This page will contain discussion groups about Nikon, as they become available.

Nikon Corporation

Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies.

The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon.

Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below).

Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus.

Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays.

In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments.

In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. [1]

Shareholders

Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731.

(As of September 2004)

  • The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd. (8.5%)
  • Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%)
  • The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. (3.3%)
  • Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%)
  • Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. (2.7%)
  • State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %)
  • The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%)
  • Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%)
  • The Joyo Bank, Ltd. (1.8%)
  • JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%)

Holdings

The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group

Partial list of Nikon products

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Cameras

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Nikon cameras

In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. [3]

Film 35 mm SLR cameras without autofocus

  • Nikon FM3A
  • Nikon FM10
  • Nikon FE10
  • Nikon FA
  • Nikon FE
  • Nikon FE2
  • Nikon FG
  • Nikon FG20
  • Nikon FM
  • Nikon FM2
  • Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor)
  • Nikon F2 series
  • Nikon F3 series
  • Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat)
  • Nikkorex series
  • Nikon EL2
  • Nikon EM
  • Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000)

Film 35 mm SLR cameras with autofocus

  • Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. as the N50)
  • Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N60)
  • Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N70)
  • Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N4004)
  • Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004s)
  • Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N5005)
  • Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020)
  • Nikon F601 (known in the U.S. as the N6006)
  • Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N8008)
  • Nikon F801S (known in the U.S. as the N8008s)
  • Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N90)
  • Nikon F90x (known in the U.S. as the N90s)
  • Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N55)
  • Nikon F65 (known in the U.S. as the N65)
  • Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N75)
  • Nikon F80 (known in the U.S. as the N80)
  • Nikon F100
  • Nikon F4
  • Nikon F5
  • Nikon F6


Film APS SLR cameras

  • Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]
  • Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]

Rangefinder cameras

Nikon F5 Nikon F6 Nikon D70
  • Nikon I (1948)
  • Nikon M (1949)
  • Nikon S (1951)
  • Nikon S2 (1954)
  • Nikon SP (1957)
  • Nikon S3 (1958)
  • Nikon S4 (1959)
  • Nikon S3M (1960)
  • Nikonos line of underwater cameras

Digital compact cameras

  • Nikon Coolpix series

Digital SLR cameras

  • Nikon D1
  • Nikon D1H
  • Nikon D1X
  • Nikon D100
  • Nikon D200
  • Nikon D50
  • Nikon D70
  • Nikon D70s
  • Nikon D2H
  • Nikon D2X
  • Nikon D2Hs

Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon."

Lenses

Lens acronyms

Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). These help consumers know what features the lens has. Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each.

  • AF - Autofocus.
  • AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. First introduced in 1996.
  • AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996.
  • ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass. Reduces chromatic aberration. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced.
  • IF - Internal Focus. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing.
  • DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings.
  • VR - Vibration Reduction. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera).
  • D - Distance/Dimension. Indicated after the f-stop number. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject.
  • G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. It has the same characteristics with the D lens.
  • Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor.
  • PC - Perspective Control. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor.
  • IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies. [6]
  • DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh.
  • AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S.

AF Prime lenses

  • 14 mm f/2.8D ED AF
  • 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye
  • 18 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 20mm f/2.8D AF
  • 24 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 28 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 28 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 35 mm f/2D AF
  • 50 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 50 mm f/1.8D AF
  • 85 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 85 mm f/1.8D AF
  • 105 mm f/2D AF DC
  • 135 mm f/2D AF DC
  • 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF
  • 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S
  • 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II

Consumer AF zoom lenses

  • 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF
  • 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX
  • 24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF
  • 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S
  • 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF
  • 28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF
  • 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF
  • 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF
  • 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF
  • 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF

Professional AF zoom lenses

  • 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S
  • 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S
  • 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF
  • 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR
  • 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR


DX (Digital APS-C sized sensor cameras only) Lenses

  • 10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX
  • 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX
  • 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX
  • 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX

Micro AF Lenses (also known as Macro)

  • 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro
  • 105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro
  • 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro
  • 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro


Currently Produced Manual Focus Lenses

  • 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor

Lenses for other camera models

  • Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras
  • Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras
  • Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras
  • Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera

Flash guns

Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. Models offered include:

  • SB-800,
  • SB-600,
  • SU-800 (slave trigger),
  • SB-R200 (remote flash),
  • R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,
  • R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),
  • SB-80DX,
  • SB-50DX,
  • SB-30,
  • SB-29s,
  • SB-24,
  • SB-22s,
  • SB-23,
  • SB-27,
  • SB-16B, and
  • SB-16A.

