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Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Nickname: "The City of Festivals", "The Genuine American City", "Cream City", "Brewtown/Brew City"
Motto: "'"
Official website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov
Location


Location of Milwaukee in
Milwaukee County, Wisconsin

Government
County Milwaukee
Mayor Tom Barrett
Geographical characteristics
Area
Total 251.0 km²
Land 248.8 km²
Water 2.2 km²
Population
Total (2000) 596,974
Metro area 1,709,926
Density 2399.5/km²
Density {{{population_density_mi2}}}/mi²
Latitude {{{latitude}}}
Longitude {{{longitude}}}
Coordinates 43°03′00″ N
87°57′00″ W
Elevation m
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)

Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin, United States and the county of Milwaukee. The city's population is 592,765 (2005 estimate) with an estimated total of 1,709,926 in the Milwaukee metropolitan area (2005). The city of Milwaukee is the 22nd largest city in the United States. The city is located in the southeastern portion of the state on the western shore of Lake Michigan.

History

The Milwaukee area was originally inhabited by the Fox, Mascouten, Potawatomi, and Winnebago Indian tribes. Milwaukee received its name from the Indian word Millioke which means "The Good Land", or "gathering place by the water." French missionaries and traders passed through the area in the late 1600s and 1700s.

In 1818, Frenchman Solomon Juneau settled in the area. Juneau bought out his father-in-law's trading business, and in 1833 he founded a town on the east side of the Milwaukee River. In 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring rival towns to incorporate as the City of Milwaukee: Kilbourntown to the west, which was founded by Byron Kilbourn, and Walker's Point to the south, founded by George H. Walker. Juneau was Milwaukee's first mayor. German immigrants helped increase the city's population during the 1840s and the following decades. Milwaukee still today has a large German-American population. The liberal tradition of these peoples led to decades of socialist government in Milwaukee during the twentieth century.

From the late 19th century until the 1950s, Milwaukee, like many northern industrial cities, saw tremendous growth from immigrants from Germany, Hungary, Poland and other central European nations, as well as the northward migration of African-Americans from southern U.S. states. This helped make Milwaukee one of the 15 largest cities in the nation, and by the mid-1960s, its population reached nearly 750,000. Starting in the late 1960s, however, like many cities in the Great Lakes "rust belt," Milwaukee saw its population start to decline due to various factors, ranging from the loss of blue collar jobs to the phenomenon of "white flight." However, in recent years, the city began to make strides in improving its economy, neighborhoods, and image, resulting in the revitalization of neighborhoods such as the Third Ward, east side,and more recently, Bay View, along with attracting new businesses to its downtown area. While the city still faces a shrinking population[1], it continues to make plans for increasing its future revitalization through various projects.

Geography and climate

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 251.0 km² (96.9 square miles). 248.8 km² (96.1 square miles) of it is land and 2.2 km² (0.9 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 0.88% water.

Cityscape

Milwaukee lies along the shores and bluffs of Lake Michigan at the confluence of three rivers: the Menomonee, the Kinnickinnic and the Milwaukee. It is crossed by Interstate 43 and Interstate 94, which come together downtown at the Marquette Interchange.

View of the Milwaukee River from downtown.

Climate

Milwaukee's proximity to Lake Michigan causes a convection current to form mid-afternoon, resulting in the so-called lake effect, causing the temperatures to be warmer in the winter, and cooler in the summer ("cooler by the lake" is practically boilerplate language for local meteorologists during the summer). Also, the relative humidity in the summer is far higher than that of comparable cities at the same latitude, meaning that it feels hotter than it really is.

Milwaukee's all-time record high temperature is 105°F (41°C) set on July 17, 1995. The coldest temperature ever experienced by the city was -26°F (-32°C) on both January 17, 1982 and February 4, 1996. The 1982 event, also known as Cold Sunday, featured temperatures as low as -40°F (-40°C) in some of the suburbs as little as 10 miles (16km) to the north of Milwaukee, although the city itself did not approach such cold temperatures.

Demographics

In the 2000 census, over a third (38 percent) of Milwaukeeans reported that they were of German descent. Other large population groups include Polish (12.7%), Irish (10%), English (5.1%), Italian (4.4%), French (3.9%), and Hispanic origin totaled 6.3%.

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there are 596,974 people, 232,188 households, and 135,133 families residing in the city. The population density is 2,399.5/km² (6,214.3 per square mile). There are 249,225 housing units at an average density of 1,001.7/km² (2,594.4 per square mile). The racial makeup of the city is 49.98% White, 37.34% African American, 0.87% Native American, 2.94% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.10% from other races, and 2.71% from two or more races. 12.00% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There are 232,188 households out of which 30.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% are married couples living together, 21.1% have a female householder with no husband present, and 41.8% are non-families. 33.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.50 and the average family size is 3.25.

In the city the population is spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 31 years. For every 100 females there are 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $32,216, and the median income for a family is $37,879. Males have a median income of $32,244 versus $26,013 for females. The per capita income for the city is $16,181. 21.3% of the population and 17.4% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 31.6% of those under the age of 18 and 11.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Transportation

Milwaukee uses the Interstate Highways for its main transportation. I-94 comes up from Chicago to enter Milwaukee continues to Madison I-43 also enters Milwaukee from the south and continues to Green Bay where it ends. Milwaukee also has many internal freeways as well. Residents may also use the Milwaukee County Transit System to get around the city as well as the county via the bus.

Economy

Although most people associate Milwaukee with beer, today companies like Miller Brewing employ less than one percent of the city's workers. Milwaukee's reputation as a blue collar town is more accurate, however, with 22 percent of the workforce involved in manufacturing — second only to San Jose, CA and far higher than the national average of 16.5%. Service and managerial jobs are the fastest growing segments of the Milwaukee economy, and healthcare makes up 27% of all service jobs in the city.

Milwaukee is headquarters to six Fortune 1000 manufacturers and six Fortune 1000 service companies. Among these are Briggs & Stratton, Harley-Davidson, Johnson Controls, Manpower Inc., Marshall & Ilsley, Northwestern Mutual, Rockwell Automation, Roundy's Supermarkets, Metavante, Kohl's, and Wisconsin Energy. The Milwaukee area ranked number five in the nation when measuring the number of Fortune 500 companies as a share of the population, just behind the number four Minneapolis-St. Paul region. Milwaukee also has a large number of financial service firms, particularly those specializing in mutual funds and transaction processing systems, and a disproportionate number of publishing and printing companies.

Culture and sports

Culture

The Milwaukee Art Museum

Milwaukee's most visually prominent cultural attraction is the Milwaukee Art Museum, especially its new $100 million wing designed by Santiago Calatrava in his first American commission. The museum includes a "brise soleil," a moving sunscreen that quite literally unfolds like the wing of a bird. The Milwaukee Public Museum, Mitchell Park Horticultural Conservatory and Milwaukee County Zoo are also notable public attractions.

Milwaukee is home to the Florentine Opera, the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, the Milwaukee Ballet, Milwaukee Repertory Theatre, Skylight Opera Theatre, First Stage Children's Theater,Milwaukee Youth Theatre, and a number of other arts organizations. Additionally, Milwaukee is home to artistic performance venues such as the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts, Pabst Theatre, Riverside Theatre, and Milwaukee Theatre. The Milwaukee Youth Arts Center, a first-of-its-kind Arts-in-education facility, is a national model.

Milwaukee, "A Great Place on a Great Lake" and "Genuine American," has also advertised itself as the "City of Festivals," emphasizing an annual lakefront fair called Summerfest. Listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest music festival in the world, Summerfest attracts around 900,000 visitors a year to its twelve stages. Smaller festivals througout the year celebrate the city's German, Native American, African-American, Italian, Irish, Asian, Arab, and Polish heritage.

Due in large part to its brewery history, the city has been called "the nation's watering hole" with more bars per capita than any other large city in the country (one bar for every 1600 people or approximately 375 bars, four bars for every square mile). Along the same lines, the tradition of tailgating (for almost any event, but especially Brewers games), where copious amounts of beer and other potent potables are ceremoniously consumed, is deeply engrained in culture of the city and its residents both young and old.

Although Milwaukee isn't known historically as a club scene music mecca, it does have a vibrant history of rock, blues, punk, ska, industrial music, goth and pop music bands. A range of musicians have called Milwaukee home, including Hildegarde, Woody Herman, Liberace, blues giant Hubert Sumlin, the BoDeans, Violent Femmes, Citizen King, The Gufs, The Promise Ring, Oil Tasters, Die Kruezen, Boy Dirt Car, Shiverhead, among others. Local hip-hop action includes acts like Rusty Ps and Black Elephant. Coo Coo Cal gave Milwaukee a national foothold in the hip-hop market with his hit single "My Projects". Beer City Skateboards is not only a skateboard company, but a punk rock label as well, home to DRI and Millions of Dead Cops. Venues such as Pabst Theater and The Rave bring internationally-known and critically acclaimed acts to Milwaukee every day.

Milwaukee is also home to a vibrant club scene booking regular international DJs such as Richie Hawtin, LTJ Bukem, Mark Farina, Derrick Carter and others. Milwaukee was home to a vibrant rave scene in the early Nineties, especially fostering hardcore techno, thanks to Drop Bass; but the scene moved south to Chicago after reaction by city authorities. Milwaukee was also an epicenter of the breakcore scene in early 2000s with labels like Addict Records and Zod Records.

Sports

It is also home to a number of professional sports teams including:

The Milwaukee Mile auto racing facility, the oldest active auto race track in the United States, is located on the Wisconsin State Fair Grounds in West Allis. The Mile is not far from the Pettit National Ice Center, a U.S. Olympic Team training facility for speed skating.

Previous sports teams to play in Milwaukee have included:

In addition, the Green Bay Packers played a portion of their home schedule in Milwaukee from 1933 through 1994:

The 1939 Championship between the Packers and the New York Giants was played at State Fair Park. The Packers won, 27-0.

To this day, the Packers maintain two separate season ticket plans, reflecting their time in Milwaukee: the Gold package, made up primarily of former Milwaukee season ticket holders, have a three-game package consisting of the annual Midwest Shrine preseason contest plus the second and fifth regular-season home games each year, and the Green package (made up of original Green Bay ticket holders) attend the annual Bishop's Charities preseason game and the remaining six regular-season contests.

Education

Milwaukee maintains Milwaukee Public Schools, the largest school district in Wisconsin. As of 2006, it has an enrolment of 95,600 students and employs 6,100 full-time and substitute teachers in 223 schools.

Colleges and universities

High schools

Media

Newspapers serving Milwaukee include:

Broadcast media:

Airports

Colloquialisms


This page about Milwaukee includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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Images of Milwaukee

Broadcast media:. For example, a bearing of northwest by north differs by one point from a northwest bearing, and by a point from a north-northwest one. Newspapers serving Milwaukee include:. A "point" is defined as one eighth of a right angle, and therefore equals exactly 11.25 degrees. As of 2006, it has an enrolment of 95,600 students and employs 6,100 full-time and substitute teachers in 223 schools. Galileo is a competing system, that will be placed into service by the European Union. Milwaukee maintains Milwaukee Public Schools, the largest school district in Wisconsin. It relies on a slightly different geodesic model of the Earth.

To this day, the Packers maintain two separate season ticket plans, reflecting their time in Milwaukee: the Gold package, made up primarily of former Milwaukee season ticket holders, have a three-game package consisting of the annual Midwest Shrine preseason contest plus the second and fifth regular-season home games each year, and the Green package (made up of original Green Bay ticket holders) attend the annual Bishop's Charities preseason game and the remaining six regular-season contests. GLONASS is a positioning system launched by the Soviet Union. The Packers won, 27-0. The GPS system now permits accurate geographic location with an error of only a few metres, and precision timing to less than a microsecond. The 1939 Championship between the Packers and the New York Giants was played at State Fair Park. In 1974, the first GPS satellite was launched. In addition, the Green Bay Packers played a portion of their home schedule in Milwaukee from 1933 through 1994:. Other radionavigation systems include:.

Previous sports teams to play in Milwaukee have included:. It was the first electronic navigation system to provide global coverage. Olympic Team training facility for speed skating. At about the same, TRANSIT, the first satellite-based navigation system was developed. The Mile is not far from the Pettit National Ice Center, a U.S. An analogous system for aircraft, VHF omnidirectional range and DME, was developed around the same time. The Milwaukee Mile auto racing facility, the oldest active auto race track in the United States, is located on the Wisconsin State Fair Grounds in West Allis. It revolutionized navigation by permitting semiautomated equipment to locate geographic positions to less than a half mile (800 m).

It is also home to a number of professional sports teams including:. This used time-of-flight of radio waves from antennas at known locations. Milwaukee was also an epicenter of the breakcore scene in early 2000s with labels like Addict Records and Zod Records. Around 1960, LORAN was developed. Milwaukee was home to a vibrant rave scene in the early Nineties, especially fostering hardcore techno, thanks to Drop Bass; but the scene moved south to Chicago after reaction by city authorities. Up until 1960 it was commonplace for ships and aircraft to use radio direction-finding on commercial stations in order to locate islands and cities within the last several miles of error. Milwaukee is also home to a vibrant club scene booking regular international DJs such as Richie Hawtin, LTJ Bukem, Mark Farina, Derrick Carter and others. In the late 19th century Nikola Tesla invented radio and direction-finding was quickly adapted to navigation.

Venues such as Pabst Theater and The Rave bring internationally-known and critically acclaimed acts to Milwaukee every day. Later, mechanical chronometers enabled navigation at sea and in the air using relatively unskilled procedures. Beer City Skateboards is not only a skateboard company, but a punk rock label as well, home to DRI and Millions of Dead Cops. A number of scientific journals during this period were started especially to chronicle geography. Coo Coo Cal gave Milwaukee a national foothold in the hip-hop market with his hit single "My Projects". These methods were too complex to be used by any but skilled astronomers, but they sufficed to map most of the world. Local hip-hop action includes acts like Rusty Ps and Black Elephant. At first, the best available "clocks" were the moons of Jupiter, and the calculated transits of selected stars by the moon.

A range of musicians have called Milwaukee home, including Hildegarde, Woody Herman, Liberace, blues giant Hubert Sumlin, the BoDeans, Violent Femmes, Citizen King, The Gufs, The Promise Ring, Oil Tasters, Die Kruezen, Boy Dirt Car, Shiverhead, among others. Modern sextants measure to 0.2 minutes of arc, an error that translates to a distance of about 0.2 nautical miles (400 m). Although Milwaukee isn't known historically as a club scene music mecca, it does have a vibrant history of rock, blues, punk, ska, industrial music, goth and pop music bands. This eliminates the "cosine" error of an astrolabe's short pointer. Along the same lines, the tradition of tailgating (for almost any event, but especially Brewers games), where copious amounts of beer and other potent potables are ceremoniously consumed, is deeply engrained in culture of the city and its residents both young and old. Thus, its "pointer" is as long as the horizon is far away. Due in large part to its brewery history, the city has been called "the nation's watering hole" with more bars per capita than any other large city in the country (one bar for every 1600 people or approximately 375 bars, four bars for every square mile). A sextant uses mirrors to measure the altitude of celestial objects with regard to the horizon.

Smaller festivals througout the year celebrate the city's German, Native American, African-American, Italian, Irish, Asian, Arab, and Polish heritage. In 1730 the sextant was invented and navigators rapidly replaced their astrolabes. Listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest music festival in the world, Summerfest attracts around 900,000 visitors a year to its twelve stages. Starting in 1670, the entire world was measured using essentially modern latitude instruments and the best available clocks. Milwaukee, "A Great Place on a Great Lake" and "Genuine American," has also advertised itself as the "City of Festivals," emphasizing an annual lakefront fair called Summerfest. After Isaac Newton published the Principia, navigation was transformed. The Milwaukee Youth Arts Center, a first-of-its-kind Arts-in-education facility, is a national model. Diptychs remained in use during the day, until shadowing astrolabes were constructed.

Additionally, Milwaukee is home to artistic performance venues such as the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts, Pabst Theatre, Riverside Theatre, and Milwaukee Theatre. Around 400, metallurgy allowed construction of astrolabes graduated in degrees, which replaced the wooden latitude instruments for night use. Milwaukee is home to the Florentine Opera, the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, the Milwaukee Ballet, Milwaukee Repertory Theatre, Skylight Opera Theatre, First Stage Children's Theater,Milwaukee Youth Theatre, and a number of other arts organizations. This let masters continue sailing a course when the weather limited visibility of the sky. The Milwaukee Public Museum, Mitchell Park Horticultural Conservatory and Milwaukee County Zoo are also notable public attractions. Some time later, around 300, the magnetic compass was invented in China. The museum includes a "brise soleil," a moving sunscreen that quite literally unfolds like the wing of a bird. Using these techniques, masters successfully sailed from the eastern Mediterranean to the south coast of the British Isles.

Milwaukee's most visually prominent cultural attraction is the Milwaukee Art Museum, especially its new $100 million wing designed by Santiago Calatrava in his first American commission. The above instruments were a powerful technology, and appear to have been the technique used by ancient Cretan bronze-age trading empire. Milwaukee also has a large number of financial service firms, particularly those specializing in mutual funds and transaction processing systems, and a disproportionate number of publishing and printing companies. These were often crucial trade secrets, because they enabled travel to lucrative ports. Paul region. The most important instrument was a navigators' diary, later called a rutter. The Milwaukee area ranked number five in the nation when measuring the number of Fortune 500 companies as a share of the population, just behind the number four Minneapolis-St. Time-keeping was by precision hourglasses, filled and tested to 1/4 of an hour, turned by the helmsman, or a young boy brought for that purpose.

Among these are Briggs & Stratton, Harley-Davidson, Johnson Controls, Manpower Inc., Marshall & Ilsley, Northwestern Mutual, Rockwell Automation, Roundy's Supermarkets, Metavante, Kohl's, and Wisconsin Energy. Most sailors could use this instrument to take sun sights, but master navigators knew that sightings of Polaris were far more accurate, because they were not subject to time-keeping errors involved in finding noon. Milwaukee is headquarters to six Fortune 1000 manufacturers and six Fortune 1000 service companies. Latitude was determined with a "cross staff" an instrument vaguely similar to a carpenter's angle with graduated marks on it. Service and managerial jobs are the fastest growing segments of the Milwaukee economy, and healthcare makes up 27% of all service jobs in the city. This was placed in front of the helmsman. Milwaukee's reputation as a blue collar town is more accurate, however, with 22 percent of the workforce involved in manufacturing — second only to San Jose, CA and far higher than the national average of 16.5%. Another early invention was the compass rose, a cross or painted panel of wood oriented with the pole star or diptych.

Although most people associate Milwaukee with beer, today companies like Miller Brewing employ less than one percent of the city's workers. Basically, when the diptych's two sundials indicated the same time, the diptych was aligned to the current latitude and true north. Residents may also use the Milwaukee County Transit System to get around the city as well as the county via the bus. When combined with a plumb bob, some diptychs could also determine latitude. Milwaukee also has many internal freeways as well. Most sailors have always been able find absolute north from the stars, which currently rotate around Polaris, or by using a dual sundial called a diptych. I-94 comes up from Chicago to enter Milwaukee continues to Madison I-43 also enters Milwaukee from the south and continues to Green Bay where it ends. In the West, navigation was at first performed exclusively by dead-reckoning, the process of estimating one's present position based on the navigators' experience with wind, tide and currents.

Milwaukee uses the Interstate Highways for its main transportation. This can be accomplished using low-cost quartz clocks because the satellites send time correction signals to the GPS receivers. Out of the total population, 31.6% of those under the age of 18 and 11.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. GPS uses 3D trilateration based on measuring the time-of-flight of radio waves using the well-known speed of light to measure distance from at least three satellites. 21.3% of the population and 17.4% of families are below the poverty line. A third source along with dead-reckoning will generally resolve to a single position. The per capita income for the city is $16,181. Signals from these two point establish a hyperbolic curve for possible positions.

Males have a median income of $32,244 versus $26,013 for females. The LORAN system is based on measuring the phase shift of radio waves sent simultaneously from a master and slave station. The median income for a household in the city is $32,216, and the median income for a family is $37,879. Inexpensive plastic sextants are available, though they have less accuracy than the more expensive metal models. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.2 males. Some sextants create an artificial horizon by reflecting a bubble. For every 100 females there are 91.6 males. When the image of the star touches the horizon, the angle can be read from the sextant's scale.

The median age is 31 years. An arm moves a split image of the star relative to the split image of the horizon. In the city the population is spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who are 65 years of age or older. During a sight, the user's view of the star and horizon remains steady as the boat rocks. The average household size is 2.50 and the average family size is 3.25. The angle is measured with a special optical instrument called a "sextant." Sextants use two mirrors to cancel the relative motion of the sextant. 33.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. Winding the chronometers was a crucial duty of the navigator.

There are 232,188 households out of which 30.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% are married couples living together, 21.1% have a female householder with no husband present, and 41.8% are non-families. Traditionally, three chronometers are kept in gimbals in a dry room near the center of the ship, and used to set a watch for the actual sight, so that the chronometers themselves do not risk exposure to the elements. 12.00% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. If it is worn constantly, keeping it near body heat, its rate of drift can be measured with the radio, and by compensating for this drift, a navigator can keep time to better than a second per month. The racial makeup of the city is 49.98% White, 37.34% African American, 0.87% Native American, 2.94% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.10% from other races, and 2.71% from two or more races. A quartz wristwatch normally keeps time within a half-second per day. There are 249,225 housing units at an average density of 1,001.7/km² (2,594.4 per square mile). Time is measured with a chronometer, a quartz watch or a shortwave radio broadcast from an atomic clock.

The population density is 2,399.5/km² (6,214.3 per square mile). Accurately knowing the time of an observation is important. As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there are 596,974 people, 232,188 households, and 135,133 families residing in the city. Most navigation is performed with the sun and moon. Other large population groups include Polish (12.7%), Irish (10%), English (5.1%), Italian (4.4%), French (3.9%), and Hispanic origin totaled 6.3%. The numerous celestial objects permit navigators to shoot through holes in clouds. In the 2000 census, over a third (38 percent) of Milwaukeeans reported that they were of German descent. The math required for sight reduction is simple addition and subtraction, if sight-reduction tables are available.

The 1982 event, also known as Cold Sunday, featured temperatures as low as -40°F (-40°C) in some of the suburbs as little as 10 miles (16km) to the north of Milwaukee, although the city itself did not approach such cold temperatures. Usually the navigator knows his position well enough to pick which of the two intersections is the current position. The coldest temperature ever experienced by the city was -26°F (-32°C) on both January 17, 1982 and February 4, 1996. A second sighting on a different object establishes an intersecting ring. Milwaukee's all-time record high temperature is 105°F (41°C) set on July 17, 1995. Conceptually, the angle to the celestial object establishes a ring of possible positions on the surface of the Earth. Also, the relative humidity in the summer is far higher than that of comparable cities at the same latitude, meaning that it feels hotter than it really is. From a single sight, a time within a second and an estimated position, a position can be determined within a third of a mile (500 m).

Milwaukee's proximity to Lake Michigan causes a convection current to form mid-afternoon, resulting in the so-called lake effect, causing the temperatures to be warmer in the winter, and cooler in the summer ("cooler by the lake" is practically boilerplate language for local meteorologists during the summer). In modern celestial navigation, a nautical almanac and trigonometric sight-reduction tables permit navigators to measure the Sun, Moon, visible planets or any of 57 navigational stars at any time of day or night. It is crossed by Interstate 43 and Interstate 94, which come together downtown at the Marquette Interchange. Once accurate clocks were available, detailed tables for celestial bodies were created so that navigational activities could take place anytime during the day or night, rather than at noon. Milwaukee lies along the shores and bluffs of Lake Michigan at the confluence of three rivers: the Menomonee, the Kinnickinnic and the Milwaukee. The need for accurate navigation led to the development of progressively more accurate clocks. The total area is 0.88% water. The difference of longitude is determined knowing that the sun moves to the west at 15 degrees per hour.

248.8 km² (96.1 square miles) of it is land and 2.2 km² (0.9 mi²) of it is water. Then the local time of local noon is observed by the navigator. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 251.0 km² (96.9 square miles). The time of noon at the known location is carried by the navigator on an accurate clock. While the city still faces a shrinking population[1], it continues to make plans for increasing its future revitalization through various projects. The time of the maximum altitude is easily determined by interpolating between periodic readings. Starting in the late 1960s, however, like many cities in the Great Lakes "rust belt," Milwaukee saw its population start to decline due to various factors, ranging from the loss of blue collar jobs to the phenomenon of "white flight." However, in recent years, the city began to make strides in improving its economy, neighborhoods, and image, resulting in the revitalization of neighborhoods such as the Third Ward, east side,and more recently, Bay View, along with attracting new businesses to its downtown area. Local noon is determined while shooting the azimuth as described above.

This helped make Milwaukee one of the 15 largest cities in the nation, and by the mid-1960s, its population reached nearly 750,000. Noon was an easy event to observe. states. Longitude is calculated as a time difference between the same celestial event at different locations. From the late 19th century until the 1950s, Milwaukee, like many northern industrial cities, saw tremendous growth from immigrants from Germany, Hungary, Poland and other central European nations, as well as the northward migration of African-Americans from southern U.S. Since periodic readings of the altitude will plot a sine wave, the maximum reading is the one used for local noon. The liberal tradition of these peoples led to decades of socialist government in Milwaukee during the twentieth century. Local noon is easily determined by recording periodic readings of the altitude of the sun.

Milwaukee still today has a large German-American population. The sun's angle over the horizon at noon was measured, and compared to the known angle at the same date as the known port. German immigrants helped increase the city's population during the 1840s and the following decades. However, prior to the development and formulation of its key principles in the latter part of the 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, tables of the sun's altitude during the year for a known port were used. Juneau was Milwaukee's first mayor. Calculating the anticipated altitude of the sun for a given day and known position is done easily using Calculus. Walker. Determining latitude by the sun was a little more difficult since the sun's altitude at noon during the year changes for a given location.

In 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring rival towns to incorporate as the City of Milwaukee: Kilbourntown to the west, which was founded by Byron Kilbourn, and Walker's Point to the south, founded by George H. Navigators could determine their latitude by measuring the angular altitude of Polaris any time that it was visible (excepting, of course, in those southern latitudes from where it cannot be observed). Juneau bought out his father-in-law's trading business, and in 1833 he founded a town on the east side of the Milwaukee River. Anciently the home port was used as the known location, currently the Greenwich Meridian or Prime Meridian is used as the known location for celestial charts. In 1818, Frenchman Solomon Juneau settled in the area. Celestial navigation systems are based on observation of the positions of the Sun, Moon and stars relative to the observer and a known location. Milwaukee received its name from the Indian word Millioke which means "The Good Land", or "gathering place by the water." French missionaries and traders passed through the area in the late 1600s and 1700s. This is known as a fix.

The Milwaukee area was originally inhabited by the Fox, Mascouten, Potawatomi, and Winnebago Indian tribes. Addition lines of position can be measured in order to validate the results taken against other reference points. . These lines of position can be plotted on a nautical chart, with the intersection being the ship's current location. The city is located in the southeastern portion of the state on the western shore of Lake Michigan. This is done by correctly identifying reference points and measuring their bearings from the ship. The city of Milwaukee is the 22nd largest city in the United States. Periodically, the navigator needs to confirm the accuracy of the dead reckoning or estimated position calculations using position fixing techniques.

The city's population is 592,765 (2005 estimate) with an estimated total of 1,709,926 in the Milwaukee metropolitan area (2005). If the set and drift, due to tide and wind, can be determined, an estimated position can also be calculated. Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin, United States and the county of Milwaukee. A navigator uses the ship's last known position and dead reckoning, based on the ship's logged compass course and speed, to calculate the current position.
Location of Milwaukee in
Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. Traditional maritime navigation with a compass uses multiple redundant sources of position information to locate the ship's position. Some Milwaukeeans use the unique expression "ainahey", short for "ain't it, hey?" to reaffirm something obvious, used in the same way as "of course", and similar to the colloquial "don'chaknow", short for "don't you know?". These were made obsolete by satellite navigation systems.

It is also common for people to refer to ATMs as a "Tyme Machine," referring to the name of the dominant debit card in Wisconsin. The invention of the radio lead to radio beacons and radio direction finders providing accurate land-based fixes even hundreds of miles from shore. One well known colloquialism common to Milwaukee and the surrounding area, is the word "bubbler," which refers to a drinking fountain. Later developments included the placing of lighthouses and buoys close to shore to act as marine signposts identifying ambiguous features, highlighting hazards and pointing to safe channels for ships approaching some part of a coast after a long sea voyage. Timmerman Airport. The development of accurate systems for taking lines of position based on the measurement of stars and planets with the sextant allowed ships to navigate the open ocean without needing to see land marks. Lawrence J. Nautical charts were developed to record new navigational and pilotage information for use by other navigators.

General Mitchell International Airport. The magnetic compass allowing a course to be maintained and estimates of the ship's location to be calculated. List of Milwaukee area radio stations. Early navigators used pilotage, relying on local knowledge of land marks and coastal features, forcing all ships to stay close to shore. List of Milwaukee area television stations. Knowing the ship's current position is the main problem for all navigators. Vital Source Magazine. There are several different branches of navigation, including but not limited to:.

UWM Post. They built a replica of an ancient double-hulled canoe called the Hokule'a, whose crew, in 1976, successfully navigated the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to Tahiti using no instruments. The Leader. In 1973, the Polynesian Voyaging Society was established in Hawaii to research Polynesian navigation methods. Marquette Tribune. The first settlers of the Hawaiian Islands were said to have used these navigation methods to sail to the Hawaiian Islands from the Marquesas Islands. Shepherd Express. The guild secrets might have been lost, had not one of the last living navigators trained a professional small boat captain so that he could write a book.

MKE (magazine). Generally each island maintained a guild of navigators who had very high status, since in times of famine or difficulty, only they could trade for aid or evacuate people. Milwaukee Magazine. These, and outrigger canoe construction methods, were kept as guild secrets. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. In Eastern Polynesia, navigators, in order to locate directions at various times of day and year, memorized extensive facts concerning:. Wisconsin Lutheran High School. The Polynesian navigators routinely crossed thousands of miles of open ocean, to tiny inhabited islands, using only their own senses and knowledge, passed by oral tradition, from navigator to apprentice.

Washington High School. . Vincent High School. Prominent examples are the Phoenicians, the Ancient Greeks, the Malays, the Persians, Arabians, the Norse and, perhaps more than any others, the peoples of the Pacific Ocean, particularly Polynesians and Micronesians. Thomas More. In the pre-modern history of human migration and discovery of new lands by navigating the oceans, a few peoples have excelled as sea-faring explorers. South Division High School. There are several traditions of navigation.

Rufus King High School. Alpha, a longwave system developed by the Soviet Union. Riverside University High School. Omega, a longwave system developed by the United States Navy. Reagan College Preparatory. Decca. Pulaski High School. collision avoidance using radar.

Professional Learning Institute. position fixing - determining current position by visual and electronic means. Pius XI High School. waypoint navigation - using electronic equipment such as radio navigation and satellite navigation system to follow a course to a waypoint. North Division Virtual University High School. dead reckoning - using compass and log to monitor expected progress on a journey. New School for Community Service. pilotage - using visible natural and man made features such as sea marks and beacons.

Milwaukee School of Languages. celestial navigation - navigation by observation of the sun, moon and stars. Milwaukee School of Entrepreneurship. Wayfinding Main Page. Milwaukee Lutheran High School. Wayfinding Summary. Milwaukee High School of the Arts. angles for approaching harbors.

Metropolitan High School. colors of the sea and sky, especially how clouds would cluster at the locations of some islands. Marquette University High School. directions of swells on the ocean, and how the crew would feel their motion. Madison University High School. wildlife species (which congregate at particular positions). Rufus King International Baccalaureate High School. times of travel.

Juneau Business High School. weather. John Marshall High School. the motion of specific stars, and where they would rise and set on the horizon of the ocean. Hamilton High School. Divine Savior Holy Angels High School.

Custer High School. Bradley (Lynde & Harry) Technology & Trade High School. Bay View High School. Wisconsin Lutheran College.

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Mount Mary College. Milwaukee School of Engineering. Milwaukee Institute of Art and Design.

Milwaukee Area Technical College. Medical College of Wisconsin. Marquette University. Cardinal Stritch University.

Alverno College. Milwaukee County Stadium, 1953-1994. Marquette Stadium, 1952. Wisconsin State Fair Park, 1934-51.

Borchert Field, 1933. Milwaukee Wave United (Outdoor Soccer) 2003 - They only played one season. Milwaukee Rampage (Outdoor Soccer) 1994 - 2002. Milwaukee Mustangs (American football—Arena Football League), played at the Bradley Center from 1994 to 2001.

Milwaukee Does (Basketball—Women's Pro Basketball League), played at MECCA Arena from 1978 to 1980. The Milwaukee Braves won the National League pennant in 1957 and 1958, and won the World Series in 1957. Milwaukee Braves (Baseball—MLB), played at Milwaukee County Stadium from 1953-1965. Louis.

Milwaukee Hawks (Basketball—NBA) played at the Milwaukee Arena from 1951 to 1955 before moving to St. Milwaukee Brewers (Baseball—Minor League Baseball), member of the American Association from 1902 through 1952, played at Borchert Field. Milwaukee Badgers (American football—NFL), played from 1922 to 1926. Cellular Arena.

Milwaukee Wave (Indoor Soccer) playing at the U.S. Milwaukee Admirals (Ice hockey) playing at the Bradley Center. Milwaukee Bucks (Basketball—NBA) playing at the Bradley Center. Milwaukee Brewers (Baseball—MLB) playing at Miller Park.

Average July high/low temperatures: 79°F/62°F (26°C/17°C). Average January high/low temperatures: 26°F/11°F (-3°C/-12°C).

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