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Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies.
The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon.
Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below).
Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus.
Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays.
In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments.
In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. 
Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731.
(As of September 2004)
The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group
Partial list of Nikon productsThis list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
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In January 2006 Nikon announced  that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. 
Film 35 mm SLR cameras without autofocus
Film 35 mm SLR cameras with autofocus
Film APS SLR cameras
Rangefinder camerasNikon F5 Nikon F6 Nikon D70
Digital compact cameras
Digital SLR cameras
Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon."
Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). These help consumers know what features the lens has. Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each.
AF Prime lenses
Consumer AF zoom lenses
Professional AF zoom lenses
DX (Digital APS-C sized sensor cameras only) Lenses
Micro AF Lenses (also known as Macro)
Currently Produced Manual Focus Lenses
Lenses for other camera models
Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. Models offered include:
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Models offered include:. See also: Social history of the piano. Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. Hence pianos have gained a place in the popular consciousness, and are sometimes referred to by nicknames, including: "the ivories", "the joanna", "the eighty-eight", and "the black(s) and white(s)." Playing the piano is sometimes referred to as "tickling the ivories".
Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each. The piano is a crucial instrument in Western classical music, jazz, film, television and electronic game music, and most other complex western musical genres. These help consumers know what features the lens has. Top-quality but aged pianos can be restored or reconditioned, by replacing a great number of their parts to produce an instrument closely similar to a new one. Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). The hammers of pianos are voiced to compensate for gradual hardening. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon.". Pianos are regularly tuned to keep them up to pitch and produce a pleasing sound; by convention they are tuned to the internationally recognised standard concert pitch of A = 440 Hz.
Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. The largest piano built, the Fazioli F308, weighs 691 kg (1520 lb).
In January 2006 Nikon announced  that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. Traditionally, the black keys were made from ebony and the white keys were covered with strips of ivory, but since ivory-yielding species are now endangered and protected by treaty, plastics are now almost exclusively used. The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group. Spruce is normally used in high-quality pianos. (As of September 2004). Piano keys are generally made of spruce or basswood, for lightness. Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731. In cheap pianos, the soundboard is often made of plywood.
. The best piano makers use close-grained, quarter-sawn, defect-free spruce, and make sure that it has been carefully dried over a long period of time before making it into soundboards. . Spruce is chosen for its high ratio of strength to weight. In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. In quality pianos this is made of solid spruce (that is, spruce boards glued together at their edges). The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments. The part of the piano where materials probably matter more than anywhere else is the soundboard.
In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. More recently, the Kawai firm has built pianos with action parts made of more modern and effective plastics such as carbon fiber; these parts have held up better and have generally received the respect of piano technicians. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. The Steinway firm once incorporated Teflon, a synthetic material developed by DuPont, for some grand action parts in place of cloth, but ultimately abandoned the experiment due to an inherent "clicking" which invariably developed over time. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Early plastics were incorporated into some pianos in the late 1940s and 1950s, but proved disastrous because they crystallized and lost their strength after only a few decades of use. In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. Since World War II, plastics have become available.
Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays. hornbeam). By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. maple, beech. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. The numerous grand parts and upright parts of a piano action are generally hardwood (e.g. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. Piano makers overcome this handicap by polishing, painting, and decorating the plate; often plates include the manufacturer's ornamental medallion and can be strikingly attractive.
Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. The inclusion in a piano of an extremely large piece of metal is potentially an aesthetic handicap. Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. The casting of the plate is a delicate art, since the dimensions are crucial and the iron shrinks by about one percent during cooling. Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus. Some manufacturers now use cast steel in their plates, for greater strength. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below). Since the strings are attached to the plate at one end, any vibrations transmitted to the plate will result in loss of energy to the desired (efficient) channel of sound transmission, namely the bridge and the soundboard.
Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. It is advantageous for the plate to be quite massive. The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon. The plate, or metal frame, of a piano is usually made of cast iron. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies. For the acoustic reasons behind this, see Piano acoustics. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. The bass strings of a piano are made of a steel core wrapped with copper wire, to increase their flexibility.
It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. They are manufactured to vary as little as possible in diameter, since all deviations from uniformity introduce tonal distortion. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. Piano strings (also called piano wire), which must endure years of extreme tension and hard blows, are made of high quality steel. Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. It is made of hardwood, and generally is laminated (built of multiple layers) for additional strength and gripping power. Nikon mailing list. The pinblock, which holds the tuning pins in place, is another area of the piano where toughness is important.
Photosapien Photography Forum. The thick wooden braces at the bottom (grands) or back (uprights) of the piano are not as acoustically important as the rim, and are often made of a softwood, even in top-quality pianos, in order to save weight. Nikonians - see also Nikonian. Conklin, the purpose of a sturdy rim is so that "the vibrational energy will stay as much as possible in the soundboard instead of dissipating uselessly in the case parts, which are inefficient radiators of sound." The rim is normally made by laminating flexible strips of hardwood to the desired shape, a system that was developed by Theodore Steinway in 1880. Fansites and forums:
Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com. Many parts of a piano are made of materials selected for extreme sturdiness. Nikon Historical Society. The entire action of the piano is thus shifted to allow the pianist to play music written in one key so that it sounds in a different key. Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile. The rare transposing piano, of which Irving Berlin possessed an example, uses the middle pedal as a clutch which disengages the keyboard from the mechanism, enabling the keyboard to be moved to left or right with a lever. Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves. It works like the damper pedal, but only lifts the dampers for the lowest notes.
USA website. (Almost all modern grand pianos have a sostenuto pedal, while most upright pianos do not.) A number of twentieth-century works specifically call for the use of this pedal, for example Olivier Messiaen's Catalogue d'oiseaux. Nikon Corp. The sostenuto pedal was the last of the three pedals to be added to the standard piano, and to this day many pianos are not equipped with a sostenuto pedal. website. This can be useful for musical passages with pedal points and other otherwise tricky or impossible situations. Nikon Corp. This makes it possible to sustain some notes (by depressing the sostenuto pedal before notes to be sustained are released) while the player's hands are free to play other notes.
SB-23,. Since the hammers have less distance to travel this reduces the speed at which they hit the strings, and hence the volume is reduced, but this does not change tone quality in the way the "una corda" pedal does on a grand piano. SB-22s,. On upright pianos, the soft pedal operates a mechanism which moves the hammers' resting position closer to the strings. SB-24,. In modern pianos, the strings are spaced too closely to permit a true "una corda" effect — if shifted far enough to strike just one string on one note, the hammers would also hit the string of the next note. SB-29s,. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, the soft pedal was more effective than today, since it was possible at that time to use it to strike three, two or even just one string per note—this is the origin of the name "una corda", Italian for "one string".
SB-30,. The soft pedal was invented by Cristofori and thus appeared on the very earliest pianos. SB-50DX,. For notation of the soft pedal in printed music, see Italian musical terms. SB-80DX,. This softens the note and also modifies its tone quality. R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),. On a grand piano, this pedal shifts the whole action including the keyboard slightly to the left, so that hammers that normally strike all three of the strings for a note strike only two of them.
R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,. The soft pedal or "una corda" pedal is placed leftmost in the row of pedals. SB-R200 (remote flash),. In contrast, the sustaining pedal was used only sparingly by the composers of the 18th century, including Haydn, Mozart and in early works by Beethoven; in that era, pedalling was considered primarily as a special coloristic effect. SU-800 (slave trigger),. Sensitive pedaling is one of the techniques a pianist must master, since piano music from Chopin onwards tends to benefit from extensive use of the sustaining pedal, both as a means of achieving a singing tone and as an aid to legato. SB-600,. Secondly, raising the damper pedal causes all the strings to vibrate sympathetically with whichever notes are being played, which greatly enriches the piano's tone.
SB-800,. First, it assists the pianist in producing a legato (playing smoothly connected notes) in passages where no fingering is available to make this otherwise possible. Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera. This serves two purposes. Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras. When the damper pedal is pressed, all the dampers on the piano are lifted at once, so that every string can vibrate. Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras. The damper is raised off the string whenever the key for that note is pressed.
Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras. Every string on the piano, except the top two octaves, is equipped with a damper, which is a padded device that prevents the string from vibrating. 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. It is placed as the rightmost pedal in the group. 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro. The damper pedal (also called the sustaining pedal or loud pedal) is often simply called "the pedal," since it is the most frequently used. 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro. (In the 18th century, some pianos used levers pressed upward by the player's knee instead of pedals.) The three pedals that have become more or less standard on the modern piano are the following.
105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. Pianos have had pedals, or some close equivalent, since the earliest days. 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. The extra keys are the same as the other keys in appearance. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX. On their instruments, the range is extended both down the bass to F0 and up the treble to F8 for a full eight octaves. 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX. More recently, the Stuart and Sons company has also manufactured extended-range pianos.
18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX. Only a very small number of works composed for piano actually use these notes. 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX. The extra keys are added primarily for increased resonance; that is, they vibrate sympathetically with other strings whenever the damper pedal is depressed and thus give a fuller tone. 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX. Sometimes, these extra keys are hidden under a small hinged lid, which can be flipped down to cover the keys and avoid visual disorientation in a pianist unfamiliar with the extended keyboard; on others, the colours of the extra white keys are reversed (black instead of white). 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX. The most notable example of an extended range can be found on Bösendorfer pianos, two models which extend the normal range downwards to F0, with one other model going as far as a bottom C0, making a full eight octave range.
10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX. Many older pianos only have 85 keys (seven octaves from A0 to A7), while some manufacturers extend the range further in one or both directions. 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR. Almost every modern piano has 88 keys (seven octaves plus a minor third, from A0 to C8). 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR. This arrangement was inherited from the harpsichord without change, with the trivial exception of the colour scheme (white for notes in the C major scale and black for other notes) which became standard for pianos in the late 18th century. 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF. For the arrangement of the keys on a piano keyboard, see Musical keyboard.
70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. Progress is being made in this area by including physical models of sympathetic vibration in the synthesis software. 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF. Since this sympathetic vibration is considered central to a beautiful piano tone, in many experts' estimation digital pianos still do not compete with the best acoustic pianos in tone quality. 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S. However, with current technology, it remains difficult to duplicate a crucial aspect of acoustic pianos, namely that when the damper pedal (see below) is depressed, the strings not struck vibrate sympathetically when other strings are struck. 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S. The best digital pianos are sophisticated, with features including working pedals, weighted keys, multiple voices, MIDI interfaces.
70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF. Since the 1980s, digital pianos have been available, which use digital sampling technology to reproduce the sound of each piano note. 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF. A relatively recent development is the prepared piano, which is simply a standard grand piano which has had objects placed inside it before a performance in order to alter its sound, or which has had its mechanism changed in some way. 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF. Also in the 19th century, toy pianos began to be manufactured. 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF. In 1863, Henri Fourneaux invented the player piano, a kind of piano which "plays itself" from a piano roll without the need for a pianist.
28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF. For recent advances, see Innovations in the piano. 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF. It is considered harder to produce a sensitive piano action when the hammers move horizontally, rather than upward against gravity as in a grand piano; however, the very best upright pianos now approach the level of grand pianos of the same size in tone quality and responsiveness. 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR. Upright pianos, also called vertical pianos, are more compact because the frame and strings are placed vertically, extending in both directions from the keyboard and hammers. 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S. All else being equal, longer pianos have better sound and lower inharmonicity of the strings (so that the strings can be tuned closer to equal temperament in relation to the standard pitch with less stretching), so that full-size grands are almost always used for public concerts, whereas baby grands are often chosen for domestic use where space and cost are considerations.
24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF. Manufacturers and models vary, but a rough generalisation distinguishes the "concert grand", (between about 2.2 m to 3 m long) from the "boudoir grand" (about 1.7 m to 2.2 m) and the smaller "baby grand" (which may be shorter than it is wide). 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX. There are several sizes of grand piano. 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF. This makes the grand piano a large instrument, for which the ideal setting is a spacious room with high ceilings for proper resonance. 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. Grand pianos have the frame and strings placed horizontally, with the strings extending away from the keyboard.
500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. Modern pianos come in two basic configurations and several sizes: the grand piano and the upright piano. 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. Finally, participants in the authentic performance movement have constructed new copies of the old instruments and used them in performance; this has provided important new insights and interpretations of the music. 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S. A few pianists simply ignore this problem; others modify their playing style to help compensate for the difference in instruments, for example by using less pedal. 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. These sound rather blurred on a modern piano if played as written, but which sound fine when played on restorations or replicas of the pianos of Beethoven's day.
300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. 53). 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR. For example, Beethoven sometimes wrote long passages in which he directs the player to keep the damper pedal down throughout (a famous example occurs in the last movement of the "Waldstein" sonata, Op. 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF. Others have noted that the music itself often seems to require the resources of the early piano. 135 mm f/2D AF DC. This view is perhaps more plausible in the case of Beethoven, who composed at the beginning of the era of piano growth, than it is in the case of Haydn or Mozart.
105 mm f/2D AF DC. One view that is sometimes taken is that these composers were dissatisfied with their pianos, and in fact were writing visionary "music of the future" with a more robust sound in mind. 85 mm f/1.8D AF. Even the music of the early Romantics, such as Chopin and Schumann, was written for pianos substantially different from ours. 85 mm f/1.4D AF. The problem is that much of the most widely admired piano repertoire — for example, that of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven — was composed for a type of instrument that is rather different from the modern instruments on which this music is normally performed today. 50 mm f/1.8D AF. The huge changes in the evolution of the piano have somewhat vexing consequences for musical performance.
50 mm f/1.4D AF. These were uncommon. 35 mm f/2D AF. The giraffe piano, by contrast, was mechanically like a grand piano, but the strings ran vertically up from the keyboard rather than horizontally away from it, making it a very tall instrument. 28 mm f/2.8D AF. Most had a wood frame, though later designs incorporated increasing amounts of iron. 28 mm f/1.4D AF. Square pianos were produced through the early 20th century; the tone they produced is widely considered to be inferior.
24 mm f/2.8D AF. It was similar to the upright piano in its mechanism. 20mm f/2.8D AF. The once-popular square piano was an inexpensive design that had the strings and frame on a horizontal plane, but running across the length of the keyboard rather than away from it. 18 mm f/2.8D AF. Some early pianos had shapes and designs that are no longer in use. 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye. For some recent developments, see Innovations in the piano.
14 mm f/2.8D ED AF. The modern concert grand achieved essentially its present form around the beginning of the 20th century, and progress since then has been only incremental. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S. Some other important technical innovations of this era include the following:. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. As revised by Henri Herz about 1840, the double escapement action ultimately became the standard action for grand pianos, used by all manufacturers. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture. In 1821, Sébastien Érard invented the double escapement action, which permitted a note to be repeated even if the key had not yet risen to its maximum vertical position, a great benefit for rapid playing.
AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. By the 1820s, the centre of innovation had shifted to Paris, where the Érard firm manufactured pianos used by Chopin and Liszt. DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh. The two schools, however, used different piano actions: the Broadwood one more robust, the Viennese more sensitive. . The Viennese makers followed these trends. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies. The Broadwood firm, which sent pianos to both Haydn and Beethoven, was the first to build pianos with a range of more than five octaves: five octaves and a fifth during the 1790s, six octaves by 1810 (in time for Beethoven to use the extra notes in his later works), and seven octaves by 1820.
IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. Over time, the Broadwood instruments grew progressively larger, louder, and more robustly constructed. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. In the first part of this era, technological progress owed much to the English firm of Broadwood, which already had a strong reputation for the splendour and powerful tone of its harpsichords. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. The tonal range of the piano was also increased, from the five octaves of Mozart's day to the 7 1/3 (or even more) octaves found on modern pianos. PC - Perspective Control. Over time, piano playing became a more strenuous and muscle-taxing activity, as the force needed to depress the keys, as well as the length of key travel, was increased.
Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor. It was also a response to the ongoing Industrial Revolution, which made available technological resources like high-quality steel for strings (see piano wire) and precision casting for the production of iron frames. It has the same characteristics with the D lens. This evolution was in response to a consistent preference by composers and pianists for a more powerful, sustained piano sound. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. In the lengthy period lasting from about 1790 to 1890, the Mozart-era piano underwent tremendous changes which led to the modern form of the instrument. G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body. The term fortepiano is nowadays often used to distinguish the 18th-century style of instrument from later pianos.
