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Nikon Corporation

Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies.

The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon.

Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below).

Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus.

Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays.

In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments.

In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. [1]

Shareholders

Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731.

(As of September 2004)

  • The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd. (8.5%)
  • Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%)
  • The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. (3.3%)
  • Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%)
  • Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. (2.7%)
  • State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %)
  • The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%)
  • Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%)
  • The Joyo Bank, Ltd. (1.8%)
  • JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%)

Holdings

The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group

Partial list of Nikon products

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Cameras

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Nikon cameras

In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. [3]

Film 35 mm SLR cameras without autofocus

  • Nikon FM3A
  • Nikon FM10
  • Nikon FE10
  • Nikon FA
  • Nikon FE
  • Nikon FE2
  • Nikon FG
  • Nikon FG20
  • Nikon FM
  • Nikon FM2
  • Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor)
  • Nikon F2 series
  • Nikon F3 series
  • Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat)
  • Nikkorex series
  • Nikon EL2
  • Nikon EM
  • Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000)

Film 35 mm SLR cameras with autofocus

  • Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. as the N50)
  • Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N60)
  • Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N70)
  • Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N4004)
  • Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004s)
  • Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N5005)
  • Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020)
  • Nikon F601 (known in the U.S. as the N6006)
  • Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N8008)
  • Nikon F801S (known in the U.S. as the N8008s)
  • Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N90)
  • Nikon F90x (known in the U.S. as the N90s)
  • Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N55)
  • Nikon F65 (known in the U.S. as the N65)
  • Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N75)
  • Nikon F80 (known in the U.S. as the N80)
  • Nikon F100
  • Nikon F4
  • Nikon F5
  • Nikon F6


Film APS SLR cameras

  • Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]
  • Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]

Rangefinder cameras

Nikon F5 Nikon F6 Nikon D70
  • Nikon I (1948)
  • Nikon M (1949)
  • Nikon S (1951)
  • Nikon S2 (1954)
  • Nikon SP (1957)
  • Nikon S3 (1958)
  • Nikon S4 (1959)
  • Nikon S3M (1960)
  • Nikonos line of underwater cameras

Digital compact cameras

  • Nikon Coolpix series

Digital SLR cameras

  • Nikon D1
  • Nikon D1H
  • Nikon D1X
  • Nikon D100
  • Nikon D200
  • Nikon D50
  • Nikon D70
  • Nikon D70s
  • Nikon D2H
  • Nikon D2X
  • Nikon D2Hs

Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon."

Lenses

Lens acronyms

Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). These help consumers know what features the lens has. Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each.

  • AF - Autofocus.
  • AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. First introduced in 1996.
  • AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996.
  • ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass. Reduces chromatic aberration. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced.
  • IF - Internal Focus. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing.
  • DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings.
  • VR - Vibration Reduction. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera).
  • D - Distance/Dimension. Indicated after the f-stop number. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject.
  • G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. It has the same characteristics with the D lens.
  • Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor.
  • PC - Perspective Control. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor.
  • IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies. [6]
  • DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh.
  • AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S.

AF Prime lenses

  • 14 mm f/2.8D ED AF
  • 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye
  • 18 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 20mm f/2.8D AF
  • 24 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 28 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 28 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 35 mm f/2D AF
  • 50 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 50 mm f/1.8D AF
  • 85 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 85 mm f/1.8D AF
  • 105 mm f/2D AF DC
  • 135 mm f/2D AF DC
  • 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF
  • 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S
  • 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II

Consumer AF zoom lenses

  • 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF
  • 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX
  • 24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF
  • 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S
  • 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF
  • 28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF
  • 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF
  • 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF
  • 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF
  • 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF

Professional AF zoom lenses

  • 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S
  • 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S
  • 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF
  • 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR
  • 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR


DX (Digital APS-C sized sensor cameras only) Lenses

  • 10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX
  • 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX
  • 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX
  • 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX

Micro AF Lenses (also known as Macro)

  • 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro
  • 105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro
  • 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro
  • 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro


Currently Produced Manual Focus Lenses

  • 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor

Lenses for other camera models

  • Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras
  • Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras
  • Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras
  • Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera

Flash guns

Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. Models offered include:

  • SB-800,
  • SB-600,
  • SU-800 (slave trigger),
  • SB-R200 (remote flash),
  • R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,
  • R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),
  • SB-80DX,
  • SB-50DX,
  • SB-30,
  • SB-29s,
  • SB-24,
  • SB-22s,
  • SB-23,
  • SB-27,
  • SB-16B, and
  • SB-16A.

