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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.
. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. Johann Sebastian Bach's contributions to music, or, to borrow a term popularised by his student Lorenz Christoph Mizler, "musical science" are frequently compared to the "original geniuses" of William Shakespeare in English literature and Isaac Newton in physics. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. Examples include the playing of keyboard works on the harpsichord rather than a modern grand piano, and the use of small choirs or single voices instead of the larger forces favoured by 19th and early 20th century performers. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Another development has been the growth of the authentic or period performance movement, which attempts to present the music as the composer intended it.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. During the 20th century the process of recognising the musical as well as the pedagogic value of some of the works has continued, perhaps most notably in the promotion of the Cello Suites by Pablo Casals. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Thereafter Bach's reputation has remained consistently high. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. The Bach Gesellschaft (or Bach Society) was founded in 1850 to promote the works, and over the next half century it published a comprehensive edition. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. Mendelssohn's promotion of Bach, and the growth of the composer's stature, continued in subsequent years.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). [7]. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. Hegel, who attended the performance, later called Bach "grand, truly Protestant, robust and, so to speak, erudite genius which we have only recently learned again to appreciate at its full value". He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Matthew Passion. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. But it was Felix Mendelssohn who did the most to revive Bach's reputation with his 1829 Berlin performance of the St.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. [6]. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. Goethe became acquainted with Bach's works relatively late in life, through a series of performances of keyboard and choral works at Bad Berka in 1814 and 1815; in a letter of 1827 he compared the experience of listening to Bach's music to "eternal harmony in dialogue with itself". This established that magnetic force and light were related. The revival in the composer's reputation among the wider public was prompted in part by Johann Nikolaus Forkel's 1802 biography, which was read by Beethoven among others. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". [5].

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. Chopin used to lock himself away before his concerts and play Bach's music. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. Beethoven was also a devotee, learning the Well-Tempered Clavier as a child and later calling Bach "Urvater der Harmonie" ("original father of harmony") and "nicht Bach, sondern Meer" ("not a stream but a sea", punning on the literal meaning of the composer's name). He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Forgetting everything else, he did not stand up again until he had looked through all the music of Sebastian Bach".
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. On a visit to the Thomasschule in Leipzig, Mozart heard a performance of one of the motets (BWV 225) and exclaimed, "Now, here is something one can learn from!"; on being given the parts of the motets, "Mozart sat down, the parts all around him, held in both hands, on his knees, on the nearest chairs.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. Mozart, Beethoven, and Chopin were among his most prominent admirers. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. His best-appreciated compositions in this period were his keyboard works, in which field other composers continued to acknowledge his mastery. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Bach). Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. E.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. P. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. He was far from forgotten, however: he was remembered as a player and teacher (as well, of course, as composer), and as father of his children (most notably C. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. In his later years and after his death, Bach's reputation as a composer declined: his work was regarded as old-fashioned compared to the emerging classical style. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. Another familiar transcription is the Ave Maria by Charles Gounod, based on the first prelude of the Well-Tempered Clavier.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. His complete works for harpsichord have been edited or transcribed by Busoni, and Liszt wrote both a praeludium and fugue on the BACH motif. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. Bach's music has inspired many composers to create music based on his themes, or transcribe his works for other instruments. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Power Biggs (organ), Pablo Casals and Yo-Yo Ma (cello), Nathan Milstein (violin), Karl Richter (chorus and orchestra), Nikolaus Harnoncourt and Gustav Leonhardt (cantatas, authentic performance), Joshua Rifkin and Andrew Parrott (choral works, one per part). These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Highly influential interpreters of Bach include Glenn Gould and Edwin Fischer (piano), Helmut Walcha and E.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. Some of his more important chamber musics do not indicate preferred instruments, leaving even larger space for arrangements. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This leaves the question as to whether present-day performers should adhere to authentic performance, or choose larger, modern orchestrations to which many of his works have been adopted. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. Few of his works were composed for more than a dozen musicians. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. In Bach's time musical ensembles were generally not as large as, say, in Brahms's.