External links

  • Official websites:
    • Nikon Corp. website
    • Nikon Corp. USA website
    • Nikon Precision Inc. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website
    • NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French
  • Data:
    • Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves
    • Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile
    • Nikon Historical Society
    • Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com
    • Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History
  • Fansites and forums:
    • Nikonians - see also Nikonian
    • Photosapien Photography Forum
    • Nikon mailing list

This page about Nikon includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Nikon
News stories about Nikon
External links for Nikon
Videos for Nikon
Wikis about Nikon
Discussion Groups about Nikon
Blogs about Nikon
Images of Nikon

Models offered include:. The scents are then heavily marketed; the association with the celebrity's name usually being the selling point of the campaign. Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. In recent years, some celebrities have signed contracts with perfume houses to associate their name with a signature scent, as a lucrative self-promotion campaign.
. approved safe by IFRA.
. Numerous synthetic musks of high quality are readily available.

Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each. Due to its legality, rarity, high price, and ethical reasons, it is the policy of most perfume companies to use synthetic musk in place of natural musk for ethical reasons. These help consumers know what features the lens has. This means that these musk deer and their derivatives are banned from international commercial trade." [1]. Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). The musk deer populations of Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan are included in Appendix I of CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon.". "Musk deer are protected under national legislation in many countries where they are found.

Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. As a result, the deer is now protected by law and international trade of musk from Moschus moschiferus is prohibited:.
. Due to the high demand of musk and indiscriminate hunting, populations were severely depleted. [3]. Although the musk pod is produced only by a young male deer in oestrus musk hunters usually did not discriminate between the age and sex of the deers. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. This requires the killing of the animal in the process.

In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. Musk was traditionally taken from the male musk deer Moschus moschiferus. The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group. There are several reasons for this:. (As of September 2004). It is important to note that there is no benefit from creating a perfume exclusively from natural materials. Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731. For instance, acetophenone, limonene, oakmoss etc while present in many perfumes, are also potential allergens.

. In some cases, an excessive use of perfumes may cause allergic reactions of the skin. [1]. Perfumers were also known to create poisons; for instance, a French duchess was murdered when a perfume/poison was rubbed into her gloves and was, thus, slowly absorbed into her skin. In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. Today, perfume creation is dominated by a handful of very large multi national companies - IFF (USA), Givaudan (Switzerland), Firmenich (Switzerland), Takasago (Japan) and Quest (UK). The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments. By the 18th century, aromatic plants were being grown in the Grasse region of France to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials.

In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. Partly due to this patronage, the western perfumery industry was created. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. The Prophet Muhammad said, "The taking of a bath on Friday is compulsory for every male Muslim who has attained the age of puberty and (also) the cleaning of his teeth with Siwak (type of twig used as a toothbrush), and the using of perfume if it is available." (Recorded in Sahih Bukhari). was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. In the Islamic culture, perfume usage has been documented as far back as the 6th century and its usage is considered a religious duty. In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. During the Renaissance period, perfumes were used primarily by royalty and the wealthy to mask bodily odors resulting from the sanitary practices of the day.

Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays. Knowledge of perfumery came to Europe as early as the 14th century. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. The world centre of perfumery has moved over the centuries depending upon who has had the economic and political power. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. It was developed and further refined by the Romans and the Arabs. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. In ancient Egypt a great deal was recorded and we have a relativley clear account of the considerable importance of perfume in their daily lives.

Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in china and India but little evidence remains. Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. The mixture is normally aged for one year. Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus. Included in the perfume are fixatives, which bind the various fragrances together, include balsams, ambergris, and secretions from the scent glands of civets and musk deer (undiluted, these have unpleasant smells but in alcoholic solution they act as preserving agents). Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below). Perfume oils usually contain tens to hundreds of ingredients.

Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Of these extracts, only absolutes, essential oils, and tinctures are directly used to formulate perfumes. The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon. Although fragrant extracts are known to the general public as the generic term "essential oils", a more specific language is used in the fragrance industry to describe the source, purity, and technique used to obtain a particular fragrant extract. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies. This is due to the use of heat, harsh solvents, or through exposure to oxygen in the extraction process which will denature the aromatic compounds, which either change their odour character or renders them odourless. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. All these techniques will to a certain extent, distort the odour of the aromatic compounds obtained from the raw materials.

It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. The results of the extraction are either essential oils, absolutes, concretes, or butters, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. Odorants from natural sources require the use of various methods to extract the aromatics from the raw materials. Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Synthetic odorants are produced through organic synthesis and purified. Nikon mailing list. Before perfumes can be composed, the odorants used in various perfume compositions must first be obtained.

Photosapien Photography Forum. See Aroma compound. Nikonians - see also Nikonian. Each of these companies patent several processes for the production of aromatic synthetics annually. Fansites and forums:

    . They include:. Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History. The majority of the world's synthetic aromatics are created by relatively few companies.

    Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com. Orchid scents are usually not obtained directly from the plant itself but are instead synthetically created to match the fragrant compounds found in various orchids. Nikon Historical Society. For example, linalool and coumarin are both naturally occurring compounds that can be cheaply synthesized from terpenes. Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile. Synthetic aromatics are often used as an alternate source of compounds that are not easily obtained from natural sources. Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves. For instance, Calone, a compound of synthetic origin, imparts a fresh ozonous metallic marine scent that is widely used in contemporary perfumes.

    Data:

      . Synthetics can provide fragrances which are not found in nature. NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French. Synthetic aromatics are created through organic synthesis from various chemical compounds that are obtained from petroleum distillates, pine resins, or other relatively cheap organic feedstock. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website. Orange leaves, blossoms, and fruit zest are the respective sources of petit grain, neroli, and orange oils. Nikon Precision Inc. A plant can offer more than one source of aromatics, for instance the aerial portions and seeds of coriander have remarkably different odors from each other.

      USA website. The sources of these compounds may be derived from various parts of a plant. Nikon Corp. Plants are by far the largest source of fragrant compounds used in perfumery. website. These aromatics are usually secondary metabolites produced by plants as protection against herbivores as well as to attract pollinators. Nikon Corp. Plants have long been used in perfumery as a source of essential oils and aroma compounds.

      Official websites:

        . As such, although the oil concentration of a perfume in eau de parfum dilution will necessarily be higher than the same perfume in eau de toilette form, the same trends may not necessarily apply to different perfume compositions much less across different perfume houses. SB-16A. It should be noted that different perfumeries or perfume houses assign different amounts of oils to each of their perfumes. SB-16B, and. As the percentage of aromatic compounds decreases, the intensity and longevity of the scent decrease. SB-27,. The percent of perfume oil by volume in a perfume is listed as follows:.

        SB-23,. Although dilutions of the perfume oil can be done using solvents such as jojoba, fractionated coconut oil, and wax, the most common solvents for perfume oil dilution is ethanol or a mixture of ethanol and water. SB-22s,. This is done because undiluted oils contain volatile components that would be too concentrated for people with sensitive skin or allergies. SB-24,. Perfumes oils, or the "juice" of a perfume composition, are diluted with a suitable solvent to make the perfume more usable. SB-29s,. The rate of evaporation (vapor pressure) and the odor strength of the compound partly determine the tenacity of the compound and determine its perfume note classification.

        SB-30,. On application, body heat causes the solvent to quickly disperse, leaving the fragrance to evaporate gradually over several hours. SB-50DX,. A mixture of alcohol and water is used as the solvent for the aromatics. SB-80DX,. Traditionally, fragrances can be classified into several olfactive families, by the themes, or accords, of these fragrances. R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),. Perfumes can also be classified according to their concentration.

        R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,. On the other hand, it is possible to group perfumes into olfactive families and describe them through the notes that appear as they slowly evaporate. SB-R200 (remote flash),. Even if the formulas are known, the ingredients are often too numerous to provide a useful classification. SU-800 (slave trigger),. It is impossible to describe a perfume according to its components because the exact formulas are kept secret. SB-600,. .

