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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. Bell was well known as a kindly father and loving family man who took great pleasure playing with his many grandchildren. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. Together they had children, none of whom were deaf. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. He was a personal and longtime friend of Helen Keller, and his wife Mabel, a former student of his, was deaf. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Although he supported what many would consider harsh policies today, he was not unkind to deaf individuals.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Although this attitude is widely seen as paternalistic and arrogant today, it was accepted in that era. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. His avowed goal was to eradicate the language and culture of the deaf so as to force them to integrate into the hearing culture for their own long-term benefit and for the benefit of society at large. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. In addition to advocating sterilization of the deaf, Bell wished to prohibit deaf teachers from being allowed to teach in schools for the deaf, he worked to outlaw the marriage of deaf individuals to one another, and he was an ardent supporter of oralism over manualism. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. Much of his thoughts about people he considered defective centered on the deaf because of his long contact with them in relation to his work in deaf education.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Organizations such as these advocated passing laws (with success in some states) that established the compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a "defective variety of the human race". Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. In 1921 he was the honorary president of the Second International Congress of Eugenics held under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History in New York. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. From 1912 until 1918 he was the chairman of the board of scientific advisors to the Eugenics Record Office associated with Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, and regularly attended meetings. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. Along with many very prominent thinkers and scientists of the time, Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This record stood for ten years. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. On September 9, 1919 the HD-4 set a world's marine speed record of 70.86 miles per hour. This established that magnetic force and light were related. Bell's report to the navy permitted him to obtain two 350 horsepower (260 kW) engines in July 1919. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". Using Renault engines a top speed of 54 miles per hour was achieved accelerating rapidly, taking wave without difficulty, steering well, showing good stability.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. On returning to Baddeck a number of designs were tried culminating in the HD-4. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. Baldwin described it was as smooth as flying. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. During his world tour of 1910–1911 Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in Italy.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. This lead him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Bell and Casey Baldwin began hydrofoil experimentation in the summer of 1908 as a possible aid to airplane takeoff from water. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. Based on information gained from that article he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. The March 1906 Scientific American article by American hydrofoil pioneer William E. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. However, a series of Canadian flights failed to interest the Canadian military in developing the airplane.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. In 1909, Bell's Silver Dart made the first controlled powered flight in Canada. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. (Note that the aileron was also invented independently by Robert Esnault-Pelterie.). Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. One of the project's inventions, the aileron, is a standard component of aircraft today. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. government.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. McCurdy; and Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge, an official observer of the U.S. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. "Casey" Baldwin, the first Canadian and first British subject to pilot a public flight in Hammondsport, New York; J.A.D. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. Curtiss, a motorcycle manufacturer who would later be awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere and later be world-renowned as an airplane manufacturer; Frederick W. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. The founding members were four young men, American Glenn H.

His greatest work was with electricity. It was headed by the inventor himself. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. Mabel Bell and with her financial support. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. The Association was officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia in October 1907 at the suggestion of Mrs. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. Bell was also interested in aircraft and was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Bell gave a full account of his experiments in a paper read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science in August 1882. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. The metal detector worked, but didn't find the bullet because the metal bedframe the President was lying on confused the instrument. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. President James Garfield. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. The device was hurriedly put together in an attempt to find the bullet in the body of U.S.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. Bell is also credited with the invention of the metal detector in 1881. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. The photophone was patented on December 18, 1880, but the quality of communication remained poor and the research was not pursued by Bell. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. With this setup, Bell and Tainter succeeded to communicate clearly. . The sender consisted of a mirror directing sunlight onto the mouthpiece, where the light beam was modulated by a vibrating mirror, focused by a lens and directed at the receiver, which was simply a parabolic reflector with the selenium cells in the focus and the telephone attached.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. the sender and the receiver were placed on in different buildings some 700 feet (213 metres) apart. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. In one experiment in Washington, D.C. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Bell and Tainter, however, were apparently the first to perform a successful experiment, by no means any easy task, as they even had to produce the selenium cells with the desired resistance characteristics themselves. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Browne of London with the independent discovery in 1878—the same year Bell became aware of the idea.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. C. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. In his paper on the photophone, Bell credited one A. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. from Kew described such an arrangement in Nature in a column appearing on June 13, asking the readers whether any experiments in that direction had already been done. Michael Faraday Directory. In 1878, one writer with the initials J.F.W.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. Selenium had been discovered by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1817, and the peculiar properties of crystalline or granulate selenium were discovered by Willoughby Smith in 1873. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. This idea was by no means new. Finish. The modulation was done either by means of a vibrating mirror, or a rotating disk periodically obscuring the light beam. "Work. The basic principle was to modulate a beam of light directed at a receiver made of crystalline selenium, to which a telephone was attached.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". The device employed light-sensitive cells of crystalline selenium, which has the property that its electrical resistance varies inversely with the illumination (i.e., the resistance is higher when the material is in the dark, and lower when it is lighted). ISBN 1400060168. Another of Bell's inventions was the photophone, a device enabling the transmission of sound over a beam of light, which he developed together with Charles Sumner Tainter. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Now, dB is commonly used as a unit for measuring the sound intensity. Hamilton, James (2004). The bel was too large for everyday use, so the decibel (dB), equal to 0.1 B, became more commonly used.

ISBN 0007163762. The bel is a unit of measurement invented by Bell Labs and named after Bell. Harper Collins, London. AT&T became the overall holding company for all the Bell ventures, and remains active today. Faraday: The Life. On March 3, 1885, American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) was formed to manage the expanding long-distance business of the American Bell Telephone Company. Hamilton, James (2002). Along with Thomas Edison, Bell formed the Oriental Telephone Company on January 25, 1881.

In 1879, it merged with the New England Telephone Company forming the National Telephone Company, which was renamed the American Bell Telephone Company in 1880. Bell and others formed the Bell Telephone Company in July 1877. Meucci was eventually recognised as the original inventor of the telephone by the Congress of the United States in Resolution 269, dated June 11, 2002. It forms a speaking telegraph without the necessity of any hollow tube" .

In the caveat of 1871, he says "I employ the well-known conducting effect of continuous metallic conductors as a medium for sound, and increase the effect by electrically insulating both the conductor and the parties who are communicating. But his evidence showed lack of electrical understanding and incomplete models. Meucci's experimental apparatus was exhibited at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1884 and attracted much attention. Ill health and poverty, from injuries of an explosion on board the Staten Island ferry boat Westfield, retarded his experiments and prevented him from completing his patent.

In 1871, he filed a caveat in the United States Patent Office and tried to get Mr Grant, President of the New York District Telegraph Company, to give the apparatus a trial. He continued his research in 1852-1853, and subsequently at Staten Island, U.S.; and in 1860 deputed a friend visiting Europe to interest people in his invention. Of the people who have challenged Bell's patent and claimed to have invented the telephone, the most interesting case was that of Antonio Meucci, an Italian emigrant, who produced a mass of evidence to show that in 1849, while in Havana, Cuba, he experimented with the view of transmitting speech by the electric current. [1].

Reis' telephone was fairly crude and roused little interest in the scientific community, but his work appears to have been used by Bell when designing the telephone. Philipp Reis, a German self-taught scientist and inventor, also worked on a version of the telephone many years before Bell. However, when Bell achieved an unmistakable success, Gray brought a suit against him, which resulted in a compromise, one public company acquiring both patents. Gray never knew this.

An official at the patent office later admitted to selling Gray's idea to Bell's lawyers for money. But Gray allowed his idea to slumber, whereas Bell continued to perfect the apparatus designed by Gray. His receiver was an electromagnet having an iron plate as an armature capable of vibrating under the attractions of the varying current. As the current passed from the probe through the liquid to the line a greater or less thickness of liquid intervened as the probe vibrated up and down, and thus the strength of the current was regulated by the resistance offered to the passage of the current.

Gray employed electricity, and varied the strength of the current in conformity with the voice by causing the diaphragm in vibrating to dip a metal probe attached to its centre more or less deep into a well of conducting liquid in circuit with the line. Gray's transmitter is supposed to have been suggested by the very old device known as the "lovers' telephone," in which two diaphragms are joined by a taut string and in speaking against one the voice is conveyed through the string, solely by mechanical vibration, to the other. Elisha Gray applied on the same day for patent caveat (a preliminary notice of a patent application) of a similar kind only 2 hours after Bell had filed for his patent. Bell filed an application to patent his speaking telephone in the United States on February 14, 1876, and by a strange coincidence, Mr.

Bell was a prolific inventor, and had a keen interest in many fields. In a testament to Bell's internationality, he was named one of the top ten Greatest Canadians, Greatest Britons, and "American Greats". He was survived by two of their four children. He died at his estate at Beinn Bhreagh, near Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in 1922 and is buried alongside his wife atop Beinn Bhreagh Mountain overlooking Bras d'Or Lake.

Bell married Mabel Hubbard, who was one of his pupils at Boston University, on July 11, 1877. He was awarded the AIEE's Edison Medal in 1914 for "For meritorious achievement in the invention of the telephone.". The French Government conferred on him the decoration of the Légion d'honneur (Legion of Honor), the Académie française bestowed on him the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs, the Royal Society of Arts in London awarded him the Albert medal in 1902, and the University of Würzburg, Bavaria, granted him a Ph.D. He was the recipient of many honors.

In 1888, he was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society and became its second president. In 1882, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. These included fourteen for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aerial vehicles, four for hydroairplanes, and two for a selenium cell. The range of Bell's inventive genius is represented only in part by the eighteen patents granted in his name alone and the twelve he shared with his collaborators.

He also worked in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. After obtaining the patent for the telephone, Bell continued his many experiments in communication, which culminated in the invention of the photophone-transmission of sound on a beam of light — a precursor of today's optical fiber systems. by causing electrical undulations, similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying the said vocal or other sound", the telephone. Patent Office granted him Patent Number 174,465 covering "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically ..

With financing from his American father-in-law, on March 7, 1876, the U.S. At Boston University he continued his research in the same field, and endeavoured to produce a telephone which would not only send musical notes, but articulate speech. The elder Bell was invited to introduce the system into a large day-school for mutes at Boston, but he declined the post in favor of his son, who became Professor of Vocal Physiology and Elocution at Boston University's School of Oratory. In 1873, he accompanied his father to Montreal, Quebec, where he was employed in teaching the system of visible speech.

He designed a piano which could transmit its music to a distance by means of electricity. Before he left Scotland, Bell had turned his attention to telephony, and in Canada he continued an interest in communication machines. In 1870, he moved with his family to Canada where they settled at Brantford, Ontario. While still in Scotland he is said to have turned his attention to the science of acoustics, with a view to ameliorate the deafness of his mother.

From 1866 to 1867, he was an instructor at Somersetshire College at Bath, England. The next year he spent at the University of Edinburgh. At the age of 16 he secured a position as a pupil-teacher of elocution and music in Weston House Academy, at Elgin in Morayshire. Alexander Graham Bell was educated at the Royal High School of Edinburgh, from which he graduated at the age of 13.

In this he explains his method of instructing deaf mutes, by means of their eyesight, how to articulate words, and also how to read what other persons are saying by the motions of their lips. The latter has published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are well known, especially his treatise on Visible Speech, which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868. His family was associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather in London, his uncle in Dublin, and his father, Alexander Melville Bell, in Edinburgh, were all professed elocutionists. Born Alexander Bell in Edinburgh, Scotland, he later adopted the middle name Graham out of admiration for Alexander Graham, a family friend.

. In addition to his work in telecommunications technology, he was responsible for important advances in aviation and hydrofoil technology. Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a scientist, inventor, and founder of the Bell Canada, who was known as the father of the telephone.

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