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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. Hence, you cannot visit each of the bridges of Königsberg without retracing your steps. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. The seven bridges problem is neither an Euler circuit nor Euler path. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. This means that it is possible to travel each line exactly once without retracing your steps, but you will not end where you began. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. An Euler path has exactly two odd vertices.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. This means it is possible to travel each line exactly once without retracing your steps and end at the same point in which you started. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. An Euler circuit has all its points of even degree. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Looking at how many lines came into a point gave that point a degree (a point with three lines touching it has a degree of three). His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. The solution to the seven bridges problem reduced the land masses to points and the bridges to lines (or edges) connecting those points.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). In 1736 Euler solved, or rather proved insoluble, a problem known as the seven bridges of Königsberg, publishing a paper Solutio problematis ad geometriam situs pertinentis which was the earliest application of graph theory or topology. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. A generalization of Euler's formula for arbitrary planar graphs exists: F - E + V - C = 1, where C is the number of components in the graph. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. The Euler characteristic of a simply-connected manifold such as a sphere or a plane is 2. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. For nonplanar graphs, there is a generalization: If the graph can be embedded in a manifold M, then F - E + V = χ(M), where χ is the Euler characteristic of the manifold, a constant which is invariant under continuous deformations.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. The theorem also applies to any planar graph. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. i.e.: F - E + V = 2. This established that magnetic force and light were related. Given such a polyhedron, the sum of the vertices and the faces is always the number of edges plus two. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". In geometry and algebraic topology, there is a relationship (also called Euler's Formula) which relates the number of edges, vertices, and faces of a simply connected polyhedron.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. In economics, Euler showed that if each factor of production is paid the value of its marginal product, then (under constant returns to scale) the total income and output will be completely exhausted. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. Euler wrote Tentamen novae theoriae musicae in 1739 which was an attempt to combine mathematics and music; a biography comments that the work was "for musicians too advanced in its mathematics and for mathematicians too musical". He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. He is a co-discoverer of the Euler-Maclaurin formula which is an extremely useful tool for calculation of difficult integrals, sums, and series.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. Also in 1735, Euler defined the Euler-Mascheroni constant useful for differential equations:.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. What Richard Feynman called "The most remarkable formula in mathematics" (more commonly called Euler's identity) is an easy consequence:. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. In essence, all functions studied in elementary analysis are either variations of the exponential function or they are polynomials. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. This is Euler's formula, which establishes the central role of the exponential function. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. He also showed the usefulness, consistency, and simplicity of defining the exponent of an imaginary number by means of the formula.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. where ζ(s) is the Riemann zeta function. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Euler established his fame in 1735 by solving the long-standing Basel problem:. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. In mathematical analysis, it was Euler who synthesised Leibniz's differential calculus with Isaac Newton's method of fluxions. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. For example, φ(8) = 4 since the four numbers 1, 3, 5 and 7 are coprime to 8.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The totient φ(n) of a positive integer n is defined to be the number of positive integers less than or equal to n and coprime to n. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. In number theory, Euler invented the totient function. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. The most famous of these approximations is known as Euler's method. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. In particular, he is known for creating a series of approximations which are used in computational mechanics.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. Euler made important contributions to the theory of differential equations. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. They are interesting chiefly because of the existence of shock waves. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. These equations are formally identical to the Navier-Stokes equations with zero viscosity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. He also deduced the Euler equations, a set of laws of motion in fluid dynamics, directly from Newton's laws of motion.

His greatest work was with electricity. Euler, with Daniel Bernoulli, established the law that the torque on a thin elastic beam is proportional to a measure of the elasticity of the material and the second moment of area of a cross section, about an axis through the center of mass and perpendicular to the plane of the moment, see Euler-Bernoulli beam equation. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. When Euler died, the mathematician and philosopher Marquis de Condorcet commented, "...et il cessa de calculer et de vivre" (and he ceased to calculate and to live). In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, a widely told anecdote that says that Euler challenged Denis Diderot at the court of Catherine the Great with "Sir, (a+b)n/n = x; hence God exists, reply!" is false. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. Euler was a deeply religious Calvinist throughout his life.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. It is reported by Legendre that often he would write down a complete mathematical proof between the first and the second call for supper. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. It was not till the year 1910 that a collection of his complete works was published; it took about 70 volumes. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. It has been calculated that it would take eight-hours work per day for 50 years to copy all his works by hand. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. It is reported that once he let his assistant calculate a series to 17 summands and noticed that his own result and the assistant's result differed in the 50th digit—a recalculation showed that Euler was right.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. Euler continued to be very productive, despite a complete loss of vision, due to his extraordinary powers of memory and mental calculation. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. Petersburg in 1766, ruled by Catherine the Great at that time, and he remained there for the rest of his life. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. Therefore he returned to St. . His time in Berlin was very productive; however, he did not have an easy position due to a lack of the king's favor.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. In the year 1741 Euler became director of the mathematical class at the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The descendants of these children, however, were in high positions in Russia in the 19th century. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. They had thirteen children, of whom only three sons and two daughters survived. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. In 1733 he married Katharina Gsell, the daughter of the director of the academy of arts.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. In 1735 he lost much of his vision in the right eye due to excessive observation of the sun. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Euler was the first to publish a systematic introduction to mechanics in 1736: Mechanica sive motus scientia analytice exposita ("Mechanics or motion explained with analytical science"—that is, calculus). Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Petersburg by Catherine I of Russia and became professor of physics in 1730, with an additional mathematics appointment in 1733. Michael Faraday Directory. In 1727 Euler was called to St.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. When Daniel and Nikolaus Bernoulli asked him to allow his son to study mathematics he finally agreed and Euler began to study mathematics. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Paul Euler had attended Jakob Bernoulli's mathematical lectures and respected his family. Finish. There Euler met Daniel and Nikolaus Bernoulli, who noticed Euler's skills in mathematics. "Work. In 1720 Euler began his studies at the University of Basel.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Although in his childhood he exhibited great mathematical talents, his father wanted him to study theology and become a minister. ISBN 1400060168. Leonhard Euler was born in Basel, Switzerland, the son of Paul Euler, a Lutheran minister. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. . Hamilton, James (2004). The asteroid 2002 Euler is named in his honour.

ISBN 0007163762. He was completely blind for the last seventeen years of his life, during which time he produced almost half of his total output. Harper Collins, London. He dominated 18th century mathematics and deduced many consequences of the newly invented calculus. Faraday: The Life. He is the most prolific mathematician of all time, his collected work filling 75 volumes. Hamilton, James (2002). Petersburg.

Petersburg, later in Berlin, and then returned to St. He worked as a professor of mathematics in St. Born and educated in Basel, he was a mathematical child prodigy. He is credited with being one of the first to apply calculus to physics.

Leonhard Euler was the first to use the term "function" (defined by Leibniz in 1694) to describe an expression involving various arguments; i.e., y = F(x). He is considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians who ever lived. Leonhard Euler [oi'lər] (April 15, 1707–September 18, 1783) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist. Lexikon der Naturwissenschaftler, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag Heidelberg, 2000.

Fermats letzter Satz, Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag. (2000). Singh, Simon. The giant book of scientists: The 100 greatest minds of all time, Sydney: The Book Company.

(1996). Simmons, J. Die großen Deutschen, volume 2, Berlin: Ullstein Verlag. 1956.

Heimpell, Hermann, Theodor Heuss, Benno Reifenberg (editors). ISBN 0-88385-328-0. Euler: The Master of Us All, Washington: Mathematical Association of America. Dunham, William (1999).

English translation Introduction to Analysis of the Infinite by John Blanton (Book I, ISBN 0387968245, Springer-Verlag 1988; Book II, ISBN 0387971327, Springer-Verlag 1989). Introductio in analysin infinitorum. Euler, Leonhard (1748). Euler Leonhardt : "Lettres à une Princesse d'Allemagne " ; free book at : http://www.bookmine.org ;.

"Read Euler: he is our master in everything." —Pierre-Simon Laplace.

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