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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.
. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. It is available on their compilation album Monty Python Sings. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. In 1989, Monty Python wrote a song called "Oliver Cromwell", which told the entire career of Cromwell to the tune of Frederic Chopin's Polonaise Op.53 in A flat major. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Otherwise, I will never pay a farthing for it.".

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. "Mr Lely, I desire you would use all your skill to paint your picture truly like me, and not flatter me at all; but remark all these roughness, pimples, warts, and everything as you see me. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. His broader popularity today is evidenced by his ranking as 10th in the BBC poll of "Great Britons.". His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Unusually, in Cambridge, he is commemorated in a painted glass window in Emmanuel United Reformed Church, and St Ives has a statue of him in the town centre. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. He also has a particular following among Protestant groups, and has retained popularity in Cambridgeshire, where he was known as "Lord of The Fens".

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). As one of British history's most notable parliamentarians, his statue outside the Palace of Westminster is understandable, despite the fact that many of his actions are officially regarded as treasonous. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. Despite his treatment upon the Restoration, and an awful reputation in Ireland that lingers to this day, in some sections of society he has gained esteem over the years. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Since then it changed hands several times before eventually being buried in the grounds of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, in 1960. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. His severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster Abbey until 1685.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. At the end his body was thrown into a pit. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. He was in fact hanged, drawn and quartered. This established that magnetic force and light were related. This should have been the end of the story but in 1661 Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey and was subjected to the ritual of a posthumous execution – on January 30, the same date that Charles I had been executed. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". Within two years of Cromwell's death from malaria on September 3, 1658 parliament restored Charles II as king, as Cromwell's son Richard Cromwell had proved an unworthy successor.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. It was his opinion that The Lord Protector's personal physicians were mismanaging his health, leading to a rapid decline and death. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. A Venetian diplomat, also a physician, was visiting at the time and tracked Cromwell's final illness. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Although weakened, he was optimistic about the future as were his attendants.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He was struck by a sudden bout of malaria, followed directly by an attack of urinary/kidney symptoms.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. Yet he was in generally good health. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. Cromwell suffered from malaria and from "stone", a common term for urinary/kidney infections. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. (A history of the titles is given in Restoration). Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. The written constitution even gave him the right to issue noble titles, a device which he soon put to use in much the same fashion as former kings.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. The event was practically a coronation and made him king in all but name. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Instead, he was ceremonially installed as Lord Protector at Westminster Abbey, sitting on the former king's throne. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. After six weeks of deliberation, he rejected the offer, largely because the senior officers in his army threatened to resign if he accepted, but also because it could have placed existing constitutional constraints on his rule. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. In 1657 Cromwell was offered the crown by a reconstituted parliament, presenting him with a dilemma since he had been instrumental in abolishing the monarchy.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. This can now be seen as one of his most important achievements. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. Cromwell's absolute insistence on religious freedom, for all except Roman Catholics, led to his encouraging Jews to return to England, 350 years after their banishment by Edward I. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Cromwell's foreign policy led him into the First Anglo-Dutch War in 1652 against the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, eventually won by Admiral Robert Blake in 1654. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Cromwell's power was buttressed by his continuing popularity among the army which he had built up during the civil wars.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. In a repeat of the actions the former king had taken that had contributed to civil war, Cromwell eventually dismissed the republican Rump Parliament in 1653 and instead took personal control, effectively, as military dictator. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. With the king gone (and with him their common cause), Cromwell's unanimous backing dissolved, and the various factions in Parliament became engaged in infighting. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. Cromwell was not prepared to countenance a radical democracy, but as events were to show, could not engineer a stable oligarchic Parliamentary republic either. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. However, many historians, including those on the left, have conceded that the Leveller viewpoint, though attractive to a modern audience, was too far ahead of its time to be a stable basis for government).

His greatest work was with electricity. (The Leveller point of view had been strongly represented in the Putney Debates held between the various factions of the Army in 1647, just prior to the King's escape. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. He showed little sympathy for the Levellers, an egalitarian movement which had contributed greatly to Parliament's cause. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. He was often ruthless in putting down the mutinies which occurred within his own army towards the end of the war (which were sometimes prompted by failure to pay the troops). Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. Many of Cromwell's actions upon gaining power were decried by some commentators as harsh, unwise, and tyrannical.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. However, from all accounts, Cromwell actually ruled as a military dictator. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. The republic was known as the Commonwealth of England. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. In the wake of the Army's 1648 recapture of the King, the monarchy was abolished, and between 1649 and 1653 the country became a republic, a rarity in Europe at that time. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. However, the reason for the peculiar bitterness that the Irish especially traditionally held for Cromwell's memory has much to do with his mass transfer of Catholic-owned property into the hands of his soldiers as with his wartime actions.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. In both Scotland and Ireland, Cromwell is remembered as a remorseless and ruthless enemy. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. Presbyterianism was allowed to be practiced as before, but its Kirk did not have the backing of the civil courts to impose its rulings, as previously. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. During the Commonwealth, Scotland was ruled from England and kept under military occupation, with a line of fortifications sealing off the Highlands from the rest of the country. . Cromwell's men, under George Monck viciously sacked the town of Dundee, in the manner of Drogheda.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. Cromwell treated the thousands of prisoners of war he took in this campaign very badly, allowing thousands of them to die of disease and deporting others to penal colonies in Barbados. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. Despite being outnumbered, his veteran troops smashed Scottish armies at the battles of Dunbar and Worcester and occupied the country. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Nevertheless, he acted with ruthlessness in Scotland. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Cromwell much less hostile to Scottish Presbyterians than to Irish Catholics, seeing them as, "His [God's] people, though deceived".

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Cromwell had been prepared to tolerate an independent Scotland, but had to react after the Scots invaded England. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Cromwell also invaded Scotland in 1650-1651, after the Scots had crowned Charles I's son as Charles II and tried to re-impose the monarchy on England. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Scotland. Michael Faraday Directory. Regardless, Ireland remained a Roman Catholic nation as most Irish Catholics refused to abandon their faith.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. In the wake of the Cromwellian conquest, all Catholic-owned land was confiscated in the Act of Settlement 1652, the practice of Roman Catholicism was banned, and bounties were offered for priests. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. In fact, the worst atrocities committed in that country, such as mass evictions, killings and deportation for slave labour to Barbados, were carried out by Cromwell's subordinates after he had left for England. Finish. However, Cromwell himself never accepted that he was responsible for the killing of civilians in Ireland, claiming that he had acted harshly, but only against those "in arms". "Work. These two atrocities, while horrifying in their own right, were not exceptional in the war in Ireland since its start in 1641, but are well remembered, even today, because of a concerted propaganda campaign by the Royalists, which portrayed Cromwell as a monster, who indiscriminately slaughtered civilians wherever he went.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Cromwell's men committed another infamous massacre at Wexford, when they broke into the town during surrender negotiations and killed over 2000 Irish soldiers and civilians. ISBN 1400060168. This view has been disputed by historians 2. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. The refusal to do this even after the walls had been breached, meant that Cromwell's orders to show no mercy in the treatment of men of arms was inevitable by the standards of the day. Hamilton, James (2004). It has been claimed 1 that his actual orders at Drogheda followed military protocol of the day where a town or garrison was first given the option to surrender and receive just treatment and the protection of the invading force.

ISBN 0007163762. On the other hand, it is also clear that on entering Ireland he demanded that no supplies were to be seized from the inhabitants and that everything should be fairly purchased. Harper Collins, London. For example, it is clear that Cromwell saw the Irish in general as enemies - he justified his sack of Drogheda as revenge for the massacres of Protestant settlers in Ulster in the Irish Rebellion of 1641 calling the massacre, "The righteous judgement of God on these barbarous wretches, who have imbued their hands with so much innocent blood"- and the records of many churches such as Kilkenny Cathedral accuse Cromwell's army of having defaced and desecrated the churches and having stabled the horses in them. Faraday: The Life. The extent of Cromwell's intentions has been strongly debated. Hamilton, James (2002). Ireland.

The massacre of nearly 3,500 people in Drogheda after its capture — comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including some civilians, prisoners, and Catholic priests — is one of the historical memories that has fuelled Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife for over three centuries. The most enduring symbol of this brutality is the siege of Drogheda in September 1649. In particular, Cromwell's brutal suppression of the Royalists in Ireland during 1649 still has a strong resonance for many Irish people. Cromwell's actions made him very unpopular in Scotland and Ireland which, as previously independent nations, were effectively conquered by English forces during the civil wars.

See also: Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Irish Confederate Wars, and Scottish Civil War.. Cromwell did not have long to dwell on the future form of government in England however, as he immediately left the country to crush the remaining Royalist strongholds in Ireland and Scotland. However, Cromwell does hold much of the responsibility, as his troops broke into the Parliament's chambers and only permitted the "regicides" - those in favour of Charles' execution - to vote on the matter. Cromwell came under pressure from the radicals among his own officers to execute the King, whom they termed, "Charles Stuart, that man of blood." Many hold Cromwell responsible for the execution of Charles I in January 1649, although there were 59 signatories to the death warrant.

In 1649, after being tried for treason, Charles I was executed by the Rump Parliament at Whitehall. The so-called "second civil war", which broke out in 1648 after Charles I's escape from prison suggested to Cromwell that no compromise with the king would be possible. However, the King would not accept a solution at odds with his own Divine right doctrines. The Parliamentarians, including Cromwell, hoped to reach a compromise settlement with Charles I.

His successful conquests of Ireland and Scotland showed a great mastery of organising supplies and logistics for protracted campaigns in hostile territory. However, in the years to come he would also be recognised as an exceptional commander of whole armies. Cromwell showed in the English Civil Wars that he was a brave and daring cavalry commander. Cromwell, however, commanded the army that had won this victory and as a result was in a position to dictate the future of England.

By the end of the first civil war in 1646, the King was a prisoner of the Parliament. With successive military victories he gained political power, until he became the leading politician of the time. Promoted to General in charge of cavalry for the New Model Army, he trained his men to rapidly regroup after an attack, tactics he first employed with great success at the Battle of Naseby and which showed a very high level of discipline and motivation on the part of his troops. Cromwell's troops came to respect his bravery and his concern for their well-being.

He succeeded on several occasions in outmanouevring Prince Rupert, who was a veteran of European warfare. Cromwell had no formal training in military tactics but had an instinctive gift for command. As a result, the New Model Army under Cromwell's command became a centre for political radicals like the Levellers and a myriad of radical religious sects like the Fifth Monarchists. He famously recruited his officers based on merit rather than on the basis of noble birth, saying: "I would rather have a plain russet-coated captain who knows what he fights for and loves what he knows than that which you call a gentleman and is nothing else".

Having joined the Parliamentary Army with no military experience at the age of 43, he recruited a cavalry unit and gained experience and victories in a succession of battles in East Anglia. Cromwell's influence as a military commander and politician during the English Civil War dramatically altered the military and the political landscape of the British Isles. The Oxford historian Christopher Hill has written a semi-popular account of his influential studies in this area in 'God's Englishman' (Penguin, 1970). Cromwell believed, during the Civil Wars, that he was one of these people and interpreted victories as indications of God's approval of his actions and defeats as signs that God was directing him in another direction.

Finally, Cromwell was also a firm believer in Providentialism - the belief that God was actively directing the affairs of the world through the actions of chosen people. He became associated with the "Independent" faction, which argued for religious freedom for all Protestants in a post-war settlement. Although he co-operated with Quakers and Presbyterians, he was opposed to their authoritarian imposition of their beliefs on other Protestants. Cromwell was also opposed to the more radical religious groups on the Protestant side in the Civil Wars.

This would later be one of the reasons why Cromwell acted so harshly in his military campaign in Ireland. Cromwell's associations of Catholicism and persecution were deepened with the Irish Rebellion of 1641, which were marked by massacres (wildly exaggerated in Puritan circles in Britain) by Irish Catholics of English and Scottish Protestant settlers. For this reason, he was bitterly opposed to Charles I's reforms of the Church of England, which introduced Catholic-style Bishops and Prayer Books in place of Bible study. He was passionately opposed to the Roman Catholic Church, which he saw as denying the primacy of the Bible in favour of Papal and Clerical authority and which he blamed for tyranny and persecution of Protestants in Europe.

He was a committed Puritan Protestant, believing that salvation was open to all who obeyed the teachings of the Bible and acted according to their own conscience. Cromwell's understanding of religion and politics were very closely intertwined. Although he was later involved in the King's overthrow and execution, Cromwell did not start the civil war as a radical republican, but with the intention of forcing Charles to reign with the consent of Parliament and with a more consensual, Protestant, religious policy. However, he did not become a leader of the Parliamentary cause until well into the civil war, when his military ability brought him to prominence.

When spies identified him as an insider to the revolt against King Charles, and soldiers were sent to arrest him, Cromwell was one of several members absent. He was related to a significant number of members of Parliament by blood or marriage, and his views were influential. Although not an accomplished speaker, Cromwell was prominent in the Parliamentary cause from the outset. Cromwell was a passionate supporter of the Parliament, primarily on religious grounds.

The failure to solve this crisis led directly to civil war breaking out between Parliamentarians (supporters of the power of Parliament) and Royalists (supporters of the King). When he was forced by shortage of funds to call a Parliament again in 1640, Oliver Cromwell was one of many MPs who bitterly opposed voting for any new taxes until the King agreed to govern with the consent of Parliament on both civil and religious issues. Charles I ruled without a Parliament for the next eleven years and alienated many people by his policies of raising extra-parliamentary taxes and imposing his Catholicized vision of Protestantism on the Church of England. He was also prominent in defending the people of The Fens from wealthy landowners who wanted to drive them off their land.

His maiden speech was the defence of a radical democrat who had argued in an unauthorised pamphlet in favour of giving the vote to all men. Having decided against following an uncle to Virginia, he instead became the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in the Parliament of 1628–1629. Her mother Isabeau was the daughter of Stephan III, Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Thadea Visconti. Catherine was also widow of Henry V of England.

Both Edmund and Jasper Tudor were sons of Owen Tudor and Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. The outcome of that battle led to the successful conquest of England and Wales by his nephew which established the hegemony of the Tudor dynasty at the close of the Wars of the Roses. Jasper was arguably the architect of the Tudor victory in the Battle of Bosworth Field against Richard III of England on August 22, 1485. His alleged paternal ancestor Jasper Tudor was a younger brother of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond and uncle to his son Henry VII of England.

This heritage goes through the Tudors, de Valois, and Wittelsbach—three royal dynasties of England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire, respectively. Another interesting feature of the Cromwell bloodline is that the mother's maiden name, unlike the argument above, might have been kept as the surname for a different purpose: to disguise the male side of the family's heritage instead of merely accentuating the female's side from Thomas Cromwell. 1560–1617), who married Elizabeth Steward or Stewart (1564–1654) on April 25, 1599, the day she delivered him a son. 1524–January 6, 1603), then to Oliver's father Robert Cromwell, Esquire (c.

1500–1544), Henry Cromwell (c. The family line continued through Richard Cromwell (c. Although Catherine married, her children kept her name, possibly to maintain their connection with their famous uncle. There is speculation that Joan was an illegitimate daughter of Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford.

Catherine was married to Morgan ap Williams, son of William ap Yevan and Joan Tudor. Oliver Cromwell descended from Catherine Cromwell (born circa 1483), an older sister of Tudor statesman Thomas Cromwell. . In 2003, Cromwell was ranked 10th in a popular BBC poll of "Great Britons.".

As a leader of the Parliamentarian cause, and commander of the New Model Army, (informally known as the Roundheads), he defeated King Charles I, thus bringing to an end the monarchy's claims to absolute power. Cromwell's leadership in the Battle of Marston Moor (in 1644) brought him to great prominence. At the outset of the English Civil War, Cromwell began his military career by raising a cavalry troop, known as the Ironsides Cavalry, which became the basis of his New Model Army. He was born in Huntingdon.

After leading the overthrow of the British monarchy, he ruled England, Scotland, and Ireland as Lord Protector from December 16, 1653 until his death, which is believed to have been due either to malaria or poisoning. Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599 – September 3, 1658) was an English military leader and politician. Note 2: History Ireland (journal). Note 1: Tom Reilly - Cromwell: An Honourable Enemy - isnb 0863222501.

The quote is as follows:. Cromwell was surprised to see that his rough and undesireable features were glossed over making him look more attractive than he actually was. Oliver Cromwell was the first to coin the phrase "warts and all." Though he did not actually say "warts and all", the phrase comes from a famous conversation that he made to the artist (Lely) that was painting his portrait after he became Lord Protector. And so let us have peace and liberty.".

Let us restore the old church, with its bishops, since that is what most of the people want; but since the Puritans and Separatists and Baptists have served us well in the war, let us not persecute them anymore but let them worship as they like, outside of the established church. "Let us restore the king to his throne, and let the king in future agree to govern with the consent of Parliament.

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