        SB-800,. The amount and type of solvent mix with the fragrance oil dictates whether a perfume is considered a perfume extract, Eau de parfum, Eau de toilette, or Eau de Cologne. Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a lasting and pleasant smell. Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras. Miss Piggy: Moi. Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras. Elizabeth Taylor: Passion, White Diamonds.

        Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras. Britney Spears: Curious, Fantasy. 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. Sarah Jessica Parker: Lovely. 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro. Jennifer Lopez: JLo, Still, Live, Glow, Miami Glow. 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro. Beyoncé Knowles: True Star, True Star Gold.

        105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. Paris Hilton: Paris Hilton, Paris Hilton for Men, Just Me, Just Me for Men. 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. Alan Cumming: Cumming. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX. Cher: Uninhibited. 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX. David Beckham: Instinct.

        18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX. Many synthetics have very beautiful aromas not available in nature. 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX. There are many new synthetic aromas that bear no olfactory relationship to any natural material and yet modern perfumery depends on these new odours for the infinite variety of perfumes available today. 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX. Unless the essential oil is distilled from a certified organic origin. 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX. In the distillation of natural essential oils any biocides (including pesticides, herbicides, or fungicides) that have been applied while the plant is growing may be concentrated into the essential oil making the oil toxic.

        10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX. Synthetic aromatics make possible perfumes at reasonable prices. 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR. Perfume composed only of natural materials is more expensive. 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR. Many natural materials and essential oils contain the same chemicals used in perfumes that are classified as allergens, many of them at higher concentrations. 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF. These naturals have been replaced by safer synthetic materials.

        70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. Many natural aromatic materials are in fact inherently toxic and are either banned or restricted by IFRA. 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF. Tinctures are typically thin liquids. 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S. Tincture: Fragrant materials produced by directly soaking and infusing raw materials in ethanol. 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S. Pommades are found in the form of an oily and sticky solid.

        70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF. Pommade: A fragrant mass of solid fat created from the enfleurage process, in which odorous compounds in raw materials are adsorbed into animal fats. 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF. Oils extracted through expression are sometimes called expression oils. 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF. Essential oil: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from a source material directly through distillation or expression and obtained in the form of an oily liquid. 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF. Concretes are typically either waxy or resinous solids.

        28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF. As such concretes are usually further purified through distillation or ethanol based solvent extraction. 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF. Concretes usually contain a large amount of wax due to the ease in which the solvents dissolve various hydrophobic compounds. 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR. Concrete: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from raw materials through solvent extraction using volatile hydrocarbons. 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S. Absolutes are usually found in the form of an oily liquid.

        24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF. By using a slightly hydrophilic compound such as ethanol, most of the fragrant compounds from the waxy source materials can be extracted without dissolving any of the fragrantless waxy molecules. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX. Absolute: Fragrant materials that are purified from a pommade or concrete by soaking them in ethanol. 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF. This technique is not commonly used in the present day industry due to its prohibitive cost and the existence of more efficient and effective extraction methods. 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. Extraction by enfleurage was commonly used when distillation was not possible due to the fact that some fragrant compounds denature through high heat.

        500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. Enfleurage: Absorption of aroma materials into wax and then extracting the odorous oil with alcohol. 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. Of all raw materials, only the fragrant oils from the peels of fruits in the citrus family are extracted in this manner since the oil is present in large enough quantities as to make this extraction method economically feasible. 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S. Expression: Raw material is squeezed or compressed and the oils are collected. 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. This method is used to obtain fragrant compounds from fossil amber and fragrant woods where an intentional "burned" or "toasted" odour is desired.

        300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. Fragrant compounds that are released from the raw material by the high heat often undergo anhydrous pyrolysis, which results in the formation of different fragrant compounds, and thus different fragrant notes. 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR. Dry/destructive distillation: The raw materials are directly heated in a still without a carrier solvent such as water. 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF. This is most commonly used for fresh plant materials such as flowers, leaves, and stems. 135 mm f/2D AF DC. The water collected from the condensate, which retains some of the fragrant compounds and oils from the raw material is called hydrosol and sometimes sold.

        105 mm f/2D AF DC. This allows for the easy separation of the fragrant oils from the water. 85 mm f/1.8D AF. The condensate from distillation are settled in a Florentine flask. 85 mm f/1.4D AF. Steam distillation: Steam from boiling water is passed through the raw material, which drives out their volatile fragrant compounds. 50 mm f/1.8D AF. The raw material is heated and the fragrant compounds are re-collected through condensation of the distilled vapour.

