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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. In 1894, Bose ignited gunpowder and rang a bell at a distance using electromagnetic waves, confirming that communication signals can be sent without using wires. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. Another pioneer of wireless communication was Prof Jagdish Bose. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. At the time, the United States Army was involved in a patent infringement lawsuit with Marconi's company regarding radio, leading some to posit that the government granted Tesla the patent on order to nullify any claims Marconi would have to compensation (as, some posit, the government's initial reversal to grant Marconi the patent right in order to nullify any claims Tesla had for compensation). He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. This decision was based on the fact that there was prior work existing before the establishment of Marconi's patent (developed by Tesla).

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. A lawsuit regarding this was resolved by American courts in Tesla's favor (1943). Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Tesla fought to re-acquire his radio patent. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Tesla initially held the rights to radio, but the US Patent Office reversed its decision and awarded Marconi the patent for radio. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. He died in 1905 and his claim was not pressed by the Russian government until 40 years later.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Upon learning about Marconi's experiments, Popov effected ship-to-shore communication over a distance of 6 miles in 1898 and 30 miles in 1899. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. Actually, Marconi publicly demonstrated his system several months later, in September. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Popov publicly demonstrated the transmission of radio waves between different campus buildings to the St Petersburg Physical Society in March 1896. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. Marconi did develop a practical model and was responsible for the first successful exploitation of the invention practically at the same time with Alexander Popov, who described his findings in a paper published in 1895.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. Marconi's claim that he invented radio was always disputed by Nikola Tesla and Alexander Popov. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. Marconi died in Rome on 20 July 1937. This established that magnetic force and light were related. Their daughter was named Maria Elettra Elena Anna Marconi. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". On 15 June 1927 he married Maria Cristina Bezzi-Scali; Mussolini was best man.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He made fascist speeches on the radio in a number of countries. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. Benito Mussolini made Marconi President of the Accademia d'Italia, which also made him a member of the Fascist Grand Council. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Marconi joined the Italian fascist party in 1923.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. In 1922 the World's first regular wireless broadcasts for entertainment commenced from the Marconi Research Centre at Writtle near Chelmsford.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. In 1920 Marconi's Chelmsford factory was the location of the first officially publicised sound broadcasts in the UK, one of them featuring Dame Nellie Melba. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. In 1914 Marconi built Chatham Radio WCC in Chatham Cape Cod, which would become the busiest ship to shore radio station for most of the twentieth century. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. In 1911, Marconi receives the patent GB13020, "Installations for wireless telegraphy". Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. WCC remained for several years, was sold to MCI and was finally shut down.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Marconi was forced to sell all his interests in the US to the RCA Corp. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Government was worried about foreign ownership of radio stations. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Reportedly, the U.S. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. This was mainly because the ocean had eroded the cliff where the Welfleet station stood.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. When the war was over, Marconi had planned to move the station to Chatham. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. During WWI, all radio stations went off the air. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. This message was sent directly from Welfleet to England,without being relayed via Glace Bay, Nova Scotia (Which was another Marconi station). These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. In 1903, from this station, Marconi sent the famous message from the President of the US to the King of England.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. It was first called CC (Cape Cod), then MCC (Marconi Cape Cod) and finally WCC when the US government issued "W" call letters to stations east of the Mississippi. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. In 1901, Marconi built a station near Wellfleet, MA. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. Marconi developed shortwave secret communication transmissions during this time. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. During World War I, Marconi was in charge of the Italian wireless service.

His greatest work was with electricity. He was the founder of the Marconi Corporation and the joint 1909 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics along with Karl Ferdinand Braun. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. Marconi did not achieve fully reliable transatlantic communication until 1907. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. They divorced later. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. They had three daughters, one of whom lived only a few weeks, and one son.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. On 16 March 1905 he married Beatrice O'Brien, daughter of Edward Donough O'Brien, 14th Baron Inchiquin, Ireland. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. By 1903, the Marconi Company was carrying regular transatlantic news transmissions. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. However there is little doubt that by February 1902, Marconi's apparatus was fairly reliably receiving complete messages at 2500 km (1550 miles) at night and 1100 km (700 miles) by day, and usually picked up a special test signal at 3400 km (2100 miles), the distance of Poldhu to Newfoundland. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Dr Jack Belrose has recently contested this, however, based on theoretical work as well as an actual reenactment of the experiment; he believes that Marconi heard only random atmospheric noise and mistook it for the signal.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. To reach Newfoundland the signal would have to bounce off the ionosphere twice. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. The message received was three dots, the Morse code for the letter S. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. The transmitting station in Poldhu, Cornwall used a spark-gap transmitter to produce a signal with a frequency of approximately 500kHz and a power of 100 times more than any radio signal previously produced (a maximum time-averaged power of 35 kilowatts, but with a peak pulse power of several tens of megawatts [1]). . This was surprising at the time as it was thought by the mainstream that a radio signal could only be transmitted in the line of sight.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. He received the first trans-Atlantic radio signal on 12 December 1901 at Signal Hill in St John's, Newfoundland (now in Canada) using a 400-foot kite-supported antenna for reception. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. He made a wireless transmission across the water from Ballycastle (Northern Ireland) to Rathlin Island in 1898. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Marconi made the first wireless transmission across water May 13th 1897, from Lavernock Point, South Wales to Flat holm Island. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. In July 1897, Marconi formed the London based Wireless Telegraph Trading Signal Company (later renamed the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company), which opened the World's first "wireless" factory in Hall Street, Chelmsford, England in 1898, employing around 50 people.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Marconi was awarded the patent for Radio with British Patent GB12039, "Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals and in apparatus there-for" on 2 July 1897 (sometimes recognised as the World's first patent). Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Marconi sent radio signals of 300 meters (and up to 6 Kilometers) on Salisbury Plain (England) in 1896. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Louis and the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. Michael Faraday Directory. Although many scientists and inventors contributed to the invention of wireless telegraphy, including Oliver Lodge, Hans Christian Ørsted, Michael Faraday, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, Jagadis Chandra Bose, Alexander Popov, Nikola Tesla, Thomas Alva Edison, Nathan Stubblefield, and others, Marconi's practical system achieved widespread use, so he is often credited as the "father of radio." Marconi's system was based primarily on Nikola Tesla's system, theoretically demonstrated during a widely known lecture titled On Light and Other High Frequency Phenomena, presented before a meeting of the National Electric Light Association in St.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. He was educated in Florence and, later, in Livorno. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Marconi was born near to Bologna, Italy, the second son of Giuseppe Marconi, an Italian landowner, and his Irish wife, Annie Jameson, granddaughter of the founder of the Jameson & Sons Distillery on 25 April 1874. Finish. . "Work. Marconi was President of the Accademia d'Italia and a member of the Fascist Grand Council of Italy.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Guglielmo Marconi (25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian electrical engineer and Nobel laureate, known for the development of a practical wireless telegraphy system commonly known as the "radio". ISBN 1400060168. Patent 763772. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. U.S. Hamilton, James (2004). Patent 676332.

ISBN 0007163762. U.S. Harper Collins, London. Patent 668315. Faraday: The Life. U.S. Hamilton, James (2002). Patent 650110.

U.S. Patent 650109. U.S. Patent 647009.

U.S. Patent 647008. U.S. Patent 647007.

U.S. Patent 627650. U.S. Patent 624516.

U.S. Patent 586193. U.S.

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