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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. He also denounced the worship of gods and goddesses as a means of material gains and personal benefits. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. Mahavira rejected the concept of God as a creator, a protector, and a destroyer of the universe. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. Mahavira advocated a sort of universal love, saying that all living beings, irrespective of their size, shape, and form, and whether spiritually developed or undeveloped, are equal, and we should love and respect them. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. As a reflection of his teaching of universal compassion, he said that "A living body is not merely an integration of limbs and flesh but it is the abode of the soul which potentially has perfect perception (Anant-darshana), perfect knowledge (Anant-jnana), perfect power (Anant-virya), and perfect bliss (Anant-sukha).".

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. In particular, Ghandi embraced the concept of Ahimsa originating with Mahavira. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Mahavira's message of nonviolence (Ahimsa), truth (Satya), non-stealing (Achaurya), chastity (Brahma-charya), and non-possession (Aparigraha) influenced future generations. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Mahavira taught the idea of supremacy of human life and stressed the importance of the positive attitude of life. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. They see his teachings as reflecting the internal beauty and harmony of the soul.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Jains credit Mahavira with making religion simple and natural, free from elaborate ritual complexities. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. Later generations saw the introduction of ritualistic complexities that some have criticized with almost placing Mahavira and other Tirthankars on the thrones of Hindu deities. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. There were schisms on some minor points, although they did not affect the original doctrines as preached by Mahavira. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. A few centuries after Mahavira's death, the Jain religious order (Sangha) grew more and more complex.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. However, Mahavira did reorganize the philosophical tenets of Jainism to correspond to his times. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. He followed the well established creed of his predecessor Tirthankar Parshvanath. This established that magnetic force and light were related. Thus, Mahavira was more of a reformer and propagator of an existing religious order than the founder of a new faith. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". Jainism existed before Mahavira, and his teachings were based on those of his predecessors.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. Swetambar Jains have accepted these sutras as authentic version of His teachings while Digambar Jains use them as a reference. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. About one thousand years later the Agam Sutras were recorded on Tadpatris (leafy paper that was used in those days to preserve records for future references). He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. In the course of time, many of the Agam Sutras have been lost, destroyed, or modified.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. These Agam Sutras were orally passed on to future generations.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. Lord Mahavira's sermons were orally compiled by his immediate disciples in the Agam Sutras. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. This order is known as Chaturvidh Jain Sangh. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. He organized his followers into a four fold order, namely monk (Sadhu), nun (Sadhvi), layman (Shravak), and laywoman (Shravika). Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. Mahavira attracted people from all walks of life, rich and poor, kings and commoners, men and women, princes and priests, touchable and untouchable.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. In the matters of spiritual advancement, as envisioned by Mahavira, both men and women are on an equal footing and were taught by Mahavira that they may equally renounced the world in search of ultimate happiness. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Monks and nuns are held to follow these vows strictly and totally, while the common people may follow the vows as far as their life styles will permit. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. As taught by Mahavira, Jains belive that these vows can not be fully implemented without the acceptance of a philosophy of non-absolutism (Anekantvada) and the theory of relativity (Syadvada, also translated "qualified prediction"). The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. At the heart of right conduct for Jains lie the five great vows:.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. To liberate one's self, Mahavira taught the neccesity of right faith (samyak-darshana), right knowledge (samyak-jnana), and right conduct (samyak-charitra'). Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. These result in further accumulation of karmas. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Under the influence of karma, the soul is habituated to seek pleasures in materialistic belongings and possessions, which are the deep rooted causes of self-centered violent thoughts, deeds, anger, hatred, greed, and such other vices. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Mahavira preached that from eternity, every living being (soul) is in bondage of karmic atoms that are accumulated by good or bad deeds.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. The ultimate objective of his teaching is how one can attain total freedom from the cycle of birth, life, pain, misery, and death, and achieve the permanent blissful state of one's self, or Moksha, Sanskrit for "liberation". A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. Mahavira spent the next thirty years travelling bare foot around India preaching to the people the eternal truth he realized. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. During this period, Jains believe his that he attained keval-jnana, or perfect enlightenement, in which spiritual powers fully become developed and perfect perception, knowledge, power, and bliss are realized. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. His enduring calm and peaceful character against all unbearable hardships presence the influence of his title, Mahavir (a Sanskrit word, meaning very brave and courageous), given to him by his peers.

His greatest work was with electricity. He also went without food for long periods. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. He carefully avoided harming or annoying other living beings including animals, birds, and plants. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. After he renounced his princehood, he spent the next twelve and half years in deep silence and meditation and took on the discipline of conquering his desires, feelings, and attachments. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.
.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. It should be noted that "the dates that Jainas attach to Mahavira's life are 599-527 B.C.," though "some modern scholars prefer 549-477 B.C."1. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. Jains signify Dipavali, the last day of the Hindu and Jain calendars, as the anniversery of his death and, accordingly, the day he attained Moksha. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. He died in 527 BC at the age of 72. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. At one point, it is said that Mahavira had more than 400,000 followers.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. Being the son of King Siddartha and Queen Trisala, he lived the life of a prince; but at the age of thirty, he left his family, gave up his worldly possessions (over the course of a year), and spent twelve years as an ascetic. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. He was known as "Vardhamana" (increasing) because it is said that his family's wealth grew after his conception. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. He died at Pawapuri. . His birthday is celebrated as Mahavir Jayanti.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. According to the Gregorian calendar, Mahavira was born in April. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. Mahavira was born on the thirteenth day under the rising moon of Chaitra, in the ancient republic of Vaishali, now a district of Bihar state, India. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. . Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Mahavira established what are today considered to be the central tenents of Jainism and was a contemporary of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Mahavira (वर्धमान महावीर) or Mahavir (the "Great Hero" -- Also, Vardhamana (increasing) or Niggantha Nathaputta -- 599 BC-527 BC, though possibly 549 BC-477 BC) was the 24th, and last, Jainist Tirthankara. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. 451. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Harper & Row Publishers: New York, 1989. Michael Faraday Directory. ^  The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. Keith Crim, editor.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. "Once when he sat [in meditation]...they cut his flesh...tore his hair...picked him up and...dropped him...the Venerable One bore the pain." (from the Akaranga Sutra). Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Non-possession/Non-attachment (Aparigraha)- complete detachment from people, places, and material things. Finish. Chastity (Brahmacharya)- not to indulge in sensual pleasure. "Work. Non-stealing (Asteya)- not to take anything not properly given.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Truthfulness (Satya)- to speak the harmless truth only. ISBN 1400060168. Nonviolence (Ahimsa)- not to cause harm to any living beings. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Hamilton, James (2004).

ISBN 0007163762. Harper Collins, London. Faraday: The Life. Hamilton, James (2002).

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