berry suffered a brain hemorrhage on stage, which would eventually lead to his leaving the band. The record set the Shadows on a path of their own, and soon became the greatest instrumental group of all time. The band's 1994 release, the grunge-influenced Monster, including "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?," proved to be a crossover hit and their best selling album to date, though many critics disliked the band's foray into glam rock. Again, although people claim the distinction between Cliff and the Shadows, it was still Cliff and the Shadows, as Cliff played un-credited bongo drums on the recording, but didn't put his name to it. These two critically acclaimed albums featured hit singles including "Losing My Religion," "Shiny Happy People," "Everybody Hurts," and "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite." Out of Time also includes emotional, contemplative tracks such as "Belong," "Half A World Away," and "Country Feedback." On Automatic, the band developed a reserved, meditative sound that took them back to their roots, and the record's 15 million copies were sold in spite of such melancholy themes as death, suicide, and sexual jealousy. In 1960, the Shadows (though having previously recorded as the Drifters without Cliff) released 'Apache', which saw the birth of British rock guitar instrumental music.

Their next records, Out of Time (1991) and Automatic for the People (1992), were both international hits, despite the fact that R.E.M. did not tour for either album. In fact, a great number of the songs sung by Cliff and the Shadows were written by the Shadows (and sometimes Cliff). recorded with Warren Zevon as the Hindu Love Gods. Cliff was led to record sometimes without the Shadows, mainly to cater for other styles, and this helped to give people the incorrect view that Cliff was now separate and the Shadows merely backed HIS songs. In 1990, most of R.E.M. The film was not a commercial success, but is very popular with aficionados. had become too commercial and that the quality of the music had decreased, but the band had now been brought to international attention. Arguably, Cliff's best lead role took place in the mid-late '60s film "Two a Penny", which saw Cliff as a young man who gets involved in drug dealing while questioning his life after his girlfriend changes in her attitudes.

days complained that R.E.M. Cliff and the Shadows appeared in a number of films, most notably in The Young Ones (which would give its name to 1980s TV sitcom (The Young Ones), Summer Holiday, Wonderful Life and Finders Keepers. Some fans from the I.R.S. The Shadows would later cover several Beatles tracks and also recorded a song 'Liverpool Days' about the Beatles and their work. This was the band's first time with heavy promotion, and they toured stadiums extensively in 1989. Paul McCartney originally wrote 'Here There And Everywhere' as a Shadows Song, and the Lennon-Harrison instrumental 'Cry For A Shadow' was clearly inspired by the band. signed to the major label Warner Brothers and released Green. The Beatles were taken to Cliff and the Shadows concerts and instructed about clothes/ stage presence and various other things, and being of the same fold at Abbey Road, were good friends with the band.

In 1988 R.E.M. Groups were even trained by following how they did things. The compilation contains several alternative versions and mixes of songs. Most well known groups of the 1960s and 1970s started off as imitators of Cliff and the Shadows, singing and playing only Cliff and the Shadows' material, even to the extent of copying their dance steps. The album is described in the liner notes as "A little bit of uh-huh and a whole lot of oh-yeah." The band's early years are summarized in the compilation Eponymous, released in 1988. It was due to them that Parlophone were looking for a 'second' Cliff and the Shadows, and eventually took the Beatles. Highlights include three Velvet Underground covers, an Aerosmith cover, an uncommissioned commercial for a barbecue restaurant in Athens, and a boozy version of "King of the Road." The CD also has the EP Chronic Town at the end. Cliff and the Shadows basically re-wrote convention in British recording companies and opened EMI up to the importance and strength of rock 'n' roll.

Dead Letter Office (1987) was a collection of B-sides and outtakes. It was the same with their appearances on the Ed Sullivan Show (which was responsible for much of the Beatles' success, but didn't really help Cliff and the Shadows). "It's the End of the World as We Know It (And I Feel Fine)" recalls the rapid-fire lyrical style of Bob Dylan's "Subterranean Homesick Blues" and can be described as pre-apocalyptic. and so the chances were lost. The popularity of this song of grim satisfaction over the end of an unhappy relationship was due mainly, however, to its misinterpretation as a love song. The problem was that the record company didn't get behind them strongly enough with distributing albums etc. 9 on the American pop charts. They toured the United States and stole the show even over all of the accompanying American acts of the time.