The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject. The piano of Mozart's day had a softer, clearer tone than today's pianos, with less sustaining power. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. It was for such instruments that Mozart composed his concertos and sonatas, and replicas of them are built today for use in authentic-instrument performance. Indicated after the f-stop number. The Viennese-style pianos were built with wooden frames, two strings per note, and had leather-covered hammers. D - Distance/Dimension. Piano-making flourished during the late 18th century in the work of the Viennese school, which included Johann Andreas Stein (who worked in Augsburg, Germany) and the Viennese makers Nannette Stein (daughter of Johann Andreas) and Anton Walter.
Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera). Bach did approve of a later instrument he saw in 1747, and apparently even served as an agent to help sell Silbermann's pianos. Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Though this earned him some animosity from Silbermann, the latter did apparently heed the criticism. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. Bach did not like it at that time, claiming that the higher notes were too soft to allow a full dynamic range. VR - Vibration Reduction. Silbermann showed Bach one of his early instruments in the 1730s.
Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings. Virtually all subsequent pianos incorporated some version of Silbermann's idea. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. Silbermann's pianos were virtually direct copies of Cristofori's, but with an important addition: Silbermann invented the forerunner of the modern damper pedal (also known as the sustaining pedal or loud pedal), which lifts all the dampers from the strings at once. DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. One of these builders was Gottfried Silbermann, better known as an organ builder. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing. This article was widely distributed, and most of the next generation of piano builders started their work as a result of reading it.
IF - Internal Focus. Cristofori's new instrument remained relatively unknown until an Italian writer, Scipione Maffei, wrote an enthusiastic article about it (1711), including a diagram of the mechanism. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced. However, in comparison with the clavichord (the only previous keyboard instrument capable of dynamic nuance) they were considerably louder, and had more sustaining power. Reduces chromatic aberration. Cristofori's early instruments were made with thin strings and were much quieter than the modern piano. ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass. Cristofori's piano action served as a model for the many different approaches to piano actions that were to follow.
Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996. Moreover, the hammers must return to their rest position without bouncing violently, and it must be possible to repeat a note rapidly. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. Cristofori's great success was to solve, without any prior example, the fundamental mechanical problem of piano design: the hammers must strike the string but not continue to touch it once they have struck (which would damp the sound). AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. Cristofori, himself a harpsichord maker, was well acquainted with this body of knowledge. First introduced in 1996. In particular, it benefited from centuries of work on the harpsichord, which had shown the most effective ways to construct the case, the soundboard, the bridge, and the keyboard.
Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. Like many other inventions, the pianoforte was founded on earlier technological innovations. AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. Cristofori built only about twenty pianofortes before he died in 1731; the three that survive today date from the 1720s. AF - Autofocus. When he built this instrument is not entirely clear, but an inventory made by Cristofori's employers, the Medici family, indicates the existence of an early Cristofori instrument by the year 1700. Nikon D2Hs. He called it a gravicembalo col piano e forte.
Nikon D2X. Bartolomeo Cristofori of Florence, Italy, invented the first pianoforte. Nikon D2H. . Nikon D70s. In a piano, the strings are struck by hammers which immediately rebound, leaving the string to vibrate freely. Nikon D70. In the clavichord, strings are struck by tangents which remain in contact with the string.
Nikon D50. In a harpsichord, strings are plucked by quills or similar material. Nikon D200. The three instruments differ in the mechanism of sound production. Nikon D100. As a keyboard stringed instrument, the piano is similar to the clavichord and harpsichord. Nikon D1X. Literally harpsichord with soft and loud, this refers to the ability of the piano to produce notes at different volumes depending on how hard its keys are pressed.
Nikon D1H. It is derived from the original Italian name for the instrument, clavicembalo col piano e forte. Nikon D1. The word piano is a shortened form of the word "pianoforte", which is seldom used except in formal language. Nikon Coolpix series. These vibrations are transmitted though the bridges to the soundboard. Nikonos line of underwater cameras. The piano produces sound by striking steel strings with felt hammers.
