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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. The extended biography The Life of James Clerk Maxwell, by his former schoolfellow and lifelong friend Professor Lewis Campbell, was published in 1882 and his collected works, including the series of articles on the properties of matter, such as Atom, Attraction, Capillary Action, Diffusion, Ether, etc., were issued in two volumes by the Cambridge University Press in 1890. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. The equations are fundamental to radio and television, and can be used for studying X-rays, gamma rays, infrared rays, and other forms of radiation. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They hold true in all cases and therefore yielded several new laws of electromagnetism and optics, most importantly electromagnetic radiation. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. These equations (as well as the Maxwell distribution) have proved to be extremely useful in physics ever since.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Maxwell had unified the work of previous electromagnetic and optical experiments at last, reducing their experimental results and observations into a series of mathematical equations. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. He had been a devout Christian his entire life. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. He died in Cambridge of abdominal cancer at the age of 48. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. Maxwell had married Katherine Mary Dewar when he was 27 years of age, but had fathered no children.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). One of Maxwell's last great contributions to science was the editing (with copious original notes) of the Electrical Researches of Henry Cavendish, from which it appeared that Cavendish researched such questions as the mean density of the earth and the composition of water, among other things. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. He superintended every step of the progress of the building and of the purchase of the very valuable collection of apparatus with which it was equipped at the expense of its generous founder, the 7th Duke of Devonshire (chancellor of the university, and one of its most distinguished alumni). He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Maxwell supervised the development of the Cavendish Laboratory. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. In 1871, he was the first Cavendish Professor of Physics at Cambridge.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. He wrote an admirable textbook of the Theory of Heat (1871), and an excellent elementary treatise on Matter and Motion (1876). In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. Maxwell's work on colour blindness allowed him to win the Rumford Medal by the Royal Society of London. This established that magnetic force and light were related. The three photographic plates now reside in a small museum at 14 India Street, Edinburgh, the house where Maxwell was born. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". The resulting image's colours were somewhat unnatural, because the filters passed invisible wavelengths of light, but the principle was sound.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. When brought into focus, the three images formed a full colour image. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The three images were developed and then projected onto a screen with three different projectors, each equipped with the same colour filter used to take its image. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. He had the photographer Thomas Sutton photograph a tartan ribbon three times, each time with a different colour filter over the lens.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. Maxwell also made contributions to the area of optics and colour vision, being credited with the discovery that colour photographs could be formed using red, green, and blue filters.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. These difficulties inspired Einstein to formulate the theory of special relativity, and in the process Einstein abandoned the requirement of a luminiferous aether. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. Moreover, it seemed to require an absolute frame of reference in which the equations were valid, with the distasteful result that the equations changed form for a moving observer. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Over time, the existence of such a medium, permeating all space and yet apparently undetectable by mechanical means, proved more and more difficult to reconcile with experiments such as the Michelson-Morley experiment. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. At that time, Maxwell believed that the propagation of light required a medium for the waves, dubbed the luminiferous aether.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Maxwell proved correct, and his quantitative connection between light and electromagnetism is considered one of the great triumphs of 19th century physics. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Maxwell (1865) wrote:. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Furthermore, Maxwell showed that the equations predict waves of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that travel through empty space at a speed that could be predicted from simple electrical experiments—using the data available at the time, Maxwell obtained a velocity of 310,740,000 m/s. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. These equations, which are now collectively known as Maxwell's equations (or occasionally, "Maxwell's Wonderful Equations"), were first presented to the Royal Society in 1864, and together describe the behaviour of both the electric and magnetic fields, as well as their interactions with matter.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. Maxwell's most important contribution was the extension and mathematical formulation of earlier work on electricity and magnetism by Michael Faraday, André-Marie Ampère, and others into a linked set of differential equations (originally, 20 equations in 20 variables, later re-expressed in quaternion and vector-based notations). Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. The greatest work of Maxwell's life was devoted to electricity. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Maxwell's work on thermodynamics led him to devise the thought experiment that came to be known as Maxwell's demon. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. This approach generalized the previous laws of thermodynamics, explaining the observations and experiments in a better way.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. In the kinetic theory, temperatures and heat involve only molecular movement. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. His formula, called the Maxwell distribution, gives the fraction of gas molecules moving at a specified velocity at any given temperature. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. In 1866, he statistically formulated, independently of Ludwig Boltzmann, the Maxwell-Boltzmann kinetic theory of gases. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. In 1868 he resigned his Chair of Physics and Astronomy at King's College, London.

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1865, Maxwell moved to the estate he inherited from his father in Glenlair, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. Originating with Daniel Bernoulli, this theory was advanced by the successive labours of John Herapath, John James Waterston, James Joule, and particularly Rudolf Clausius, to such an extent as to put its general accuracy beyond a doubt; but it received enormous development from Maxwell, who in this field appeared as an experimenter (on the laws of gaseous friction) as well as a mathematician. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. One of Maxwell's greatest investigations was on the kinetic theory of gases. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. He researched elastic solids and pure geometry during this time.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. In 1861, Maxwell was elected to the Royal Society. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. In 1860, he was a professor at King's College in London. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. He also mathematically disproved the nebular hypothesis (which stated that solar system formed through the progressive condensation of a purely gaseous nebula), forcing the theory to account for additional portions of small solid particles. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Maxwell demonstrated stability could ensue only if the rings consisted of numerous small solid particles.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. In 1859 he won the Adams prize in Cambridge for an original essay, On the Stability of Saturn's Rings, in which he concluded the rings could not be completely solid or fluid. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. In 1856, Maxwell was appointed to the chair of Natural Philosophy in Marischal College, Aberdeen, which he held until the fusion of the two colleges there in 1860. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. The instruments which he devised for these investigations were simple and convenient. . From 1855 to 1872, he published at intervals a series of valuable investigations connected with the Perception of Colour and Colour-Blindness, for the earlier of which he received the Rumford medal from the Royal Society in 1860.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. About the same time his elaborate memoir, On Faraday's Lines of Force appeared, in which he gave the first indication of some of the electrical investigations which culminated in the greatest work of his life. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. This is one of the few purely mathematical papers he published, and it exhibited at once to experts the full genius of its author. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Immediately after taking his degree, he read to the Cambridge Philosophical Society a novel memoir, On the Transformation of Surfaces by Bending. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. For more than half of his relatively short life he held a prominent position in the foremost rank of scientists, usually as a college professor.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. In 1854, Maxwell graduated with a degree as second wrangler in mathematics from Trinity (scoring second-highest in the mathematics exam) and was declared equal with the senior wrangler of his year in the higher ordeal of the Smith's prize examination. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. A considerable part of the translation of his electromagnetism equations was accomplished during Maxwell's career as an undergraduate in Trinity. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. In November 1851, Maxwell studied under the tutor William Hopkins (nicknamed the "wrangler maker"). Michael Faraday Directory. At Trinity, he was elected to a secret society known as the Cambridge Apostles.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. In 1850, Maxwell left for Cambridge University and initially attended Peterhouse, but eventually left for Trinity College where he believed it was easier to obtain a fellowship. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. In his eighteenth year, while still a student in Edinburgh, he contributed two papers to the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh — one of which, On the Equilibrium of Elastic Solids, laid the foundation of one of the most singular discoveries of his later life, the temporary double refraction produced in viscous liquids by shear stress. Finish. At Edinburgh, he studied under Sir William Hamilton. "Work. In 1847, Maxwell attended Edinburgh University studying natural philosophy, moral philosophy, and mental philosophy.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". In 1845, at the age of 14, Maxwell wrote a paper describing mechanical means of drawing mathematical curves with a piece of string. ISBN 1400060168. His school nickname was "Dafty", earned when he arrived for his first day of school wearing home-made shoes. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Maxwell then went to Edinburgh Academy in his youth. Hamilton, James (2004). Maxwell's mother died when he was just eight years old.

ISBN 0007163762. Most of his early childhood was spent at the family estate Glenlair near Dumfries. Harper Collins, London. Maxwell's early education was provided by his Christian mother and included studying the Bible. Faraday: The Life. He was the only child of Edinburgh lawyer John Clerk. Hamilton, James (2002). Maxwell was born at 14 India Street, Edinburgh, Scotland.

. A mountain range on Venus, Maxwell Montes, is named after him, as is the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, the largest sub-mm astronomical telescope in the world, with a diameter of 15 metres. The scientific compound derived CGS unit measuring magnetic flux (commonly abbreviated as f), the maxwell (Mx), is named in his honour. He also proposed that light was a form of electromagnetic radiation.

He showed that electric and magnetic fields travel through space, in the form of waves, at a constant velocity of 3.0 × 108 m/s. Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic forces are two complementary aspects of electromagnetism. Algebraic mathematics with elements of geometry are a feature of much of Maxwell's work. In 1931, on the centennial anniversary of Maxwell's birth, Einstein described Maxwell's work as the "most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton.".

Maxwell is widely regarded as the nineteenth century scientist who had the greatest influence on twentieth century physics, making contributions to the fundamental models of nature. He was the last representative of a younger branch of the well-known Scottish family of Clerk of Penicuik. Maxwell developed a set of equations expressing the basic laws of electricity and magnetism as well as the Maxwell distribution in the kinetic theory of gases. James Clerk Maxwell (June 13, 1831–November 5, 1879) was a Scottish physicist, born in Edinburgh.

Maxwell, James Clerk, "On the Results of Bernoulli's Theory of Gases as Applied to their Internal Friction, their Diffusion, and their Conductivity for Heat". Nature, September, 1873. Maxwell, James Clerk, "Molecules". 1873.

Clarendon Press, Oxford. Maxwell, James Clerk, "A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism". 1871. Maxwell, James Clerk, "Theory of Heat".

1865. Maxwell, James Clerk, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field". 1861. Maxwell, James Clerk, "On Physical Lines of Force".

1860. Maxwell, James Clerk, "Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases". 1846. ii.

Procedure of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. Maxwell, James Clerk, "On the Description of Oval Curves, and those having a plurality of Foci".

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