Document (1987) was their last album for the indie record label I.R.S., and provided their first major hit with "The One I Love," which reached No. In the period between 1958-1963, Cliff Richard and the Shadows were the biggest thing in Britain. In many ways, this album marked the end of the first period in the band's history. Farrar also wrote and co-wrote songs with The Shadows, and also co-produced. Ironically, the 'hit' from the album, "Superman," was a cover song that didn't appear on the original album cover. It says something for the genorosity of Hank Marvin that he allowed Farrar to share lead guitar duties on many tracks, producing the notable instrumental album Rockin' With Curly Leads. "Cuyahoga" is about the river in Ohio that caught fire due to pollution. Farrar was like a breath of fresh air, bringing new ideas and sounds to the group, as well as a third lead vocalist.

The lyrics were becoming both more intelligible and more direct, with political themes appearing more explicitly ("Begin the Begin," "Flowers of Guatemala," "Hyena"). Later on the Shadows used a number of other people in studio recordings and stage such as Alan Tarney, however their other official member was John Farrar, who was part of the Shadows, Marvin and Farrar, and Marvin Welch and Farrar. The songs are upbeat, the tempo is fast; this is a fairly hard-rocking album. Soon after, John Rostill replaced Locking on bass. But that's all part of life's rich pageant, you know."). In 1961, Brian Bennett from Marty Wilde's Wilde Cats replaced Tony Meehan on drums, and in 1962 Brian "Liquorice" Locking (also from the Wilde Cats) replaced Jet Harris on bass. The next album, Lifes Rich Pageant (sic) (1986), takes its name from a Pink Panther movie ("You'll catch your death of cold!" "Yes, I probably will. A serious accident coupled with health and personal problems halted Jet's success, but he later re-emerged with Jeff Beck (Yardbirds), Ron Wood (Rolling Stones), and Rod Stewart (Faces); however this group didn't last long.

practically defined college rock by this time. Jimmy Page also recorded with them. R.E.M. One member of Jet and Tony's band was John Paul Jones, later member of Led Zeppelin (who at times recorded with Cliff and the Shadows). were critically acclaimed, and the video for "Can't Get There from Here" was played frequently on MTV. Tony Meehan and Jet Harris eventually left the group and recorded as solo artists, but more successfully as a duo, achieving a number 1 in the UK Singles Charts with Diamonds. By the time this album was released, R.E.M. The guitar on the recording was provided by session musician Ernie Shears, although a near-contemporary live recording of the song on the album entitled 'Cliff' showcases Hank's version of the riff.

"Kohoutek," their first song about a romantic relationship, compares the fizzled comet of 1973 to a fizzled romance. Hank did not play the famous guitar riff on Move It. The source of the title of "Can't Get There from Here" is a curious phrase heard when asking directions in a rural area. Hank then said that he would only agree to join the band if his friend Bruce Welch could come too, and so on that day, Foster day recruited the new nucleus of the Drifters. Trains are a frequent topic of Southern music; they epitomize the freedom and promise of an escape from one's home environment. Foster was then told of a guy who was a brilliant guitarist, who also looked like Buddy Holly, so Foster met Hank Marvin. "Driver 8" is a song about the scenery surrounding railroad tracks. Strangely, Tony wasn't there when Foster arrived, and Foster was in a hurry and couldn't wait long.

A celebration of an eccentric individual is the subject of no less than four songs on the album ("Maps and Legends," "Life and How to Live It," "Old Man Kensey," "Wendell Gee"). The Beatles' recording session with him indirectly led to the Beatles getting their recording contract. Fables of the Reconstruction (1985) explores the mythology of the southern United States. The man being sought was Tony Sheridan, whom the Drifters knew, and who later played with the Beatles in Hamburg. The final song, "Little America," is written about driving through rural America ("another Greenville, another Magic Mart (http://www.magicmartstores.com/)"), and serves as a prelude to the Southern themes on the subsequent album. He was looking for someone, and if he had found him, the Beatles may never have been discovered. The jangling guitars and beautiful melodies obscure the dark lyrics. He went back to the 2I's where the Drifters and various other later members had played.

Song topics include cold weather, a fairy tale of brothers with magical powers and a flood, along with five laments of separation. On that day, Cliff's manager, John Foster, was looking for a new lead guitarist. R.E.M.'s second album, Reckoning (1984), explored a variety of musical styles. Popular music could have followed a completely different course if it were not for an accidental meeting one day in Soho. The dark mood is broken by two brighter, more hopeful songs, "Sitting Still," and "Shaking Through", marked by the return of arpeggio and jangling guitars. As Jet Harris, Tony Meehan, Hank Marvin and Bruce Welch gradually emerged in the band, some very significant 'lucky events' happened, for the band, and also for the world. The mood is grey - "Rest assured this will not last, take a turn for the worst", "martyred, misconstrued", "Not everyone can carry the weight of the world", "lies and conversation, fear". The final original member lost was Terry Smart.

Evocative words are used to create a mood instead of a narrative. First of all Mitham left, then Hank Marvin and Bruce Welch joined on guitars, and Jet Harris replaced Samwell on bass (Samwell had shifted to bass when Marvin took on the Lead guitar role). The songs on the album blend together. A gradual change in the line up eventually left Cliff as the only remaining original member. The melody is found in the bass notes, and the lyrics are practically indecipherable. The importance and influence of this song is legendary in British Rock music. John Lennon said, "I think the first English record that was anywhere near anything was 'Move It' by Cliff Richard, and before that there'd been nothing.". The jangling guitars, so prominent on Chronic Town, are used more sparingly. Another possible reason for the flip was that influential tv producer Jack Good, who grabbed the act for his tv show "Oh Boy!", said the song to be sung on his show had to be "Move It!" The single was flipped and went to number 2 in the charts.

The album is stylistically unified. One of these stories says that their producer Norrie Paramor, played the record to his daughter, and she raved about the B-side song instead of the A-side. Their debut album, Murmur (1983), is held to be one of the best records of the 1980s. There are a number of stories about why the A-side song was replaced by the B-side. Their debut EP, Chronic Town (1982), illustrated R.E.M.'s signature musical style: jangling guitars, chords played in arpeggio, murmured vocals, and lyrics that completely avoid the standard topics of popular music - love and relationships. (Samwell had joined as lead guitarist). was one of the world's most popular, respected, and influential bands. This was "Move It", written by Ian "Sammy" Samwell, who was the first new member of the group.

By the early '90s, R.E.M. They were given a non-rocking number called 'Schoolboy Crush' to record, but were allowed to record one of their own for the B-side. Throughout the 1980s, while signed to the independent label I.R.S., they achieved a growing cult status due mainly to Stipe's obscure (and sometimes inaudible and unintelligible) lyrics and the band's sound, most noticeably influenced by The Byrds. The group gained a contract and went into Abbey Road Studios to record their first record in 1958. R.E.M. is a rock band formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 by Michael Stipe (vocals), Bill Berry (drums), Peter Buck (guitar), and Mike Mills (bass). It was suggested to the group that they put a name out in front of the group's title, as this was the common thing at the time, and hence 'Cliff Richard and the Drifters' came about. Lyric Annotations FAQ (http://www.flim.com/remlafaq.html). The band initially comprised Cliff Richard (lead vocals/guitar), Norman Mitham (guitar), Terry Smart (drums).

R.E.M. They began during the 1950s under the name "The Drifters". rec.music.rem FAQ (http://people2.clarityconnect.com/webpages6/ronhenry/remfaq.htm). The Shadows A rock band most popular in the late 1950s and 1960s, but enjoying a resurgence in popularity in the late 1970s. Forum (http://www.myrem.com). 1981 The Third Man. 2nd Largest R.E.M. 1980 Equinoxe Part V.