          .

          50 mm f/1.4D AF. Distillation: A common technique for obtaining aromatic compounds from plants, such as orange blossoms and roses. 35 mm f/2D AF. Ethanol extraction is not used to extract fragrace from fresh plant materials since these contain large quantities of water, which will also be extracted into the ethanol. 28 mm f/2.8D AF. Ethanol extraction: A type of solvent extraction used to extract fragrant compounds directly from dry raw materials, as well as the impure oily compounds materials resulting from solvent extraction or enfluerage. 28 mm f/1.4D AF. Due to the low heat of process and the relatively unreactive solvent used in the extraction, the fragrant compounds derived often closely resemble the original odour of the raw material.

          24 mm f/2.8D AF. Supercritical fluid extraction: A relatively new technique for extracting fragrant compounds from a raw material, which often employ supercritical CO2. 20mm f/2.8D AF. The product of this process is call a "concrete".

            . 18 mm f/2.8D AF. Commonly used solvents for maceration/solvent extraction include hexane, and dimethyl ether. 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye. The technique can also be used to extract odorants that are too volatile for distillation or easily denatured by heat.

            14 mm f/2.8D ED AF. Fragrant compounds for woody and fibrous plant materials are often obtained in this matter as are all aromatics from animal sources. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S. Maceration lasts anywhere from hours to months. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. Raw materials are submerged in a solvent that can dissolve the desired aromatic compounds. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture. Maceration/Solvent extraction: The most commonly used and economically important technique for extracting aromatics in the modern perfume industry.

            AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. Symrise. DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh. Takasago. [6]. Quest International. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies. Firmenich.

            IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. Givaudan-Roure. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. International Flavors and Fragrances (IFF). Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. Honeycomb: Distilled from the honeycomb of the Honeybee. PC - Perspective Control. Ambergris is commonly referred as "amber" in perfumery and should not be confused with yellow amber, which is used in jewelry.

            Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor. Ambergris: Lumps of oxidized fatty compounds, whose precursors were secreted and expelled by the Sperm Whale. It has the same characteristics with the D lens. Castoreum: Obtained from the odorous sacs of the North American beaver. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. Civet: Also call Civet Musk, this is obtained from the odorous sacs of the civets, animals in the family Viverridae, related to the Mongoose. G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body. Musk: Originally derived from the musk sacs from the Asian musk deer, it has now been replaced by the use of synthetic musks due to its price and various ethical issues.

            The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject. Lichens: Commonly used lichen includes oakmoss and treemoss thalli. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. Some of what is called amber and copal in perfumery today is the resinous secretion of fossil conifers. Indicated after the f-stop number. Pine and fir resins are a particularly valued source of terpenes used in the organic synthesis of many other synthetic or naturally occurring aromatic compounds. D - Distance/Dimension. Commonly used resins in perfumery include labdanum, frankincense/olibanum, myrrh, Peru balsam, gum benzoin.

            Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera). Highly fragrant and antiseptic resins and resin-containing perfumes have been used by many cultures as medicines for a large variety of ailments. Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Resins: Valued since antiquity, resins have been widely used in incense and perfumery. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. The fragrant oil in sassafras root bark is also used either directly or purified for its main constituent, safrole, which is used in the synthesis of other fragrant compounds such as helional. VR - Vibration Reduction. Bark: Commonly used barks includes cinnamon and cascarilla.

            Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings. Commonly used woods include sandalwood, rosewood, agarwood, birch, cedar, juniper, and pine. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. Woods: Highly important in providing the base notes to a perfume, wood oils and distillates are indispensible in perfumery. DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. The most commonly used fruits yield their aromatics from the rind; they include citrus such as oranges, lemons, limes, and grapefruit. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing. Notable exceptions include litsea cubeba, vanilla, and juniper berry.

