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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. Chesterton. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. K. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. Many biographies of Aquinas have been written over the centuries, perhaps the most notable is that by G. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. In most cases, Aquinas finds a reading of the Aristotelian text which might not always satisfy modern scholars of Aristotle but which is a plausible rendering of the Philosopher's meaning and thoroughly Christian.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Indeed, noting distinctions is a necessary part of true philosophical inquiry. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Thus, both doctrines can be said to be true. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. In some cases, the conflict is resolved by showing that a certain term actually has two meanings, the Christian doctrine referring to one meaning, the Aristotelian to the second. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. Modern readers might also find the method frequently used to reconcile Christian and Aristotelian doctrine rather strenuous.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Through the work of 20th century philosophers such as Elizabeth Anscombe (especially in her book Intention), Aquinas's Principle of double effect specifically and his theory of intentional activity generally have been influential. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. On the other hand, many modern ethicists, both within and outside of the Catholic Church, have recently become very excited about Aquinas's virtue ethics, notably Philippa Foot and Alasdair MacIntyre, as a way of avoiding utilitarianism or Kantian deontology. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. However, since some of his teachings have been repudiated even by the Church, the contemporary view would seem to have been shown correct in at least those cases. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. Conflict between Aquinas's view and the majority contemporary ethical view make Aquinas's position philosophically questionable if and only if the contemporary ethical view can be philosophically shown to be the correct one.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. (ST II:II 65:2). In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. He also said masters have the right to strike their slaves to punish them. This established that magnetic force and light were related. 39:1). He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". He also maintained the intellectual inferiority of women and their subjection to men on that account (ST I:92:1), which is why he opposed the ordination of women (ST Supp.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. For example, he held that heresy should be punished by death, in ST II:II 11:3, an opinion now repudiated by the Catholic Church, but for many years held and practiced. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. Some of Thomas's ethical conclusions are at odds with the majority view in the contemporary West. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. ("Bibliography", 1990).
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. Category (3): Thirteen commentaries on Aristotle, and numerous philosophical opuscula of which fourteen are classed as genuine.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. Also: Expositio in librum beati Dionysii de divinis nominibus; Expositiones primoe et secundoe decretalis; In Boethii libros de hebdomadibus Proeclaroe quoestiones super librum Boethii de trinitate. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. Category (2):. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Numerous other works have been attributed to him. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. Category (1) includes:.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. The writings of Thomas may be classified as:. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. At the Council of Trent only two books were placed on the Altar, the Bible and St. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. In 1319, the Roman Catholic Church began investigations preliminary to Aquinas's canonization; on July 18, 1323, he was pronounced a saint by Pope John XXII at Avignon.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. In the Divine Comedy Dante sees the glorified spirit of Aquinas in the Heaven of the Sun, with the other great exemplars of religious wisdom. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He was placed on a level with the saints Paul and Augustine, receiving the title doctor angelicus (Angelic Doctor). Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Aquinas had made a remarkable impression on all who knew him. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. He died at the monastery of Fossanova, one mile from Sonnino, on March 7, 1274.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. He wished to end his days in a monastery and not being able to reach a house of the Dominicans he was taken to the Cistercians. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. On the way he stopped at the castle of a niece and there became seriously ill. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. Early in 1274 the Pope directed him to attend the Second Council of Lyons and, though far from well, he undertook the journey. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. On the other hand, the consciousness of the insufficiency of his works in view of the revelation which he believed he had received was a cause of dissatisfaction for him.

