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Nikon Corporation

Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies.

The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon.

Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below).

Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus.

Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays.

In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments.

In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. [1]

Shareholders

Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731.

(As of September 2004)

  • The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd. (8.5%)
  • Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%)
  • The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. (3.3%)
  • Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%)
  • Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. (2.7%)
  • State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %)
  • The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%)
  • Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%)
  • The Joyo Bank, Ltd. (1.8%)
  • JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%)

Holdings

The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group

Partial list of Nikon products

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Cameras

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Nikon cameras

In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. [3]

Film 35 mm SLR cameras without autofocus

  • Nikon FM3A
  • Nikon FM10
  • Nikon FE10
  • Nikon FA
  • Nikon FE
  • Nikon FE2
  • Nikon FG
  • Nikon FG20
  • Nikon FM
  • Nikon FM2
  • Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor)
  • Nikon F2 series
  • Nikon F3 series
  • Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat)
  • Nikkorex series
  • Nikon EL2
  • Nikon EM
  • Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000)

Film 35 mm SLR cameras with autofocus

  • Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. as the N50)
  • Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N60)
  • Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N70)
  • Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N4004)
  • Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004s)
  • Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N5005)
  • Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020)
  • Nikon F601 (known in the U.S. as the N6006)
  • Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N8008)
  • Nikon F801S (known in the U.S. as the N8008s)
  • Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N90)
  • Nikon F90x (known in the U.S. as the N90s)
  • Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N55)
  • Nikon F65 (known in the U.S. as the N65)
  • Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N75)
  • Nikon F80 (known in the U.S. as the N80)
  • Nikon F100
  • Nikon F4
  • Nikon F5
  • Nikon F6


Film APS SLR cameras

  • Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]
  • Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]

Rangefinder cameras

Nikon F5 Nikon F6 Nikon D70
  • Nikon I (1948)
  • Nikon M (1949)
  • Nikon S (1951)
  • Nikon S2 (1954)
  • Nikon SP (1957)
  • Nikon S3 (1958)
  • Nikon S4 (1959)
  • Nikon S3M (1960)
  • Nikonos line of underwater cameras

Digital compact cameras

  • Nikon Coolpix series

Digital SLR cameras

  • Nikon D1
  • Nikon D1H
  • Nikon D1X
  • Nikon D100
  • Nikon D200
  • Nikon D50
  • Nikon D70
  • Nikon D70s
  • Nikon D2H
  • Nikon D2X
  • Nikon D2Hs

Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon."

Lenses

Lens acronyms

Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). These help consumers know what features the lens has. Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each.

  • AF - Autofocus.
  • AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. First introduced in 1996.
  • AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996.
  • ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass. Reduces chromatic aberration. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced.
  • IF - Internal Focus. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing.
  • DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings.
  • VR - Vibration Reduction. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera).
  • D - Distance/Dimension. Indicated after the f-stop number. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject.
  • G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. It has the same characteristics with the D lens.
  • Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor.
  • PC - Perspective Control. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor.
  • IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies. [6]
  • DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh.
  • AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S.

AF Prime lenses

  • 14 mm f/2.8D ED AF
  • 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye
  • 18 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 20mm f/2.8D AF
  • 24 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 28 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 28 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 35 mm f/2D AF
  • 50 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 50 mm f/1.8D AF
  • 85 mm f/1.4D AF
  • 85 mm f/1.8D AF
  • 105 mm f/2D AF DC
  • 135 mm f/2D AF DC
  • 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF
  • 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S
  • 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II
  • 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II

Consumer AF zoom lenses

  • 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF
  • 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX
  • 24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF
  • 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S
  • 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF
  • 28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF
  • 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF
  • 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF
  • 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF
  • 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF

Professional AF zoom lenses

  • 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S
  • 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S
  • 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF
  • 70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR
  • 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF
  • 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR
  • 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR


DX (Digital APS-C sized sensor cameras only) Lenses

  • 10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX
  • 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX
  • 18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX
  • 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX
  • 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX

Micro AF Lenses (also known as Macro)

  • 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro
  • 105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro
  • 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro
  • 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro


Currently Produced Manual Focus Lenses

  • 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor

Lenses for other camera models

  • Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras
  • Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras
  • Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras
  • Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera

Flash guns

Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. Models offered include:

  • SB-800,
  • SB-600,
  • SU-800 (slave trigger),
  • SB-R200 (remote flash),
  • R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,
  • R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),
  • SB-80DX,
  • SB-50DX,
  • SB-30,
  • SB-29s,
  • SB-24,
  • SB-22s,
  • SB-23,
  • SB-27,
  • SB-16B, and
  • SB-16A.

External links

  • Official websites:
    • Nikon Corp. website
    • Nikon Corp. USA website
    • Nikon Precision Inc. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website
    • NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French
  • Data:
    • Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves
    • Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile
    • Nikon Historical Society
    • Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com
    • Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History
  • Fansites and forums:
    • Nikonians - see also Nikonian
    • Photosapien Photography Forum
    • Nikon mailing list

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Models offered include:. But the N64 guaranteed the second place in the market, easily outselling the Sega Saturn (10 million). Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. With 32 million Nintendo 64 units sold worldwide [2], Nintendo was unsuccessful in recapturing the preceding SNES's market share and the fifth generation was taken over by the PlayStation which had sold over 100 million units worldwide.
. Backup/development units:.
. If the chip did not match the game's boot code, the game would not run.

Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each. To discourage playing of copied games by piggybacking a real cartridge, Nintendo produced five different versions of the chip. These help consumers know what features the lens has. Unlike previous versions, the N64 lockout chip contains a seed value which is used to calculate a checksum of the game's boot code. Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). Each Nintendo 64 cartridge contains a so-called lockout chip to prevent manufacturers from creating unauthorized copies of the games. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon.". Naboo enjoyed an impressive draw distance and large amounts of snow and rain even with the high resolution, thanks to their efforts.

Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. Then for Naboo they took what they learned from Rogue and pushed the machine even farther to make the game run at 640x480, and implement enhancements for both particles and the landscape engine.
. In Rogue Squadron the team tweaked the microcode for a landscape engine to create the alien worlds. [3]. Factor 5 also showed ingenuity with their Star Wars games, Rogue Squadron and Battle for Naboo, where their team again used custom microcode. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases. In the end, the game was more feature filled than the PC version (quite a feat) and was one of the most advanced games for Nintendo 64.

In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. Factor 5's microcode allowed almost unlimited realtime lighting, and significantly boosted the polygon count. The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group. They wrote microcode for realtime lighting, because the SGI code was poor for this task, and they wanted to have more lighting than even the PC version had used. (As of September 2004). They took advantage of the cartridge as a texture streaming source to squeeze as much detail into each environment, and work around RAM limitations. Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731. The tool would analyze each texture and try to choose the best texture format to work with the machine and look as good as possible.

. To work around the 4KB texture cache the programmers came up with custom texture formats and tools to help the artists make the best possible textures. [1]. For starters, the Z-buffer could not be used because it alone used up a huge amount of the console's texture fillrate. In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. The machine was taxed to the limit running at 640x480 though, so they absolutely needed to scrape every last bit of performance they could out of N64. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments. In this game the Factor 5 team decided they wanted the game to run in high resolution mode (640x480) because of how much they liked the crispness it added.

In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. One of the best examples of rewritten µcode on N64 was with Factor 5's Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine. Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. It was, however, far more difficult to program for and to reach peak performance/quality. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Still, with these drawbacks to the hardware, the machine was architecturally superior in nearly every way to the PlayStation. In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. There was no memory prefetch or read under write functionality either.

Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays. The R4300 CPU was the worst off component because it had to go through the RCP to access main memory, and could not use DMA (the RCP could) to do so, so its RAM access performance was quite poor. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Game developers also said that the N64's memory controller setup was fairly poor, and this magnified the situation somewhat. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. A high latency memory subsystem creates delays in how fast the processors can get the data they need, and how fast they can alter this data. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military. The RDRAM was incredibly high latency memory (640 ns read) and this mostly cancelled out its high bandwidth advantage.

Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. The unified memory subsystem of Nintendo 64 was another critical weakness for the machine. Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. This game also used custom microcode to improve the RSP's capabilities. Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus. In fact, World Driver Championship was one of the most polygon-loaded N64 games and frequently would push past Sony Playstation's typical in-game polygon counts. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below). Most Nintendo 64 games were actually fillrate limited, not geometry limited, which is ironic considering the great concern for N64's low ~100,000 polygon per second rating during its time.

Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Z-Buffering significantly crippled the RDP's fillrate so managing the Z-depth of objects, so things would appear in the right order and not on top of each other, was put on the programmer instead of the hardware to get maximum speed. The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon. There were other challenges for developers to work around. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies. Conker's Bad Fur Day is possibly the best example of this ingenuity. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees. Creative developers towards the end of N64's lifetime managed to use tricks such as multi-layered texturing and heavily clamped small texture pieces to simulate larger textures.

It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. To put this in perspective, this cache could be quickly filled with even small textures (a 64x64 4-bit/pixel texture is 2KB and a 128x64 4-bit/pixel texture is 4KB). Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. To make matters worse, because of how the renderer was designed, if mip mapping was used the texture cache was effectively halved to 2KB. Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. This was the primary cause of N64's blurry texturing, secondary to the blurring caused by the trilinear filtering and limited ROM storage. Nikon mailing list. This made it extremely difficult to load large textures into the rendering engine, especially textures with high color depth.

Photosapien Photography Forum. One major flaw was the limited texture cache of 4KB. Nikonians - see also Nikonian. The Nintendo 64 had some glaring weaknesses that were caused by a combination of oversight on the part of the hardware designers, limitations on 3D technology of the time, and manufacturing capabilities. Fansites and forums:

    . Two of the SGI microcodes. Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History. Factor 5, Boss Game Studios, and Rare).

    Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com. Several companies were able to create custom microcode programs that ran their software far better than SGI's generic software (i.e. Nikon Historical Society. Some developers noted that the default SGI microcode ("Fast3D") was actually quite poorly profiled for use in games (it was too accurate), and performance suffered as a result. Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile. As a result, it was extremely easy to make mistakes that would be very hard to track down; mistakes that could cause seemingly random bugs or glitches. Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves. Programming RSP microcode was said to be quite difficult because the N64 µcode tools were very basic, with no debugger, and poor documentation.

    Data:

      . However, Nintendo was quite unwilling to share the microcode tools with developers until the end of N64's lifecycle when they shared this information with a select number of companies. NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French. By altering the microcode run on the device it can perform different operations, create new effects, be better tuned for speed or quality, among other possibilities. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website. The RSP is completely programmable, through microcode (µcode). Nikon Precision Inc. This created a fascinating system that was quite flexible and moldable to the game's needs, but it also assumed the programmer would be able to properly profile the code to optimize usage of each part of the machine.

      USA website. Workload on N64 could be arranged almost in any way the programmer saw fit. Nikon Corp. It was relatively common to do audio on the main CPU to increase the graphics performance. website. Nintendo 64 was one of the few consoles without a dedicated audio chip so these tasks fell on the RSP and/or CPU. Nikon Corp. In a typical N64 game the RSP would do transforms, lighting, clipping, triangle setup, and some of the audio decoding.

      Official websites:

        . The RSP was the transform portion of the RCP, although it was really just a DSP, similar to a MIPS R4000 core, designed to work with 8-bit integer vector operations. SB-16A. The RDP component basically just read a FIFO buffer and rasterized polygons. SB-16B, and. The CPU was primarily used for game logic, such as input management, some audio, and AI, while the RCP did everything else. SB-27,. The Nintendo Revolution uses "12cm discs" for storage, which are just encrypted DVDs, thus making it the first Nintendo console to use a standardized storage format.

        SB-23,. In 2001, the Nintendo 64 was replaced by the disc-based Nintendo GameCube, although even with this system they refused to use mainstream CD/DVD technology, opting for the DVD-based but incompatible GameCube Optical Disc. SB-22s,. The N64 also secured its share of the mature audience thanks to GoldenEye 007, Resident Evil 2, Shadow Man, Doom 64 and Quake II. SB-24,. Much of this success was credited to Nintendo's strong first-party franchises, such as Mario and Zelda, which had strong name brand appeal yet appeared exclusively on Nintendo platforms. SB-29s,. N64 took second place for its generation of consoles while the PlayStation finished first, with 40% and 51% of the market respectively.

        SB-30,. Despite the controversies, the N64 still managed to support many popular games, giving it a long life run. SB-50DX,. While most PlayStation games rarely exceeded $50, N64 titles could reach $80. SB-80DX,. Publishers had to pass these higher expenses to the consumer so N64 games tended to sell for slightly higher prices than PlayStation games did. R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),. The cost of producing an N64 cartridge was far higher than producing a CD: one gaming magazine at the time cited average costs of twenty-five dollars per cartridge, versus 10 cents per CD.

        R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,. This incident provided a highly-publicized denunciation of Nintendo's cartridge-based system which caused negative publicity for Nintendo. SB-R200 (remote flash),. Despite the fact that all six previous Final Fantasy games had been published on Nintendo systems, the series' producer, Squaresoft, chose to release Final Fantasy VII on the Sony PlayStation. SU-800 (slave trigger),. disc debate came to an infamous climax during the release of Final Fantasy VII. SB-600,. The cartridge vs.

        SB-800,. As a result many game developers which had traditionally supported Nintendo game consoles were now developing games for the competition because of the higher profit margins found on CD based platforms. Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera. These discs are much cheaper to manufacture and distribute, resulting in lower costs to third party game publishers. Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras. At that time, competing systems from Sony and Sega (the PlayStation and Saturn, respectively) were using CD-ROM discs to store their games. Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras. Later cartridges such as Resident Evil 2 featured more ROM space, which demonstrated that N64 was capable of detailed in-game graphics when the media permitted, but this performance came late in the console war and at a high price.

        Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras. While N64 games generally had higher polygon counts, the limited storage size of ROM carts limited the amount of available textures, resulting in games which had a plain and flat-shaded look. 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. Graphically, benefits of the Nintendo cartridge system were mixed. 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro. Nintendo later approached the Dutch electronics giant Philips to develop a Super NES CD-ROM drive, but that deal also went nowhere. 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro. Nintendo sued Sony over the PlayStation name, although they later settled.

        105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. Sony reportedly kept the name for their later 32-bit system to spite Nintendo. 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. In addition to the CD-ROM add on, Sony would release a combination Super NES/CD-ROM system in one unit, which would have been called the PlayStation. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX. Nintendo later backed out of the contract due to Sony's insistence that they would receive all licensing revenue for games released on CD-ROM. 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX. While Nintendo chose the cartridge format for the N64, the company originally signed a contract with Sony in 1988 to develop a CD-ROM drive add-on for the SNES.

        18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX. Nintendo's choice had several advantages:. 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX. The Nintendo 64 was the last mainstream home video game console to use ROM cartridges to store its games. 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX. In G4's recent 'Top 10 Games Consoles' feature, the Nintendo 64 was voted number one against other consoles. 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX.
        The last Nintendo 64 game to be released in the United States was Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 3 on August 20, 2002 while Mario Party 3 released on 16 November 2001 was the last title Europe would see.

        10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX. Some of their more popular titles include:. 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR. Apart from Nintendo's own in-house development, Rareware produced a steady stream of titles for the N64. 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR. Super Mario 64 is still considered to have set the standard for 3D platform games and is considered by many to be one of the greatest games ever published. 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF. Some of Nintendo's most notable games for the N64 are:.

        70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. The early N64 development system was an SGI Indy equipped with an add-on board that contained a full N64 system. 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF. The system was designed by Silicon Graphics Inc., and features their trademark dithered 32-bit graphics. 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S. Regardless, the Nintendo 64 was the first popular system to have these features. 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S. The Vectrex in fact had introduced analog joysticks, while the first to feature four controller ports was the Bally Astrocade.

        70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF. The first game console to bill itself as "64-bit" was actually the Atari Jaguar (although the truth of this is disputed, as the Jaguar merely had two 32-bit processors- albeit its graphics processor was 64-bit). 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF. Nintendo touted many of the system's more unusual features as groundbreaking and innovative, but many of these features had in fact been implemented before. 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF. Killer Instinct was the most advanced game of its time graphically, featuring pre-rendered movie backgrounds which were streamed off the hard drive and animated as the characters moved horizontally. 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF. In fact, the hardware had nothing to do with what was finally released; the arcade games used hard drives and TMS processors.

        28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF. After first announcing the project, two companies, Rareware (UK) and Midway (USA), created the arcade games Killer Instinct and Cruis'n USA which claimed to use the Ultra 64 hardware. 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF. . 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR. Once unveiled to the public the name changed to Nintendo Ultra 64, referring to its 64-bit processor, and Nintendo dropped "Ultra" from the name on February 1, 1996, just five months before its Japanese debut. 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S. The name Project Reality came from the speculation within Nintendo that this console could produce CGI on par with then-current supercomputers.

        24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF. During the developmental stages the N64 was referred to by its code name, Project Reality. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX. Official coverage by Nintendo soon followed a few weeks later on the nascent Nintendo Power website, and then in volume #85 of their print magazine. 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF. The first published photos from the event were presented on the web via coverage by Game Zero magazine two days after the event. 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. The N64 was first publicly introduced on November 24, 1995 as the Nintendo Ultra 64 at the 7th Annual Shoshinkai Software Exhibition in Japan (though preview pictures from the Nintendo "Project Reality" console had been published in American magazines as early as June, 1993).

        500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. The Nintendo 64 cost $199 at launch in the United States. 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. It was released with only two launch games in Japan and North America (Super Mario 64 and PilotWings 64) while Europe had a third launch title in the form of Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire (which was released earlier in the other markets). 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S. The N64 was released on June 23, 1996 in Japan, September 29, 1996 in North America and Puerto Rico, 1 March 1997 in Europe/Australia and September 1, 1997 in France. 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. The Nintendo 64, commonly called the N64, is Nintendo's third home video game console.

        300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. CD64, by Success Compu. 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR. Z64, by Harrison Electronics. 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF. Doctor V64 and Doctor V64jr, by Bung Enterprises Ltd. 135 mm f/2D AF DC. Adapters to play Game Boy games - there is an unofficial adaptor to play Game Boy cartridges, similar to the Super Game Boy and an official adapter, able to play Game Boy Color games (never released).

        105 mm f/2D AF DC. It featured networking capabilities similar to the (SNES) Satellaview. 85 mm f/1.8D AF. 64DD - The official N64 Disk Drive attachment was a commercial failure and was consequently never released outside of Japan. 85 mm f/1.4D AF. Rare's Perfect Dark was initially going to be compatible with the Transfer Pak in order to use pictures taken with the Game Boy Camera in the game but this function was scrapped. 50 mm f/1.8D AF. Pokémon Stadium is a game that relies heavily on the Transfer Pak.

        50 mm f/1.4D AF. Transfer Pak - an accessory that plugged into the controller and allowed the Nintendo 64 to transfer data between Game Boy and N64 games. 35 mm f/2D AF. It has (since its release in 1997 alongside Star Fox 64) become a built-in standard for the current generation console controllers. 28 mm f/2.8D AF. Rumble Pak - an accessory that plugged into the controller and vibrated during game play. 28 mm f/1.4D AF. Mad Catz marketed its own version of Expansion Pak called the High Rez Pack doing the same job for less money, though there were reports of overheating due to inferior quality.

        24 mm f/2.8D AF. The expansion pack was shipped with some games and also available separately. 20mm f/2.8D AF. Supporting games usually offered higher video resolutions when it was present, or in the case of Perfect Dark, unlocked 100% of game play. 18 mm f/2.8D AF. Only a few games such as Perfect Dark and Star Wars: Rogue Squadron supported the expansion, while games such as Donkey Kong 64 and The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask required it for play. 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye. It contained 4MB of RAM.

        14 mm f/2.8D ED AF. Expansion Pak - a memory expansion that plugged into the console's memory expansion port. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S. Games by Konami were particularly notorious as they often required the controller Pak to save even though the games could have easily contained three or more save-slots (such as in the case of Holy Magic Century). AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. Over time, the Controller Pak lost ground to the convenience of a back-up battery (or flash memory) found in some cartridges. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture. A Controller Pak was initially useful or even necessary for the earlier N64 games.

        AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. The number of pages that a game occupied varied. DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh. The original models from Nintendo offered 256KB Flash RAM, split into 123 pages, but third party models had much more, often in the form of compressed memory. [6]. Controller Pak - a memory card that plugged into the controller and allowed the player to save game progress and configuration. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies. Nintendo never allowed this code to be used in shipping games.

        IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. Turbo3D microcode: 500,000-600,000 polygons per second with PSX quality. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. Fast3D microcode: < ~100,000 polygons per second. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. Controller: 1 analog stick; 2 shoulder buttons; one digital cross pad; six face buttons, 'start' button, and one digital trigger. PC - Perspective Control. Weight: 2.4 lb (1.1 kg).

        Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor. Dimensions: 10.23 x 7.48 x 2.87 inches (260 x 190 x 73mm) WxDxH

          . It has the same characteristics with the D lens. Media: 4 MB to 64 MB (32-Mbit to 512-Mbit) cartridges. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. Sampling: 48 kHz (max, 44.1 kHz is CD-quality). G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body. Channels: 100 PCM (max, 16-24 avg.).

          The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject. Sound: 16-bit ADPCM Stereo

            . It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. 150,000 polygon/s (all RDP features enabled). Indicated after the f-stop number. Colors: 16.7 million (32,768 on-screen). D - Distance/Dimension. Resolution: 256x224 to 640x480 pixels flicker-free, interlaced.

            Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera). Environment mapping. Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Perspective correction. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. Trilinear Filtered Mipmap Interpolation (increases texture map rendering speed). VR - Vibration Reduction. Texture mapping (placing images over shapes, for example mapping a face image to a sphere creates head)

              .

              Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings. Anti-aliasing (smoothes jagged lines and edges). A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. Z-buffering (maintains 3D spatial relationships, is Mario in front of the tree or vice-versa?). DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. RDP (Reality Drawing Processor) handles all pixel drawing operations in hardware, such as:

                . Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing. RSP (Reality Signal Processor) controls 3D graphics and sound functions.

                IF - Internal Focus. Graphics: SGI 62.5MHz RCP (Reality Coprocessor) contains two sub-processors:

                  . More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced. Data path: Custom 9-bit Rambus at 500 MHz (max). Reduces chromatic aberration. Bandwidth: 562.5 MB/s. ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass. RAM: 4 MB RDRAM (upgradeable to 8 MB with 4MB Expansion Pak)
                    .

                    Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996. Manufactured by NEC using 0.35µm transistor fabrication process. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. 4.6 million transistors. AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. On-chip memory management unit (MMU). First introduced in 1996. Operations: 93 MIPS (millions of instructions per second).

                    Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. Bandwidth: 250 MB/s. AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. Addressable Memory Space: 4 GB (Virtual 1 TB). AF - Autofocus. Instruction Set: MIPS R4000 64-bit. Nikon D2Hs. Bus Width: 32-bit address and data.

                    Nikon D2X. L1 cache: 24 KB (split: 16 KB instruction, 8 KB data). Nikon D2H. Processor: 93.75 MHz NEC VR4300 (info), based on MIPS R4300i series 64-bit RISC CPU

                      . Nikon D70s. Storing data at first required a cartridge battery whose energy would diminish over time, though the battery generally lasted for years, and in subsequent games EEPROMs were used instead. Nikon D70. Most cartridges store individual profiles and game progress on the cartridge itself, eliminating the need for separate and expensive memory cards.

                      Nikon D50. It is possible to add specialized support chips (such as coprocessors) to ROM cartridges, as was done on some SNES games. Nikon D200. While unauthorized interface devices for the PC were later developed, these devices are rare when compared to a regular CD drive as used on the PlayStation. Nikon D100. ROM cartridges are difficult and expensive to duplicate, thus resisting piracy (albeit at the expense of lowered profit margin for Nintendo). Nikon D1X. This can be observed from the loading screens that appear in many PlayStation games but are virtually non-existent in N64 versions.

                      Nikon D1H. ROM cartridges have very fast load times in comparison to disc based games. Nikon D1. Perfect Dark. Nikon Coolpix series. Killer Instinct Gold. Nikonos line of underwater cameras. Jet Force Gemini.

                      Nikon S3M (1960). GoldenEye 007. Nikon S4 (1959). Donkey Kong 64. Nikon S3 (1958). Diddy Kong Racing. Nikon SP (1957). Conker's Bad Fur Day.

                      Nikon S2 (1954). Banjo-Kazooie and its sequel Banjo-Tooie. Nikon S (1951). Blast Corps.. Nikon M (1949). Banjo-Kazooie. Nikon I (1948). Wave Race 64.

                      Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]. The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask. Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]. The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time. Nikon F6. Super Mario 64. Nikon F5. Super Smash Bros..

                      Nikon F4. Star Fox 64. Nikon F100. Paper Mario. as the N80). Mario Party. Nikon F80 (known in the U.S. Mario Kart 64.

                      as the N75). Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. as the N65). Nikon F65 (known in the U.S.

                      as the N55). Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. as the N90s). Nikon F90x (known in the U.S.

                      as the N90). Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. as the N8008s). Nikon F801S (known in the U.S.

                      as the N8008). Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. as the N6006). Nikon F601 (known in the U.S.

                      Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020). as the N5005). Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. as the N4004s).

                      Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. as the N4004). Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. as the N70).

                      Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. as the N60). Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. as the N50).

                      Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000). Nikon EM. Nikon EL2.

                      Nikkorex series. Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat). Nikon F3 series. Nikon F2 series.

                      Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor). Nikon FM2. Nikon FM. Nikon FG20.

                      Nikon FG. Nikon FE2. Nikon FE. Nikon FA.

                      Nikon FE10. Nikon FM10. Nikon FM3A. JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%).

                      (1.8%). The Joyo Bank, Ltd. Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%). The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%).

                      State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %). (2.7%). Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%).

                      (3.3%). The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%). (8.5%).

                      The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd.

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