            IF - Internal Focus. Fruits: Fresh fruits such as apples, strawberries, cherries unfortunately do not yield the expected odors; if you find such fragrance notes in a perfume, they're synthetic. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced. Seeds: Commonly used seeds include tonka bean, coriander, caraway, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, cardamom, and anise. Reduces chromatic aberration. Roots, rhizomes and bulbs: Commonly used terrestrial portions in perfumery include iris rhizomes, vetiver roots, various rhizomes of the ginger family. ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass. Sometimes leaves are valued for the "green" smell they bring to perfumes, examples of this include hay and tomato leaf.

            Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996. Leaves and Twigs: Commonly used for perfumery are patchouli, sage, violets, rosemary, and citrus leaves. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. Orchid flowers are not commercially used to produce essential oils or absolutes. AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. Although not traditionally thought of as a flower, the unopened flower buds of the clove are also commonly used. First introduced in 1996. Includes the flowers of several species of rose and lavender, as well as jasmine, osmanthus, mimosa, tuberose, as well as the blossoms of citrus and ylang-ylang trees.

            Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. Flowers and Blossoms: Undoubtedly the largest source of aromatics. AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. 2001 : Nu by Yves Saint-Laurent (Jacques Cavallier). AF - Autofocus. 2001 : Coco Mademoiselle by Chanel (Jacques Polge). Nikon D2Hs. 1996 : Acqua di Gió Pour Homme by Giorgio Armani (Alberto Morillas).

            Nikon D2X. 1995 : Le Mâle by Jean-Paul Gaultier (Francis Kurkdjian). Nikon D2H. 1995 : Dolce Vita by Christian Dior (Pierre Bourdon and Maurice Roger). Nikon D70s. 1995 : CK One by Calvin Klein (Firmenich). Nikon D70. 1993 : Jean-Paul Gaultier by Jean-Paul Gaultier (Jacques Cavallier).

            Nikon D50. 1992 : Angel by Thierry Mugler (Olvier Cresp and Yves de Chiris). Nikon D200. 1990 : Trésor by Lancôme (Sophia Grosjman). Nikon D100. 1987 : Loulou by Cacharel (Jean Guichard). Nikon D1X. 1985 : Poison by Christian Dior (Jean Guichard).

            Nikon D1H. 1984 : Coco by Chanel (Jacques Polge). Nikon D1. 1983 : Paris by Yves Saint-Laurent (Sophia Grosjman). Nikon Coolpix series. 1981 : Nombre Noir by Shiseido (Serge Lutens, Jean-Yves Leroy). Nikonos line of underwater cameras. 1979 : Anaïs Anaïs by Cacharel (Roger Pellegrino).

            Nikon S3M (1960). 1978 : Magie Noire by Lancôme (PFW). Nikon S4 (1959). 1978 : Azzaro Pour Homme by Azzaro (Gérard Anthony, Martin Heiddenreich, Richard Wirtz). Nikon S3 (1958). 1977 : Opium by Yves Saint-Laurent (Jean-Louis Sieuzac). Nikon SP (1957). 1969 : Ô by Lancôme (Robert Gonnon).

            Nikon S2 (1954). 1966 : Eau sauvage by Christian Dior (Edmond Roudnitska). Nikon S (1951). 1959 : Cabochard by Parfums Grès (Bernard Chant). Nikon M (1949). 1959 : Monsieur by Givenchy. Nikon I (1948). 1956 : Diorissimo by Christian Dior (Edmond Roudnitska).

            Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]. 1948 : L'Air du temps by Nina Ricci (Francis Fabron). Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]. 1945 : Femme by Rochas (Edmond Roudnitska). Nikon F6. 1944 : Bandit by Robery Piguet (Germaine Cellier). Nikon F5. 1934 : Pour Un Homme by Caron (Ernest Daltroff).

            Nikon F4. 1930 : Joy by Jean Patou (Henri Alméras). Nikon F100. 1929 : Soir by Paris by Bourjois (Ernest Beaux). as the N80). 1927 : Arpège by Lanvin (André Fraysse). Nikon F80 (known in the U.S. 1925 : Shalimar by Guerlain (Jacques Guerlain).

            as the N75). 1921 : N°5 by Chanel (Ernest Beaux). Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. 1919 : Tabac Blond by Caron (Ernest Daltroff). as the N65). 1919 : Mitsouko by Guerlain (Jacques Guerlain). Nikon F65 (known in the U.S. 1917 : Chypre by François Coty (François Coty).

            as the N55). 1889 : Jicky by Guerlain (Aimé Guerlain). Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. 1714 : Eau de Cologne by Farina (Johann Maria Farina 1685-1766). as the N90s). Eau de cologne: 2-3% aromatic compounds. Nikon F90x (known in the U.S. Eau de toilette: 5-20% aromatic compounds.

            as the N90). Eau de parfum: 10-30% aromatic compounds. Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. Perfume extract: 20%-40% aromatic compounds. as the N8008s). Musk, vetiver and scents of plant resins are commonly used as base notes. Nikon F801S (known in the U.S. The compounds of this class of scents are typically rich and "deep" and are usually not perceived until 30 minutes after the application of the perfume or during the period of perfume dry-down.

            as the N8008). Compounds of this class are often the fixatives used to hold and boost the strength of the lighter top and heart notes. Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. Base notes bring depth and solidness to a perfume. as the N6006). The base and middle notes together are the main theme of a perfume. Nikon F601 (known in the U.S. Base notes: The scent of a perfume that appears after the departure of the top notes.

            Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020). Top notes and heart notes are sometimes described together as Head notes. as the N5005). Lavender and rose scents are typical heart notes. Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. Not surprisingly, the scent of heart note compounds is usually more mellow and "rounded." Scents from this note class appear anywhere from 2 minutes to 1 hour after the application of a perfume. as the N4004s). The heart note compounds form the "heart" or main body of a perfume and act to mask the often unpleasant initial impression of base notes, which become more pleasant with time.

            Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. Heart notes or Middle notes: The scent of a perfume that emerges after the top notes dissipate. as the N4004). Citrus and ginger scents are common top notes. Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. The scents of this note class are usually described as "fresh," "assertive" or "sharp." The compounds that contribute to top notes are strong in scent, very volatile, and evaporate quickly. as the N70). Because of this, they are very important in the selling of a perfume.

            Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. Top notes create the scents that form a person's initial impression of a perfume. as the N60). Top notes: Scents that are perceived immediately on application of a perfume. Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. Development of newer fragrance compounds has allowed for the creation of primarily citrus fragrances. as the N50). Citrus: An old fragrance family that until recently consisted mainly of "freshening" Eau de colognes due to the low tenacity of citrus scents.

            Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. Typically enhanced by camphorous oils and incense resins, which bring to mind Victorian era imagery of the Middle East and Far East. Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000). Orientals or ambers: A large fragrance class featuring the scents of vanilla and animal scents together with flowers and woods. Nikon EM. Patchouli, with its camphorous smell, is commonly found in perfumes of this fragrance family. Nikon EL2. Woody: Fragrances that are dominated by the woody scents, typically of sandalwood and cedar.

            Nikkorex series. Leather: A family of fragrances which features the scents honey, tobacco, wood, and wood tars in its middle or base notes and a scent that alludes to leather. Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat). Many men's fragrances belong to this family of fragrances, which is characterized by its sharp herbaceous and woody scent. Nikon F3 series. Fougère: Fragrances built on a base of lavender, coumarin and oakmoss. Nikon F2 series. Aldehydic perfumes have the characteristic "piquant" note produced by materials like Aldehyde C12 MNA.

            Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor). Others include Je Reviens and Arpege. Nikon FM2. Chanel No 5 was the first aldehydic perfume (created by the royal Russian perfumer Ernest Beaux in 1923). Nikon FM. Aldehydic: Fragrances that incorporate the family of chemicals known as aldehydes. Nikon FG20. This fragrance family is characterized by a scent reminiscent of apricot and custard.

            Nikon FG. Meaning Cyprus in French, the term alludes to where this base was inspired. Nikon FE2. This family of fragrances is named after a perfume by François Coty by the same name. Nikon FE. Chypre: Fragrances build on a similar base consisting of bergamot, jasmine and oakmoss. Nikon FA. When only one flower is used, it is called a soliflore (as in Dior's Diorissimo, with jasmine).

            Nikon FE10. Floral: Fragrances that are dominated by the scent of one or more types of flowers. Nikon FM10. Nikon FM3A. JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%).

            (1.8%). The Joyo Bank, Ltd. Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%). The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%).

            State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %). (2.7%). Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%).

            (3.3%). The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%). (8.5%).

            The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd.

11-22-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List