His greatest work was with electricity. Because of the keen grasp he had of his materials, in his writings Thomas does not, like Duns Scotus, make the reader his associate in the search for truth, but teaches it authoritatively. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. The ideas he developed by such strenuous absorption he was able to express for others systematically, clearly and simply. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. When absorbed in thought, he often forgot his surroundings. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. His associates were specially impressed by his power of memory.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. His tastes were simple. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. In argument he maintained self-control and won over opponents by his personality and great learning. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. His manners showed his breeding; he is described as refined, affable, and lovable. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Contemporaries described Thomas as a big man, corpulent and dark-complexioned, with a large head and receding hairline.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. When asked why he had stopped writing, Aquinas replied, "I cannot go on...All that I have written seems to me like so much straw compared to what I have seen and what has been revealed to me." He died on March 7, 1274. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. Aquinas had a mystical experience while celebrating Mass on December 6, 1273, after which he stopped writing, leaving his great work, the Summa Theologica, unfinished. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. In 1272 the provincial chapter at Florence empowered him to found a new studium generale at such place as he should choose, and he selected Naples. . In 1269-71 he was again active in Paris.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. At the solicitation of Pope Urban IV (therefore not before the latter part of 1261), he took up his residence in Rome. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. In 1259 he was present at an important chapter of his order at Valenciennes. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Ultimately, however, he received the degree and entered upon his office of teaching in 1257; he taught in Paris for several years and there wrote some of his works and began others. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. In 1252 Aquinas went to Paris for the master's degree, but met with some difficulty owing to attacks on the mendicant orders by the professoriate of the University.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. This long association of Thomas with the great philosopher theologian was the most important influence in his development; it made him a comprehensive scholar and won him permanently for the Aristotelian method. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. For several years longer he remained with the famous philosopher of scholasticism, presumably teaching. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. He accompanied Albertus to the University of Paris in 1245, remained there with his teacher for three years, and followed Albertus back to Cologne in 1248. Michael Faraday Directory. Finally the family yielded and the Dominicans sent Thomas to Cologne to study under Albertus Magnus; he arrived probably in late 1244.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. According to his earliest biographers, the family even brought a prostitute to tempt him, but he drove her away. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. This change of heart did not please the family; on the way to Rome, Thomas was seized by his brothers and brought back to his parents at the castle of San Giovanni, where he was held a captive for a year or two to make him relinquish his purpose. Finish. However, after studying at the University of Naples, Thomas joined the Dominican order, which along with the Franciscan order represented a revolutionary challenge to the well-established clerical systems of early medieval Europe. "Work. In his fifth year he was sent for his early education to the monastery.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Landulf's brother, Sinibald, was abbot of the original Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino, and the family intended Thomas to follow his uncle into that position; this would have been a normal career-path for a younger son of the nobility. ISBN 1400060168. He was probably born early in 1225 at his father Count Landulf's castle of Roccasecca in the kingdom of Naples. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. He was born into a family of the south Italian nobility and was through his mother Countess Theadora of Theate related to the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Holy Roman emperors. Hamilton, James (2004). The life of Thomas Aquinas offers many interesting insights into the world of the High Middle Ages.

ISBN 0007163762. . Harper Collins, London. Thomas University in Saint Paul, Minnesota, Aquinas College in Grand Rapids, Michigan, Aquinas College in Stockport, England, Aquinas College in Perth, Western Australia, and the University of Santo Tomas in Manila, the Philippines. Faraday: The Life. Thomas University in Fredericton, New Brunswick, the University of Saint Thomas, Thomas Aquinas College in Santa Paula, California St. Hamilton, James (2002). Louis, Missouri, St.

Thomas in Houston, Texas, Aquinas Institute of Theology in St. Institutions of learning named for him are the University of St. He is considered by the Catholic Church to be its greatest theologian and one of the thirty-three Doctors of the Church. He gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church.

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – March 7, 1274) was an Italian Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition. New York: Funk and Wagnalls. 38-40. 2, pp.

In The Jewish Encyclopedia, v. Toy, Crawford Howell and Broydé, Isaac (1906), "Aquinas, Thomas". New York: Funk and Wagnalls. 422-427.

11, pp. In Samuel Macauley Jackson (Ed.), The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, v. "Thomas Aquinas" (1908). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

987-988. 2, pp. Adler (Ed.), Great Books of the Western World, 2nd ed., v. In Mortimer J.

"Bibliography of Additional Readings" (1990). Commentary on the Logic of Aristotle. First Treatise on Univerals. Catena aurea.

De Natura Verbi Intellectus. De Natura Materiae et Dimensionibus Interminalis. Two Precepts of Charity, 1273. De Mixtione Elementorum ad Magistrum Philippe, 1273.

Compendium of Theology, 1273. De Substantiis Separatis, 1272-1273. The Unicity of the Intellect, 1270. De Aeternitate Mundi Contra Murmurantes, 1270.

Contra Pestiferam Doctrinam Retrahentium Homines a Religionis Ingressu, 1270. De Perfectione Vitae Spiritualis, 1269. On Spiritual Creatures, 1266-1269. Summa Theologica, 1265-1272.

On Kingship: To the King of Cyprus, 1265-1266. Summa contra Gentiles, 1258-1264. Super Boethium de Hebdomadibus, 1258. On the Trinity of Boethius, 1257-1258.

Contra Impugnantes Dei Cultum et Religionem, 1257. On the Power of God, 1265-1267. Concerning the Teacher. On Truth (De Veritate), 1256-1259

    .

    Disputed Questions, 1256-1272

      . The Principles of Nature, 1255. On Being and Essence (De Ente et Essentia), 1254-1256. De Propositionibus Modalibus, 1244-1245.

      De Fallaciis, 1244. Summa theologiae - his magnum opus. Quaestiones quodlibetales duodecim; Summa catholicae fidei contra gentiles (1261-64);. Quaestiones disputatae.

      In quatuor sententiarum libros. Officium de corpora Christi (1264). reportata, on John, on Matthew, and on the epistles of Paul, including, according to one authority, Hebrews i.-x. Commentaries on Canticles and Jeremiah.

      Catena aurea (1475)- a running commentary on the four Gospels, constructed on numerous citations from the Church Fathers. Commentaries on Job (1261-65), Psalms i - li, and Isaiah.

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