This page will contain wikis about Michael Faraday, as they become available.|
Michael FaradayMichael Faraday
Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.
Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.
Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.
At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.
In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.
His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.
Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.
His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.
Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.
Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.
In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.
In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.
He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.
Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.
His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.
His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.
Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.
Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.
He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.
This page about Michael Faraday includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Michael Faraday
News stories about Michael Faraday
External links for Michael Faraday
Videos for Michael Faraday
Wikis about Michael Faraday
Discussion Groups about Michael Faraday
Blogs about Michael Faraday
Images of Michael Faraday
He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.
Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Also like other Bolsheviks, he became commonly known by one of his revolutionary noms de guerre, of which Stalin was only the most prominent. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Сталин (Stalin) is derived from combining the Russian сталь (stal), "steel," with the possessive suffix –ин (–in), a formula used by many other Bolsheviks, including Lenin and Bukharin. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. An article in the newspaper Pravda in 1988 claimed that the word derives from the Old Georgian for "steel," which might be the reason for his adoption of the name Stalin. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. In a second version, the name derives from the village of Jugaani in Kakhetia, eastern Georgia.
(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). In one version, it is the Ossetian for "rubbish"; the name Jugayev is common among Ossetians, and before the revolution the names in South Ossetia were traditionally written with the Georgian suffix, especially among Christianized Ossetians. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. There are several etymologies of the ჯუღა (jugha) root. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. –შვილი (–shvili) is a Georgian suffix meaning "child" or "son". This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. The Russian transliteration is Джугашвили, which is in turn transliterated into English as Dzhugashvili and Djugashvili.
This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. His original surname, ჯუღაშვილი (Jughashvili), is also transliterated as Jugashvili. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. His first name is also transliterated as Josif. This established that magnetic force and light were related. On the other hand the large-scale purges were never repeated. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". However, his immediate successors continued to follow the basic principles of Stalin's rule — the political monopoly of the Communist Party presiding over a command economy and a security service able to suppress dissent.
The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. In his "Secret Speech", "On the Personality Cult and its Consequences", delivered to a closed session of the 20th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Khrushchev denounced Stalin for his cult of personality and his regime for "violation of Leninist norms of legality". In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. While Stalin's social and economic policies laid the foundations for the USSR's emergence as a superpower, the harshness in which he conducted Soviet affairs was subsequently repudiated by his successors in the Communist Party leadership, notably the denunciation of Stalinism by Nikita Khrushchev in February 1956. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Many have also argued that Stalin was partially responsible for the initial military disasters and enormous human causalities during WWII, because Stalin eliminated many of the military officers during the purges, especially the most senior ones, and ignored the massive amount of information warning of the German attack .
That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. However, historian Robert Conquest and other Westerners claim that the USSR was bound for industrialisation which was not necessarily enhanced by Bolshevik influence. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. The USSR's industrialisation was successful in that the country was able to defend against and eventually defeat the Axis invasion in World War II though at an enormous cost of human lives. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Overall, under Stalin's rule the Soviet Union was transformed from an agricultural nation to a global superpower. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. A recent poll revealed that over twenty-five percent of Russians would vote for Stalin if he were still alive, and the number of people who want a leader like Stalin continues to grow.
These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Millions of Russians, exasperated with the downfall of the economy and instability after the breakup of the Soviet Union, want Stalin back. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. In recent years, Stalin's cult of personality has resurged. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Stalin became the focus of a body of literature including poetry as well as music, paintings and film. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. The personality cult reached new levels during the Great Patriotic War with Stalin's name even being included in the new Soviet national anthem.
He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. Trotsky criticized the cult of personality Stalin built as being against the values of socialism and Bolshevism by exalting the individual above the party and class and making criticism of Stalin unacceptable. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. "Coryphaeus of Science," "Father of Nations," "Brilliant Genius of Humanity," "Great Architect of Communism," "Gardener of Human Happiness"), and helped rewrite Soviet history to provide himself a more significant role in the revolution, meanwhile insisting that he be remembered for "the extraordinary modesty characteristic of truly great people.". Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. The dictator relished grandiloquent titles (e.g. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Numerous towns, villages and cities were renamed after the Soviet leader (see List of places named after Stalin) and the Stalin Prize and Stalin Peace Prize were named in his honor.
This device is known as a homopolar motor. Stalin became the focus of massive adoration and even worship. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. The embalming of the Soviet founder in Lenin's Tomb was done over the objection of Lenin's widow, Nadezhda Krupskaya. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. Stalin is well known for having created a cult of personality in the Soviet Union around both himself and Lenin. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Whether or not Beria or others were directly responsible for his death it is true that the politburo did not summon medical attention for him for more than a day after he had been found.
His greatest work was with electricity. His demise, however, arrived at a convenient time for Beria and others, scheduled to be swept away in another Stalin purge. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. But the facts of Stalin's death will probably never be known with certainty. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. Since it is flavorless, warfarin is a plausible murder weapon. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. The political memoirs of Vyacheslav Molotov, published in 1993, claimed Beria had boasted to Molotov that he poisoned Stalin: "I took him out." In 2003, a joint group of Russian and American historians announced their view that Stalin ingested warfarin, a powerful rat poison that thins the blood vessels and causes strokes and hemorrhages.
When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. The ex-Communist exile Avtorkhanov argued this point as early as 1975. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. It has been suggested that Stalin was murdered. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. Stalin's body was then buried by the Kremlin walls. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. His body was preserved in Lenin's Mausoleum until October 31, 1961, when destalinisation was taking place in the Soviet Union.
At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. Officially, the cause of death was listed as a cerebral hemorrhage. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. He died four days later, on March 5, 1953, at the age of 73, and was buried on March 9. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. Although his guards thought it odd that he did not rise at his usual time the next day they were under orders not to disturb him and he was not discovered until that evening. . On March 1, 1953, after an all-night dinner with interior minister Lavrenty Beria and future premiers Georgi Malenkov, Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev, Stalin collapsed in his room, having probably suffered a stroke that paralyzed the right side of his body.
The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. According to Khrushchev's autobiography, Stalin frequently engaged in all night partying, with his aides, after which he would sleep all day and expect them to stay up and run the country. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. Stalin and his supporters, in his own time and since, have highlighted the notion that socialism can be built and consolidated in just one country, even one as underdeveloped as Russia was during the 1920s, and indeed that this might be the only means in which it could be built in a hostile environment.. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. The concept of non-antagonistic classes was entirely new to Leninist theory. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. In addition to these, Stalin distinguished the stratum of intelligentsia.
He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. These corresponded to the two different forms of property over the means of production that existed in the Soviet Union: state property (for the workers) and collective property (for the peasantry). Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. In 1936, Stalin announced that the society of the Soviet Union consisted of two non-antagonistic classes: workers and kolkhoz peasantry. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Stalin made very few contributions to Communist (or, more specifically, Marxist-Leninist) theory, but the contributions he did make were to be accepted and upheld by all Soviet political scientists during his rule. Michael Faraday Directory. According to some witness accounts, the anti-Semitic campaigns of 1948-1953 (see Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, rootless cosmopolitan, doctors' plot) were only the precursors of greater repression to come, but if such plans did indeed exist, Stalin died before he could implement them.
The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. Stalin's internal repressive policies continued and intensified (including in newly acquired territories), but never reached the extremes of the 1930s. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Examples include the boiler engine, reclaimed by father and son Cherepanovs; the electric bulb, by Yablochkov and Lodygin; the radio, by Popov; the airplane, by Mozhaysky; etc. Finish. For instance, some inventions and scientific discoveries were reclaimed by ethnic Russian researchers. "Work. By the end of 1940s, Russian nationalism increased.
"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". At home, Stalin presented himself as a great wartime leader who had led the USSR to victory against the Nazis. ISBN 1400060168. (See also Iron curtain.). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. The relations between the Soviet Union and its former World War II western allies soon broke down, and gave way to a prolonged period of tension and distrust between east and west known as the Cold War. Hamilton, James (2004). It confirmed the fears of many in the West that the Soviet Union still intended to spread communism across the world.
ISBN 0007163762. This action reversed the hopes of the West that Eastern Europe would be friendly to the West and form a cordon sanitaire (buffer) against Communism. Harper Collins, London. Stalin viewed Soviet consolidation of power in the region as a necessary step to protect the USSR by surrounding it with countries with friendly governments, to act as a buffer against possible invaders. Faraday: The Life. Communist Albania remained an ally, but Yugoslavia under Josip Broz Tito broke with the USSR. Hamilton, James (2002). In 1948 this decision led to the establishment of Stalinist governments in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria, later called the "Communist Bloc".
Moreover, Stalin made a decision to switch to direct control over his satellites in Central Europe: all of the countries were to be ruled by local communist parties that tried to implement the Soviet template locally. East Germany was proclaimed a separate country in 1949, ruled by German communists. The foundation of Trizonia and American help for the anti-communist side in the Greek Civil War changed the situation. Stalin hoped that the withdrawal of the Americans from Europe would lead to Soviet hegemony over the whole continent.
Greece, Italy and France were under the strong influence of local communist parties, which were at the very least friendly towards Moscow. Finland retained formal independence, but was politically isolated and economically dependent on the Soviet Union. Soviet-friendly governments were established in Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and homegrown communist regimes existed in Yugoslavia and Albania. Following World War II, the Red Army occupied much of the territory that had been formerly held by the Axis countries: there were Soviet occupation zones in Germany and Austria, and Hungary and Poland were under practical military occupation, despite the fact that the latter was formally an Allied country.
To this day the war is remembered very vividly in Russia, Belarus, and other parts of the former Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War, and May 9, Victory Day, is one of Russia's biggest national holidays. In the Soviet Union, World War II left a huge deficit of men of the wartime fighting-age generation. This concept of Slavic inferiority was also the reason why Hitler did not accept into his army many Russians who wanted to fight the Stalinist regime until 1944, when the war was lost for Germany. The Nazis considered Slavs to be "sub-human," and many people believe the Nazis killed Slavs as an ethnically targeted genocide.
Approximately 7 million Red Army personnel and 20 million civilians died. The Soviet Union bore the brunt of civilian and military losses in World War II. German sources estimate the number of civilians killed in the final days of the war, and in the process of expelling Germans from lands to be annexed to Poland and the Soviet Union, at 1.5 million to 2 million. Take her as your legitimate booty." Millions of German women were raped, often gang raped, repeatedly.
Break the racial pride of the German woman. This program was officially urged on Red Army men by Soviet propagandist Ilya Ehrenburg, who among other things wrote: "Follow the words of Comrade Stalin and crush forever the fascist beast... After the tide of war had changed in the Soviet Union's favor, the Red Army in its 1945 conquest of eastern Germany took revenge for German depredations and genocide by embarking on a systematic program of pillaging, expropriation, rape and murder against the remaining German civilian inhabitants. Unfortunately, this, along with abuse by German troops, caused inconceivable starvation and suffering among the civilian population that were left behind.
In the war's opening stages, the retreating Red Army also sought to deny resources to the enemy through a scorched earth policy of destroying the infrastructure and food supplies of areas before the Germans could seize them. The surrendering Soviet troops of the first years of Barbarossa were sent to the Gulag after their release from POW camps. Barrier forces of SMERSH were soon set up behind advances to machine-gun anyone who retreated. Other orders declared that the families of those who surrendered were subject to NKVD terror.
227 of July 27, 1942 illustrates the ruthlessness with which he sought to stiffen army resolve: all those who retreated or otherwise left their positions without orders to do so were to be summarily shot. Stalin's Order No. Additionally, Stalin was well aware that other European armies had utterly disintegrated when faced with Nazi military efficacy and responded effectively by subjecting his army to galvanizing terror and unrevolutionary patriotism. (In his autobiography Khrushchev claimed that Stalin tried to conduct tactical decisions using a world globe.) Yet Stalin did rapidly move Soviet industrial production east of the Volga river, far from Luftwaffe-reach, to sustain the Red Army's war machine with astonishing success.
His shortcomings as strategist are frequently noted regarding massive Soviet loss of life and early Soviet defeats. Stalin met in several conferences with Churchill and/or Roosevelt in Moscow, Tehran, Yalta, and Potsdam to plan military strategy. Stalin then worked with independent-minded Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov to orchestrate the decisive German defeat at the Battle of Stalingrad. The Soviet Red Army did put up fierce resistance, but during the war's early stages was largely ineffective against the better-equipped and trained German forces, until the invaders were halted and then driven back in December 1941 in front of Moscow.
He claimed that although 350,000 troops had been killed by German attacks, the Germans had lost 4.5 million soldiers (an inflated figure) and that Soviet victory was near. In response on November 6, 1941, Stalin addressed the Soviet Union for only the second time during his three-decade rule (the first time was earlier that year on July 2). Hitler's experts had expected eight weeks of war, and early indications evidenced their prescience. The 1937–38 execution of many of the Red Army's experienced generals had a severely debilitating effect on the ability of the USSR to organize defences.
The Nazis initially made huge advances, capturing and killing millions of Soviet troops. Such speculations are difficult to substantiate, as information on the Soviet Army from 1939 to 1941 remains classified, but it is known that the Soviets had advanced and detailed warnings of the German invasion through their extensive foreign intelligence agents, such as Richard Sorge. A controversial theory put forward by Viktor Suvorov asserts that Stalin had been preparing an invasion of Germany while neglecting preparations for defensive warfare, which left Soviet forces vulnerable despite their heavy concentration near the border. Even after the attack commenced, Stalin appeared unwilling to accept the fact and, according to some historians, was too stunned to react appropriately for a number of days.
Until the last moment, Stalin had sought to avoid any obvious defensive preparation which might provoke German attack, in the hope of buying time to modernise and strengthen his military forces. Stalin had not expected this — or at the very least, he had not expected an invasion to come so soon — and the Soviet Union was largely unprepared for this invasion. In June 1941, Hitler broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. The Soviets finally prevailed in March, 1940, but their inferior army had been revealed to the rest of the world, including Germany.
The Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland proved to be more difficult than Stalin and the Red Army was prepared for, and the Soviets sustained high casualties. In November, 1939, Stalin sent troops over the Finnish border provoking war. According to the pact, the Soviets were promised a slice of Poland, the annexation of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, and an undisturbed military advance on Finland, which the Soviets acted on almost immediately. Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to modify the spheres of influences slightly and Poland was divided between these two states.
Hence, Stalin decided to intervene and on September 17 the Red Army invaded Poland as well. According to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Eastern Poland was in the Soviet sphere of influence. On September 1, 1939, the German invasion of Poland started World War II. The exact motivations behind this pact are disputed, but it appears that neither side expected it to last very long.
In his speech on August 19, 1939, Stalin prepared his comrades for the great turn in Soviet policy, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany which divided Central Europe into the two powers' respective spheres of influence. After declining Franco-British missions to Moscow in hopes that the USSR would enter a treaty of Polish defense with them, Stalin began to negotiate a non-aggression pact with Hitler's Germany. The death of millions is a statistic." (possibly said in response to Churchill at the Potsdam Conference in 1945). A quote popularly attributed to Stalin is "The death of one man is a tragedy.
Since "the margin of error" with regard to the number of Stalin's victims is virtually impossible to narrow down to a universally accepted figure, various historians have come up with extremely varying estimates of the number of victims, the highest being 60 million deaths. Note that the figure of 14 million does not have to imply 14 million additional deaths, since as many as 3 million may be births that never took place due to reduced fertility and choice. A census was taken again in 1939, but its published figure of 170 million has been generally attributed directly to the decision of Stalin (see also Demographics of the Soviet Union). This was 14 million less than the projected population value and was suppressed as a "wrecker's census" with the census takers severely punished.
The 1926 census shows the population of the Soviet Union at 147 million and in 1937 another census found a population of between 162 and 163 million. Comparison of the 1926–37 census results suggests 5–10 million deaths in excess of what would be normal in the period, mostly through famine in 1931–34. Although no official figures have been released by the Soviet or Russian governments, most estimates put the figure between 10 and 50 million. How many millions died under Stalin is greatly disputed.
It is generally agreed by historians that if famines, prison and labor camp mortality, and state terrorism (deportations and political purges) are taken into account, Stalin and his colleagues were directly or indirectly responsible for the deaths of millions. See massacre of prisoners. It became known as Katyn massacre. On March 5, 1940, Stalin himself and other Soviet leaders signed the order to execute 25,700 Polish intelligentsia including 14,700 Polish POWs.
In Georgia about 80,000 people were shot during 1921, 1923–24, 1935–38, 1942 and 1945-50, and more than 100,000 people were transported to Gulag camps. About one million people were shot during the periods 1935–38, 1942 and 1945–50 and millions of people were transported to Gulag labor camps. The memory of the deportations played a major part in the separatist movements in the Baltic republics, Tatarstan and Chechnya. The deportations had a profound effect on the peoples of the Soviet Union.
In February 1956, Nikita Khrushchev condemned the deportations as a violation of Leninist principles, and reversed most of them, although it was not until as late as 1991 that the Tatars, Meskhs and Volga Germans were allowed to return en masse to their homelands. Large numbers of Kulaks, regardless of their nationality, were resettled to Siberia and Central Asia. The following ethnic groups were deported completely or partially: Poles, Koreans, Volga Germans, Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachays, Meskhetian Turks, Finns, Bulgarians, Greeks, Armenians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Estonians. Separatism, resistance to Soviet rule and collaboration with the invading Germans were cited as the main official reasons for the deportations.
Over 1.5 million people were deported to Siberia and the Central Asian republics. Shortly before, during and immediately after World War II, Stalin conducted a series of deportations on a huge scale which profoundly affected the ethnic map of the Soviet Union. Main article: Population transfer in the Soviet Union. Some historians such as Amy Knight and Robert Conquest postulate that Stalin had Yezhov and his predecessor, Yagoda, removed in order to deflect blame from himself.
He was subsequently executed. Towards the end of the purge, the Politburo relieved NKVD head Nikolai Yezhov, from his position for overzealousness. The Russian word troika gained a new meaning: a quick, simplified trial by a committee of three subordinated to NKVD. Over time the procedure was greatly simplified and delegated down the line of command.
Initially, the execution lists for the enemies of the people were confirmed by the Politburo. Article 58 of the legal code, listing prohibited "anti-Soviet activities", was applied in the broadest manner. No segment of society was left untouched during the purges. However, it has been argued that Stalin only continued the political repressions that had started under Lenin's regime, such as labor camps and express executions of political opponents.
The repression of so many formerly high-ranking revolutionaries and party members led Leon Trotsky to claim that a "river of blood" separated Stalin's regime from that of Lenin. Only three members of the "Old Bolsheviks" (Lenin's Politburo) now remained in Politburo —Stalin himself, "the all-Union Chieftain" (всесоюзный староста) Mikhail Kalinin, and Chairman of Sovnarkom Vyacheslav Molotov. Trotsky's August 1940 assassination in Mexico, where he had lived in exile since 1936, eliminated the last of Stalin's opponents among the former Party leadership. There were four key trials during this period: the Trial of the Sixteen (August 1936); Trial of the Seventeen (January 1937); the trial of Red Army generals, including Marshal Tukhachevsky (June 1937); and finally the Trial of the Twenty One (including Bukharin) in March 1938.
Several trials known as the Moscow Trials were held, but the procedures were replicated throughout the country. Some argue that a motive for the purge was a feeling that the Party needed to be unified in the face of anticipated conflict with Nazi Germany; others believe that it was motivated only by Stalin's desire to consolidate his own power. Measures ranged from imprisonment in Gulag labor camps to execution after a show trial or summary trial by NKVD troikas. Stalin, as head of the Politburo, consolidated near-absolute power in the 1930s with a Great Purge of his political and ideological opponents (real or merely suspected), culminating in the extermination of the majority of the original Bolshevik Central Committee and of over half of the largely pliant delegates of the 17th Party Congress in January 1934.
Main article: Great Purge. Just days before Stalin's death, certain religious sects were outlawed and persecuted. The Church Synod's recognition of the Soviet government and of Stalin personally led to a schism with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia that remains not fully healed to the present day. During World War II, however, the Church was allowed a partial revival, as a patriotic organization: thousands of parishes were reactivated, until a further round of suppression in Khrushchev's time.
Continuous persecution in the 1930s resulted in its near-extinction: by 1939, active parishes numbered in the low hundreds (down from 54,000 in 1917), many churches had been levelled, and tens of thousands of priests, monks and nuns were dead or imprisoned. Stalin's role in the fortunes of the Russian Orthodox Church is complex. (This was actually just a joke: the hotel had been built by two independent teams of architects that had different visions of how the hotel should look.). An amusing anecdote has it that the Moskva Hotel in Moscow was built with mismatched side wings because Stalin had mistakenly signed off on both of the two proposals submitted, and the architects had been too afraid to clarify the matter.
In architecture, a Stalinist Empire Style (basically, updated neoclassicism on a very large scale, exemplified by the seven skyscrapers of Moscow) replaced the constructivism of the 1920s. Similarities have been pointed out between this novel and Sergei Eisenstein's film, Ivan the Terrible, produced under Stalin's tutelage. Some insights into Stalin's political and esthetic thinking might perhaps be gleaned by reading his favorite novel, Pharaoh, by the Polish writer Bolesław Prus, a historical novel on mechanisms of political power. His play, "The Days of the Turbins," with its sympathetic treatment of an anti-Bolshevik family caught in the Civil War, was finally staged, apparently also on Stalin's intervention, and began a decades-long uninterrupted run at the Moscow Arts Theater.
For example, Mikhail Bulgakov was driven to poverty and despair; yet, after a personal appeal to Stalin, he was allowed to continue working. Stalin's occasional beneficence showed itself in strange ways. His name, however, was constantly invoked during his reign in discussions of culture as in just about everything else; and in several famous cases, his opinion was final. The degree of Stalin's personal involvement in general and specific developments has been assessed variously.
It is of note that Anna Akhmatova was subjected to several cycles of suppression and rehabilitation, but was never herself arrested, although her first husband, poet Nikolai Gumilev, had been shot in 1921, and her son, historian Lev Gumilev, spent two decades in the Gulag. A number of former emigrés returned to the Soviet Union, among them Alexei Tolstoi in 1925, Alexander Kuprin in 1936, and Alexander Vertinsky in 1943. Others, both representing the "Soviet man" (Arkady Gaidar) and remnants of the older pre-revolutionary Russia (Konstantin Stanislavski), thrived. Famous names were repressed, both "revolutionaries" (among them Isaac Babel, Vsevolod Meyerhold) and "non-conformists" (for example, Osip Mandelstam).
Careers were made and broken, some more than once. Previously fashionable "revolutionary" expressionism, abstract art, and avant-garde experimentation were discouraged or denounced as "formalism.". It was during Stalin's reign that the official and long-lived style of Socialist Realism was established for painting, sculpture, music, drama and literature. Likewise, the generation that grew up under Stalin saw a major expansion in job opportunities, especially for women.
General education was free and was dramatically expanded, with many more Soviet citizens learning to read and write, and higher education also expanded. Campaigns were carried out against typhus, cholera, and malaria; the number of doctors was increased as rapidly as facilities and training would permit; and death and infant mortality rates steadily declined. Stalin's government placed heavy emphasis on the provision of free medical services. Indeed, many politicians in the United States began to fear, after the "Sputnik crisis," that their country had been eclipsed by the Soviet Union in science and in public education.
It laid the ground for the famous achievements of Soviet science in the 1950s, such as the development of the BESM-1 computer in 1953 and the launching of Sputnik in 1957. Nevertheless, great progress was made under Stalin in some areas of science and technology. They were persecuted for their (real or imaginary) dissident views, and seldom for "politically incorrect" research. Lev Shubnikov, shot in 1937).
Scientific research in nearly all areas was hindered by the fact that many scientists were sent to labor camps (including Lev Landau, later a Nobel Prize winner, who spent a year in prison in 1938–39) or executed (e.g. Although no great theoretical contributions or insights came from it, neither were there any apparent errors in Stalin's understanding of linguistics; his influence arguably relieved Soviet linguistics from the sort of ideologically driven theory that dominated genetics. Stalin's principal work discussing linguistics is a small essay, Marxism and Linguistic Questions . Stalin, who had previously written about language policy as People's Commissar for Nationalities, felt he grasped enough of the underlying issues to coherently oppose this simplistic Marxist formalism, ending Marr's ideological dominance over Soviet linguistics.
At the beginning of Stalin's rule, the dominant figure in Soviet linguistics was Nikolai Yakovievich Marr, who argued that language is a class construction and that language structure is determined by the economic structure of society. Linguistics was the only area of Soviet academic thought to which Stalin personally and directly contributed. In the late 1940s there were also attempts to suppress special and general relativity, as well as quantum mechanics, on grounds of "idealism." However, top Soviet physicists made it clear that without using these theories, they would be unable to create a nuclear bomb. However, in several cases the consequences of ideological pressure were dramatic, the most notable examples being the "bourgeois pseudosciences," genetics and cybernetics.
On the positive side, there was significant progress in "ideologically safe" domains due to the free Soviet education system and state-financed research. Science in the Soviet Union was under strict ideological control, along with art, literature and everything else. Main article: Research in the Soviet Union.. Similar detailed references can be found here .
167). The Soviet Union exported grain while millions of Soviet citizens were starving to death (p. 164). It also documents that peasants were forced to remain in the starving areas, sales of train tickets were stopped, and the State Political Directorate set up barriers to prevent people from leaving the starving areas (p.
The Black Book of Communism documents that all grains were taken from areas that did not meet targets, including the next year's seed grain. Not only rich peasants were killed. (Chairman Mao Zedong of China would trigger a similar famine in 1958 to 1960 with his Great Leap Forward.). Many historians agree that the disruption caused by forced collectivization was largely responsible for major famines which caused up to 5 million deaths in 1932–33, particularly in Ukraine and the lower Volga region.
The two-stage progress of collectivization — interrupted for a year by Stalin's famous editorial, "Dizzy with success" (Pravda, March 2, 1930) — is a prime example of his capacity for tactical retreats. Therefore those defined as "kulaks," "kulak helpers" and later "ex-kulaks" were to be shot, placed into Gulag labor camps, or deported to remote areas of the country, depending on the charge. Stalin blamed this unexpected drop on kulaks (rich peasants), who resisted collectivization. In the first years of collectivization, it was estimated that industrial and agricultural production would rise by 200% and 50%, respectively; however, agricultural production actually dropped.
Collectivization also meant a drastic drop in living standards for many peasants, and it faced widespread and often violent resistance among the peasantry. Collectivization meant drastic social changes, on a scale not seen since the abolition of serfdom in 1861, and alienation from control of the land and its produce. The theory behind collectivization was that it would replace small-scale unmechanized and inefficient farms with large-scale mechanized farms that would produce food far more efficiently. Stalin's regime moved to force collectivization of agriculture.
Main article: Collectivization in the USSR. Second, there was frequent "mobilization" of communists and Komsomol members for various construction projects. First, there was use of the almost free labor of prisoners in forced-labor camps. In specific but common cases, industrial labor was knowingly underpaid.
With no seed capital, little foreign trade, and barely any modern industry to start with, Stalin's government financed industrialization by both restraining consumption on the part of ordinary Soviet citizens, to ensure that capital went for re-investment into industry, and by ruthless extraction of wealth from the peasantry. The Soviet Union, generally ranked as the poorest nation in Europe in 1922, now industrialized at a phenomenal rate, far surpassing Germany's pace of industrialization in the 19th century and Japan's earlier in the 20th. In spite of early breakdowns and failures, the first two Five-Year Plans achieved rapid industrialization from a very low economic base. These called for a highly ambitious program of state-guided crash industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture.
Under Stalin's direction, the New Economic Policy, which allowed a degree of market flexibility within the context of socialism, was replaced by a system of centrally ordained Five-Year Plans in the late 1920s. Industrial output in 1922 was 13% of that in 1914. The Russian Civil War had had a devastating effect on the country's economy. Main article: Industrialization of the USSR.
However, as the popularity of other leaders such as Sergei Kirov and the so-called Ryutin Affair were to demonstrate, Stalin did not achieve absolute power until the Great Purge of 1936–38. Having also outmaneuvered Bukharin's Right Opposition and now advocating collectivization and industrialization, Stalin can be said to have exercised control over the party and the country. By 1928 (the first year of the Five-Year Plans) Stalin was supreme among the leadership, and the following year Trotsky was exiled because of his intrigues. Together they fought a new opposition of Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev.
Stalin would soon switch sides and join with Bukharin. During this period, Stalin abandoned the traditional Bolshevik emphasis on international revolution in favor of a policy of building "Socialism in One Country", in contrast to Trotsky's theory of Permanent Revolution. After Lenin's death in January 1924, Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev together governed the party, placing themselves ideologically between Trotsky (on the left wing of the party) and Bukharin (on the right). However, this document was suppressed by members of the Central Committee, many of whom were also criticised by the Bolshevik leader in the testament.
Stalin's accumulation of personal power increasingly alarmed the dying Lenin, and in Lenin's Testament he famously called for the removal of the "rude" Stalin, also stating that Stalin's views were too extreme and violent. This allowed him to fill the party with his allies. The position had great influence on who joined the party. This position was an unwanted one within the party (Stalin was sometimes referred to as "Comrade Card-Index" by fellow party members) but Stalin saw its potential as a power base.
In April 1922 Stalin became general secretary of the ruling Communist Party, a post that he subsequently built up into the most powerful in the country. Also, he was People's Commissar of Workers and Peasants Inspection (1919–22), a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the republic (1920–23) and a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets (from 1917). Stalin's first government position was as People's Commissar of Nationalities Affairs (1917–23). During the Russian Civil War and Polish-Soviet War, Stalin was political commissar of the Red Army at various fronts.
According to many accounts, Stalin only played a minor role in the revolution of November 7.Other writers such as Adam Ulam stressed that each man in the Central Committee had a job he was assigned to do. In April 1917, Stalin was elected to the Central Committee with the third highest vote total in the party and was subsequently elected to the Politburo of the Central Committee (May 1917); he held this position for the remainder of his life. When Lenin returned from exile, he wrote the April Theses which put forward his position. Following the February Revolution, Stalin and the editorial board took a position in favor of supporting Kerensky's provisional government and, it is alleged, went to the extent of declining to publish Lenin's articles arguing for the provisional government to be overthrown.
In 1917 Stalin was editor of Pravda while Lenin and much of the Bolshevik leadership were in exile. In 1912 Stalin was co-opted to the Bolshevik Central Committee at the Prague Party Conference. Several historians, including Alexander Solzhenitsyn, had mentioned a son being born to Stalin and his common law wife, Lida, in 1918 during his exile in northern Siberia. Yuri Davydov told NTV that his father had told him of his lineage, but, because the campaign against Stalin's cult of personality was in full swing at the time, he was told to keep quiet.
In March 2001, Russian Independent Television NTV discovered a previously unknown grandson living in Novokuznetsk. Stalin is said to have remained bitter at his mother because of her forcing him to join the Tiflis Theological Seminary, and is reputed to have called her "an old whore.". Stalin's mother died in 1937; he did not attend the funeral but instead sent a wreath. Stalin doted on Svetlana when she was young, but she ended up defecting from the Soviet Union in 1967.
Vassili rose through the ranks of the Soviet Air Force, but died an alcoholic in 1962. With her, he had two children: a son, Vassili, and a daughter, Svetlana. It is alleged that Stalin had said "She died an enemy," at her funeral. "Officially", she died of an illness, but other theories claim that Stalin himself killed her.
His second wife was Nadezhda Alliluyeva, who died in 1932; she may have committed suicide by shooting herself after a quarrel with Stalin, leaving a suicide note which according to their daughter was "partly personal, partly political". Nonetheless, there are many who believe his death was a suicide. This however, is the "official report", and to this day, his cause of death is not known. They offered to exchange him for a German officer, but Stalin turned the offer down, allegedly saying "I have no son named Yakov," and Yakov is said to have died running into an electric fence in the camp where he was being held.
Yakov served in the Red Army and was captured by the Nazis. With her he had a son, Yakov Dzhugashvili, with whom he did not get along in later years. At her funeral, Stalin said that any warm feelings he had for people died with her, for only she could mend his heart. Stalin's first wife was Ekaterina Svanidze, to whom he was married for just three years until her death in 1907.
This treatise may have contributed to his appointment as People's Commissar for Nationalities Affairs after the revolution (see Lenin's article On the right of nations to self-determination for comparison). It presents an orthodox Marxist position on this important debate. His only significant contribution to the development of Marxist theory at this time was a treatise, written while he was briefly in exile in Vienna, Marxism and the national question. In 1913 he adopted the name Stalin, which means "man of steel" in Russian.
Some historians have argued that, during this period, Stalin was actually a Tsarist spy, who was working to infiltrate the Bolshevik party, but there are no reliable documents to substantiate this. His practical experience made him useful in Lenin's Bolshevik party, gaining him a place on its Central Committee in January 1912. He adhered to Vladimir Lenin's doctrine of a strong centralist party of professional revolutionaries. He worked for a decade with the political underground in the Caucasus, experiencing repeated arrests and exile to Siberia between 1902 and 1917.
Stalin was expelled from the seminary in 1899 for these actions. During these school years, Stalin joined a Georgian Social-Democratic organization, and began propagating Marxism. Stalin's involvement with the socialist movement (or, to be more exact, that branch of it that later became the communist movement) began at the seminary. Although his mother wanted him to be a priest (even after he had become leader of the Soviet Union), he attended seminary not because of any religious vocation, but because it was one of the few educational opportunities available as the Tsarist government of Russia was wary of establishing a university in Georgia.
In addition to the small stipend from the scholarship he was also paid for singing in the choir. He graduated first in his class and age 14 he was awarded a scholarship to the Tiflis Theological Seminary, a Russian Orthodox institution which he attended from 1894 onward. Stalin's favorite hero of these stories was a legendary mountain ranger named Koba, which became his first alias as a revolutionary. The stories he read told of Georgian mountaineers who valiantly fought for Georgian independence.
Although Stalin later sought to hide his Georgian origins, during his childhood he was fascinated by Georgian folklore. His peers were mostly the sons of affluent priests, officials, and merchants. Even when speaking in Russian, their Russian teachers mocked Stalin and his classmates because of their Georgian accents. However, at school they were forced to use Russian.
Stalin and his classmates were mostly Georgian and spoke one of the seventy Caucasian languages. When attending school in Gori, Soso was among a very diverse group of students. At eight years old, Soso began his education at the Gori Church School. Rumors said he died in a drunken bar fight; however, others said they had seen him in Georgia as late as 1931.
In 1888, Stalin's father left to live in Tiflis, leaving the family without support. Stalin surprised his colleagues by not only receiving the elderly man, but happily chatting with him in public places. Decades later, Papismedov came to the Kremlin to learn what had become of little Soso. Papismedov gave Joseph, who would help out his mother, money and books to read, and encouraged him.
One of the people for whom Ekaterina did laundry and housecleaning was a Gori Jew, David Papismedov. He also said that anyone with power over others reminded Stalin of his father's cruelty. Another of his childhood friends, Iremashvili, felt that the beatings by Stalin's father gave him a hatred of authority. One of Stalin's friends from childhood wrote, "Those undeserved and fearful beatings made the boy as hard and heartless as his father." The same friend also wrote that he never saw him cry (Hoober 15).
Rarely seeing his family and drinking heavily, Vissarion often beat his wife and small son. He opened his own shop, but quickly went bankrupt, forcing him to work in a shoe factory in Tiflis (Archer 11). Vissarion Ivanovich Jugashvili was a former serf who, when freed, became a cobbler. Their other three children died young; Joseph, nicknamed "Soso" (the Georgian pet name for Joseph, or the equivalent of the nickname "Joe" in the United States), was effectively an only child.
His mother, Ekaterina Geladze, was born a serf. Stalin was born in Gori, Georgia, to a cobbler named Vissarion Jughashvili. . .
Nikita Khrushchev, Stalin's successor, denounced his mass repressions and cult of personality in 1956, initiating the process of "de-Stalinization". Stalin's cult of personality, his concentration of power and the means of its execution has led to a common characterization of him as a dictator and to an opinion that he was personally responsible, directly or indirectly, via his policies, for millions or tens of millions of deaths and unjust imprisonments in the Soviet Union. A hard-won victory in World War II (the Great Patriotic War, 1941–45), made possible in part through the capacity for production that was the outcome of industrialization, laid the groundwork for the formation of the Warsaw Pact and established the USSR as one of the two major world powers, a position it maintained for nearly four decades following Stalin's death in 1953. However, collectivization was violently resisted by many peasants, resulting in millions of casualties amid famine and mass repression against peasants deemed "kulaks" by the authorities.
Under Stalin, who replaced the New Economic Policy (NEP) of the 1920s with five year plans (introduced in 1928) and collective farming, the Soviet Union was transformed from a largely peasant society to a major world industrial power by the end of the 1930s. Stalin molded the features that characterized the new Soviet regime; his policies, based on Marxist–Leninist ideology, are often considered to represent a political and economic system called Stalinism. In the 1930s Stalin eliminated effective political opposition both within the Party and among the population (see Gulag) and consolidated his authority with the Great Purge, a period of widespread arrests and executions which reached its peak in 1937, remaining in power through World War II and until his death. Stalin became general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party in 1922 and following the death of Vladimir Lenin, he prevailed over Leon Trotsky in a power struggle during the 1920s.
His name is anglicized from Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин) but his original name was Ioseb Dzughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section). Joseph Stalin? (December 21, 1879 – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953), a position which had later become that of party leader. Svetlana Alliluyeva (Svetlana Stalin, Stalin's daughter). Stalin Society.
Stalin Peace Prize. Nadezhda Alliluyeva-Stalin (Stalin's second wife). History of the Soviet Union. Criticisms of communism.
Animal Farm (an allegory about the Russian Revolution and Stalinism, by George Orwell). 1936 Soviet Constitution. RJ Rummel, "Death By Government". Chapter 1 of Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents from Russia's Secret Archives by Edvard Radzinsky.
Ulam, Stalin : The Man and His Era, Beacon Press, 1987, ISBN 080707005X. Adam B. The Revolution from Above, 1928–1941, Norton, 1990, ISBN 039302881X. Tucker, Stalin in Power.
Robert C. Tucker, Stalin as Revolutionary, 1879–1929, Norton, 1973, ISBN 039305487X. Robert C. Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The court of the Red Tsar, Knopf, 2004, ISBN 1400042305.
Donald Rayfield, Stalin and His Hangmen : The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him, Random House, 2004, ISBN 0375506322. Walter Laqueur, Stalin, Ediciones B, 2003, ISBN 8466613161. Isaac Deutscher, Stalin: A Political Biography, Oxford University Press, 1966, ISBN 0195002733. Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine, Oxford University Press, 1987, ISBN 0195051807.
Robert Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment, Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0195071328. Alan Bullock, Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives, HarperCollins, 1991, ISBN 0679729941. 144–145. Calvert, "The Concept of Class", New York 1982, pp.
402; P. Konstantinov, Moscow 1951, p. B. by F.
589 "Istoricheskij materializm", ed. ^ Stalin, "Voprosy leninizma", 2nd ed., Moscow, p. Cunningham, 1999 & 2001, retrieved 2005-02-03 from http://www.cyberussr.com/rus/revision.html. Anti Soviets, Hugo S.
^ Revisionists vs. Stalin, Pravda, 1950-06-20, available online as Marxism and Problems of Linguistics including other articles and letters published (also in Pravda) soon after on 1950-07-04 and 1950-08-02. ^ Concerning Marxism in Linguistics, J.V. ^ page 133, Koba the Dread, ISBN 0786868767; page 354, Stalin: The Man and His Era, ISBN 0807070017, In a footnote he quotes the press announcement as speaking of her "sudden death"; he also cites pages 103–5 of his daughter's book, Twenty Letters to a Friend, the Russian edition, New York, 1967.
^ Excerpts from Nikita Khrushchev's speech "On the Personality Cult and its Consequences" can be read online (Internet Modern History Sourcebook) at .
The Inner Circle - A 1991 Hollywood movie. Stalin - A 1992 Hollywood movie.