Page (http://www.retroweb.com/rem.html). 1980 Riders In The Sky. - The RetroWeb R.E.M. 1979 Theme From 'The Deer Hunter' (Cavatina). File Under R.E.M. 1978 Don't Cry For Me Argentina. Rock (http://www.remrock.com/). 1975 Let Me Be The One.

R.E.M. 1967 Maroc 7. Collector's Guide (http://www.svs.com/rem/). 1966 The Dreams I Dream. The R.E.M. 1966 A Place In The Sun. news & multimedia (http://www.remison.com/). 1966 I Met A Girl.

R.E.M. 1965 The War Lord. fan site (http://www.rem-fan.com/). 1965 Don't Make My Baby Blue. R.E.M. 1965 Stingray. forum (http://www.murmurs.com/). 1965 Mary Anne.

news, multimedia, file sharing & largest R.E.M. 1964 Genie With The Light Brown Lamp. Murmurs : R.E.M. 1964 Rhythm And Greens. website (http://www.remhq.com/). 1964 The Rise And Fall Of Flingel Bunt. Official R.E.M. 1964 Theme For Young Lovers.

2005 "Electron Blue" #26 UK. 1963 Geronimo. 2004 "Aftermath" #41 UK. 1963 Shindig. 2004 "Leaving New York" #5 UK. 1963 Atlantis. 2004 "Animal" #33 UK. 1963 Foot Tapper (Reached Number One).

2003 "Bad Day" #8 UK. 1962 Dance On (Reached Number One). 2001 "I'll Take the Rain" #51 UK. 1962 Guitar Tango. 2001 "All the Way to Reno" #24 UK. 1962 Wonderful Land (Reached Number One). 2001 "Imitation of Life" #83 US; #6 UK. 1961 The Savage.

2000 "The Great Beyond" #57 US; #3 UK. 1961 Kon Tiki (Reached Number One). 1999 "At My Most Beautiful" #10 UK. 1961 The Frightened City. 1998 "Lotus" #26 UK. 1961 FBI. 1998 "Daysleeper" #57 US; #6 UK. 1960 Man Of Mystery/The Stranger.

1996 "Electrolite" #96 US; #29 UK. 1960 Apache (Reached Number One). 1996 "Bittersweet Me" #46 US; #19 UK. 2004 Life Story. 1996 "E-Bow the Letter" #4 UK. 1998 50 Golden Greats. 1995 "Tongue" #13 UK. 1997 Very Best Of Hank Marvin And The Shadows - The First 40 Years.

1995 "Strange Currencies" #47 US; #9 UK. 1997 Play Andrew Lloyd Webber And Tim Rice. 1995 "Crush with Eyeliner" #23 UK. 1994 The Best Of Hank Marvin And The Shadows. 1994 "Bang and Blame" #19 US; #15 UK. 1993 Shadows In The Night - 16 Classic Tracks. 1994 "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?" #21 US; #9 UK. 1991 Themes And Dreams.

1993 "Nightswimming" #27 UK. 1990 Reflection. 1993 "Everybody Hurts" #29 US; #7 UK. 1989 At Their Very Best. 1993 "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite" #17 UK. 1989 Steppin' To The Shadows. 1993 "Man on the Moon" #30 US; #18 UK. 1987 Simply Shadows.

1992 "Drive" #28 US; #11 UK. 1986 Moonlight Shadow. 1991 "It's The End Of The World As We Know It" #39 UK; #69 US (1988). 1984 Guardian Angel. 1991 "Radio Song" #28 UK. 1984 20 Original Greats. 1991 "The One I Love" (re-issue) #16 UK. 1983 XXV.

1991 "Near Wild Heaven" #27 UK. 1982 Live At Abbey Road. 1991 "Shiny Happy People" #10 US; #6 UK. 1982 Life In The Jungle. 1991 "Losing My Religion" #4 US, #19 UK. 1981 Hits Right Up Your Street. 1989 "Pop Song 89" #86 US. 1980 Change Of Address.

1989 "Orange Crush" #28 UK. 1980 Another String of Hot Hits. 1989 "Stand" #6 US. 1979 String Of Hits (Reached Number One). 1987 "The One I Love" #9 US. 1977 20 Golden Greats (Reached Number One). 1986 "Fall On Me" #94 US. 1975 Specs Appeal.

1984 "South Central Rain (I'm Sorry)" #85 US. 1974 Rockin' With Curly Leads. 1983 "Radio Free Europe" #78 US. 1970 Shades Of Rock. 1988-2003 (compilation) (2003); #1 UK, #8 US. 1967 Jigsaw. In Time - The Best of R.E.M. 1966 Shadow Music.

R.E.M.IX (Web Only Remixes). 1965 The Sound Of The Shadows. In The Attic (rarities compilation) (1997). 1964 Dance With The Shadows. R.E.M. 1963 Greatest Hits. Singles Collected (1994);. 1962 Out Of The Shadows (Reached Number One).

The Best of R.E.M. (1991); #7 UK. 1961 The Shadows (Reached Number One). Eponymous (compilation) (1988) #44 US. He also wrote the music for the celebrated film Grease. Around the Sun (2004); #1 UK, #13 US. John Farrar - John Farrar wrote for and produced Olivia Newton-John and also write the music with Tim Rice for Cliff's '90s stage musical "Heathcliff". Reveal (2001); #1 UK, #6 US. John Rostill - John Rostill went on to write for Olivia Newton-John and also play with others, until his death in 1973.

Up (1998); #2 UK, #3 US. Brian Bennett - Brian Bennett went on to play with many stars such as Ella Fitzgerald and compose music for television, most famously, The Ruth Rendell Mysteries. New Adventures in Hi-Fi (1996); #1 UK, #2 US. Welch and Marvin - Welch and Marvin separately went on to produce as well and record with other artists such as Roger Daltrey, Jean Michel Jarre, and Brian May. Monster (1994); #1 UK, #1 US. The Beatles were impressed to meet Meehan but eventually Smith turned them down. Automatic for the People (1992); #1 UK, #2 US. Tony Meehan - Tony Meehan went on to become a producer and A&R man for Decca, and was also present in the control room when the Beatles auditioned for Decca's Mike Smith (A&R man).

Out of Time (1991); #1 UK, #1 US. Ian Samwell - Ian Samwell went on to become a very influential writer and producer, recording the Small Faces first album and also producing artists like Georgie Fame, John Mayall, and America. Green (1988); #27 UK, #12 US. Sir Cliff now has his own vineyard and wine label, a line of perfume, and has become joint owner of the Arora International Hotel in Manchester, which opens in June 2004. Document (1987); #28 UK, #10 US. The Ultimate Pop Star, a Channel 4 programme screened in 2004, revealed that Cliff Richard had sold more singles in the UK than any other music artist, ahead of the Beatles in second place and Elvis Presley in third. Chronic Town EP) (1987) #52 US. He also appeared in the 2002 list of 100 Great Britons (sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the public).

Dead Letter Office (outtakes and b-sides, incl. Cliff Richard - Cliff reached the pinnacle of his career when he was knighted. Lifes Rich Pageant (1986) #21 US. Fables of the Reconstruction (1985) #28 US, #35 UK. Reckoning (1984); #27 US.

Murmur (1983); #178 US. Chronic Town EP (1982). Download sample of "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?" from Monster. "Losing My Religion" may have been the biggest hit song that uses a mandolin as the main instrument.

They started out as Twisted Kites for the first show they played at a party, but, according to "It Crawled From the South," considered Negro Eyes, Slut Bank, and Cans of Piss before settling for R.E.M. They liked the name because it was so ambiguous. out of the dictionary. The band members picked the name R.E.M.

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