External links

  • Official websites:
    • Nikon Corp. website
    • Nikon Corp. USA website
    • Nikon Precision Inc. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website
    • NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French
  • Data:
    • Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves
    • Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile
    • Nikon Historical Society
    • Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com
    • Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History
  • Fansites and forums:
    • Nikonians - see also Nikonian
    • Photosapien Photography Forum
    • Nikon mailing list

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Models offered include:. In conclusion, N2O induces its effects through classical volatile anaesthetic mechanisms like NMDA receptor antagonist, GABA-A potentiation and potassium channel activation as well as novel mechanisms such as a benzodiazepine-like effect and stimulating endogenous opioid receptors. Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. Exactly how N2O causes the release of opioids is still uncertain.
. It seems N2O-induced released of endogenous opioids causes disinhibition of brainstem noradrenergic neurons, which descend into the spinal cord and inhibit pain signaling.
. Indeed, alpha2B-adrenoreceptor knockout mice or animals depleted in noradrenaline are nearly completely resistant to the antinociceptive effects of N2O (Sawamura et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 1999).

Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each. Conversely, alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists block the antinociceptive effects of N2O when given directly to the spinal cord, but not when applied directly to the brain (Fang et al., 1997; Guo et al., 1999; Guo et al., 1996). These help consumers know what features the lens has. Several experiments have shown that opioid receptor antagonists applied directly to the brain block the antinociceptive effects of N2O, but these drugs have no effect when injected into the spinal cord. Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). Drugs which inhibit the breakdown of endogenous opioids also potentiate the antinociceptive effects of N2O (Branda et al., 2000). The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon.". Administration of antibodies which bind and block the activity of some endogenous opioids (not beta-endorphin) block the antinociceptive effects of N2O (Branda et al., 2000; Cahill et al., 2000).

Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. When animals are given morphine chronically they develop tolerance to its antinociceptive (pain killing) effects; this also renders the animals tolerant to the antinocicpetive effects of N2O (Berkowitz et al., 1979).
. Most interestingly, the effects of N2O seem somehow linked to the interaction between the endogenous opioid system and the descending noradrenergic system. [3]. Indeed, in humans given 30% N2O, benzodiazepine receptor antagonists reduced the subjective reports of feeling “high”, but did not alter psycho-motor performance (Zacny et al., 1995). They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. Mirroring this, animals which have developed tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines are partially tolerant to nitrous oxide (Czech & Green, 1992; Emmanouil et al., 1994; Quock et al., 1992).

In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. This anti-anxiety effect is partially reversed by benzodiazepine receptor antagonists. The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group. In many behavioral tests of anxiety, low doses of N2O is a successful anxiolytic. (As of September 2004). Unlike most general anesthetics, N2O seems to somehow affect the benzodiazepine receptor. Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731. Unlike many anesthetics, however, N2O does not seem to affect calcium channels (Mennerick et al., 1998).

. These channels are largely responsible for keeping neurons at the resting (unexcited) potential (Gruss et al., 2004). [1]. N2O, like other volatile anesthetics, activates twin-pore potassium channels, albeit weakly. In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. The evidence on the effect of N2O on GABA-A currents is mixed, but tends to show a lower potency potentiation (Dzoljic & Van Duijn, 1998; Mennerick et al., 1998; Yamakura & Harris, 2000). The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments. Like many classical anesthetics, N2O non-competitively inhibits the NMDA receptor with high affinity and efficacy at concentrations directly proportional to its anaesthetic concentrations (Jevtovic-Todorovic et al., 1998; Mennerick et al., 1998; Yamakura & Harris, 2000).

In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. It is chemically inert at body temperatures, and so it is carried free in the blood rather than binding to hemogloubin. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. Nitrous oxide diffuses through membranes much faster than any other anesthetic gas, giving it an extremely rapid onset. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. This makes it effective for propelling whipped cream and also permits the gas to quickly penetrate fatty phospholipid cell membranes. In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. Nitrous oxide is relatively non-polar and has a low molecular weight, allowing it to dissolve through fats easily.

Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays. Nitrous oxide shares many pharmacological similarities with classical gaseous and intravenous anesthetics, however, there are well-documented unquestionable differences. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. However, such auto-grade nitrous oxide is mixed with hydrogen sulfide and would cause significant deleterious effects if inhaled. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. There have been numerous reported instances of police officers arresting drivers of vehicles equipped with nitrous oxide injection systems on the grounds that he or she intends to inhale it. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. Some localities also require certified system components.

Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. Nitrous oxide injection systems for automobiles are usually legal, although the use of a nitrous oxide system is likely to result in speeds that are in violation of other traffic laws. Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. Possession of nitrous oxide is illegal in most localities in the United States for the purposes of inhaling or ingesting if not under the care of a physician or dentist. Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus. Human activity is thought to account for somewhat less than 2 teragrams (this is multiplied by appx 300 when calculated as a ratio to Carbon Dioxide) of nitrogen oxides per year, nature for over 15 teragrams [2]. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below). Human activity contributes to the release of the gas through the cultivation of soil and the production and use of nitrogen fertilizers, the production of nylon, and the burning of fossil fuels and other organic matter.

Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Nitrous oxide is naturally emitted from soils and oceans. The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon. Behind carbon dioxide and methane, nitrous oxide is the third most important gas that contribute to global warming. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies. Therefore, nitrogen oxides are a subject of efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions, such as the Kyoto Protocol. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide included, are greenhouse gases; per kilogram, nitrous oxide has 296 times the effect of carbon dioxide for producing global warming [1].

It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. Contamination with fuels has been implicated in a handful of rocketry accidents, where small quantities of nitrous / fuel mixtures detonated, triggering the explosive decomposition of residual nitrous oxide in plumbing. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. Liquid nitrous oxide acts a good solvent for many organic compounds; liquid mixtures can form somewhat sensitive explosives. Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. While normally inert in storage and fairly safe to handle, nitrous oxide can decompose energetically and potentially detonate if initiated under the wrong circumstances. Nikon mailing list. The major safety hazards of nitrous oxide come from the fact that it is a compressed liquified gas, and a dissociative anaesthetic.

Photosapien Photography Forum. It is very important with nitrous oxide augmentation of internal combustion engines to maintain temperatures and fuel levels so as to prevent preignition, or detonation (sometimes referred to as knocking, pinging or pinking). Nikonians - see also Nikonian. See nitrous. Fansites and forums:

    . You will find Dry kits, Wet kits & Direct port. Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History. Nitrous kits such as such as NOS, Nitrous Express, Nitrous Direct brands offer different solutions.

    Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com. There are several ways of introducing nitrous into a motor. Nikon Historical Society. Power increases of 100-300% are possible, and unless the mechanical structure of the engine is reinforced, most engines would not survive this kind of operation. Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile. One of the major problems of using nitrous oxide in a reciprocating engine is that it can produce enough power to destroy the engine. Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves. Accordingly, it was only used by specialized planes like high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, high-speed bombers and high-altitude interceptors.

    Data:

      . Originally meant to provide the Luftwaffe standard aircraft with superior high-altitude performance, technological considerations limited its use to extremely high altitudes. NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French. The same technique was used during by World War II Luftwaffe aircraft with the GM 1 system to boost the power output of aircraft engines. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website. This results in a smaller, denser charge, and can reduce detonation, as well as increase power available to the engine. Nikon Precision Inc. Additionally, since nitrous oxide is stored as a liquid, the evaporation of liquid nitrous oxide in the intake manifold causes a large drop in intake charge temperature.

      USA website. In car racing, nitrous oxide (often just "nitrous" in this context) is sometimes injected into the intake manifold (or just prior to the intake manifold) to increase power: even though the gas itself is not flammable, it delivers more oxygen than atmospheric air by breaking down at elevated temperatures, thus allowing the engine to burn more fuel and air. Nikon Corp. An episode of MythBusters featured a hybrid rocket built using paraffin wax mixed with powdered carbon as its solid fuel and nitrous oxide as its oxidizer. website. It is also notably used in amateur and high power rocketry with various plastics as the fuel. Nikon Corp. The combination of nitrous oxide with hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene fuel has been used by SpaceShipOne and others.

      Official websites:

        . Nitrous oxide has notably been the oxidizer of choice in several hybrid rocket designs (using solid fuel with a liquid or gaseous oxidizer). SB-16A. This has the advantages over other oxidizers that it is non-toxic and, due to its stability at room temperature, easy to store and relatively safe to carry on a flight. SB-16B, and. Nitrous oxide can be used as an oxidizer in a rocket engine. SB-27,. There is also usually a negligible amount of N2O in the cans.

        SB-23,. However, if one is using the Nitrous for recreational purposes, using N2O straight from a whipped cream can is unadvisable due to the fact that it is frequently cut with certain chemicals that can cause headaches or nausea. SB-22s,. One can easily obtain the propellant by slowly turning the canister upside down (NO SHAKING) and letting all the contents out, leaving you the N2O. SB-24,. In aerosol whipped cream, it is dissolved in the fatty cream until it leaves the can, when it becomes gaseous and thus creates foam. SB-29s,. The gas is excellently soluble in fatty compounds.

        SB-30,. Its most common uses in this context are in aerosol whipped cream canisters and as an inert gas used to displace staleness-inducing oxygen when filling packages of potato chips and other similar snack foods. SB-50DX,. The gas is licensed for use as a food additive, specifically as an aerosol spray propellant. SB-80DX,. Nitrous Oxide is liquid at approximately 760 psi at room temperature, and is usually stored and shipped as a self-pressurized liquid. R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),. Less than 0.004% is metabolised in humans.

        R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,. It has a MAC of 105% and a blood:gas partition coefficient of 0.46. SB-R200 (remote flash),. Its lower solubility in blood means it has a very rapid onset and offset. SU-800 (slave trigger),. In general anesthesia it is often used in an 2:1 ratio with oxygen in addition to more powerful general anaesthetic agents such as sevoflurane or desflurane. SB-600,. However, it has a very low short-term toxicity and is an excellent analgesic, so a 50/50 mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen ("gas and air", supplied under the trade name Entonox) is commonly used during childbirth, for dental procedures, and in emergency medicine.

        SB-800,. the nitrous oxide is a very strong analgesic and a week mixture o it with oxygen is used in operation.n NOTE""""----IT does not produce laughing fits-------"""""" general anesthetic, and is generally not used alone in anaesthesia. Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera. Finally, nitrous oxide should not be confused with nitric oxide, an extremely poisonous gas. Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras. Inhaling industrial-grade nitrous oxide is also dangerous, as it contains many impurities and is not intended for use on humans. Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras. It can be habit-forming, mainly because of its short-lived effect (generally from 1 - 5 minutes in recreational doses) and ease of access.

        Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras. In chronic use it is also teratogenic, and foetotoxic. 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. Long-term use in large quantities has been associated with dangerous symptoms similar to vitamin B12 deficiency: anemia due to reduced hemopoiesis, neuropathy, tinnitus, and numbness in extremities. 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro. While the pure gas itself is not toxic, death can result if it is inhaled in such a way that not enough oxygen is breathed in. 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro. For those reasons, most recreational nitrous oxide users will discharge the gas into a balloon before inhaling.

        105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. Inhalation of nitrous oxide directly from a whipped cream charger or a tank poses serious health risks, as it can cause the lungs to collapse from high levels of pressure, forcing air into the chest cavity, and can cause frostbite since the gas is very cold when released. 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. Since nitrous oxide can cause dizziness, dissociation, and temporary loss of motor control, it is unsafe to inhale while standing up. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX. 381b.) The Centre for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics, a nonprofit law and policy center in the United States, contends that such laws are unconstitutional "prior restraints on speech" and constitute "cognitive censorship.". 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX. Code, Sec.

        18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX. Pen. 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX. In California, for instance, inhalation of nitrous oxide "for the purpose of causing euphoria, or for the purpose of changing in any manner, one’s mental processes," is a criminal offense under its criminal code Cal. 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX. The recreational use of nitrous oxide is restricted in many districts. 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX. One slang term for the drug is Hippie Crack; this term implies commentary on the typical user of the substances as well as purported similarities between its psychological addiction potential or the short-lived duration of its effects and similar properties of "crack" cocaine.

        10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX. It was often sold at Grateful Dead and Phish concerts. 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR. The drug currently enjoys moderate popularity in the United States psychedelic community as an inhalant. 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR. Memory of this experience, however, quickly faded and any attempt to communicate was difficult at best. 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF. James claimed to experience the fusing of dichotomies into a unity and a revelation of ultimate truth during the inhalation of nitrous oxide.

        70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. During the 19th century, William James and many contemporaries found that inhalation of nitrous oxide resulted in a powerful spiritual and mystical experience for the user. 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF. It can also result in mild nausea or lingering dizziness if too much is inhaled in too short a time. 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a dissociative that can cause analgesia, euphoria, dizziness, flanging of sound, and, in some cases, slight hallucinations and mild aphrodisiac effect. 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S. And so it came into use as an anaesthetic, particularly by dentists, who do not typically have access to the services of an anesthesiologist and who may benefit from a patient who can respond to verbal commands.

        70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF. They soon realised that nitrous oxide considerably dulled the sensation of pain, even if the inhaler were still semi-conscious. 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF. Humphry Davy in the 1790s tested the gas on himself and some of his friends, including the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey. 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF. The gas was discovered by Joseph Priestley in 1772. 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF. The CAS number of nitrous oxide is 10024-97-2 and its UN number is 1070.

        28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF. Nitrous oxide can be used to nitrites by mixing it with boiling alkali metals, and to oxidize organic compounds at high temperatures. 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF. Nitrous oxide can be prepared by heating ammonium nitrate in the laboratory. 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR. Note that nitrous oxide is isoelectric with carbon dioxide. 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S. Nitrous oxide [[N2O]] should not be confused with the other nitrogen oxides such as nitric oxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2.

        24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF. It can be considered a resonance hybrid of. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX. The structure of the nitrous oxide molecule is a linear chain of a nitrogen atom bound to a second nitrogen, which in turn is bound to an oxygen atom. 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF. . 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. Nitrous oxide is present in the atmosphere where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas.

        500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. It is used in surgery and dentistry for its anaesthetic and analgesic effects. 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. It is commonly known as laughing gas due to the exhilarating effects of inhaling it, and because it can cause spontaneous laughter in some people; it's also known as NOS or nitrous in racing and motorsports, where its usage is widespread. 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S. Under room conditions, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant, slightly-sweet odor. 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. Nitrous oxide, also known as dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide, is a chemical compound with chemical formula N2O.

        300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. In the Munsters episode where Herman sneaks into the hospital to visit Eddie after hours, Herman is given Laughing Gas by the staff. 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR. In Black Sheep, the two main protagonists borrow a police car and its nitrous oxide boosters leak after hitting a pothole, intoxicating the duo. 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF. The main character of Zodiac, Sangamon Taylor, uses it as a drug, and even came up with Sangamon's Principle to explain why it should be used over other drugs. 135 mm f/2D AF DC. Two of the main characters in Taxi get trapped in a room filled with laughing gas.

        105 mm f/2D AF DC. One of the main characters in the musical film version of Little Shop of Horrors dies from the inhalation of Laughing Gas. 85 mm f/1.8D AF. Laughing Gas is one of the main weapons used by the Batman villain, The Joker, only he uses a concoction which is portrayed as being green and lethal. 85 mm f/1.4D AF. Laughing Gas (novel). 50 mm f/1.8D AF. Laughing Gas (movie).

        50 mm f/1.4D AF. 35 mm f/2D AF. 28 mm f/2.8D AF. 28 mm f/1.4D AF.

        24 mm f/2.8D AF. 20mm f/2.8D AF. 18 mm f/2.8D AF. 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye.

        14 mm f/2.8D ED AF. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture.

        AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh. [6]. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies.

        IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. PC - Perspective Control.

        Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor. It has the same characteristics with the D lens. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body.

        The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. Indicated after the f-stop number. D - Distance/Dimension.

        Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera). Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. VR - Vibration Reduction.

        Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing.

        IF - Internal Focus. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced. Reduces chromatic aberration. ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass.

        Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. First introduced in 1996.

        Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. AF - Autofocus. Nikon D2Hs.

        Nikon D2X. Nikon D2H. Nikon D70s. Nikon D70.

        Nikon D50. Nikon D200. Nikon D100. Nikon D1X.

        Nikon D1H. Nikon D1. Nikon Coolpix series. Nikonos line of underwater cameras.

        Nikon S3M (1960). Nikon S4 (1959). Nikon S3 (1958). Nikon SP (1957).

        Nikon S2 (1954). Nikon S (1951). Nikon M (1949). Nikon I (1948).

        Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]. Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]. Nikon F6. Nikon F5.

        Nikon F4. Nikon F100. as the N80). Nikon F80 (known in the U.S.

        as the N75). Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N65). Nikon F65 (known in the U.S.

        as the N55). Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N90s). Nikon F90x (known in the U.S.

        as the N90). Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N8008s). Nikon F801S (known in the U.S.

        as the N8008). Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N6006). Nikon F601 (known in the U.S.

        Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020). as the N5005). Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N4004s).

        Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004). Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N70).

        Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N60). Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N50).

        Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000). Nikon EM. Nikon EL2.

        Nikkorex series. Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat). Nikon F3 series. Nikon F2 series.

        Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor). Nikon FM2. Nikon FM. Nikon FG20.

        Nikon FG. Nikon FE2. Nikon FE. Nikon FA.

        Nikon FE10. Nikon FM10. Nikon FM3A. JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%).

        (1.8%). The Joyo Bank, Ltd. Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%). The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%).

        State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %). (2.7%). Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%).

        (3.3%). The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%). (8.5%).

        The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd.

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