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Michael FaradayMichael Faraday
Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.
Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.
Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.
At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.
In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.
His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.
Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.
His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.
Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.
Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.
In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.
In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.
He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.
Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.
His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.
His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.
Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.
Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.
He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.
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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. Voltaire's library is preserved intact in the Russian National Library, St Petersburg. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. His Château is now a museum (L'Auberge de l'Europe). Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. The town of Ferney (France) where he lived his last 20 years of life, is now named Ferney-Voltaire. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. But some of his critics, like Thomas Carlyle, do argue that while he was unsurpassed in literary form, not even the most elaborate of his works was of much value for matter, and that he has never uttered any significant idea of his own.
Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Today, Voltaire is remembered and honoured in France as a courageous polemicist, who indefatigably fought for civil rights — the right to a fair trial and freedom of religion — and who denounced the hypocrisies and injustices of the ancien régime. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Voltaire read it through and said, "I do not think this poem will reach its destination.". His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, not to be confused with the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, sent a copy of his "Ode to Posterity" to Voltaire. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. Voltaire is also known for many memorable aphorisms, like Si Dieu n'existait pas, il faudrait l'inventer ("If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him"), contained in a verse epistle from 1768, addressed to the anonymous author of a controversial work, The Three Impostors.
(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Candide was subject to censorship and Voltaire did not openly claim it as his own work . Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. He is best known in this day and age for his novel, Candide ou l'Optimisme (1759), which satirizes the philosophy of Gottfried Leibniz. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Voltaire essentially believed monarchy to be the key to progress and change. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. Voltaire is quoted as saying that he "would rather obey one lion, than 200 rats of (his own) species".
This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. To Voltaire only an enlightened monarch, advised by philosophers like himself, could bring about change as it was in the king's rational interest to improve the power and wealth of France in the world. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. Voltaire distrusted democracy, which he saw as propagating the idiocy of the masses. This established that magnetic force and light were related. Voltaire perceived the French bourgeoisie to be too small and ineffective, the aristocracy to be parasitic and corrupt, the commoners as ignorant and superstitious, and the church as a static force only useful as a counterbalance since its "religious tax", or the tithe, helped to cement a powerbase against the monarchy. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". Its briefest equivalent may be given as "persecuting and privileged orthodoxy" in general, and, more particularly, it is the particular system which Voltaire saw around him, of which he had felt the effects in his own exiles and the confiscations of his books, and of which he saw the still worse effects in the hideous sufferings of Calas and La Barre.
The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. L'infâme is not God; it is not Christ; it is not Christianity; it is not even Catholicism. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. No careful and competent student of his works has ever failed to correct this gross misapprehension. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. This has been misunderstood in many ways - the mistake going so far as in some cases to suppose that Voltaire meant Christ by this opprobrious expression.
That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. His immense energy and versatility, his adroit and unhesitating flattery when he chose to flatter, his ruthless sarcasm when he chose to be sarcastic, his rather unscrupulous business faculty, his more than rather unscrupulous resolve to double and twist in any fashion so as to escape his enemies—all these things appear throughout the whole mass of letters. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. In this great mass Voltaire's personality is of course best shown, and perhaps his literary qualities not worst. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. There remains only the huge division of his correspondence, which is constantly being augmented by fresh discoveries, and which, according to Georges Bengesco, has never been fully or correctly printed, even in some of the parts longest known. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. He was quite unacquainted with the history of his own language and literature, and more here than anywhere else he showed the extraordinarily limited and conventional spirit which accompanied the revolt of the French 18th century against limits and conventions in theological, ethical and political matters.
These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Nowhere, perhaps, except when he is dealing with religion, are Voltaire's defects felt more than here. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. In literary criticism pure and simple his principle work is the Commentaire sur Corneille, though he wrote a good deal more of the same kind—sometimes (as in his Life and notices of Molière) independently sometimes as part of his Siécles. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Almost all his more substantive works, whether in verse or prose, are preceded by prefaces of one sort or another, which are models of his own light pungent causerie; and in a vast variety of nondescript pamphlets and writings he shows himself a perfect journalist. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. In general criticism and miscellaneous writing Voltaire is not inferior to himself in any of his other functions.
