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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. Its literary merit is difficult to evaluate in the light of the author's controversial political status, and it is more highly thought of within the PRC than abroad. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. Mao wrote poetry, mainly in the ci and shi forms. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. These include:. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. He wrote several other philosophical treatises, both before and after he assumed power.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Mao is the attributed author of Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, known in the West as the "Little Red Book": this is a collection of extracts from his speeches and articles. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Children:. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. This is a common Chinese naming convention. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. Note that the character ze (泽) appears in all of the siblings' given names.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Siblings:. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. Ancestors:. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Wives:. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. This is intended primarily as an anti-counterfeiting measure as Mao's face is widely recognized in contrast to the generic figures that appear in older currency.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. In the mid-1990s, Mao Zedong's picture began to appear on all new renminbi currency from the People’s Republic of China. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. At the same time, contemporary views about him in the PRC are affected by bans on works that criticise Mao heavily. This established that magnetic force and light were related. However, in an era where economic growth has caused corruption to increase in mainland China, there are those who regard the era of Mao as a time of peace and equality. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". Mao is also criticized for creating a cult of personality.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. His actions during the Cultural Revolution regarding the "Four Great Evils" polarizes many Chinese. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. In mainland China, many people still consider Mao a hero in the first half of his life, but hold that he was too idealistic after gaining power. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. China has moved sharply away from Maoism since Mao's death, and most people outside of China who describe themselves as Maoist regard the Deng Xiaoping reforms to be a betrayal of Mao's legacy.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. The ideology of Maoism has influenced many communists around the world, including third world revolutionary movements such as Cambodia's Khmer Rouge, Peru's Shining Path, the revolutionary movement in Nepal, and also the Revolutionary Communist Party in the United States.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. Even among those who find Mao's ideology to be either unworkable or abhorrent, many acknowledge that Mao was a brilliant political and military strategist - Mao's military writings continue to have a large amount of influence both among those who seek to create an insurgency and those who seek to crush one. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. There is more consensus on Mao's role as a military strategist and tactician during the Chinese Civil War and the Korean War. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Still other critics of Mao fault him for not encouraging birth control and for creating a demographic bump which later Chinese leaders responded to with the one child policy. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. The Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution were also considered to be major disasters in his policy.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Some, including members of the Communist Party of China, hold Mao responsible for initiating the Sino-Soviet Split. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. While the Tigers obtained favorable trade terms from the United States, most Third World capitalist countries did not, and they saw nothing like the social gains in China or the economic growth of the Tigers. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. As if to support this theory, the United States placed a trade embargo on China that lasted until Richard Nixon decided Mao had made himself a force to be reckoned with in dealing with the Soviet Union. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. Mao believed that "socialism is the only way out for China," because the United States and other Western countries would not allow China to join the ranks of advanced capitalism.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The regime that took over in Taiwan was composed of the same people ruling the Mainland for over 20 years when life expectancy was so low, yet life expectancy there also increased. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. Some of the gains may have simply been the result of a country no longer at war, so perhaps any regime could achieve such improvements. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Skeptics observe that similar gains in life expectancy occurred in the East Asian Tigers, most notably Taiwan, which was ruled by Mao's opponents, the Kuomintang. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Indeed, Mao once famously remarked that "Women hold up half the heavens".

This device is known as a homopolar motor. They also argue that the Maoist era improved women's rights by abolishing prostitution, a phenomenon that was to return after Deng Xiaoping and post-Maoist CCP leaders increased liberalization of the economy. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. Some of Mao's supporters view the Kuomintang as having been corrupt and credit Mao with driving them off the Chinese mainland to Taiwan. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. They also state their belief that Mao also industrialized China to a considerable extent and ensured China's sovereignty during his rule. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Supporters also state that under Mao's regime, China ended its "Century of Humiliation" from Western imperialism and regained its status as a major world power.

His greatest work was with electricity. In addition to these increases, the total population of China increased 57% to 700 million, from the constant 400 million mark during the span between the Opium War and the Chinese Civil War. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. At his death, they claim illiteracy had declined to less than seven percent, and average life expectancy had increased to more than 70 years (alternative statistics also quote improvements, though not nearly as dramatic). In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. Supporters of Mao point out that before 1949, for instance, the illiteracy rate in Mainland China was 80 percent, and life expectancy was a meager 35 years. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. According to Deng Xiaoping, Mao was "seven parts right and three parts wrong", and his "contributions are primary and his mistakes secondary.".

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Most mainland Chinese believe that Mao Zedong was a great revolutionary leader, although he made serious mistakes in his later life. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. Some people emphasize the major failures such as the Sino-Soviet Split, the Great Leap Forward and the chaos of the Cultural Revolution. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. Mao's legacy has produced a large amount of controversy. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. His quotations were included in boldface or red type in even the most mundane writings.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. Over the years, Mao's image became displayed everywhere, in every home, office and shop. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. Party members were encouraged to carry a copy with them and possession was almost mandatory in order for membership. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. In October 1966, Mao's Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-Tung (also known as the "Little Red Book") was published. . Their feelings for him were so strong that many followed his urge to challenge all established authority.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. Thus they were his greatest supporters. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. China's youth had mostly been brought up during the Communist era, and they had been told to love Mao. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. The Cult of Mao proved vital in starting the Cultural Revolution. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Numerous posters and musical compositions referred to Mao as "A red sun in the centre of our hearts" (我们心中的红太阳) and a "Savior of the people" (人民的大救星).

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Large quantities of politicised art were produced and circulated - with Mao at the centre. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. In 1962, Mao proposed the Socialist Education Movement (SEM), in an attempt to 'protect' the peasants against the temptations of feudalism and the sprouts of capitalism that he saw re-emerging in the countryside (thanks to Liu's economic reforms). Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Mao said the following about cults at the 1958 Party congress in Chengdu, where he expressed support for the idea of personality cults - even ones like Stalin's:. Michael Faraday Directory. Some people argue that personality cults go against the basic ideas of Marxism, but the propaganda that was inherent with most Communist regimes contradicted this, as can be seen by the Cult of Stalin.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. Mao presented himself as an enemy of landowners, businessmen and Western and American imperialism, as well as an ally of impoverished peasants, farmers and workers. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. One of the reasons Mao is most remembered is the Cult of Mao, the personality cult that was created around him. Finish. Deng Xiaoping defeated Hua Guofeng in a bloodless power struggle shortly afterwards. "Work. Eventually, the moderates won control of the government.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". The other was the reformers, led by Deng Xiaoping, who wanted to overhaul the Chinese economy based on pragmatic policies and to de-emphasize the role of ideology in determining economic and political policy. ISBN 1400060168. One was the restorationists led by Hua Guofeng who advocated a return to central planning along the Soviet model. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. On the other side were the rightists, which consisted of two groups. Hamilton, James (2004). On one side were the leftists led by the Gang of Four, who wanted to continue the policy of revolutionary mass mobilization.

ISBN 0007163762. As anticipated after Mao’s death on September 9, 1976, there was a power struggle for control of China. Harper Collins, London. When Mao could not swim any longer, the indoor swimming pool he had at Zhongnanhai was converted into a giant reception hall, according to Li Zhisui. Faraday: The Life. Mao remained passive as various factions within the Communist Party mobilized for the power struggle anticipated after his death. Hamilton, James (2002). In the last years of his life, Mao was faced with declining health due to either Parkinson's disease or, according to Li Zhisui, motor neuron disease, as well as lung ailments due to smoking and heart trouble.

In 1969, Mao declared the Cultural Revolution to be over, although the official history of the People's Republic of China marks the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976 with Mao's death. Mao lost trust in many of the top CCP figures. It was declared that Lin was planning to depose Mao, and he was posthumously expelled from the CCP. Later, it is unclear whether Lin was planning a military coup (or assassination), but before he could be questioned, Lin died trying to flee China (probably anticipating his arrest) in a suspicious plane crash over Mongolia.

It was during this period that Mao chose Lin Biao to become his successor. The Revolution led to the destruction of much of China's cultural heritage and the imprisonment of a huge number of Chinese intellectuals, as well as creating general economic and social chaos in the country. This allowed Mao to circumvent the Communist hierarchy by giving power directly to the Red Guards, groups of young people, often teenagers, who set up their own tribunals. Facing the prospect of losing his place on the political stage, Mao responded to Liu and Deng's movements by launching the Cultural Revolution in 1966.

Liu and others began to look at the situation much more realistically, somewhat abandoning the idealism Mao wished for. They attempted to marginalize Mao, and by 1959, Liu Shaoqi became State President, but Mao remained Chairman. Following these events, other members of the Communist Party, including Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, decided that Mao should be removed from actual power and only remain in a largely ceremonial and symbolic role. The resulting tension between Khrushchev (at the head of a politically/militarily superior government), and Mao (believing he had a superior understanding of Marxist ideology) eroded the previous patron-client relationship between the USSR and CCP.

Upon the death of Stalin, Mao believed (perhaps because of seniority) leadership of "correct" Marxist doctrine would fall to him. Stalin had established himself as the fount of correct Marxist thought well before Mao controlled the CCP, and therefore Mao never challenged the suitability of any Stalinist doctrine (at least while Stalin was alive). Most of the problems, regarding communist unity, resulted from the death of Stalin and his replacement by Khrushchev. The withdrawal of Soviet aid, border disputes, disputes over the control and direction of world communism, whether it should be revolutionary or status quo, and other disputes pertaining to foreign policy contributed to the Sino-Soviet split in the 1960s.

During the so-called Three Years of Natural Disasters, the excess number of deaths "reached 16 million and other sources give higher figures." (Moise 142) Finally, the Great Leap ended in 1960, as a tremendous economic failure. According to Sun Yefang, the death rate was around 2.54 percent in 1960 and around 9 million "excess deaths" occurred that year. However, the policies of the Great Leap coincided with another round of natural disasters in 1960. According to historian Edwin Moise:.

Due to the tremendous crop failure in 1959 caused by incompetent policies from the Great Leap Forward, around 9 to 12 million people died. In 1957, before the Great Leap, about 7–10 million people died. A mainstream figure is that some thirty million people died during the famine that followed. There is a great deal of controversy over the number of deaths by starvation during the Great Leap Forward.

Unrealistic grain demands by the government, Soviet withdrawl of support, natural disasters, and an economy that had spent ten years recovering from decades of war and chaos caused famine across the nation. Severe droughts also occurred, further reducing agricultural output. Khrushchev cancelled Soviet technical support because of worsening Sino-Soviet relations. According to Zhang Rongmei, a Geometry teacher in rural Shanghai during the Great Leap Forward,.

Although the steel quotas were reached, critics point out much of the steel produced was useless, as it had been made from scrap metal. By 1959, the Great Leap Forward had become a disaster for Red China. Numbers were inflated, although "they were not just lies intended for public consumption, they were actually believed." (Moise 140). A damaging number of agricultural peasants were moved to steel production.

However, instead of maintaining the steady growth, Mao and other party leaders believed they could achieve unrealistically high quotas. At first, the Great Leap began with tremendous success, with agricultural and steel production running very high. Under this economic program, Chinese agriculture was to be collectivized and rural small-scale industry was to be promoted. In 1958, Mao launched the Great Leap Forward, a plan intended as an alternative model for economic growth which contradicted the Soviet model of heavy industry that was advocated by others in the party.

Authors such as Jung Chang allege that the Hundred Flowers Campaign was merely a ruse to root out "dangerous" thinking more easily. However, after a few months, Mao's government reversed its policy and rounded up those who criticized the Party in what is called the Anti-Rightist Movement. This was initially tolerated and even encouraged, since it was thought that constructive criticism would be beneficial to the Party. Given the freedom to express themselves, liberal and intellectual Chinese began opposing the Communist Party and questioning its leadership.

Programs pursued during this time include the Hundred Flowers Campaign, in which Mao indicated his willingness to consider different opinions about how China should be governed. During this period, China sustained yearly increases in GDP of about 4–9% as well as dramatic improvements in quality-of-life indicators such as life expectancy and literacy. Land was redistributed from landowners to poor peasants and large-scale industrialization projects were undertaken, contributing to the construction of a modern national infrastructure. The CPC introduced price controls largely successful at breaking the inflationary spiral of the preceding ROC as well as a Chinese character simplification aimed at increasing literacy.

Following the consolidation of power, Mao launched a phase of rapid collectivization, lasting until around 1958. (Li's book, The Private Life of Chairman Mao, has been subject to controversy.). Li Zhisui, who claimed to be his physician. Mao often did his work either in bed or by the side of the pool during his chairmanship, according to Dr.

He took up residence in Zhongnanhai, a compound next to the Forbidden City in Beijing, and there he decreed the construction of an indoor swimming pool and other buildings. From 1954 to 1959, Mao was the Chairman of the PRC. It was the culmination of over two decades of popular struggle led by the Communist Party. After the Japanese were defeated in World War II, the Communists defeated the Kuomintang in an ensuing civil war and established the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949.

In the early morning of December 10, 1949, Red Army troops laid siege to Chengdu, the last KMT-occupied city in mainland China, and Chiang Kai-shek evacuated from the mainland to Taiwan that same day. On January 21, 1949, Kuomintang forces suffered massive losses against Mao's Red Army. Likewise, the Soviet Union gave quasi-covert support to Mao (acting as a concerned neighbor more than a military ally, to avoid open conflict with the US) and gave large supplies of arms to the Chinese Communists, although newer Chinese records indicate the Soviet "supplies" were not as large as previously believed, and consistently fell short of the promised amount of aid. After the end of World War II, the US continued to support Chiang Kai-shek, now openly against the Communist Red Army, led by Mao Zedong, in the civil war for control of China as part of its view to contain and defeat "world communism".

According to Edwin Moise, in Modern China: A History 2nd Edition,. However, Americans sent a special diplomatic envoy, called the Dixie mission, to the Communists by 1944. Both the Communists and Nationalists have been criticised by academics for fighting amongst themselves rather than ally against the Imperial Japanese Army. In turn, Mao spent some of the war fighting the Kuomintang for control of certain parts of China.

This fact was not understood well in the US, and precious lend-lease armaments continued to be allocated to the Kuomintang. Chiang, in contrast, sought to build the ROC army for the certain conflict with Mao's communist forces after the end of World War II. The US regarded Chiang as an important ally, able to help shorten the war by engaging the Japanese occupiers in China. During the Sino-Japanese War, Mao Zedong's strategies were opposed by both Chiang Kai-shek and the United States.

Also while in Yan'an, Mao divorced He Zizhen and married the actress Lan Ping, who would become known as Jiang Qing. Mao further consolidated power over the Communist Party in 1942 by launching the Cheng Feng, or "Rectification" campaign against rival CPC members such as Wang Ming, Wang Shiwei, and Ding Ling. From his base in Yan'an, Mao led the Communist resistance against the Japanese in the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). At this Conference, Mao entered the Standing Committee of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China.

It was during this 9600-km, year-long journey that Mao emerged as the top Communist leader, aided by the Zunyi Conference and the defection of Zhou Enlai to Mao's side. To evade the KMT forces, the Communists engaged in the "Long March", a retreat from Jiangxi in the southeast to Shaanxi in the northwest of China. Chiang Kai-shek, who had earlier assumed nominal control of China due in part to the Northern Expedition, was determined to eliminate the Communists. Mao was removed from his important positions and replaced by individuals (including Zhou Enlai) who appeared loyal to the orthodox line advocated by Moscow and represented within the CPC by a group known as the 28 Bolsheviks.

Under increasing pressure from the KMT encirclement campaigns, there was a struggle for power within the Communist leadership. Mao, with the help of Zhu De, built a modest but effective guerilla army, undertook experiments in rural reform and government, and provided refuge for Communists fleeing the rightist purges in the cities. It was during this period that Mao married He Zizhen, after Yang Kaihui had been killed by KMT forces. There, from 1931 to 1934, Mao helped establish the Chinese Soviet Republic and was elected chairman.

He and his rag-tag band of loyal guerillas found refuge in the Jinggang Mountains in southeastern China. Mao barely survived this mishap (he escaped his guards on the way to his execution). Mao escaped the white terror in the spring and summer of 1927 and led the ill-fated Autumn Harvest Uprising at Changsha, Hunan, that autumn. During this time, Mao also developed more practical ideas, such as a three-stage theory of guerilla warfare and the concept of the people's democratic dictatorship.

It is difficult to determine the true validity of this theory, however, since so many analyses of it have been heavily influenced by political biases. By applying the theory of the dialectic to real-world conflicts, then by asserting that only the empirical reality of the conflict mattered, Mao developed a type of dialectic theory that was studied for decades. Mao also built on the theories of Hegel and Marx to create a new theory of materialist dialectics. This meant a process of getting party cadres to understand local realities and trying to integrate the concerns of peasants with party policy, something called Mass Line.

Mao hypothesized that peasants could form the basis of a communist revolution, but only if the party elites took the message of revolution to the grass roots and make it comprehensible to the peasant population. Marxism-Leninism could only exist in concrete manifestations, meaning that it could only work if it was applied to certain situations. Mao's thought transformed traditional Marxism into a political ideology that could work to win a revolution and consolidate power in China. These ideas have had a monumental impact on generations of Chinese and have significantly affected the rest of the world.

During this time, Mao developed many of his political theories. Main article: Maoism. The report that Mao produced from this investigation is considered the first important work of Maoist theory. In early 1927, he was dispatched to Hunan province to report on the recent peasant uprisings in the wake of the Northern Expedition.

During the Chinese Civil War’s first KMT-CCP united front, Mao served as the director of the Peasant Training Institute of the Kuomintang (also known as KMT or Nationalist Party). Two years later he was elected to the Central Committee of the party at the Third Congress. At age 27, Mao attended the First Congress of the Communist Party of China in Shanghai on July 23, 1921. Instead of going abroad which was the path of many of his radical compatriots, Mao spent the early 1920s traveling in China, and finally returned to Hunan, where he took the lead in promoting collective action and labor rights.

(When Mao was 14, his father had arranged a marriage for him with a fellow villager, Luo [羅氏], but Mao never recognized this marriage.) (See section 7 Family). Also in Beijing, he married his first wife, Yang Kaihui, a Peking University student and Yang Changji’s daughter. While working for the Peking University library as an assistant librarian, Mao acquired a taste for books, something he was to retain in later years. From Yang's recommendations, he worked under Li Dazhao, the head of the university library and attended speeches by Chen Duxiu.

After graduation from Hunan Normal School in 1918, Mao traveled with his high-school teacher and future father-in-law, Professor Yang Changji (杨昌济), to Beijing during the May Fourth Movement, when Yang lectured at Peking University. In the 1910s, Mao returned to school, where he became an advocate of physical fitness and collective action. During the 1911 Revolution he served in the Hunan provincial army. His ancestors had migrated from Jiangxi province during the Ming Dynasty and had pursued farming for generations.

The eldest son of four children of a moderately prosperous peasant farmer, Mao Zedong was born in the village of Shaoshan in Xiangtan county (湘潭縣), Hunan province. . At the height of his personality cult, Mao was commonly known in China as the "Four Greats": "Great Teacher, Great Leader, Great Supreme Commander, Great Helmsman". Mao Zedong is still sometimes referred to as Chairman Mao (毛主席).

Mao has also been criticized for his contribution to the split with the USSR, his establishment of a one-party dictatorship, and initiating the internal turmoil during the Cultural Revolution. However, critics point out that Mao's inappropriate economic policies in conjunction with the Three Years of Natural Disasters caused the famine of 1959–1961, which lead to the deaths of millions of Chinese. Mao is widely credited for creating a mostly unified China free of foreign domination for the first time since the Opium Wars. He forged but then later split the alliance with the Soviet Union and launched the Cultural Revolution.

While in power, he started a series of experiments aimed at speeding up China's economic development known as the Great Leap Forward. On October 1, 1949, Mao declared the formation of the People's Republic of China at Tiananmen Square. Throughout his leadership, the CCP (Chinese Communist Party) became the ruling party of mainland China as the result of its victory in the Chinese Civil War.  Mao Zedong? (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976; Mao Tse-tung in Wade-Giles) was the chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death.

"Serve the People". "The Foolish Man Who Removed A Mountain". "In Memory of Doctor Bethune". On Guerilla Warfare.

On the Correct Handling of the Contradictions Among the People; 1957. On Literature and Art; 1942. On New Democracy; 1940. On Contradiction; 1937.

On Practice; 1937. Li Na (李讷): daughter to Jiang (whose birth given name was Li), married to Wang Jingqing (王景清), son Wang Xiaozhi (王效芝). Li Min (李敏): daughter to He, married to Kong Linghua (孔令华), son Kong Ji'ning (孔继宁), daughter Kong Dongmei (孔冬梅). Mao Anqing (毛岸青): son to Yang, married to Shao Hua (邵华), son Mao Xinyu (毛新宇).

Mao Anying (毛岸英): son to Yang, married to Liu Siqi (刘思齐), who was born Liu Songlin (刘松林), killed in action during the Korean War. Mao Zehong, sister (executed by the Kuomintang in 1930). Mao Zetan (毛泽覃, 1905-1935), younger brother. Mao Zemin (毛泽民, 1895-1943), younger brother.

Mao Enpu (毛恩普), paternal grandfather. Mao Yichang (毛贻昌, 1870-1920), father, courtesy name Mao Shunsheng (毛顺生). Wen Qimei (文七妹, 1867-1919), mother. Jiang Qing: (江青), married 1939 to Mao's death.

He Zizhen (贺子珍, 1910-1984) of Jiangxi: married May 1928 to 1939. Yang Kaihui (杨开慧, 1901-1930) of Changsha: married 1921 to 1927, executed by the Kuomintang in 1930.

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