Nikon S3M (1960). A piano is a keyboard instrument, widely used in western music for solo performance, chamber music, and accompaniment, and also as a convenient aid to composing and rehearsal. Nikon S4 (1959). Reblitz (Vestal Press, ISBN 1-879511-03-7). Nikon S3 (1958). Piano Servicing, Tuning and Rebuilding: For the Professional, the Student, and the Hobbyist by Arthur A. Nikon SP (1957). The Piano Shop on the Left Bank by Thad Carhart (Random House, 2002; ISBN 0375758623) is a partly autobiographical exploration of the diversity and history of the piano, and is a readable introduction by an enthusiast.
Nikon S2 (1954). Piano roles : three hundred years of life with the piano by James Parakilas (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1999) provides much history of the instrument. Nikon S (1951). The pianist's guide to pedaling by Joseph Banowetz (Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1985) offers a history of the three piano pedals and covers the wide variety of ways in which they are used by professional pianists. Nikon M (1949). It also includes advice on buying and owning pianos. Nikon I (1948). Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts: Brookside Press, 2001; ISBN 1-929145-01-2) gives the basics of how pianos work, and a thorough evaluative survey of current pianos and their manufacturers.
Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) . The Piano Book by Larry Fine (4th ed. Nikon Pronea S (1997) . In the 1988 edition, the primary article can be found in "Musical Instruments". Nikon F6. The Encyclopædia Britannica (available online by subscription) also includes a great deal of information about the piano. Nikon F5. Main article: "Pianoforte".
Nikon F4. The authoritative New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (available online by subscription), contains a wealth of information on the piano. Nikon F100. Similar systems developed by Blüthner (1873), as well as Taskin (1788), and Collard (1821) used more distinctly ringing undamped vibrations to modify tone. as the N80). In 1872 Theodore Steinway patented a system to control different components of string vibrations by tuning their secondary parts in octave relationships with the sounding lengths. Nikon F80 (known in the U.S. duplexes or aliquot scales.
as the N75). in 1859. Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. Overstringing was invented by Jean-Henri Pape during the 1820s, and first patented for use in grand pianos in the United States by Henry Steinway Jr. as the N65). This permits larger, but not necessarily longer, strings to fit within the case of the piano. Nikon F65 (known in the U.S. The strings are placed in a vertically overlapping slanted arrangement, with two heights of bridges on the soundboard, rather than just one.
as the N55). the overstrung scale, also called "cross-stringing". Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. the sostenuto pedal (see below), invented in 1844 by Jean Louis Boisselot and improved by the Steinway firm in 1874. as the N90s). Hammers covered with compressed felt were introduced by the Parisian maker Jean-Henri Pape in 1826, and are now universally used. Nikon F90x (known in the U.S. The harder, tauter steel strings required a softer hammer type to maintain good tone quality.
as the N90). felt hammers. Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. Babcock later worked for the Chickering & Mackays firm, where the first iron frame in grand pianos (1843) was developed. as the N8008s). The single piece cast iron frame was patented in 1825 in Boston by Alpheus Babcock, culminating an earlier trend to use ever more iron parts to reinforce the piano. Nikon F801S (known in the U.S. The iron frame was the ultimate solution to the problem of structural integrity as the strings were gradually made thicker, tenser, and more numerous (in a modern grand the total string tension can approach 20 tons).
as the N8008). The iron frame, also called the "plate", sits atop the soundboard, and serves as the primary bulwark against the force of string tension. Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. the iron frame. as the N6006). use of three strings rather than two for all but the lower notes. Nikon F601 (known in the U.S.
Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020). as the N5005). Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N4004s).
Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004). Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N70).
Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N60). Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N50).
Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000). Nikon EM. Nikon EL2.
Nikkorex series. Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat). Nikon F3 series. Nikon F2 series.
Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor). Nikon FM2. Nikon FM. Nikon FG20.
Nikon FG. Nikon FE2. Nikon FE. Nikon FA.
Nikon FE10. Nikon FM10. Nikon FM3A. JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%).
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State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %). (2.7%). Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%).
(3.3%). The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%). (8.5%).
The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd.