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Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies.
The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon.
Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below).
Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus.
Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays.
In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments.
In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. 
Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731.
(As of September 2004)
The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group
Partial list of Nikon productsThis list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
CamerasWikimedia Commons has media related to: Nikon cameras
In January 2006 Nikon announced  that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. 
Film 35 mm SLR cameras without autofocus
Film 35 mm SLR cameras with autofocus
Film APS SLR cameras
Rangefinder camerasNikon F5 Nikon F6 Nikon D70
Digital compact cameras
Digital SLR cameras
Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon."
Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). These help consumers know what features the lens has. Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each.
AF Prime lenses
Consumer AF zoom lenses
Professional AF zoom lenses
DX (Digital APS-C sized sensor cameras only) Lenses
Micro AF Lenses (also known as Macro)
Currently Produced Manual Focus Lenses
Lenses for other camera models
Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. Models offered include:
This page about Nikon includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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Models offered include:. Even though some 47,000 US military personnel remain in Japan today, they are there at the invitation of the Japanese government under the terms of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan and not as an occupying force. Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. The San Francisco Peace Treaty, signed on September 8, 1951, marked the end of the Allied occupation, and when it went into effect on April 28, 1952, Japan was once again an independent state (with the exception of Okinawa, which remained under US control until 1972).
Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each. Thereafter, the socialist party steadily declined in its electoral successes. These help consumers know what features the lens has. This divisiveness in conservative ranks gave a plurality to the Japan Socialist Party, which was allowed to form a cabinet, which lasted less than a year. Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). For the 1947 elections, anti-Yoshida forces left the Liberal Party and joined forces with the Progressive Party to establish the new Democratic Party (Minshuto). The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon.". The first postwar elections were held in 1946 (women were given the franchise for the first time), and the Liberal Party's vice president, Yoshida Shigeru (1878-1967), became prime minister.
Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. The old Seiyokai and Rikken Minseito came back as, respectively, the Liberal Party (Nihon Jiyuto) and the Japan Progressive Party (Nihon Shimpoto).
In January 2006 Nikon announced  that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. While these other reforms were taking place, various military tribunals, most notably the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Ichigaya, were trying Japan's war criminals and sentencing many to death and imprisonment. The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group. The Japanese written system was drastically reorganized to give the Toyo Kanji, predecessor of today's Jōyō kanji, and grammar was greatly altered to reflect conversational usage. (As of September 2004). The longstanding issue of restricting Kanji usage, which had been planned for decades but continuously opposed by more conservative elements, was also resolved during this time. Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731. The Imperial Rescript on Education was repealed, and the Imperial University system reorganized.
. During the occupation, Japan's secondary education system was changed to incorporate three-year junior high schools and senior high schools similar to those in the US: junior high became compulsory, but senior high remained optional. . Before and during the war, Japanese education was based on the German system, with gymnasiums and universities to train students after primary school. In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. In February 1947, Japan's workers were ready to call a general strike, in an attempt to take over their factories; MacArthur warned that he would not allow such a strike to take place, and the unions eventually relented, making them lose face and effectively subduing them for the remainder of the occupation. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments. This turned out to be one of the greatest hurdles of the occupation, as communism had become increasingly popular among the poorer Japanese workers for several decades, and took advantage of Japan's recent left-leaning atmosphere.
In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. Women gained the right to vote, and in April of that year, 14 million turned out for the election that gave Japan its first modern prime minister, Shigeru Yoshida. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. Shinto was abolished as a state religion, and Christianity reappeared in the open for the first time in decades. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. The new constitiution guaranteed basic freedoms and civil liberties, abolished nobility, and, perhaps most importantly, made the emperor the symbol of Japan, removing him from politics. In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. In 1946, the Diet ratified a new Constitution of Japan which followed closely a 'model copy' prepared by the Occupational authorities, and was promulgated as an amendment to the old Prussian-style Meiji Constitution.
Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays. Five million acres (20,000 km²) of land were taken out of the hands of nobles and given to the farmers who worked them. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. The Allies dismantled Japan's zaibatsu: only their factories remained, in the hands of a wide array of corporations which eventually coalesced into what are now known as keiretsu. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. Even so, at $46.9 billion in 2003, Japan's defense budget is the second-largest in the world, at 5% of the worldwide total spend on defense. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. Traditionally, Japan's military spending has been restricted to about 1% of its budget, though this is by popular practice, not law, and has fluctuated up and down from this figure (see Defense budget of Japan).
Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. However, within less than a decade, America was pressuring Japan to rebuild its army as a bulwark against Communism in Asia. Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. The initial intent of the "Peace Clause" was to prevent the country from ever becoming an aggresive military power again. Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus. Recently, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi and other politicians have tried to repeal this clause. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below). During the occupation, a "peace clause" was also included in the constitution that specifically forbade Japan from waging war; although the origins are unclear, both Allied and Japanese leaders apparently took part.
Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. The national police force was dissolved and replaced by regional police forces. The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon. Shortly after his arrival, MacArthur ordered that all Japanese personnel give up their katana and wakizashi: seven tons of swords were confiscated and sent to San Francisco. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies. During 1947, BCOF began to decrease its activities in Japan and it was officially wound up in 1951. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. At its peak, the force numbered about 40,000 personnel.
It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. While US forces were responsible for overall military government, BCOF was responsible for supervising demilitarisation and the disposal of Japan's war industries. BCOF was also responsible for occupation of several western prefectures and had its headquarters at Kure. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. The official British Commonwealth Occupation Force (BCOF), comprised of Australian, British, Indian and New Zealand personnel, was deployed from February 21, 1946. Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. By the end of 1945, more than 350,000 US personnel were stationed throughout Japan. Nikon mailing list. While other Allied political and military leaders pushed for Hirohito to be tried as a war criminal, MacArthur resisted such calls, arguing that any such prosecution would be overwhelmingly unpopular with the Japanese people.
Photosapien Photography Forum. With the sanction of Japan's reigning monarch, MacArthur now had the ammunition he needed to begin the real work of the Occupation. Nikonians - see also Nikonian. The two men met for the first time on September 28; the photograph of the two together is one of the most famous in Japanese history. Fansites and forums:
Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com. General MacArthur was technically supposed to defer to an advisory council set up by the Allied powers, but in practice did everything himself. Nikon Historical Society. Allied (primarily American) forces supervised the country. Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile. On September 2, Japan formally surrendered, signing the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, and the occupation began. Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves. No Allied personnel were to eat the scarce Japanese food.
USA website. On August 28, 150 US personnel flew to Atsugi, Kanagawa Prefecture, and became the first Allied forces to land on Japanese soil. Nikon Corp. Japanese officials left for Manila on August 19 to meet MacArthur and to be briefed on his plans for the occupation. website. On V-J Day, Truman appointed General Douglas MacArthur as Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, to supervise the occupation of Japan. Nikon Corp. The Soviet Union would be responsible for North Korea, Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands, while the United States and the British Empire would have the responsibility for Japan, South Korea, and Japan's remaining possessions in Oceania.
SB-23,. . SB-22s,. The occupation was satirised in the 1956 American film The Teahouse of the August Moon. SB-24,. The phrase "shikata ga nai", was commonly used in both Japanese and American press to encapsulate the Japanese public's resignation to the harsh conditions endured while under occupation. SB-29s,.
SB-30,. SB-50DX,. SB-80DX,. R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),.
R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,. SB-R200 (remote flash),. SU-800 (slave trigger),. SB-600,.
SB-800,. Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera. Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras. Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras.
Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras. 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro. 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro.
105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX. 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX.
18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX. 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX. 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX. 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX.
10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX. 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR. 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR. 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF.
70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF. 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S. 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S.
70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF. 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF. 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF. 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF.
28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF. 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF. 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR. 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S.
24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX. 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF. 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II.
500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S. 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II.
300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR. 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF. 135 mm f/2D AF DC.
105 mm f/2D AF DC. 85 mm f/1.8D AF. 85 mm f/1.4D AF. 50 mm f/1.8D AF.
50 mm f/1.4D AF. 35 mm f/2D AF. 28 mm f/2.8D AF. 28 mm f/1.4D AF.
24 mm f/2.8D AF. 20mm f/2.8D AF. 18 mm f/2.8D AF. 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye.
14 mm f/2.8D ED AF. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture.
AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh. . These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies.
IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. PC - Perspective Control.
Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor. It has the same characteristics with the D lens. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body.
The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. Indicated after the f-stop number. D - Distance/Dimension.
Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera). Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. VR - Vibration Reduction.
Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing.
IF - Internal Focus. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced. Reduces chromatic aberration. ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass.
Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. First introduced in 1996.
Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. AF - Autofocus. Nikon D2Hs.
Nikon D2X. Nikon D2H. Nikon D70s. Nikon D70.
Nikon D50. Nikon D200. Nikon D100. Nikon D1X.
Nikon D1H. Nikon D1. Nikon Coolpix series. Nikonos line of underwater cameras.
Nikon S3M (1960). Nikon S4 (1959). Nikon S3 (1958). Nikon SP (1957).
Nikon S2 (1954). Nikon S (1951). Nikon M (1949). Nikon I (1948).
Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) . Nikon Pronea S (1997) . Nikon F6. Nikon F5.
Nikon F4. Nikon F100. as the N80). Nikon F80 (known in the U.S.
as the N75). Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N65). Nikon F65 (known in the U.S.
as the N55). Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N90s). Nikon F90x (known in the U.S.
as the N90). Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N8008s). Nikon F801S (known in the U.S.
as the N8008). Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N6006). Nikon F601 (known in the U.S.
Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020). as the N5005). Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N4004s).
Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004). Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N70).
Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N60). Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N50).
Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000). Nikon EM. Nikon EL2.
Nikkorex series. Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat). Nikon F3 series. Nikon F2 series.
Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor). Nikon FM2. Nikon FM. Nikon FG20.
Nikon FG. Nikon FE2. Nikon FE. Nikon FA.
Nikon FE10. Nikon FM10. Nikon FM3A. JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%).
(1.8%). The Joyo Bank, Ltd. Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%). The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%).
State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %). (2.7%). Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%).
(3.3%). The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%). (8.5%).
The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd.