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Nikon Corporation

Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies.

The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon.

Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below).

Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus.

Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays.

In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments.

In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. [1]

Shareholders

Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731.

(As of September 2004)

  • The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd. (8.5%)
  • Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%)
  • The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. (3.3%)
  • Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%)
  • Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. (2.7%)
  • State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %)
  • The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%)
  • Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%)
  • The Joyo Bank, Ltd. (1.8%)
  • JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%)

Holdings

The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group

Partial list of Nikon products

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Cameras

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Nikon cameras

In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. [3]

Film 35 mm SLR cameras without autofocus

  • Nikon FM3A
  • Nikon FM10
  • Nikon FE10
  • Nikon FA
  • Nikon FE
  • Nikon FE2
  • Nikon FG
  • Nikon FG20
  • Nikon FM
  • Nikon FM2
  • Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor)
  • Nikon F2 series
  • Nikon F3 series
  • Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat)
  • Nikkorex series
  • Nikon EL2
  • Nikon EM
  • Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000)

Film 35 mm SLR cameras with autofocus

  • Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. as the N50)
  • Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N60)
  • Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N70)
  • Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N4004)
  • Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004s)
  • Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N5005)
  • Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020)
  • Nikon F601 (known in the U.S. as the N6006)
  • Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N8008)
  • Nikon F801S (known in the U.S. as the N8008s)
  • Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N90)
  • Nikon F90x (known in the U.S. as the N90s)
  • Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N55)
  • Nikon F65 (known in the U.S. as the N65)
  • Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N75)
  • Nikon F80 (known in the U.S. as the N80)
  • Nikon F100
  • Nikon F4
  • Nikon F5
  • Nikon F6


Film APS SLR cameras

  • Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]
  • Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]

Rangefinder cameras

Nikon F5 Nikon F6 Nikon D70
  • Nikon I (1948)
  • Nikon M (1949)
  • Nikon S (1951)
  • Nikon S2 (1954)
  • Nikon SP (1957)
  • Nikon S3 (1958)
  • Nikon S4 (1959)
  • Nikon S3M (1960)
  • Nikonos line of underwater cameras

Digital compact cameras

  • Nikon Coolpix series

Digital SLR cameras

  • Nikon D1
  • Nikon D1H
  • Nikon D1X
  • Nikon D100
  • Nikon D200
  • Nikon D50
  • Nikon D70
  • Nikon D70s
  • Nikon D2H
  • Nikon D2X
  • Nikon D2Hs

Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon."

Lenses

Lens acronyms

Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). These help consumers know what features the lens has. Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each.

  • AF - Autofocus.
  • AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. First introduced in 1996.
  • AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996.
  • ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass. Reduces chromatic aberration. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced.
  • IF - Internal Focus. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing.
  • DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings.
  • VR - Vibration Reduction. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera).
  • D - Distance/Dimension. Indicated after the f-stop number. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject.
  • G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. It has the same characteristics with the D lens.
  • Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor.
  • PC - Perspective Control. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor.
  • IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies. [6]
  • DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh.
  • AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S.

AF Prime lenses

  • 14 mm f/2.8D ED AF
  • 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye
  • 18 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 20mm f/2.8D AF
  • 24 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 28 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 28 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 35 mm f/2D AF
  • 50 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 50 mm f/1.8D AF
  • 85 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 85 mm f/1.8D AF
  • 105 mm f/2D AF DC
  • 135 mm f/2D AF DC
  • 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF
  • 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S
  • 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II

Consumer AF zoom lenses

  • 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF
  • 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX
  • 24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF
  • 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S
  • 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF
  • 28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF
  • 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF
  • 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF
  • 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF
  • 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF

Professional AF zoom lenses

  • 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S
  • 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S
  • 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF
  • 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR
  • 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR


DX (Digital APS-C sized sensor cameras only) Lenses

  • 10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX
  • 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX
  • 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX
  • 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX

Micro AF Lenses (also known as Macro)

  • 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro
  • 105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro
  • 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro
  • 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro


Currently Produced Manual Focus Lenses

  • 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor

Lenses for other camera models

  • Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras
  • Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras
  • Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras
  • Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera

Flash guns

Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. Models offered include:

  • SB-800,
  • SB-600,
  • SU-800 (slave trigger),
  • SB-R200 (remote flash),
  • R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,
  • R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),
  • SB-80DX,
  • SB-50DX,
  • SB-30,
  • SB-29s,
  • SB-24,
  • SB-22s,
  • SB-23,
  • SB-27,
  • SB-16B, and
  • SB-16A.

External links

  • Official websites:
    • Nikon Corp. website
    • Nikon Corp. USA website
    • Nikon Precision Inc. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website
    • NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French
  • Data:
    • Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves
    • Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile
    • Nikon Historical Society
    • Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com
    • Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History
  • Fansites and forums:
    • Nikonians - see also Nikonian
    • Photosapien Photography Forum
    • Nikon mailing list

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Models offered include:. Spears was eventually replaced by Beyonce Knowles, but ironically Spears would rejoin Pepsi's ad campaign again in a gladiator-spoof commercial in 2003, alongside Knowles, P!nk and Enrique Iglesias. Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. In 1999, Britney Spears became the new spokesperson for the chain, but was dropped 3 years later when she was spied drinking its rival Coca-Cola in public.
. Pepsi promptly dropped her, although she kept her 5 million dollar fee for the ads.
. A year later Pepsi's attempts to make Madonna a new Pepsi spokesperson ended with the infamous "Like a Prayer" incident when Madonna's video brought charges of anti-Catholicism to the company.

Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each. Bowie was accused of sexual assault shortly afterwards and the company dropped the adverts immediately. These help consumers know what features the lens has. The company also agreed to sponsor Bowie's 1987 Glass Spider World Tour. Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). In 1987, David Bowie and Tina Turner joined forces to advertise the soft drink, in an advert featuring a reworking of Bowie's hit Modern Love. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon.". Although he continued to be associated with the drink, the company dropped him in 1993 after charges of child molestation were brought forward.

Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. However, when filming a second advert in 1984, a pyrotechnics stunt went wrong and badly burnt Jackson.
. The first international popstar to become a spokesperson for the drink was Michael Jackson, who along with his brothers (The Jackson 5) advertised Pepsi for "the new generation" in an advert featuring a reworking of his song Billie Jean. [3]. Pepsi has had a notorious association with popstars promoting the product over the last 25 years. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. By July 2005, Coca-Cola enjoyed a market share of 19.4 percent, followed by Pepsi with 13 percent.[14].

In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. Thus Coke rapidly captured a significant market share away from Pepsi that might otherwise have needed years to build up. The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group. When the Soviet Union fell apart, Pepsi was associated with the old Soviet system, and Coca Cola, just newly introduced to the Russian market in 1992, was associated with the new system. (As of September 2004). Pepsi had made a deal with the Soviet Union for scale production of Pepsi in 1974. Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731. However, Pepsi's dominance in Russia was undercut as the Cold War ended.

. In Russia, Pepsi once had a larger market share than Coca-Cola. [1]. (regarded as an indicator of consumer preference), with Coca-Cola's dominance in exclusive restaurant, movie theater, amusement park, college, and stadium deals giving Coke the overall sales advantage.[citation needed] In the U.S., Pepsi's total market share was about 31.7 percent in 2004, while Coke's was about 43.1 percent.[13]. In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. In the United States, Pepsi outsells Coke in central Appalachia, the state of North Dakota, the region in and around the state of Utah, and the city of Buffalo (by a 2-1 margin), all in the United States.[citation needed] More importantly, Pepsi outsells its rival in grocery and convenience stores in the U.S. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments. The term is now used as a historical reference to French-English linguistic animosity (During the partitionist debate surrounding the 1995 referendum, a pundit wrote "And a wall will be erected along St-Laurent street [the traditional divide between French and English in Montréal] because some people were throwing Coke bottle one way and Pepsi bottles the other way").

In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. "Pepsi" eventually became an offensive nickname for Francophones viewed as a lower class by Anglophones in the middle of the 20th century. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. Pepsi had long been the drink of Canadian Francophones and it continues to hold its dominance by relying on local Québécois celebrities (especially Claude Meunier, of La Petite Vie fame) to sell its product. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Other claim that: 1) Due to rumors of the use of cocaine, Coke was banned for a long time in India and 2) Recently that ban was lifted, however, Pepsi had maintained a commanding market share.[citation needed]. In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. [9] In 1993, Coca-Cola returned in pursuance of India's Liberalization policy.[10] In 2005, Coca-Cola and Pepsi together held 95% market share of soft-drink sales in India.[11] Coca-Cola India's market share was 60.9%.[12].

Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays. This joint venture marketed and sold Lehar Pepsi until 1991 when the use of foreign brands was allowed; Pepsi bought out its partners and ended the joint venture in 1994. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. In 1988, Pepsi gained entry to India by creating a joint venture with the Punjab government-owned Punjab Agro Industrial Corporation (PAIC) and Voltas India Limited. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. By most accounts, Coca-Cola was India's leading soft drink until 1977 when it left India after a new government ordered the company to turn over its secret formula for Coca-Cola and dilute its stake in its Indian unit as required by the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA). During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. Saudi Arabia and the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec are some of the few exceptions.

Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. Coke still outsells Pepsi in almost all areas of the world. Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. Local residents have been pressuring the government to close down the Pepsi unit in the village. Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus. Pepsi has also been alleged to practice "water piracy" due to its role in exploitation of ground water resources resulting in scarcity of drinking water for the natives of Pudussery panchayat in the Palakkad distict in Kerala, India. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below). As of 2005, Coke and Pepsi together hold 95% market share of soft-drink sales in India.[8].

Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Both companies continue to maintain that their products meet all international safety standards without yet implementing the Supreme Court ruling.[citation needed]. The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon. On December 7, 2004, India's Supreme Court ruled that both Pepsi and competitor Coca-Cola must label all cans and bottles of the respective soft drinks with a consumer warning after tests showed unacceptable levels of residual pesticides.[7]. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies. Coke and PepsiCo opposed the move, arguing that lab tests aren't reliable enough to detect minute traces of pesticides in complex drinks like soda. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. But an Indian parliamentary committee in 2004 backed up CSE's findings and a government-appointed committee is now trying to develop the world's first pesticide standards for soft drinks.

It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. Coca Cola and PepsiCo angrily denied allegations that their products manufactured in India contained toxin levels far above the norms permitted in the developed world. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. In response to the news, numerous Indians burned bottles of these two brands of soft drinks in the streets.[citation needed]. Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. No law bans the presence of pesticides in drinks in India. Nikon mailing list. However, this was the European standard for water, not for other drinks.

Photosapien Photography Forum. CSE said it had tested the same products in the US and found no such residues. Nikonians - see also Nikonian. CSE found that the Indian produced Pepsi's soft drink products had 36 times the level of pesticide residues permitted under European Union regulations; Coca Cola's 30 times[6]. Fansites and forums:

    . Tested products included Coke, Pepsi, Seven Up, Mirinda, Fanta, Thums Up, Limca, Sprite. Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History. In 2003, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a non-governmental organisation in New Dehli, said aerated waters produced by soft drinks manufacturers in India, including multinational giants Pepsico and Coca-Cola, contained toxins including lindane, DDT, malathion and chlorpyrifos — pesticides that can contribute to cancer, a breakdown of the immune system and cause birth defects.

    Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com. These controversies are a reminder of "India's sometimes acrimonious relationship with huge multinational companies." Indeed, some argue that Coke and Pepsi have "been major targets in part because they are well-known foreign companies that draw plenty of attention." [5]. Nikon Historical Society. Others claim 1) Pepsi was banned from import in India in 1970 for having refused to release the list of its ingredients[citation needed] 2) In 1993, the ban was lifted, with Pepsi arriving on the market shortly afterwards.[citation needed]. Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile. [4]. Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves. This joint venture marketed and sold Lehar Pepsi until 1991 when the use of foreign brands was allowed; Pepsi bought out its partners and ended the joint venture in 1994.

    Data:

      . By most accounts, Pepsi gained entry to India in 1988 by creating a joint venture with the Punjab government-owned Punjab Agro Industrial Corporation (PAIC) and Voltas India Limited. NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French. This is particularly exacerbated when a drink is sipped at frequent intervals throughout the day. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website. In addition, both 'diet' and non-diet variants are highly acidic, which is a cause of degradation of tooth enamel, making decay due to subsequent sugar intake more likely. Nikon Precision Inc. Sugar is also a leading contributor to tooth decay.

      USA website. An excessive intake of sugar has been suspected as a contributing factor in certain kinds of diabetes. Nikon Corp. Pepsi and other similar products contain a lot of sugar. website. See phosphoric acid in food. Nikon Corp. Some nutritionists assert that the phosphoric acid component of Pepsi-Cola, and other similar soft drinks, may be deleterious to bone health in both men and women, with some studies finding the effects to be more notably pronounced in female subjects.

      Official websites:

        . It is Pepsi with a tropical taste of tamarind and mango. SB-16A. Another type is Pepsi Samba which was released in Australia in the 3rd Quarter of 2005. SB-16B, and. It is similar to other energy drinks such as Red Bull. SB-27,. Pepsi X is another variation which contains more caffeine than regular Pepsi-Cola and in addition also contains taurine and guaranine.

        SB-23,. Pepsi Twist has been successfully marketed in Brazil (with lime instead of lemon), where a limited-edition version is also sold, the Pepsi Twistão, with an even stronger lime flavor. SB-22s,. Pepsi A-ha, with a lemon flavour was launched in India in 2002 but was not successful either. SB-24,. PepsiCo also rivaled Coca-Cola's lemon-flavored products with Pepsi Twist, which was a commercial failure due to criticism of the taste. SB-29s,. Many types of the drink have only been produced or sold for a limited time, such as Pepsi Holiday Spice, a spicy Hanukkah/Christmas seasonal finish of ginger and cinnamon.

        SB-30,. In 2005, Pepsi Cappuccino was released in Romania and Bulgaria with another coffee flavored cola called Pepsi Tarik in Malaysia. SB-50DX,. Pepsico market tested coffee tasting variations of the drink with Pepsi Kona in Lehigh Valley and Pennsylvania areas between 1994 and 1996. SB-80DX,. Pepsico attempted the drink again with the Pepsi Blue in mid-2002 and withdrew it from the market in 2004. R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),. Crystal Pepsi was introduced in 1992 and sold until 1993 as a rival to New Coke which was also a failure.

        R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,. Pepsico have attempted marketing many different flavors of the drink, however many were quickly discontinued amidst poor sales. SB-R200 (remote flash),. Although there has always been a diet variation of the drink since it came out, Diet Wild Cherry Pepsi didn't become widely available until 2005, when Wild Cherry Pepsi was reformulated. SU-800 (slave trigger),. Though rarely marketed, the drink remains widely available. SB-600,. In 1988, the company launched Wild Cherry Pepsi as a response to the popularity of Cherry Coke.

        SB-800,. A caffeine-free cola called Pepsi Free was introduced in 1982 by PepsiCo as the first major-brand caffeine-free cola and is today sold as Caffeine-Free Pepsi and Caffeine-Free Diet Pepsi. Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera. Diet Pepsi is one of the most popular variations of the drink, containing no sugar and zero calories.Other popular variations of the drink are Pepsi Max and Pepsi ONE, both sugar-free colas. Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras. There are many types of Pepsi-Cola all differing in taste, price and appearance. Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras. And also in 1999 Janet Jackson signed on to the original "Ask For More" campaign which featured a song of the same name written and sung by Jackson.

        Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras. Aretha Franklin was also a spokesperson in 1998. 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. Pepsi said in a recent interview that Christina Aguilera has that 'dare for more' approach. 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro. This time Pepsi has a new spokesperson, the pop artist Christina Aguilera, a former spokesperson of Pepsi's rival Coke. 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro. He was infamously burned during the filming of a Pepsi commercial in 1984.

        105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. Singer-songwriter Michael Jackson boosted the sales of Pepsi in the 1980s when he became spokesperson for the company. 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. Joan Crawford was married to Pepsi president Alfred Steele, and was advertising executive and board of directors member for several years. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX. Later it used celebrities like Amitabh Bachhan, Shahrukh Khan, Kajol, Kareena Kapoor and Priyanka Chopra, as well as the national cricket team. 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX. In India, Pepsi first used the then chocolate boy Aamir Khan, model turned actress Mahima Chaudhary and model and ex-miss world Aishwarya Rai to promote its product.

        18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX. have appeared in several different advertisements. 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX. As for Asia, celebrity and singers Jay Chou, Aaron Kwok, as well as the popular girl's group S.H.E. 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX. In Latin America both Colombian artists Shakira and Juanes have successfully promoted the soft drink. 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX. In Europe and the UK celebrities such as footballer David Beckham and pop stars that include Britney Spears, Jennifer Lopez, Janet Jackson, Five, the Spice Girls, S Club 7, Gary Glitter and Beyoncé Knowles have featured in campaigns for the drink.

        10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX. Hundreds of celebrities have advertised for Pepsi products, for instance NASCAR driver Jeff Gordon who runs a Pepsi paint scheme at Talladega Superspeedway and Daytona International Speedway. 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR. As with most popular soft drinks, Pepsi and its associated beverages have had various celebrity spokespersons. 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR. The caffeine free Pepsi-Cola contains the same ingredients but does not include any caffeine. 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF. The Pepsi-Cola drink contains basic ingredients found in most other similar drinks including carbonated water, high fructose corn syrup, sugar, colourings, phosphoric acid, caffeine, citric acid and natural flavors.

        70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. Coke remains the more popular of the two. 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF. When the Pepsi taste became more popular, Coca-Cola adapted their drink to be closer to the American taste of Pepsi (New Coke).[3] Although Pepsi claimed this a victory for their brand of cola, Coca-Cola soon reverted because, while testing showed the taste of the new Coke was better, consumers preferred Coca-Cola to stay the same. 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S. In the past, the difference in taste between Pepsi and Coca-Cola's Coke was even greater than it is today. 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S. While some claim that Pepsi tastes identical to Coca-Cola, others say they can detect a difference.

        70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF. [2]. 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF. Pepsi took great advantage of the campaign with television commercials reporting the test results to the public. 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF. During these blind taste tests the majority of participants picked Pepsi as the better tasting of the two soft drinks. 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF. In 1980, Pepsi introduced the Pepsi Challenge marketing campaign where Pepsico set up a blind tasting between Pepsi-Cola and rival Coca-Cola.

        28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF. In 1964, the Diet Pepsi variation of the drink debuted, being the United States's first national diet soft drink. 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF. In the following years, the drink gained in popularity and in 1934, debuted the 12-ounce drink. 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR. [1]Eight years later, the company went bankrupt again, resulting in a reformulation of the Pepsi-Cola syrup formula. 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S. Megargel bought the Pepsi trademark.

        24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF. In 1923, Pepsico went bankrupt due to high sugar prices as a result of World War I, assets were sold and Roy C. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX. In 1909, automobile race pioneer Barney Oldfield endorsed Pepsi-Cola in newspaper ads as "A bully drink...refreshing, invigorating, a fine bracer before a race". 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF. This forced Coca-Cola to change their formula; however, Pepsi-Cola was already free of these substances, and thus claimed they already met federal requirements. 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. That same year, the US federal government passed the Pure Food and Drug Act, banning substances such as arsenic, lead, barium, and uranium from food and beverages.

        500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. In 1906, the logo was changed again. 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. In 1905, Pepsi received its first logo redesign since the original design of 1898. 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S. The next year, Pepsi was sold in six-ounce bottles and sales increased to 19,848 gallons. 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. That year, Bradham sold 7,968 gallons of syrup.

        300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. In 1903, Bradham moved the bottling of Pepsi-Cola from his drugstore into a rented warehouse. 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR. It was made of carbonated water, sugar, vanilla, rare oils, pepsin and kola nuts. 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF. As Pepsi was initially intended to cure stomach pains, Bradham coined the name Pepsi from the condition dyspepsia (stomachache or indigestion). 135 mm f/2D AF DC. On August 28, 1898 , "Brad's drink" was changed to "Pepsi-Cola" and later trademarked on June 16, 1903.

        105 mm f/2D AF DC. Pepsi-Cola, originally called "Brad's drink", was first made in New Bern, North Carolina in the United States in the early 1890s by pharmacist Caleb Bradham. 85 mm f/1.8D AF. . 85 mm f/1.4D AF. There are several types of Pepsi, including Pepsi Vanilla, Diet Pepsi (the most popular variant), and outside the United States, Pepsi Max. 50 mm f/1.8D AF. Similar to Coca-Cola, its major rival, Pepsi was originally intended to cure stomach pains.

        50 mm f/1.4D AF. The brand was trademarked on June 16, 1903, though the drink was first made in 1898 by pharmacist Caleb Bradham. 35 mm f/2D AF. Pepsi-Cola, most commonly called Pepsi, is a soft drink produced by PepsiCo which is sold worldwide in stores, restaurants and vending machines. 28 mm f/2.8D AF. 28 mm f/1.4D AF.

        24 mm f/2.8D AF. 20mm f/2.8D AF. 18 mm f/2.8D AF. 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye.

        14 mm f/2.8D ED AF. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture.

        AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh. [6]. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies.

        IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. PC - Perspective Control.

        Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor. It has the same characteristics with the D lens. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body.

        The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. Indicated after the f-stop number. D - Distance/Dimension.

        Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera). Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. VR - Vibration Reduction.

        Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing.

        IF - Internal Focus. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced. Reduces chromatic aberration. ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass.

        Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. First introduced in 1996.

        Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. AF - Autofocus. Nikon D2Hs.

        Nikon D2X. Nikon D2H. Nikon D70s. Nikon D70.

        Nikon D50. Nikon D200. Nikon D100. Nikon D1X.

        Nikon D1H. Nikon D1. Nikon Coolpix series. Nikonos line of underwater cameras.

        Nikon S3M (1960). Nikon S4 (1959). Nikon S3 (1958). Nikon SP (1957).

        Nikon S2 (1954). Nikon S (1951). Nikon M (1949). Nikon I (1948).

        Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]. Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]. Nikon F6. Nikon F5.

        Nikon F4. Nikon F100. as the N80). Nikon F80 (known in the U.S.

        as the N75). Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N65). Nikon F65 (known in the U.S.

        as the N55). Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N90s). Nikon F90x (known in the U.S.

        as the N90). Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N8008s). Nikon F801S (known in the U.S.

        as the N8008). Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N6006). Nikon F601 (known in the U.S.

        Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020). as the N5005). Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N4004s).

        Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004). Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N70).

        Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N60). Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N50).

        Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000). Nikon EM. Nikon EL2.

        Nikkorex series. Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat). Nikon F3 series. Nikon F2 series.

        Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor). Nikon FM2. Nikon FM. Nikon FG20.

        Nikon FG. Nikon FE2. Nikon FE. Nikon FA.

        Nikon FE10. Nikon FM10. Nikon FM3A. JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%).

        (1.8%). The Joyo Bank, Ltd. Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%). The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%).

        State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %). (2.7%). Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%).

        (3.3%). The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%). (8.5%).

        The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd.

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