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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. He came in last in the polls. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. He only once endeavoured to enter public life, when, in 1832, he stood unsuccessfully for the borough of Finsbury. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. He also performed several studies on Isambard Kingdom Brunel's Great Western Railway. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Babbage also invented the pilot (also called a cow-catcher), the metal frame attached to the front of locomotives that clears the tracks of obstacles in 1838.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Babbage's discovery was used to aid English military campaigns, and was not published until several years later; as a result credit for the development was instead given to Friedrich Kasiski, who made the same discovery some years after Babbage. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. The autokey cipher was generally called "the undecipherable cipher", though owing to popular confusion, many thought that the weaker polyalphabetic cipher was the "undecipherable" one. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. He broke Vigenère's autokey cipher as well as the much weaker cipher that is called Vigenère cipher today. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. Charles Babbage also achieved notable results in cryptography.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). The book incorporated extracts from correspondence he had been having with John Herschel on the subject. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. In 1837, responding to the official eight Bridgewater Treatises "On the Power, Wisdom and Goodness of God, as manifested in the Creation", he published his Ninth Bridgewater Treatise putting forward the thesis that God had the omnipotence and foresight to create as a divine legislator, making laws (or programs) which then produced species at the appropriate times, rather than continually interfering with ad hoc miracles each time a new species was required. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. He contributed largely to several scientific periodicals, and was instrumental in founding the Astronomical Society in 1820 and the Statistical Society in 1834. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. From 1828 to 1839 Babbage was Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. In 1824 Babbage won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society "for his invention of an engine for calculating mathematical and astronomical tables". In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. The 24 schematics remained in the Science Museum archives until a full-size replica was built in 1991 to celebrate the 200th anniversary of Babbage’s birth.[3]. This established that magnetic force and light were related. Unlike the analytical engine that he continually tweaked and modified, he did not try to improve the second difference engine after completing the initial design. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". It was a marvel of mechanical engineering.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. It measured 11 feet long, 7 feet high and 18 inches deep. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. It used only about 8000 parts, three times fewer than the first. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Between October 1846 and March 1849 Babbage started designing a second difference engine using knowledge gained from the analytical engine.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. She began work on a book describing the analytical engine in more detail, but it was never finished.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. Lovelace was perhaps the first to grasp the more general goals of Babbage’s machine, and some consider her the world's first computer programmer. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. In another, she wrote about a generalized algebra engine that could perform operations on symbols as well as numbers. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. In one note Ada prepared a table of execution for a program that Babbage wrote to calculate the Bernoulli numbers. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. In a series of letters between 1842 and 1843, the pair collaborated on seven notes, the combined length of which was three times longer than the actual paper.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Charles suggested that she add notes to accompany the paper. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, a longtime friend of Babbage, translated the paper into English. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. In October 1842, Federico Luigi, Conte Menabrea, an Italian general and mathematician, published a paper on the analytical engine. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. He would continue modifying and improving the design for many years to come.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. Babbage refused. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. Peel refused, and offered Babbage a knighthood instead. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. In 1842, following repeated failures to obtain funding from the First Lord of the Treasury, Babbage approached Sir Robert Peel for funding. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Babbage constructed only small test parts for his new engine; a full engine was never completed.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. The 100 digit store would stretch to 25 feet long. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. The completed mill would measure 15 feet tall and 6 feet in diameter. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. Babbage and a handful of assistants created 500 large design drawings, 1000 sheets of mechanical notation, and 7000 sheets of scribbles. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. The scale of the work was truly incredible.

His greatest work was with electricity. A design for this emerged by 1835. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. It was the world's first general-purpose computer. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. The mill, analogous to a modern computer's CPU, executed the operations on values retrieved from the store, which we would consider memory. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. The engine consisted of two parts: the mill and the store.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. The mature analytical engine used punched cards adapted from the Jacquard loom to specify input and the calculations to perform. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. It did not take much longer for him to define the main points of his analytical engine. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. He described this as the machine "eating its own tail". At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. The first breakthrough came when he redirected the machine's output to the input for further equations.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. Between 1833 and 1842 he tried to build a machine that would be programmable to do any kind of calculation, not just ones relating to polynomial equations. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. While he was separated from the difference engine, Babbage began to think about an improved calculating engine. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. (see also: Analytical engine). . Charles wrote, "The drawings and parts of the Engine are at length in a place of safety—I am almost worn out with disgust and annoyance at the whole affair." In 1842 the government officially abandoned the project.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. After an investment of £23000, including £6000 of Babbage's own money, work on the unfinished machine ceased in 1834. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. Clement further refused to turn over the drawings and tools used to build the difference engine. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Clement refused the request and stopped working. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. He often had to pay Clement out of his own pocket when the bureaucracy lagged behind Clement's pay schedule.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Before then, Babbage would get money from the government that he would use to pay Clement. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. In response, Babbage suggested that Clement draw his pay directly from the treasury. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Clement refused to move his operations to the new workshop and demanded more money for the difficulty of travelling across town to oversee construction. Michael Faraday Directory. It had a glass roof for lighting, and a fireproof, dust-free room to contain the machine.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. Babbage had built a two-story, 50 foot long workshop behind his house. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Babbage's problems with the treasury coincided with numerous disagreements with Clement. Finish. Work continued, but Babbage would have continual difficulty getting money from the treasury. "Work. The government continued its support, advancing £1500 on April 29, 1829, £3000 on December 3, and £3000 on February 24, 1830.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". John Herschel and the Royal Society publicly defended the engine. ISBN 1400060168. Rumours had spread that Babbage had wasted the government's money; that the machine did not work; and that it had no practical value if it did. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. The difference engine project had come under fire during Babbage's absence. Hamilton, James (2004). He moved to 1 Dorset Street upon returning to England in 1828.

ISBN 0007163762. He initially wanted to turn down the position but several friends convinced him to accept. Harper Collins, London. In Italy he learned he had been named the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. Faraday: The Life. He passed through the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, and Italy visiting universities and manufacturing facilities. Hamilton, James (2002). John Herschel and several other friends convinced Babbage to take a trip to Europe to recuperate.

Work had already taxed Babbage heavily and he was on the edge of a breakdown. The death of Georgiana, Babbage's father, and an infant son interrupted construction in 1827. It was the first publication on what we would now call operations research. Based on these trips and his experience with the difference engine, Babbage published On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacture[2] in 1832.

He took extensive tours of industry to better understand manufacturing processes. Every part had to be formed by hand using custom machine tools, many of which Babbage himself designed. Babbage converted one of the rooms in his home to a workshop and hired Joseph Clement to oversee construction of the engine. The Society approved the idea, prompting the government to grant £1500 for its construction in 1823.

Babbage presented a model of what he called a difference engine to the Royal Astronomical Society on June 14, 1822 and in a paper entitled "Note on the application of machinery to the computation of astronomical and mathematical tables."[1] It calculated polynomials using a numerical method called the differences method. (See also Difference engine). He first discussed the principles of a calculating engine in a letter to Sir Humphrey Davy in 1822. Three different factors seem to have influenced him: a dislike of untidiness; his experience working on logarithmic tables; and existing work on calculating machines carried out by Wilhelm Schickard, Blaise Pascal, and Gottfried Leibniz.

This idea may have come to him as early as 1812. In recognition of the high error rate in the calculation of mathematical tables, Babbage sought to find a method by which they could be calculated mechanically, removing human sources of error. Charles' father, his wife Georgiana Babbage, and one son all died in 1827. They had eight children, but only three lived to adulthood.

The couple lived happily at 5 Devonshire Street, Portland Place, London. His father did not approve of the marriage. Michael's Church in Teignmouth, Devon. On July 25, 1814, Charles Babbage married Georgiana Whitmore at St.

He instead received an honorary degree without examination in 1814. He was the top mathematician at Peterhouse, but failed to graduate with honours. In 1812 Babbage transferred to Peterhouse, Cambridge. In response, he, John Herschel, George Peacock, and several other friends formed the Analytical Society.

He had read extensively in Leibniz, Lagrange, Simpson, and Lacroix and was seriously disappointed in the mathematical instruction available at Cambridge. Babbage arrived at Trinity College, Cambridge in October 1810. Of the first, a clergyman near Cambridge, Babbage said, "I fear I did not derive from it all the advantages that I might have done." The second was an Oxford tutor from whom Babbage learned enough of the Classics to be accepted to Cambridge. He studied with two more private tutors after leaving the academy.

The academy had a well-stocked library that prompted Babbage's love of mathematics. He then joined a 30-student academy under Reverend Stephen Freeman. His parents ordered that his "brain was not to be taxed too much" and Babbage felt that "this great idleness may have led to some of my childish reasonings." He was sent to King Edward VI Grammar School in Totnes, South Devon, a thriving comprehensive school still extant today, but his health forced him back to private tutors for a time. Around age eight he was sent to a country school to recover from a life-threatening fever.

His father's money allowed Charles to receive instruction from several schools and tutors during the course of his elementary education. Michael’s Church. In 1808 the Babbage family moved into the old Rowdens house in East Teignmouth, and Benjamin Babbage became a warden of the nearby St. His mother was Betsy Plumleigh Babbage.

His father, Benjamin Babbage, was a banking partner of the Praeds who owned the Bitton Estate in Teignmouth. Charles Babbage was born in London on December 26, 1791, probably at 44 Crosby Row, Walworth Road, London. . It was built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, indicating that Babbage's machine would have worked.

In 1991, working from Babbage's original plans, a difference engine was completed, and functioned perfectly. Parts of his uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the London Science Museum. Charles Babbage (December 26, 1791 – October 18, 1871) was an English mathematician, analytical philosopher and (proto-) computer scientist who originated the idea of a programmable computer. ISBN 03166484772.

The Cogwheel Brain. Doron Swade. Irascible Genius: A Life of Charles Babbage, Inventor. Maboth Moseley.

ISBN 0691023778. Charles Babbage: Pioneer of the Computer. Anthony Hyman. ISBN 1851960406.

Passages from the Life of a Philosopher. Charles Babbage. Alexander Forbes Babbage (born 1827). Henry Prevost Babbage (born 16 September 1824).

Dugald Bromheald Babbage (born 13 March 1823). Francis Moore Babbage (born 1 June 1821). Edward Stewart Babbage (born 15 December 1819). Geogiana Whitmore Babbage (born 17 July 1818).

Charles Whitmore Babbage (born 22 January 1817). Benjamin Herschel Babbage (born 6 August 1815).

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