His greatest work was with electricity. All these works, unlike the motets, have substantial solo parts as well as choruses. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. It was never performed in Bach's lifetime, or even after his death until the 19th century. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. Bach's other large work, the Mass in B minor, was assembled by Bach near the end of his life, mostly from pieces composed earlier (such as Cantata 191 and Cantata 12). Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. John Passion, both written for Holy Week services at the Thomaskirche, the Christmas Oratorio (a set of six cantatas for use in the Liturgical season of Christmas), a Magnificat in two versions, one in D major for a substantial orchestra with trumpets and timpani, and one for a smaller orchestra in E-flat major, with extra movements interpolated among the movements of the Magnificat text.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Matthew Passion and St. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. Bach's large choral-orchestral works include the famous St. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. There are no instrumental parts for these motets (except Lobet den Herrn, which has a continuo part), but it was typical of performance practice of the time to double vocal works with instruments and accompany them with continuo, so this method is often followed for modern performances; other performers do them a cappella. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. It is not certain for what occasion Bach wrote these works, but it is thought that most were for funerals.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. Exactly how many motets is a matter of dispute; there are six undoubted motets by Bach, a couple others of doubtful authorship, and some works classified in the BWV as cantatas but considered by some scholars to be motets. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. Bach wrote several motets himself, and they are also mostly for double choir, though the largest of them, Jesu, meine Freude, is written for a single, five-voice choir. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. These motets were mostly double-choir motets of the Venetian school, or more contemporary imitations of the style. . As part of Bach's regular church work, he copied and performed motets by many other composers (indeed, he usually began each Sunday service with one).

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. The Coffee cantata, concerning a girl whose father will not let her marry until she gives up her coffee addiction, is the best known of these. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. In addition, Bach wrote a number of secular cantatas, usually for civic events such as weddings. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. 147 ("Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben"). Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. 140 ("Wachet auf") and Cantata No.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. 80 ("Ein feste Burg"), Cantata No. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. 4 ("Christ lag in Todesbanden"), Cantata No. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. The best known of these cantatas are Cantata No. Michael Faraday Directory. The concluding chorale often also appears as a chorale prelude in a central movement, and occasionally as a cantus firmus in the opening chorus as well.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. The recitative is part of the corresponding Bible reading for the week and the aria is a contemporary reflection on it. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. A very common format, however, includes a large opening chorus followed by one or more recitative-aria pairs for soloists (or duets), and a concluding chorale. Finish. Some of them are only for a solo singer; some are single choruses; some are for grand orchestras, some only a few instruments. "Work. His cantatas vary greatly in form and instrumentation.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". In total he wrote over 300 cantatas, of which only 195 survive. ISBN 1400060168. Although he performed cantatas by other composers, he also composed at least three entire sets of cantatas, one for each Sunday and holiday of the church year, at Leipzig, in addition to those composed at Mühlhausen and Weimar. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Bach performed a cantata every Sunday at the Thomaskirche, on a theme corresponding to the lectionary readings of the week. Hamilton, James (2004). The work now known as the Air on a G String is an excerpt from Orchestral Suite #3.

ISBN 0007163762. In addition to concertos, Bach also wrote four orchestral suites, a series of stylized dances for orchestra. Harper Collins, London. A number of violin, oboe, and flute concertos have been reconstructed from these. Faraday: The Life. It is widely accepted that many of the harpsichord concertos were not original works but arrangements of now lost concertos for other instruments. Hamilton, James (2002). Other surviving works in the concerto form include two violin concertos, a concerto for two violins (often referred to as Bach's "double" concerto), and concertos for one, two, three, and even four harpsichords.

These works are examples of the concerto grosso genre. Bach's best-known orchestral works are the Brandenburg concertos, so named because he submitted them as a job audition for the Margrave of Brandenburg in 1721 (he did not get the job). The most significant examples of the latter are contained in The Art of Fugue and The Musical Offering. He wrote trio sonatas, solo sonatas (accompanied by continuo) for the flute and for the viola da gamba, and a large number of canons and ricercare, mostly for unspecified instrumentation.

For unaccompanied solo violin he composed a set of six sonatas and partitas, and he also produced a similar set for cello and another for lute. Bach wrote music for single instruments, duets, and other small ensembles. Another famous work is The Goldberg Variations; while somewhat cerebral, their emotional content and range is increasingly being appreciated. It is, however, uncertain what temperament he meant.

The word "well-tempered" refers to the temperament in which the keyboard is tuned; tuning systems before Bach's time were not flexible enough to allow compositions in all keys to be played without retuning. Among the best-known of these is The Well-Tempered Clavier, a set of preludes and fugues in each of the twelve major and minor keys. He also wrote a number of other solo dances, suites, partitas, and the like. He also wrote a set of English suites and a set of French suites, complex and difficult music based loosely on dance forms.

The Two-part inventions and Three-part inventions (or "sinfonias") were probably intended for instructional purposes rather than concert use. His keyboard works may have been intended for harpsichord or clavichord instead. Although the piano ("Klavier" in German) was invented in Bach's lifetime, most scholars doubt he had one or intended any of his music for it. Bach wrote many works for "clavier," usually understood to mean an unspecified keyboard.

Bach was also extensively engaged later in his life in consulting on various organ projects, testing newly-built organs, and dedicating organs in afternoon recitals. After he left Weimar, Bach's output for organ fell off, although his most well-known works (the six trio sonatas, the Clavierübung III of 1739, and the "Great Eighteen" chorales, revised very late in his life) were all composed after this time. His most productive period (1708–14) saw not only the composition of several pairs of preludes and fugues and toccatas and fugues, but also the writing of the Orgelbüchlein ("Little Organ Book"), an unfinished collection of 49 short chorale preludes intended to demonstrate various compositional techniques that could be used in setting chorale tunes. Around this time Bach also copied the works of numerous French and Italian composers in order to gain insights into their compositional languages, and later even arranged several violin concertos by Vivaldi and others for organ.

A decidedly North German influence was exerted by Georg Böhm, whom Bach came in contact with in Lüneburg, and Dietrich Buxtehude in Lübeck, whom the young organist visited in 1704 on an extended leave of absence from his job in Arnstadt. He established a reputation at a young age for his great creativity and ability to integrate aspects of several different national styles into his organ works. Bach was best known during his lifetime as an organist, organ consultant, and composer of organ works both in the traditional German free genres such as preludes, fantasias, and toccatas, and stricter forms such as chorale preludes and fugues. For a list of works catalogued by BWV number, see List of compositions of Johann Sebastian Bach.

In compiling the catalogue, Schmieder largely followed the Bach Gesellschaft Ausgabe, a comprehensive edition of the composer's works that was produced between 1850 and 1905. The catalogue is organised thematically, rather than chronologically: BWV 1–224 are cantatas, BWV 225–48 the large-scale choral works, BWV 250–524 chorales and sacred songs, BWV 525–748 organ works, BWV 772–994 other keyboard works, BWV 995–1000 lute music, BWV 1001–40 chamber music, BWV 1041–71 orchestral music, and BWV 1072–1126 canons and fugues. The catalogue, published in 1950, was compiled by Wolfgang Schmieder. Johann Sebastian Bach's works are indexed with BWV numbers, an initialism for Bach Werke Verzeichnis (Bach Works Catalogue).

Vivaldi also inspired Bach a great deal as can be seen by Bach's transcriptions of Vivaldi's violin concerti into harpsichord works. His musical style reflects the customs and conventions of his day, and was affected by the works of Couperin and Domenico Scarlatti. Although the works of Bach generally influence other composers, one would do well to remember that in Bach's era, greatness was decided by the ability to master a technique, not by inventiveness. Many of Bach’s themes—particularly the theme from Toccata and Fugue in D minor—have been used in rock songs repeatedly and have received notable popularity.

Nowadays, his styles and melodies are the basis for music ranging from hymns and religious music to pop and rock music. Several notable composers such as Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann and Mendelssohn increased their attention to harmony and wrote more complex works after being introduced to Bach. This combination of original melodic style and masterful counterpoint forged a powerful influence on later composers. Bach’s counterpoint is among the most careful and precise ever conceived; the complexity of it is captivating to composers and non-composers alike, and contains as many as five melodies all harmonizing with each other at once.

Bach’s melodies are inventive and unique; his solo violin works feature sweeping crescendos and feverish passages, his organ works are bold and liberal with rhapsodic passages that climax with perfect order and harmony, his harpsichord works combine the finest of Italian, French and German styles while remaining full and contrapuntal; however, his melodies often imply emotion rather than convey it—something that many people today have trouble understanding. During his life he had composed over 1,000 works. Bach spent his last days in Leipzig and died there in 1750, at the age of 65. The chorale is often played after the unfinished 14th fugue to conclude performances of The Art of Fugue.

Entitled Vor deinen Thron tret ich hiermit (Before thy throne I now appear); when the notes of the final cadence are counted and mapped onto the Roman alphabet, the word "BACH" is again found. The final work Bach completed was a chorale prelude for organ, dictated to his son-in-law, Altnikol, from his deathbed. A magnum opus of thematic transformation and contrapuntal devices, this work is often cited as the summation of polyphonic techniques. It consists of 18 complex fugues and canons based on a simple them.

The Art of Fugue, was written months before his death, and was unfinished. Its six-part fugue includes a slightly altered subject more suitable for extensive elaboration. Bach improvised a three-part fugue on Frederick's pianoforte, then a novelty, and later presented the king with a Musical Offering which consists of fugues, canons and a trio based on the "royal theme", nominated by the monarch. In 1747, Bach went to Frederick the Great's court in Potsdam, where the king played a theme for Bach and challenged him to improvise a fugue based on his theme.

Although the mass was never performed during the composer's lifetime, it is considered to be among the greatest choral works of all time. In 1735, he presented the manuscript to the elector of Saxony in a successful bid to persuade the monarch to appoint him as Royal Court Composer. During this period, he completed the Mass in B Minor, which incorporated newly composed movements with parts of earlier works. IV).

II), and the Goldberg variations (Vol. I), the Italian Concerto, the French Overture (Vol. Among them were the four volumes of the Clavier-Übung (Keyboard Practice), a large collection of works for organ and harpsichord that includes the Six Partitas (Vol. Many of these later works were collaborations with Leipzig's Collegium Musicum.

Having spent much of the 1720s composing cantatas, Bach had assembled a sizeable repertoire of church music that allowed him to continue performing impressive Sunday music programs while pursuing other musical genres. Interestingly, Georg Friedrich Händel, who was born in the same year as Bach in Halle, only 50 km from Leipzig, made several trips to Germany, but Bach was unable to meet him, a fact that he appears to have deeply regretted. Court musicians at Dresden and Berlin, and musicians including George Philipp Telemann (one of CPE's godfathers) made frequent visits to Bach's house and may have kept up frequent correspondence with him. Sebastian and Anna Magdalena welcomed friends, family, and fellow musicians from all over Germany into their home.

He enjoyed a particularly fruitful relationship with the poet Picander. At Leipzig, Sebastian seems to have maintained active relationships with several members of the faculty of the university. Most of Sebastian's manuscripts were passed on through his children, particularly CPE and WF Bach. His sons Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, Johann Gottfried Bernhard Bach, Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach, Johann Christian Bach, and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach became accomplished musicians, and three (CPE, JC, and WF Bach) were important composers in the rococo style that followed the baroque.

Together they had 13 children. Despite the age difference—she was 17 years his junior—the couple seem to have had a happy marriage. While at Cöthen, Bach met Anna Magdalena Wilcke, a young soprano; they married on 3 December 1721. Little is known of Maria Barbara; she died suddenly on 7 July 1720, while Bach was abroad with Prince Leopold.

Bach married his second cousin, Maria Barbara Bach, on October 17, 1707 in Dornheim after receiving an inheritance of 50 gulden.[4] They had seven children, four of whom survived to adulthood. It was typical for him to supervise a full-time apprentice, and there were often numerous private students studying in Bach's house, including such notables as Johann Friedrich Agricola. Floating sentence to be relocated: Bach's dedication to teaching is especially remarkable. Bach's representation of the essence and message of Christianity in his religious music is considered by many to be so powerful and beautiful that in Germany he is sometimes referred to as the Fifth Evangelist.

Matthew Passion among his greatest masterpieces; in his correspondence, he referred to it as his "great Passion" and carefully prepared a calligraphic manuscript of the work, which required almost every available musician in Leipzig for its performance. The composer himself considered the monumental St. Matthew Passion for Good Friday. On holy days, such as Christmas, Good Friday, and Easter, Bach produced cantatas of particular brilliance, most notably the Magnificat in D for Christmas and St.

Most of the cantatas from this period expound on the Sunday readings from the Bible for the week in which they were originally performed; some were written using traditional church hymns, such as Wachet auf! Ruft uns die Stimme and Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, as inspiration for the music. This challenging schedule, in addition to his more menial duties at the school, produced some of his most exquisite music, most of which has been preserved. For the first few years of his tenure at Leipzig, Bach composed a new cantata every week through much of the year. In 1723, Bach was appointed Cantor and Musical Director of the Thomaskirche, Leipzig.[3] This post required him to instruct the students of the St Thomas School (Thomasschule) in singing and to provide weekly music at the two main churches in Leipzig.

The Brandenburg concerti and many other instrumental works, including the Six Suites for Solo Cello, the Sonatas and Partitas for Solo Violin, and the Orchestral Suites, date from this period. However, the prince was Calvinist and did not use elaborate music in his worship; thus, most of Bach's work from this period was secular. Prince Leopold, himself a musician, appreciated Bach's talents, paid him well, and gave him considerable latitude in composing and performing. Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen hired Bach to serve as his Kapellmeister (director of music).

Sensing increasing political tensions in the ducal court of Weimar, Bach began once again to search out a more stable job that was conducive to his musical interests. The book illustrates two major themes in Bach's life: his dedication to teaching, and his love of the chorale as a compositional inspiration. During his tenure at Weimar, Bach started work on the Orgelbüchlein ("Little Organ book") for his eldest son, Wilhelm Friedemann; this contains traditional Lutheran chorales (hymn tunes), set in complex textures to assist the training of organists. The largest single body of his fugal writing is The Well-Tempered Clavier, which consists in all of 48 preludes and fugues, one pair for each major and minor key; this is a monumental work for its masterful use of counterpoint and its exploration, for the first time, of the full range of keys—and the means of expression made possible by their slight differences from each other—available to keyboardists when their instruments are tuned according to systems such as that of Andreas Werckmeister.

A master of contrapuntal technique, Bach's steady output of fugues began in Weimar. Here, he had the opportunity to play and compose for the organ, and to perform a varied repertoire of concert music with the duke's ensemble. Despite the good working conditions at Mühlhausen, in 1708 Bach left to take up a position as court organist and concert master at the ducal court in Weimar. Some of his earliest extant compositions date from this period, including his famous Toccata and Fugue in D Minor; however, much of his music from this period has been lost.

He was then offered a more lucrative post as organist at Mühlhausen, to the north. Shortly after graduation, in 1703, he took a post as organist at Arnstadt, Thuringia, which he held for some three years. While at this school, he would have visited several of the great organists of the day, such as Böhm and Reinken and Bruhns. His two years there appear to have been critical in exposing him to a wider palette of European culture than he was able to access in Thuringia.

