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Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies.
The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon.
Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below).
Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus.
Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays.
In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments.
In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. 
Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731.
(As of September 2004)
The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group
Partial list of Nikon productsThis list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
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In January 2006 Nikon announced  that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. 
Film 35 mm SLR cameras without autofocus
Film 35 mm SLR cameras with autofocus
Film APS SLR cameras
Rangefinder camerasNikon F5 Nikon F6 Nikon D70
Digital compact cameras
Digital SLR cameras
Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon."
Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). These help consumers know what features the lens has. Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each.
AF Prime lenses
Consumer AF zoom lenses
Professional AF zoom lenses
DX (Digital APS-C sized sensor cameras only) Lenses
Micro AF Lenses (also known as Macro)
Currently Produced Manual Focus Lenses
Lenses for other camera models
Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. Models offered include:
This page about Nikon includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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Models offered include:. Note also that some styles may no longer be practiced. Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. In this context, the ordering may not be totally accurate as some historical and current boundaries do not coincide.
Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each. These "ninja looters" loot items swiftly and with minimal attention being drawn to themselves (hence the name) and are generally shunned by other characters for their nefarious deeds. These help consumers know what features the lens has. The word ninja is also used colloquially in multiplayer online role-playing games's (MMORPG) to describe a player who unfairly takes items from the corpses of dead enemies without allowing other players a chance to take the equipment. Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). The ninja class had the abilities of a Thief as well as the ability to use Fighter and some Samurai weapons, but the ninja characters also had the ability to snap enemy necks and dodge physical attacks outright, abilities that were hampered by equipping any weapons or armor, respectively. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon.". The Wizardry series also included ninja characters.
Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. Shadow, Edge, and Yuffie Kisaragi are the only dedicated ninja characters in the series.
In January 2006 Nikon announced  that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. The games' developer, Activision, used Sho Koshugi and his son, Kane Koshugi, as ninjutsuka references, claiming that Tenchu was the most realistic ninja series. The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group. The Tenchu series of games on the PlayStation, PS2, and Xbox also feature ninja characters. (As of September 2004). Mortal Kombat, one of the most popular fighting games ever created, included several ninja-like characters with supernatural powers which seem to have been exaggerated from ninjutsu-related techniques or literature. Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731. In the Nintendo Entertainment System and Xbox games titled Ninja Gaiden, the player takes the role of Ryu Hayabusa, a ninja whose clan has been savagely murdered.
. One of the most succesful games ever on the Commodore 64 computer was The Last Ninja. . In fighting games, ninja are typically quick to strike but lacking in power or defense. In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. The massive popularity of the ninja characters completely overtook the more conventional army characters, and creator Larry Hama was pressured by Hasbro to create more ninja for the series. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments. Joe, a traditional American series of military action figures, was relaunched in the 1980s, the collection included a few ninja characters such as Snake Eyes, a Vietnam war veteran who studied the ninja arts after the death of his family.
In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. When G.I. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. Perhaps the first cinematic mixing of two martial arts 'worlds' occurs in the Hong Kong movie "Ninja in the Dragon's Den" a young Ninja flees to China - both to evade the revenge of the clan he's betrayed and to seek one of the men he believes responsible for his father's death - and encounters a young Kung fu fighter in combat. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. The James Bond novel and movie You Only Live Twice both depicted ninja. In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. In the movie Batman Begins (2005), Bruce Wayne also receives ninja training.
Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays. The Ninja (1980) series of thriller books by Eric Van Lustbader features a half-Japanese, half-Caucasian character who received ninjutsu training in his youth. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. The idea of a Westerner being granted entry to the secret ranks of the ninja has long been a subject of fascination for Western writers. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. Western popular culture generally depicts the ninja as supremely well-trained martial artists and assassins, clad in a head-to-toe black or dark blue suit, using many kinds of exotic equipment and skills to accomplish their missions. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. Several american ninja movies starring Sho Kosugi were released in the 1980s as well.
Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. The series introduced the ninja concept to Australian audiences and the ninja soon became a cult favourite, with children dressing up as ninjas and making their own toy ninja weapons, notably the shuriken or "throwing stars". Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. It was the first Japanese TV show ever broadcast there, and The Samurai rapidly became one of most popular programs ever screened on Australian TV, gaining a huge audience among pre-teen children; its success even led to star Ose Koichi and a troupe of performers touring there in a specially-produced show in 1966. Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus. Although only seen in Japan and a few other countries, the series was notably screened in Australia in 1964-65. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below). Ninja-based films and books became a popular culture craze in Japan during the 1950s and early 1960s and as a result a TV series called The Samurai was created in 1962 to cash in on the fad.
Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Fukuro no Shiro was made into a hit movie, as was Shinobi no Mono. The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon. The Japanese novelist, Ryotaro Shiba wrote a novel and a collection of short stories, based on ninja, Fukuro no Shiro and Saigo no Igamono. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies. The series keeps historical truths, such as weaponry, but allows itself many artistic liberaties. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Ninja have long been a popular subject in tokusatsu, anime and manga, such as the manga/anime series Naruto.
It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. Depictions range from realistic to the fantastically exaggerated. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. Ninja appear in both Japanese and Western fiction. Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. At least one ninja was recorded to have faked his own death so people would think he was a ghost and therefore immortal. Nikon mailing list. The ninja often encouraged rumors to make people believe they had magical powers.
Photosapien Photography Forum. These myths were caused by the secretive nature of ninja, and confusion with Tengu and yamabushi. Nikonians - see also Nikonian. Their special abilities are also often exaggerated, such as becoming invisible, turning into animals, jumping over buildings, and the ability to fly and foresee the future. Fansites and forums:
Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com. There was always the possibility that weapons would need to be disposed of if something went wrong, so expensive swords were naturally poor choices. Nikon Historical Society. On assassination missions, ninja were more likely to use cheaper weapons. Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile. Ninja practiced a variant of jujutsu and kenjutsu that could be summed up as ninjutsu.. Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves. Karate, judo, kendo, and most other martial arts were never practiced as well, as they were mostly formalized in late Edo period to Meiji period.
USA website. One known tool used by ninja is irogome (literally, "colored rice"). Nikon Corp. Many ninja tools were everyday tools that would not be conspicuous even when confiscated. website. Secrets of making desirable mixes of gunpowder were strictly guarded in many ninja clans. Nikon Corp. Even land mines were constructed that used a mechanical fuse or a lit, oil-soaked string.
SB-23,. These suizen melodies tended to be very difficult to outsiders of the sect. SB-22s,. There were even short pieces that were supposed to be played by one komusō greeting another. SB-24,. Many government agents and ninja disguised themselves as komusō, since one could travel about in complete anonymity and gather information. SB-29s,. Some ninjas were said to have disguised themselves as Fuke monks and used the traditional flute of the zen sect, the Shakuhachi, as a powerful blunt weapon.
SB-30,. Occasionally, makibishi would be loaded with gunpowder to explode upon impact, further damaging a pursuer's foot. SB-50DX,. It could be thrown on the ground to injure a pursuer's feet or thrown out on an enemy's escape path so that the targets could be cut down or shot down with bows and arrows while they looked for another escape route, but it could also be covered with poison so the victim would die slowly. SB-80DX,. The makibishi, a type of caltrop made of iron spikes, is also famous. R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),. It was the equivelent of a utility knife, often used to pry or cut rather than fight.
R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,. Kunai (a gardening tool) were also a popular weapon as they could be hidden easily or carried if the ninja was disguised as a gardener. SB-R200 (remote flash),. Ninja allegedly used several special weapons against their enemies, the shuriken (throwing blades) and handclaws (shuko, tekagi) probably being the most famous. SU-800 (slave trigger),. Thus, these spies and assassins were far more likely to be disguised as samurai, priests, or peasants or when situation dictates, dark green, blue or dark red outfit which offers better camouflage to its surroundings. SB-600,. This would only result in capture, torture, and probably a very slow and painful execution.
SB-800,. Another idea supporting the absence of a ninja outfit and any specific weaponry is that, if caught or seen, they would have been identified as enemies. Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera. The audience would obviously see the prop handlers but would pretend they were invisible. Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras. Prop handlers would dress in black and move props around. Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras. The classic black ninja outfit (shinobi shokuzu) is said to have come from the Noh theater.
Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras. Contrary to popular belief, there is no evidence that the ninjas dressed in all black suits. 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. Disguises were selected on the basis of their unobtrusiveness in a given environment. 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro. He would be called nukenin (抜け忍) and his family members would be tasked to bring him back, dead or alive. 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro. Stories say that the most severe crime was leaving a ninja family without authorization, with no intention of returning.
105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. Ninja were said to have had many rules, and the most important rule was of keeping the secret of ninja themselves and of the daimyo who gave them the order. 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. Ninja are said to have actively encouraged such superstitions about their abilities to inspire fear in potential enemies. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX. The nimpō (忍法), literally "methods of ninja", refers to various skills used by ninja, but mostly supernatural and fictional. 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX. They were sometimes depicted as experienced prostitutes who learned the secrets of an enemy by seduction.
18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX. A female ninja may be called kunoichi (くノ一); the characters are supposedly derived from the strokes that make up the kanji for woman (女). 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX. While ninja are often depicted as male, females were supposedly ninja as well. 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX. Other groups may have been structured more like an army and the leader may instead have been called shō or "general". 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX. Some ninja groups would be smaller and may have been less structured.
10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX. Upon receiving a mission from daimyō, the jōnin would use the chūnin to select necessary personnel from among the genin. 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR. Under chūnin would be several genin (下忍, "low ninja"). 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR. Under jōnin would be several chūnin (中忍, "middle ninja"). 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF. A ninja organization was said to be headed by a jōnin (上忍), literally "high ninja".
70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. He claimed that he was the last master of Koga ryu Ninjutsu and that his grandfather had trained him. 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF. A Japanese young man in the 1900s named Fujita Seiko demonstrated extraordinary feats like walking on glass and walking on his hands. 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S. In the 1900s, the Yamabushi monks knew some ancient secrets and were believed to be ninjas. 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S. Ninjas were not known for holding a high code of honour.
70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF. The latter is more likely as there are records of samurai who knew Ninjutsu although this contradicts the traditional code of honour. 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF. Others say the Ninja were an elite group of Samurai trained for Assassination and spying missions. 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF. Some say ninja were a tribe of assassins below the samurai caste. 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF. One of the lesser known contributions made by ninja is their involvement in furthering the research of fireworks as a result of their development of pyrotechnic weaponry.
28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF. Ninja did not correct these misconceptions and some may have even written these stories themselves to increase their value should their services be needed. 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF. Many mythical ninja powers such as becoming invisible, jumping over tall fences, casting spells and calling up a giant toad larger than a human were all invented in these fictitious accounts of ninja. 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR. In the Edo period, ninja became popular heroes in books and plays. 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S. The peace of the Edo period continued for over 200 years.
24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF. Yet the stories go that most knowledge was still passed on through oral tradition and training, as most ninja believed that their services would soon be needed again. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX. A purported ninja master Fujibayashi Sabuji wrote Bansenshukai (万川集海) as a collection of ninja knowledge. 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF. Some were said to have become Oniwabanshū, a semi-secret group of bodyguards and intelligence officers who worked tending gardens of the Edo castle and eavesdropping on the daimyō. 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. As the shogunate became stable, ninja were effectively unemployed.
500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. The last battle where ninja reportedly fought is in the Siege of Shimabara under the Tokugawa shogunate. 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. In his dramatic escape through the mountainous landscape of Nara after Oda's assassination, Iga ninja led by Hattori Hanzō allegedly helped Ieyasu escape, gaining his favor. 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S. Tokugawa Ieyasu was claimed to have used ninja, controlling both Iga and Koga in unifying Japan and ultimately rising to the rank of Shogun. 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. Ten heroes under Sanada, in tales where they used ninja skills to defeat everything but their jealous wives (who were, of course, ninja themselves).
300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. Later, they would come to be called Sanada Jū Yushi, lit. 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR. Their tactics, which are said to have included splitting their house in two, one each supporting Toyotomi and Tokugawa in order to survive no matter which side finally won, has been the subject of much legendary discussion. 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF. This is attributed to the successful defense of their castle with approximately 3,000 soldiers against an overwhelming force of 50,000 led by Tokugawa Hidetada. 135 mm f/2D AF DC. The clan of Sanada, the most famous member being Sanada Yukimura, was reportedly a ninja clan.
105 mm f/2D AF DC. Some daimyō were reportedly ninja themselves. 85 mm f/1.8D AF. Almost all famous daimyō are said by modern ninja schools to have had ninja, or a ninja-like group under his control and they served as eyes and ears. 85 mm f/1.4D AF. In the Sengoku Period, also known as the Warring States period, ninja supposedly flourished. 50 mm f/1.8D AF. It would be well into the Edo period that bushido was finally formalized.
50 mm f/1.4D AF. Somewhere in these time periods, bushido began to form as the proper and honorable way a samurai must follow. 35 mm f/2D AF. Both of these times were generally peaceful, and many battles had tournament-like aspects that prevented surprise attacks. 28 mm f/2.8D AF. From the Muromachi period there are even fewer records. 28 mm f/1.4D AF. Kusunoki Masashige used tactics against enemies that remotely resemble ninja tactics.
24 mm f/2.8D AF. Only a few records remain from the Kamakura period. 20mm f/2.8D AF. Both of these claim that they originated in the Heian period. 18 mm f/2.8D AF. Some also say that they were allies and worked together in mutual defense pacts. 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye. Iga and Kōga are two of the most famous ninja styles, and are often pitted against each other in fiction.
14 mm f/2.8D ED AF. One of the earliest roots of ninja, Togakure Ryū, reportedly originated in the late Heian Period. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S. He is said in a popular folktale to have been educated by a tengu to learn tactics and became a ninja. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. Historical examples of ninja are said to include Minamoto no Yoshitsune, who employed surprise as a major weapon in his victories. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture. Because ninja rarely left anything in writing or boasted of their achievements, the history of the ninja is mostly apocryphal and blatantly legendary, so the great majority of stories circulating about them are difficult to prove.
AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. Mono (者, likewise pronounced sha or ja) means "person." The nin of ninjutsu is the same as that in ninja, whereas jutsu (術) means skill or art, so ninjutsu means "the skill of going unperceived" or "the art of stealth"; hence, ninja and shinobi-no-mono (as well as shinobi) may be translated as "one skilled in the art of stealth." Similarly, the pre-war word ninjutsu-zukai means "one who uses the art of remaining unperceived.". DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh. The underlying connotation of shinobi (忍, pronounced nin in Sino-Japanese compounds) is "to do quietly" or "to do so as not to be perceived by others" and—by extension—"to forebear," hence its association with stealth and invisibility. . The word shinobi itself, written phonetically with the kanji 志能備, has been traced as far back as Japan's Asuka period, when Prince Shotoku is alleged to have employed one of his retainers as a ninja. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies. Ninja and shinobi-no-mono, along with shinobi, another variant, became popular in the post-World War II period through the works of authors like Tomoyoshi Murayama, Sampei Shirato, and Ryotaro Shiba; before the war, the expressions ninjutsu-zukai and yōjutsu-zukai were more common.
IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. Ninja is a Sino-Japanese compound derived from the two kanji (Japanese characters of Chinese origin) used to write shinobi-no-mono (忍の者), one of the native Japanese words for people who practice ninjutsu (sometimes erroneously called ninjitsu). These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. . Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. For references to ninja in popular Western culture, including film and comic appearances and the recent spate of websites devoted to neo-ninja and other ninja-centric parody, see Ninja in fiction, below. PC - Perspective Control. The shikoro ken supposedly could also be used to cut (or saw) through opponents.
Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor. The shikoro ken was said to be used to gain entry into fortresses. It has the same characteristics with the D lens. Another version of the ninja sword was the shikoro ken (saw sword). Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. The ninja-to was more of a utilitarian tool than a weapon. G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body. Ninja-ken are smaller than katana but larger than wakizashi.
The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject. In popular folklore, ninja also used special short swords called ninja-ken (or ninja-to see below for explanation). It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. Weapons commonly attributed to them included shuriken and bo. Indicated after the f-stop number. Ninja are said to have made use of weapons that could be easily concealed or disguised as common tools. D - Distance/Dimension. Outside of the modern schools teaching ninjutsu, there is little verifiable evidence that ninja existed as such in feudal times, at least in the form known from modern movies, videogaming and popular fiction.
Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera). It is popularly believed that the ancient ninja were peasants, forbidden under law from studying the samurai swordplay techniques because of feudal Japan's caste structure. Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Some modern practitioners of budo ninjutsu argue that ninja were used primarily as spies, not assassins. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. Ninja (忍者) were said to be agents of espionage and assassination in feudal Japan in legend and popular fiction. VR - Vibration Reduction. Yamanashi - Takeda-ryū, Ninkō-ryū.
Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings. Yamagata - Haguro-ryū. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. Wakayama - Kishu-ryū, Negoro-ryū, Saika-ryū. DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. Toyama - Echizen-ryū. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing. Tokyo (Akihabara) - Akiba-ryū.
IF - Internal Focus. Tochigi - Matsumoto-ryū. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced. Shimane - Fukushima-ryū. Reduces chromatic aberration. Shiga - Tarao-ryū, Rigyoku-ryū, Kōga-ryū. ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass. Okayama - Bizen-ryū.
Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996. Niigata - Uesugi-ryū, Kaji-ryū. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. Nara - Kusunoki-ryū. AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. Nagasaki - Nanban-ryū (see also the Nanban period). First introduced in 1996. Nagano - Kōyō-ryū, Togakure-ryū, Aoki-ryū, Itō-ryū, Akutagawa-ryū.
Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. Mie - Hattori-ryū, Momochi-ryū, Togakure-ryū, Iga-ryū. AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. Kyōto - Hatano-ryū. AF - Autofocus. Kanagawa - Fuma-ninpō. Nikon D2Hs. Kagoshima - Satsuma-ninpō.
Nikon D2X. Ibaraki - Matsuda-ryū. Nikon D2H. Gifu - Mino-ryū. Nikon D70s. Fukuoka - Kuroda-ryū. Nikon D70. Aomori - Nakagawa-ryū.
Nikon D50. Aichi - Matsuba-ryū, Ichizen-ryū. Nikon D200. Nikon D100. Nikon D1X.
Nikon D1H. Nikon D1. Nikon Coolpix series. Nikonos line of underwater cameras.
Nikon S3M (1960). Nikon S4 (1959). Nikon S3 (1958). Nikon SP (1957).
Nikon S2 (1954). Nikon S (1951). Nikon M (1949). Nikon I (1948).
Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) . Nikon Pronea S (1997) . Nikon F6. Nikon F5.
Nikon F4. Nikon F100. as the N80). Nikon F80 (known in the U.S.
as the N75). Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N65). Nikon F65 (known in the U.S.
as the N55). Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N90s). Nikon F90x (known in the U.S.
as the N90). Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N8008s). Nikon F801S (known in the U.S.
as the N8008). Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N6006). Nikon F601 (known in the U.S.
Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020). as the N5005). Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N4004s).
Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004). Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N70).
Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N60). Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N50).
Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000). Nikon EM. Nikon EL2.
Nikkorex series. Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat). Nikon F3 series. Nikon F2 series.
Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor). Nikon FM2. Nikon FM. Nikon FG20.
Nikon FG. Nikon FE2. Nikon FE. Nikon FA.
Nikon FE10. Nikon FM10. Nikon FM3A. JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%).
(1.8%). The Joyo Bank, Ltd. Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%). The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%).
State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %). (2.7%). Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%).
(3.3%). The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%). (8.5%).
The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd.