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R.E.M. (band)

R.E.M. is a rock band formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 by Michael Stipe (vocals), Bill Berry (drums), Peter Buck (guitar), and Mike Mills (bass). Throughout the 1980s, while signed to the independent label I.R.S., they achieved a growing cult status due mainly to Stipe's obscure (and sometimes inaudible and unintelligible) lyrics and the band's sound, most noticeably influenced by The Byrds. By the early '90s, R.E.M. was one of the world's most popular, respected, and influential bands.

The I.R.S. Years (1982-1987)

Their debut EP, Chronic Town (1982), illustrated R.E.M.'s signature musical style: jangling guitars, chords played in arpeggio, murmured vocals, and lyrics that completely avoid the standard topics of popular music - love and relationships. Their debut album, Murmur (1983), is held to be one of the best records of the 1980s. The album is stylistically unified. The jangling guitars, so prominent on Chronic Town, are used more sparingly. The melody is found in the bass notes, and the lyrics are practically indecipherable. The songs on the album blend together. Evocative words are used to create a mood instead of a narrative. The mood is grey - "Rest assured this will not last, take a turn for the worst", "martyred, misconstrued", "Not everyone can carry the weight of the world", "lies and conversation, fear". The dark mood is broken by two brighter, more hopeful songs, "Sitting Still," and "Shaking Through", marked by the return of arpeggio and jangling guitars.

R.E.M.'s second album, Reckoning (1984), explored a variety of musical styles. Song topics include cold weather, a fairy tale of brothers with magical powers and a flood, along with five laments of separation. The jangling guitars and beautiful melodies obscure the dark lyrics. The final song, "Little America," is written about driving through rural America ("another Greenville, another Magic Mart (http://www.magicmartstores.com/)"), and serves as a prelude to the Southern themes on the subsequent album.

Fables of the Reconstruction (1985) explores the mythology of the southern United States. A celebration of an eccentric individual is the subject of no less than four songs on the album ("Maps and Legends," "Life and How to Live It," "Old Man Kensey," "Wendell Gee"). "Driver 8" is a song about the scenery surrounding railroad tracks. Trains are a frequent topic of Southern music; they epitomize the freedom and promise of an escape from one's home environment. The source of the title of "Can't Get There from Here" is a curious phrase heard when asking directions in a rural area. "Kohoutek," their first song about a romantic relationship, compares the fizzled comet of 1973 to a fizzled romance. By the time this album was released, R.E.M. were critically acclaimed, and the video for "Can't Get There from Here" was played frequently on MTV. R.E.M. practically defined college rock by this time.

The next album, Lifes Rich Pageant (sic) (1986), takes its name from a Pink Panther movie ("You'll catch your death of cold!" "Yes, I probably will. But that's all part of life's rich pageant, you know."). The songs are upbeat, the tempo is fast; this is a fairly hard-rocking album. The lyrics were becoming both more intelligible and more direct, with political themes appearing more explicitly ("Begin the Begin," "Flowers of Guatemala," "Hyena"). "Cuyahoga" is about the river in Ohio that caught fire due to pollution. Ironically, the 'hit' from the album, "Superman," was a cover song that didn't appear on the original album cover. In many ways, this album marked the end of the first period in the band's history.

Document (1987) was their last album for the indie record label I.R.S., and provided their first major hit with "The One I Love," which reached No. 9 on the American pop charts. The popularity of this song of grim satisfaction over the end of an unhappy relationship was due mainly, however, to its misinterpretation as a love song. "It's the End of the World as We Know It (And I Feel Fine)" recalls the rapid-fire lyrical style of Bob Dylan's "Subterranean Homesick Blues" and can be described as pre-apocalyptic.

Dead Letter Office (1987) was a collection of B-sides and outtakes. Highlights include three Velvet Underground covers, an Aerosmith cover, an uncommissioned commercial for a barbecue restaurant in Athens, and a boozy version of "King of the Road." The CD also has the EP Chronic Town at the end. The album is described in the liner notes as "A little bit of uh-huh and a whole lot of oh-yeah." The band's early years are summarized in the compilation Eponymous, released in 1988. The compilation contains several alternative versions and mixes of songs.

Rock Superstars (1988-1996)

In 1988 R.E.M. signed to the major label Warner Brothers and released Green. This was the band's first time with heavy promotion, and they toured stadiums extensively in 1989. Some fans from the I.R.S. days complained that R.E.M. had become too commercial and that the quality of the music had decreased, but the band had now been brought to international attention. In 1990, most of R.E.M. recorded with Warren Zevon as the Hindu Love Gods.

Their next records, Out of Time (1991) and Automatic for the People (1992), were both international hits, despite the fact that R.E.M. did not tour for either album. These two critically acclaimed albums featured hit singles including "Losing My Religion," "Shiny Happy People," "Everybody Hurts," and "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite." Out of Time also includes emotional, contemplative tracks such as "Belong," "Half A World Away," and "Country Feedback." On Automatic, the band developed a reserved, meditative sound that took them back to their roots, and the record's 15 million copies were sold in spite of such melancholy themes as death, suicide, and sexual jealousy.

The band's 1994 release, the grunge-influenced Monster, including "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?," proved to be a crossover hit and their best selling album to date, though many critics disliked the band's foray into glam rock. The album was followed by a massive tour during which drummer Bill Berry suffered a brain hemorrhage on stage, which would eventually lead to his leaving the band. While on this tour the band recorded the album New Adventures in Hi-Fi (1996), a long, roughly produced and decidedly bleak record which featured, in the seven-minute "Leave," perhaps the band's most intense song. Other notable tracks on that record include "E-Bow the Letter" (a collaboration with the legendary Patti Smith) and the intense western-themed rock of "Low Desert." The band re-signed with Warner Brothers in 1996 for the largest recording contract advance in history: 80 million dollars for 5 albums.

R.E.M. After Berry (1997-present)

After Berry's departure, the band returned with Krautrock-influenced Up (1998), another long and reflective record, with the lead single "Daysleeper." Many tracks contained drum machines, and Peter Buck played guitar only a little. The band was no longer selling well in United States, though in Europe they stayed popular. 2001's Reveal, confirms the return to an even mellower songwriting approach, with songs such as "Imitation of Life," "All The Way To Reno (You're Gonna Be A Star)," and "She Just Wants To Be" garnering some radio play. The album gained mixed reviews. Recent R.E.M. soundtrack appearances have found them revisiting some of their earliest material, hitherto available only on live bootlegs; their single, "Bad Day" (2003), was the prototype for "It's the End of the World As We Know It (And I Feel Fine)," with some of the same lyrics. In 2004, the band returned with Around the Sun, which once again met with generally only mild critical praise. Singles from this album include "Leaving New York" and "Aftermath". R.E.M.'s Around the Sun World Tour is the first tour since the infamous Monster Tour that R.E.M. needed to cancel shows, on account of Mike Mills's flu and ear infection. "Electron Blue," the third single from the Around the Sun album, has been getting much airplay in the UK.

The Future

In a recent interview, Peter Buck said that their next album would be very different from current R.E.M., and based on the single "I'm Gonna DJ", played live on the 2004-2005 world tour, we can expect it to be another rock album, which, if successful, could possibly lead to Warner resigning R.E.M. after the two albums left on their contract. In the same interview, Michael Stipe said he has lyrics to three new songs on his cell phone and one is almost complete and may be debuted live. Currently, there have been two songs played live supposedly on the next album, rumored for a 2006 release; "I'm Gonna D.J.", the catchy rocking song with multiple guitars, and "Weatherman", played once live and then stopped due to the 'lyrics not fitting the song'. Not replacing Berry, R.E.M. are currently using drummer Bill Rieflin on Around the Sun and the tour, and his drums may help a 2006 release. R.E.M. currently are touring outside of the United States on their world tour, which is currently to end in July 2005 at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff.

Trivia

  • The band members picked the name R.E.M. out of the dictionary. They liked the name because it was so ambiguous. They started out as Twisted Kites for the first show they played at a party, but, according to "It Crawled From the South," considered Negro Eyes, Slut Bank, and Cans of Piss before settling for R.E.M.
  • "Losing My Religion" may have been the biggest hit song that uses a mandolin as the main instrument.

Samples

  • Download sample of "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?" from Monster.

Discography

Studio Albums

  • Chronic Town EP (1982)
  • Murmur (1983); #178 US
  • Reckoning (1984); #27 US
  • Fables of the Reconstruction (1985) #28 US, #35 UK
  • Lifes Rich Pageant (1986) #21 US
  • Dead Letter Office (outtakes and b-sides, incl. Chronic Town EP) (1987) #52 US
  • Document (1987); #28 UK, #10 US
  • Green (1988); #27 UK, #12 US
  • Out of Time (1991); #1 UK, #1 US
  • Automatic for the People (1992); #1 UK, #2 US
  • Monster (1994); #1 UK, #1 US
  • New Adventures in Hi-Fi (1996); #1 UK, #2 US
  • Up (1998); #2 UK, #3 US
  • Reveal (2001); #1 UK, #6 US
  • Around the Sun (2004); #1 UK, #13 US

Compilations

  • Eponymous (compilation) (1988) #44 US
  • The Best of R.E.M. (1991); #7 UK
  • Singles Collected (1994);
  • R.E.M. In The Attic (rarities compilation) (1997)
  • R.E.M.IX (Web Only Remixes)
  • In Time - The Best of R.E.M. 1988-2003 (compilation) (2003); #1 UK, #8 US

Hit Singles

  • 1983 "Radio Free Europe" #78 US
  • 1984 "South Central Rain (I'm Sorry)" #85 US
  • 1986 "Fall On Me" #94 US
  • 1987 "The One I Love" #9 US
  • 1989 "Stand" #6 US
  • 1989 "Orange Crush" #28 UK
  • 1989 "Pop Song 89" #86 US
  • 1991 "Losing My Religion" #4 US, #19 UK
  • 1991 "Shiny Happy People" #10 US; #6 UK
  • 1991 "Near Wild Heaven" #27 UK
  • 1991 "The One I Love" (re-issue) #16 UK
  • 1991 "Radio Song" #28 UK
  • 1991 "It's The End Of The World As We Know It" #39 UK; #69 US (1988)
  • 1992 "Drive" #28 US; #11 UK
  • 1993 "Man on the Moon" #30 US; #18 UK
  • 1993 "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite" #17 UK
  • 1993 "Everybody Hurts" #29 US; #7 UK
  • 1993 "Nightswimming" #27 UK
  • 1994 "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?" #21 US; #9 UK
  • 1994 "Bang and Blame" #19 US; #15 UK
  • 1995 "Crush with Eyeliner" #23 UK
  • 1995 "Strange Currencies" #47 US; #9 UK
  • 1995 "Tongue" #13 UK
  • 1996 "E-Bow the Letter" #4 UK
  • 1996 "Bittersweet Me" #46 US; #19 UK
  • 1996 "Electrolite" #96 US; #29 UK
  • 1998 "Daysleeper" #57 US; #6 UK
  • 1998 "Lotus" #26 UK
  • 1999 "At My Most Beautiful" #10 UK
  • 2000 "The Great Beyond" #57 US; #3 UK
  • 2001 "Imitation of Life" #83 US; #6 UK
  • 2001 "All the Way to Reno" #24 UK
  • 2001 "I'll Take the Rain" #51 UK
  • 2003 "Bad Day" #8 UK
  • 2004 "Animal" #33 UK
  • 2004 "Leaving New York" #5 UK
  • 2004 "Aftermath" #41 UK
  • 2005 "Electron Blue" #26 UK

External Links

  • Official R.E.M. website (http://www.remhq.com/)
  • Murmurs : R.E.M. news, multimedia, file sharing & largest R.E.M. forum (http://www.murmurs.com/)
  • R.E.M. fan site (http://www.rem-fan.com/)
  • R.E.M. news & multimedia (http://www.remison.com/)
  • The R.E.M. Collector's Guide (http://www.svs.com/rem/)
  • R.E.M. Rock (http://www.remrock.com/)
  • File Under R.E.M. - The RetroWeb R.E.M. Page (http://www.retroweb.com/rem.html)
  • 2nd Largest R.E.M. Forum (http://www.myrem.com)
  • rec.music.rem FAQ (http://people2.clarityconnect.com/webpages6/ronhenry/remfaq.htm)
  • R.E.M. Lyric Annotations FAQ (http://www.flim.com/remlafaq.html)



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. Here is a list showing the amount of chart toppers Cliff has scored in each decade:-. currently are touring outside of the United States on their world tour, which is currently to end in July 2005 at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. He will have to score a #1 single between now and December 2009 in order to maintain the record, although he can claim the record for being the only act to score a #1 single in every decade in the first century of the inception of the UK Singles Chart. R.E.M. Cliff is the only act in the UK to score a #1 single in each and every decade since the inception of the UK Singles chart in 1952, with the exception of the 00's, which are not over. are currently using drummer Bill Rieflin on Around the Sun and the tour, and his drums may help a 2006 release. Interestingly enough, he has only scored 1 million selling single, "The Young Ones".

Not replacing Berry, R.E.M. Cliff has sold more singles in the UK than any other act with sales exceeding 20.1 million records. Currently, there have been two songs played live supposedly on the next album, rumored for a 2006 release; "I'm Gonna D.J.", the catchy rocking song with multiple guitars, and "Weatherman", played once live and then stopped due to the 'lyrics not fitting the song'. Cliff Richard has scored 14 #1 singles in the UK; more than any other artist with the exception of Elvis Presley and The Beatles. In the same interview, Michael Stipe said he has lyrics to three new songs on his cell phone and one is almost complete and may be debuted live. He also featured on the 1989 christmas number one by Band Aid II, thus appearing at the top of the charts for three consecutive Christmases. after the two albums left on their contract. In later years, he often released songs with a christmas or other religious theme:.

In a recent interview, Peter Buck said that their next album would be very different from current R.E.M., and based on the single "I'm Gonna DJ", played live on the 2004-2005 world tour, we can expect it to be another rock album, which, if successful, could possibly lead to Warner resigning R.E.M. His first christmas number one (on some charts) was in 1960, but it was not a yuletide-themed song:. "Electron Blue," the third single from the Around the Sun album, has been getting much airplay in the UK. Cliff Richard has aimed for the Christmas number one single on several occasions, sometimes successful and others not. needed to cancel shows, on account of Mike Mills's flu and ear infection. Britons are always surprised that he is a virtual unknown in America. Singles from this album include "Leaving New York" and "Aftermath". R.E.M.'s Around the Sun World Tour is the first tour since the infamous Monster Tour that R.E.M. The Shadows had decided to re-form for one final tour of the UK, with this concert heralded as their final ever concert as the Shadows.

In 2004, the band returned with Around the Sun, which once again met with generally only mild critical praise. After having not performed as Cliff and the Shadows since 1989/1990, Cliff joined the Shadows on stage on June 14, 2004, at the London Palladium. soundtrack appearances have found them revisiting some of their earliest material, hitherto available only on live bootlegs; their single, "Bad Day" (2003), was the prototype for "It's the End of the World As We Know It (And I Feel Fine)," with some of the same lyrics. Sir Cliff has become joint owner of the Arora International Hotel in Manchester, which opened in June 2004. Recent R.E.M. The Ultimate Pop Star, a Channel 4 programme screened in 2004, revealed that Cliff Richard had sold more singles in the UK than any other music artist, ahead of the Beatles in second place and Elvis Presley in third. The album gained mixed reviews. Sir Cliff is number 56 in the 2002 list of 100 Great Britons (sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the public).

2001's Reveal, confirms the return to an even mellower songwriting approach, with songs such as "Imitation of Life," "All The Way To Reno (You're Gonna Be A Star)," and "She Just Wants To Be" garnering some radio play. He reached the pinnacle of his career when he was knighted. The band was no longer selling well in United States, though in Europe they stayed popular. Cliff remained a tennis fan, however, delighting Wimbledon crowds with an impromptu singalong on one rainy afternoon in 1996. After Berry's departure, the band returned with Krautrock-influenced Up (1998), another long and reflective record, with the lead single "Daysleeper." Many tracks contained drum machines, and Peter Buck played guitar only a little. Later, his relationship with Sue Barker was the subject of much gossip, but they disappointed those who expected them to marry. Other notable tracks on that record include "E-Bow the Letter" (a collaboration with the legendary Patti Smith) and the intense western-themed rock of "Low Desert." The band re-signed with Warner Brothers in 1996 for the largest recording contract advance in history: 80 million dollars for 5 albums. In 1974, he denied the rumor that he had asked his good friend Olivia Newton-John for her hand in marriage.

While on this tour the band recorded the album New Adventures in Hi-Fi (1996), a long, roughly produced and decidedly bleak record which featured, in the seven-minute "Leave," perhaps the band's most intense song. The Shadows later re-formed (and later again split), and recorded on their own, but reunited with Cliff in 1978 and 1984 for some concerts. The album was followed by a massive tour during which drummer Bill Berry suffered a brain hemorrhage on stage, which would eventually lead to his leaving the band. Strangely enough, those who were initially sceptical of his move into other types of songs, later changed in their own beliefs and did similarly on their own records. The band's 1994 release, the grunge-influenced Monster, including "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?," proved to be a crossover hit and their best selling album to date, though many critics disliked the band's foray into glam rock. He has become an artist who has not been categorised in one single mould, but has been a wild rock n roller, a ballad singer, a heavy rock singer, who even found it natural to move into dance beats. These two critically acclaimed albums featured hit singles including "Losing My Religion," "Shiny Happy People," "Everybody Hurts," and "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite." Out of Time also includes emotional, contemplative tracks such as "Belong," "Half A World Away," and "Country Feedback." On Automatic, the band developed a reserved, meditative sound that took them back to their roots, and the record's 15 million copies were sold in spite of such melancholy themes as death, suicide, and sexual jealousy. Although many fans, such as John Lennon, had in the early 60s regretted Cliff trying out songs which were not strictly in the rock n roll area, this process of slowly getting used to recording with the Shadows as the "rock group", while at other times singing with other musicians, without a doubt is at least partly responsible for Cliff becoming what he has become.

Their next records, Out of Time (1991) and Automatic for the People (1992), were both international hits, despite the fact that R.E.M. did not tour for either album. Cliff had already become used to not having his Shadows with him in recording sessions, and was able to record in any setting. recorded with Warren Zevon as the Hindu Love Gods. After the Shadows split in 1968, resulting also in the split of Cliff Richard and the Shadows, Richard had to record without his band. In 1990, most of R.E.M. As time progressed, he balanced his life and work out, enabling him to still be the most popular singer in Britain while also one of the best known Christians. had become too commercial and that the quality of the music had decreased, but the band had now been brought to international attention. He still recorded secular songs with the Shadows, some of which introduced revolutionary recording techniques which influenced the Beatles and other groups, but he gave a lot of his time to Christian work.

days complained that R.E.M. Soon after, Cliff re-emerged and performed with Christian groups and recorded some Christian material. Some fans from the I.R.S. After intending to become a teacher instead, Christian friends told him that he didn't have to give his career up just because he had become a Christian. This was the band's first time with heavy promotion, and they toured stadiums extensively in 1989. Although his image had already become tamer due to his film roles and well spoken voice on radio and TV, he still rocked on stage. signed to the major label Warner Brothers and released Green. First of all Richard believed that he should quit rock n roll, as he thought he could no longer be the rocker who had in the early years been called a 'crude exhibitionist' and 'too sexy for TV' and a threat to parents' daughters.

In 1988 R.E.M. To stand up publicly as a new Christian was a big and brave decision which affected his career in various ways. The compilation contains several alternative versions and mixes of songs. Another important aspect of Cliff's life was his conversion to Christianity in about 1966. The album is described in the liner notes as "A little bit of uh-huh and a whole lot of oh-yeah." The band's early years are summarized in the compilation Eponymous, released in 1988. He also did more work with Olivia Newton-John, and to cap the decade off, filled the Wembley Stadium for a few nights with a spectacular simply titled "The Event". Highlights include three Velvet Underground covers, an Aerosmith cover, an uncommissioned commercial for a barbecue restaurant in Athens, and a boozy version of "King of the Road." The CD also has the EP Chronic Town at the end. In the space of a few years he had worked with Elton John, Mark Knopfler, George Harrison, Julian Lennon, Freddie Mercury, Stevie Wonder, Phil Everly, Janet Jackson and Van Morrison, to name a few.

Dead Letter Office (1987) was a collection of B-sides and outtakes. In the next years into and through the 1980s, Cliff was the biggest pop star in the country, and he became a magnet for other music greats. "It's the End of the World as We Know It (And I Feel Fine)" recalls the rapid-fire lyrical style of Bob Dylan's "Subterranean Homesick Blues" and can be described as pre-apocalyptic. A true Cliff revival was happening. The popularity of this song of grim satisfaction over the end of an unhappy relationship was due mainly, however, to its misinterpretation as a love song. A number of other strong albums were produced, and in 1979 he went to number one with We Don't Talk Anymore. 9 on the American pop charts. People like Jimmy Page, Eric Clapton, and Elton John began being seen sporting big "I'm Nearly Famous" badges on their clothes, so pleased that their icon was getting heavily back into the heavy rock that he began his career in.

Document (1987) was their last album for the indie record label I.R.S., and provided their first major hit with "The One I Love," which reached No. It wasn't just Cliff and the fans who were excited that the man who had begun and led British rock from the start was back in strength, but also a host of big music names. In many ways, this album marked the end of the first period in the band's history. The collaboration produced the landmark Cliff album "I'm Nearly Famous", which brought about the classic rock guitar driven track "Devil Woman" and the haunting "Miss You Nights". Ironically, the 'hit' from the album, "Superman," was a cover song that didn't appear on the original album cover. He was in everyone's homes, and gave enjoyment to all the family, and although still recording and being successful, Cliff and others like his former Shadow Bruce Welch decided that they would once again bring Cliff out as a "rock" artist again. "Cuyahoga" is about the river in Ohio that caught fire due to pollution. The tv shows made Cliff into a tv personality and not necessarily primarily a recording singer.

The lyrics were becoming both more intelligible and more direct, with political themes appearing more explicitly ("Begin the Begin," "Flowers of Guatemala," "Hyena"). During the 1970s, Cliff became heavily involved in tv shows, like 'It's Cliff Richard', many of which also starred Hank Marvin. The songs are upbeat, the tempo is fast; this is a fairly hard-rocking album. The Beatles had became huge once America took to them, and this in turn opened up the path across the Atlantic. But that's all part of life's rich pageant, you know."). However he did not have the advantage the new acts had of being able to release music and having it go directly to the USA as well. The next album, Lifes Rich Pageant (sic) (1986), takes its name from a Pink Panther movie ("You'll catch your death of cold!" "Yes, I probably will. Throughout the 1960s, Cliff stayed at the top, even at the height of Mersey music.

practically defined college rock by this time. The record set the Shadows on a path of their own, and soon became the greatest instrumental group of all time. R.E.M. In 1960, the Shadows (though having previously recorded as the Drifters without Cliff) released 'Apache', which saw the birth of British rock guitar instrumental music. were critically acclaimed, and the video for "Can't Get There from Here" was played frequently on MTV. Hits in this mould included It's All in the Game, Constantly, The Minute you're Gone and Wind Me Up. By the time this album was released, R.E.M. In the early days, Cliff sometimes recorded without the Shadows, mainly to cater for other styles.

"Kohoutek," their first song about a romantic relationship, compares the fizzled comet of 1973 to a fizzled romance. He also represented the UK twice in the Eurovision Song Contest, both times unsuccessfully, though his first attempt, Congratulations, was a massive hit in Britain and most of the world and has become a standard, still sung on suitable occasions.. The source of the title of "Can't Get There from Here" is a curious phrase heard when asking directions in a rural area. These movies created their own genre known as the "Cliff Richard musical" and led to Cliff being named the Number One Cinema Box Office Attraction in Britain for both 1962 and 1963. Cliff's first straight acting role took place in the 1968 film "Two a Penny, which saw him as a young man who gets involved in drug dealing while questioning his life after his girlfriend changes her attitude. Trains are a frequent topic of Southern music; they epitomize the freedom and promise of an escape from one's home environment. Cliff and the Shadows appeared in a number of films, most notably in The Young Ones (which would give its name to 1980s TV sitcom The Young Ones), Summer Holiday, Wonderful Life and Finders Keepers. "Driver 8" is a song about the scenery surrounding railroad tracks. The Beatles were taken to Cliff and the Shadows concerts and instructed about clothes, stage presence and various other things, and being of the same fold at Abbey Road, were good friends with the band.

A celebration of an eccentric individual is the subject of no less than four songs on the album ("Maps and Legends," "Life and How to Live It," "Old Man Kensey," "Wendell Gee"). Most well known groups of the 1960s and 1970s started off as imitators of Cliff and the Shadows, singing and playing only Cliff and the Shadows' material, and groups were trained by following how they did things. Fables of the Reconstruction (1985) explores the mythology of the southern United States. It was due to them that Parlophone were looking for a 'second' Cliff and the Shadows, and eventually took the Beatles. The final song, "Little America," is written about driving through rural America ("another Greenville, another Magic Mart (http://www.magicmartstores.com/)"), and serves as a prelude to the Southern themes on the subsequent album. Cliff and the Shadows basically re-wrote convention in British recording companies and opened EMI up to the importance and strength of rock n roll. The jangling guitars and beautiful melodies obscure the dark lyrics. It was the same with their appearances on the Ed Sullivan Show (which was responsible for much of the Beatles success, but didn't really help Cliff and the Shadows).

Song topics include cold weather, a fairy tale of brothers with magical powers and a flood, along with five laments of separation. They toured the United States and most often stole the show from the accompanying American acts of the time. The problem was that the record company didn't get behind them strongly enough with distributing albums etc and so the chances were lost. R.E.M.'s second album, Reckoning (1984), explored a variety of musical styles. In the period between 1958 and 1963, Cliff Richard and the Shadows stood as the biggest thing in Britain. The dark mood is broken by two brighter, more hopeful songs, "Sitting Still," and "Shaking Through", marked by the return of arpeggio and jangling guitars. The Shadows had a few more bass players and also took in Brian Bennett on drums. The mood is grey - "Rest assured this will not last, take a turn for the worst", "martyred, misconstrued", "Not everyone can carry the weight of the world", "lies and conversation, fear". A serious accident halted Jet's success, but he later re-emerged with Jeff Beck (Yardbirds), Ron Wood (Rolling Stones), and Rod Stewart as The Faces; however this group didn't last long.

Evocative words are used to create a mood instead of a narrative. One member of Jet and Tony's band was John Paul Jones, later a member of Led Zeppelin, and Jimmy Page also recorded with them. The songs on the album blend together. Tony Meehan and Jet Harris eventually left the group and teamed up very successfully in the charts. The melody is found in the bass notes, and the lyrics are practically indecipherable. If Sheridan had been in the club that day, The Beatles may have never been heard from. The jangling guitars, so prominent on Chronic Town, are used more sparingly. Hank then said he teamed with Bruce Welch, and so Foster on that day brought in two new members to the Drifters.

The album is stylistically unified. Foster was then told of a guy who was a brilliant guitarist, and so Foster met Hank Marvin. Their debut album, Murmur (1983), is held to be one of the best records of the 1980s. Tony wasn't there when Foster arrived, and Foster was in a hurry and couldn't wait long. Their debut EP, Chronic Town (1982), illustrated R.E.M.'s signature musical style: jangling guitars, chords played in arpeggio, murmured vocals, and lyrics that completely avoid the standard topics of popular music - love and relationships. The man being looked for was Tony Sheridan, who the Drifters knew, and who later recorded in Hamburg with The Beatles as his backing band, which led them to getting a recording contract in Britain. was one of the world's most popular, respected, and influential bands. He went back to the '2 I's club, a popular hangout for musicians.

By the early '90s, R.E.M. On that day, Cliff's manager, John Foster, was looking for a new lead guitarist. Throughout the 1980s, while signed to the independent label I.R.S., they achieved a growing cult status due mainly to Stipe's obscure (and sometimes inaudible and unintelligible) lyrics and the band's sound, most noticeably influenced by The Byrds. As Jet Harris, Tony Meehan, Hank Marvin and Bruce Welch joined, some very significant 'lucky events' happened, for the band, and also for the world. Popular music could have been totally changed if certain events did not happen, especially in one single day in Soho. R.E.M. is a rock band formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 by Michael Stipe (vocals), Bill Berry (drums), Peter Buck (guitar), and Mike Mills (bass). By that time, the band's line up had changed. Lyric Annotations FAQ (http://www.flim.com/remlafaq.html). The Drifters didn't back Cliff on record until his third release, Livin' Lovin' Doll (not to be confused with the subsequent smash Living Doll).

R.E.M. Another possible reason for the flip was that influential TV producer Jack Good, who grabbed the act for his TV show "Oh Boy!", said the song to be sung on his show had to be "Move It!" The single was flipped and went to number 2 in the charts. rec.music.rem FAQ (http://people2.clarityconnect.com/webpages6/ronhenry/remfaq.htm). One story says that their producer Norrie Paramor, played the record to his daughter, and she raved about the B-side instead of the A-side. Forum (http://www.myrem.com). There are a number of stories about why the A-side song was replaced by the B-side. 2nd Largest R.E.M. This was "Move It", written by Ian "Sammy" Samwell, who was at the time a new member of the group.

Page (http://www.retroweb.com/rem.html). But Cliff was allowed to record one of their own for the B-side. - The RetroWeb R.E.M. Norrie Paramor provided a rather bland number called 'Schoolboy Crush', a cover of an American record by Bobby Helms. File Under R.E.M. But back to the first record in 1958. Rock (http://www.remrock.com/). Typically, the Shadows closed the first-half with a 30 minute set of their own and then backed Cliff on his show-closing 45 minute stint.

R.E.M. In the early 60s, Cliff and the Shadows were virtually inseparable as the biggest concert draw in Britain. Collector's Guide (http://www.svs.com/rem/). They continued to appear and record with Cliff and wrote many of his hits. The R.E.M. Within a short period, they won an EMI recording contract of their own and were making major instrumental hits by the middle of 1960. news & multimedia (http://www.remison.com/). However, they were not a backing group just like any other.

R.E.M. For instance, Cliff and the Drifters (subsequently the Shadows) would be contractually separate entities and the group would not receive any performer royalties for the records they made backing Cliff. fan site (http://www.rem-fan.com/). From now on, he would be a solo star rather than merely member of a group. R.E.M. This marked a major point in Cliff's career. forum (http://www.murmurs.com/). The producer, Norrie Paramor, had little faith in the Drifters and consequently brought in two experienced session men, Ernie Shear & Frank Clarke, to provide critical backing on lead guitar and bass.

news, multimedia, file sharing & largest R.E.M. Cliff (not the group) gained a contract with EMI in the summer of 1958 and went into Abbey Road Studios to record his first record on July 24. Murmurs : R.E.M. At the suggestion of a manager, who thought it would be good to have someone's name out front, they became Cliff Richard and the Drifters and later Cliff Richard and the Shadows. website (http://www.remhq.com/). Cliff Richard, a guitarist and lead singer, was one of the founding members of The Drifters (not to be confused with the American group of the same name). Official R.E.M. Sir Cliff Richard (born Harry Webb in Lucknow, India, on October 14, 1940) is the stage name of one of the UK's most popular singers.

2005 "Electron Blue" #26 UK. 2000s - 0; his closest was "Santa's List" which made #5 in December 2003. 2004 "Aftermath" #41 UK. 1990s - 2; "Saviour's Day", "The Millennium Prayer". 2004 "Leaving New York" #5 UK. 1980s - 2; "Living Doll", "Mistletoe & Wine". 2004 "Animal" #33 UK. 1970s - 1; "We Don't Talk Anymore".

2003 "Bad Day" #8 UK. 1960s - 6; "Please Don't Tease", "I Love You", "The Young Ones", "The Next Time/Bachelor Boy", "Summer Holiday", "The Minute You're Gone", "Congratulations". 2001 "I'll Take the Rain" #51 UK. 1950s - 2; "Living Doll", "Travelling Light". 2001 "All the Way to Reno" #24 UK. 2003: "Santa's List" (#5). 2001 "Imitation of Life" #83 US; #6 UK. 1999: "Millennium Prayer" (#1, but dropped off the top before christmas).

2000 "The Great Beyond" #57 US; #3 UK. 1990: "Saviours' Day" (#1). 1999 "At My Most Beautiful" #10 UK. 1989: "Whenever God Shines His Light" (duet with Van Morrison, #20). 1998 "Lotus" #26 UK. 1988: "Mistletoe & Wine" (#1). 1998 "Daysleeper" #57 US; #6 UK. 1982: "Little Town" (#12).

1996 "Electrolite" #96 US; #29 UK. 1960: "I Love You" (#1). 1996 "Bittersweet Me" #46 US; #19 UK. 1996 "E-Bow the Letter" #4 UK. 1995 "Tongue" #13 UK.

1995 "Strange Currencies" #47 US; #9 UK. 1995 "Crush with Eyeliner" #23 UK. 1994 "Bang and Blame" #19 US; #15 UK. 1994 "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?" #21 US; #9 UK.

1993 "Nightswimming" #27 UK. 1993 "Everybody Hurts" #29 US; #7 UK. 1993 "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite" #17 UK. 1993 "Man on the Moon" #30 US; #18 UK.

1992 "Drive" #28 US; #11 UK. 1991 "It's The End Of The World As We Know It" #39 UK; #69 US (1988). 1991 "Radio Song" #28 UK. 1991 "The One I Love" (re-issue) #16 UK.

1991 "Near Wild Heaven" #27 UK. 1991 "Shiny Happy People" #10 US; #6 UK. 1991 "Losing My Religion" #4 US, #19 UK. 1989 "Pop Song 89" #86 US.

1989 "Orange Crush" #28 UK. 1989 "Stand" #6 US. 1987 "The One I Love" #9 US. 1986 "Fall On Me" #94 US.

1984 "South Central Rain (I'm Sorry)" #85 US. 1983 "Radio Free Europe" #78 US. 1988-2003 (compilation) (2003); #1 UK, #8 US. In Time - The Best of R.E.M.

R.E.M.IX (Web Only Remixes). In The Attic (rarities compilation) (1997). R.E.M. Singles Collected (1994);.

The Best of R.E.M. (1991); #7 UK. Eponymous (compilation) (1988) #44 US. Around the Sun (2004); #1 UK, #13 US. Reveal (2001); #1 UK, #6 US.

Up (1998); #2 UK, #3 US. New Adventures in Hi-Fi (1996); #1 UK, #2 US. Monster (1994); #1 UK, #1 US. Automatic for the People (1992); #1 UK, #2 US.

Out of Time (1991); #1 UK, #1 US. Green (1988); #27 UK, #12 US. Document (1987); #28 UK, #10 US. Chronic Town EP) (1987) #52 US.

Dead Letter Office (outtakes and b-sides, incl. Lifes Rich Pageant (1986) #21 US. Fables of the Reconstruction (1985) #28 US, #35 UK. Reckoning (1984); #27 US.

Murmur (1983); #178 US. Chronic Town EP (1982). Download sample of "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?" from Monster. "Losing My Religion" may have been the biggest hit song that uses a mandolin as the main instrument.

They started out as Twisted Kites for the first show they played at a party, but, according to "It Crawled From the South," considered Negro Eyes, Slut Bank, and Cans of Piss before settling for R.E.M. They liked the name because it was so ambiguous. out of the dictionary. The band members picked the name R.E.M.

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