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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. ^ The given name Anton can also be found written as Anthon, Anthony, Antonie, Antony, Anthonie, Antoni, and Anthoni.. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. However, others argue that there appears to be little physical similarity[9]. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. Also, it is known that Van Leeuwenhoek acted as the executor when the painter died in 1675. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Because they were both relatively important men in a city with only 24,000 inhabitants, it is possible that they were at least acquaintances.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. It has been suggested that he is the man portrayed in two of Vermeer's paintings of the late 1660s, The astronomer and The geographer. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Van Leeuwenhoek was a contemporary of that other famous Delft citizen, painter Johannes Vermeer, who was baptized just four days earlier. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. 196)[7][8]. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. The microscope gave him the opportunity to study and admire the small organisms, the “animalcules,” and whenever he was able he expressed his admiration of the beautiful things he saw.” (Schierbeek, p.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). To him, as to many others of his time, a watch was a greater specimen of craftsmanship than a clock in a tower; this opinion is reflected in his biological views. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. He asked of his challengers only that they prove their points as he proved his.” Schierbeek says, “Leeuwenhoek was driven by a passionate desire to penetrate more deeply into the mysteries of creation. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. He loved truth above any theory, even his own. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. His virtues were perseverance, simplicity, and stubbornness.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. Dan Graves, in Scientists of Faith (Kregel, 1996), writes, “He often referred with reverence to the wonders God designed in making creatures small and great. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. From Leeuwenhoek’s writings we frequently sense the awe and wonder that can only emanate from a man who has a joyful, personal relationship with God the Creator. This established that magnetic force and light were related. 171)[6]. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". (Schierbeek, p.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. And this most wonderful disposition of nature with regard to these animalcules for the preservation of their species; which at the same time strikes us with astonishment, must surely convince all of the absurdity of those old opinions, that living creatures can be produced from corruption of putrefaction. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. From all these observations, we discern most plainly the incomprehensible perfection, the exact order, and the inscrutable providential care with which the most wise Creator and Lord of the Universe had formed the bodies of these animalcules, which are so minute as to escape our sight, to the end that different species of them may be preserved in existence. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. The preceding kinds of experiments I have repeated many times with the same success, and in particular with some of the sediment which had been kept in my study for about five months.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. After another remarkable series of experiments on rotifers in 1702 he concluded:.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. 137)[5]. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. This must appear wonderful, and be a confirmation of the principle, that all living creatures deduce their origin from those which were formed at the Beginning.” (Schierbeek, p. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. For example, after working for weeks observing the propagation of insects, Leeuwenhoek stated confidently, “. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. He believed it foolish to think his little “animalcules” could have formed by chance, and he worked diligently to prove that all things reproduce after their kind, as the book of Genesis teaches.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. It is clear, too, from his stand against non-Christian superstitions such as the doctrine of spontaneous generation, that he held to a Biblical doctrine of creation. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. 31)[4]. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Without ever lapsing into high-flown phrases he repeatedly gave evidence of his religious faith: ‘Let us lay the hand on our mouth, and reflect that the All-wise hath deemed this needful for the reproduction of all that hath received movement and growth, and so, the why and the wherefore we can but guess after.’” (Schierbeek, p. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. Of Leeuwenhoek’s personal faith, Schierbeek says, “To this we must add his deep religious assurance, his complete faith in the ‘All-wise Creator,’ a never-flagging admiration for the perfection of the most minute, hidden mysteries of the work of His hands and the conviction that his researches would surely help to make His Omnipotence more universally known.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. Thus we see again that Christianity was the driving force during the rise of modern science. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. 200)[3]. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Schierbeek observes, “His works are full of his admiration of creation and the Creator, a theme which is frequently found in writings of this period; in becoming better acquainted with creation, men wanted to get nearer the Creator, a conviction which is found among many of the early members of the Royal Society.” (Schierbeek, p. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Schierbeek, the Editor-in-Chief of the collected letters of Leeuwenhoek, explains that he was part of the ‘New Philosophy’ of scientists like Robert Boyle, who regarded the study of nature as “a work to the glory of God and the benefit of Man.” The newly-formed Royal Society was made up largely of Puritans with similar convictions, from which we can infer Leeuwenhoek shared with them a common bond of belief, since he took great pride in his relationship with the Royal Society, mentioning it on his title pages and even on his tombstone.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. A. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. Of his religion, Richard Westfall of Indiana University writes, “He was baptized and buried in Calvinist churches, and his second wife was the daughter of a Calvinist minister.” This tradition, furthermore, understood and encouraged man’s role in the investigation of God’s handiwork in nature. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. He often referred with reverence to the wonders God designed in making creatures small and great.[2] He was born into the Dutch Reformed tradition, which had a high view of Scripture and salvation in Jesus, and a firm doctrine of creation. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Antony van Leeuwenhoek was a solid Dutch Reformed, Calvinist.

His greatest work was with electricity. . However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. He died at 91, on August 30, 1723. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. Nine years later he obtained a degree in geography, leading to his appointment as geographer in 1679. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. In 1660, Van Leeuwenhoek was appointed chamberlain of the Lord Regents of Delft.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. In 1674 he discovered infusoria (dated zoölogical category,) in 1676 he discovered bacteria, in 1677 he discovered spermatozoi and in 1682 he discovered the banded pattern of muscular fibers. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. These letters dealt with the subjects he had investigated. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. Ever since his invitation, he wrote approximately 560 letters to the society and other scientific institutions over a period of 50 years. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. This resulted in his appointment in 1680.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. After this important invention and his thorough use of it, he was introduced to the Royal Society by the famous Dutch Physician Regnier de Graaf. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. He spent his nights studying everything he could and carefully noted his observations. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. From there, he grew an insatiable interest for the field. . His microscope was used and improved by Christiaan Huygens for his own investigations into microscopy.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. He was introduced to microscopy by Huygens to observe the quality of the fabrics that he sold. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The microscopes were very minute, and were held by the thumb and index finger. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. These little devices are up to today still called "thread counters" in Dutch, when literally translated. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. He used a magnifying lens to study the quality of the cloth he sold, which magnified at about 3x power.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. In 1654, he moved back to Delft and started a drapery business, since he had been educated as a textile salesman. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. It is suspected, though, that Antoni possessed some microscopes that could magnify up to 500 times. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Those that survived the years are able to magnify up to 270 times. Michael Faraday Directory. His microscopes were made of silver or copper metal frames holding home-wrought lenses.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. He also created over 400 different types of microscopes, only nine of which still exist today. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Van Leeuwenhoek ground over 500 optical lenses during his lifetime. Finish. Using his handcrafted microscope he was the first to observe and describe muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa and blood flow in capillaries (small blood vessels). "Work. Born the son of a basket weaver, he is best known for his contribution to improvement of the microscope and his contributions towards the establishment of cell biology.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Anton[1] van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 30, 1723, full name Thonius Philips van Leeuwenhoek) was a tradesman and scientist from Delft, in the Netherlands. ISBN 1400060168. ^ http://www.creationsafaris.com/wgcs_2.htm. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. This book (223 pp.) contains excerpts of Leeuwenhoek’s letters and focuses on his priority in several new branches of science, but makes several important references to his spiritual life and motivation. Hamilton, James (2004). Leeuwenhoek, Formerly Lecturer in the History of Biology in the University of Leyden, Measuring the Invisible World: The Life and Works of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek F R S, Abelard-Schuman (London and New York, 1959), QH 31 L55 S3, LC 59-13233 .

ISBN 0007163762. v. Harper Collins, London. Schierbeek, PhD, Editor-in-Chief of the Collected Letters of A. Faraday: The Life. ^ A. Hamilton, James (2002). ^ http://www.adherents.com/people/pl/Antony_van_Leeuwenhoek.html.

62–67. Vrij Nederland (Dutch magazine), p. Vermeer, Van Leeuwenhoek en De Astronoom. (February 24 1996).

^  Van Berkel, K.

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