In 1702, Sebastian was awarded a scholarship that allowed him to study at a prestigious school in Lüneberg, not far from Hamburg. The organ—with its complex mechanism of trackers and stops—represented one of the most advanced European technologies of the period. At Ohrdruf, the boy probably witnessed and assisted the maintenance of the organ, stimulating a lifelong professional activity as a consultant in the building of organs, a valuable counterpart to his extraordinary skill in playing them. While in his brother's house, he continued copying, studying and playing music, and possibly received valuable tuition from him.

The orphan moved in with his elder brother Johann Christoph Bach, who was the organist at Ohrdruf, a nearby town in Thuringia. Sebastian's mother died in 1694, and his father in 1695, when Sebastian was not quite 10 years old. In an era when sons were expected to be apprentices to their fathers, Sebastian can be assumed to have copied music and played various instruments from an early age. Sebastian's uncles were all professional musicians, ranging from church organists and court chamber musicians to composers.

His father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was the town piper in Eisenach, a post that involved the organisation of all of the secular music in town, and participation in church music at the direction of the church organist. Into this family, Sebastian was born in 1685 in Eisenach, Thuringia, an electorate in eastern Germany[2]. Sebastian's father, uncles and elder brother, and numerous more distant relatives, were professional musicians. For more than 200 years, the Bachs had produced dozens of worthy musicians and composers.

JS (Sebastian) Bach was a member of what was probably the most extraordinary musical family of all time. . Revered for their intellectual depth, technical command and artistic beauty, his works include the Brandenburg Concertos, the keyboard suites and partitas, the Mass in B Minor, the St Matthew Passion, A Musical Offering, The Art of Fugue and about 240 church cantatas. His forceful suavity and vast output have earnt him wide acknowledgement as one of the greatest composers in the Western tonal tradition.

Although he introduced no new musical forms, he enriched the prevailing German style with a robust and dazzling contrapuntal technique, a seemingly effortless control of harmonic and motivic organisation from the smallest to the largest scales, and the adaptation of rhythms and textures from abroad, particularly Italy and France. Johann Sebastian Bach (21 March 1685 – 28 July 1750)[1] was a German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and keyboard drew together all of the pre-existing strands of the baroque style and brought it to its ultimate maturity. Douglas Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid uses the music of Bach, the art of MC Escher and a wide range of other ideas to explore topics such as cognition, formal methods, logic and mathematics, particularly Gödel's incompleteness theorem. Wolff gives an exciting account of the discovery of the famous Bach Family archive, evacuated from wartime Berlin's Singakademie to Silesia and from there vanished into Russia until just a few years ago, at <http://athome.harvard.edu/dh/wolff.html>.

Christoph Wolff's more recent works (Johann Sebastian Bach: The Learned Musician and Johann Sebastian Bach: Essays) include a discussion of Bach's "original genius" in German aesthetics and music. An early groundbreaking study of Bach's life and music is the multi-volume Johann Sebastian Bach (1889), by Philippe Spitta. The early biography by Johann Nikolaus Forkel, Über Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke (1802), a translation of which is included in The Bach reader (see above), is of considerable value, as Forkel was able to correspond directly with people who had known Bach. David and Arthur Mendel, contains much interesting material, such as a large selection of contemporary documents, some by Bach himself.

The Bach Reader (Norton, 1966), edited by Hans T. JS Bach as organist: his instruments, music, and performance practices, by George Stauffer, Ernest May Publisher By Indiana University Press (1999)ISBN 025321386X. Norton & Company (2001) ISBN 0393322564. Johann Sebastian Bach: the learned musician by Christoph Wolff Publisher: W.W.

JS Bach (Vol 1) by Albert Schweitzer Publisher: Dover Publications (1966) ISBN 0486216314. Norton & Company; New Ed edition (1999) ISBN 0393319563. David (Editor), Arthur Mendel, Christoph Wolff Publisher: W.W. The new Bach reader by Hans T.

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