He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The book ranks perhaps second only to the novels as showing the character, literary and personal, of Voltaire; and despite its form it is nearly as readable. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. The various title-words of the several articles are often the merest stalking horses, under cover of which to shoot at the Bible or the church, the target being now and then shifted to the political institutions of the writer's country, his personal foes, etc., and the whole being largely seasoned with that acute, rather superficial, common-sense, but also commonplace ethical and social criticism which the 18th century called philosophy. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. None of Voltaire's works shows his anti-religious or at least anti-ecclesiastical animus more strongly. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. His largest philosophical work, at least so called, is the curious medley entitled Dictionnaire philosophique, comprising articles contributed by him to the great Encyclopédie and of several minor pieces.
This device is known as a homopolar motor. To his own age Voltaire was pre-eminently a poet and a philosopher; the unkindness of succeeding ages has sometimes questioned whether he had any title to either name, and especially to the latter. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. However, the defense of Christian apologetics of his time was usually not very convincing either. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. On the other hand, he claimed that this very same community preserved the texts without making any change to adjust those discrepancies. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. On one hand, he claimed that the Gospels were figmented and Jesus did not exist--that they were produced by those who wanted to create God in their own image and were full of discrepancies.
His greatest work was with electricity. Voltaire opposed Christian beliefs fiercely, but not consistently. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. But even in these books defects are present, which appear much more strongly in the singular olla podrida entitled Essai sur les moeurs, in the Annales de Vempire and in the minor historical works. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. (the latter inferior to the former but still valuable) contain a great miscellany of interesting matter, treated by a man of great acuteness and unsurpassed power of writing, who had also had access to much important private information. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. The so-called Siècle de Louis XIV of France and Siecle de Louis XV.
When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. The small treatises on Charles XII and Peter the Great are indeed models of clear narrative and ingenious if somewhat superficial grasp and arrangement. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. This division of Voltaire's work is the bulkiest of all except his correspondence, and some parts of it are or have been among the most read, but it is far from being even among the best. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. See especially Micromegas. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Voltaire has, in common with Jonathan Swift, the distinction of paving the way for science fiction's philosophical irony.
At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. The famous "pour encourager les autres" (that the shooting of Byng did "encourage the others" very much is not to the point) is a typical example, and indeed the whole of Candide shows the style at its perfection. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. Voltaire never dwells too long on this point, stays to laugh at what he has said, elucidates or comments on his own jokes, guffaws over them or exaggerates their form. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. If one especial peculiarity can be singled out, it is the extreme restraint and simplicity of the verbal treatment. . It is in these works more than in any others that the peculiar quality of Voltaire—ironic style without exaggeration—appears.
The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. But (as always happens in the case of literary work where the form exactly suits the author's genius) the purpose in all the best of them disappears almost entirely. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. Thus Candide attacks religious and philosophical optimism, L'Homme aux quarante ecus certain social and political ways of the time, Zadig and others the received forms of moral and metaphysical orthodoxy, while some are mere lampoons on the Bible, the unfailing source of Voltaire's wit. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. These productions—incomparably the most remarkable and most absolutely good fruit of his genius—were usually composed as pamphlets, with a purpose of polemic in religion, politics, or what not. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. The minor poems are as much above the Pucelle as the Pucelle is above the Henriade.
He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Nevertheless, with all the Pucelle 's faults, it is amusing. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. The Pucelle, if morally inferior, is from a literary point of view of far more value, it is desultory to a degree; it is a base libel on religion and history; it differs from its model Lodovico Ariosto in being, not, as Ariosto is, a mixture of romance and burlesque, but a sometimes tedious tissue of burlesque pure and simple. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Constructed and written in almost slavish imitation of Virgil, employing for medium a very unsuitable vehicle—the Alexandrine couplet (as reformed and rendered monotonous for dramatic purposes)—and animated neither by enthusiasm for the subject nor by real understanding thereof, it could not but be an unsatisfactory performance. Michael Faraday Directory. The Henriade has by wide consent been relegated to the position of a school reading book.
The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. As regards his poems proper, of which there are two long ones, the Henriade, and the Pucelle, besides smaller pieces, of which a bare catalogue fills fourteen royal octavo columns, their value is very unequal. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Ironically, despite Voltaire's comic talent, he wrote only one good comedy, Nanine, but many good tragedies -- two of them, Zaire and Mérope, are ranked among the ten or twelve best plays of the whole French classical school. Finish. He wrote between fifty and sixty plays (including a few unfinished ones). "Work. The divisions of it have long been recognized, and may be treated regularly.
"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Vast and various as the work of Voltaire is, its vastness and variety are of the essence of its writer's peculiar quality. ISBN 1400060168. In 1791 his remains were moved to a resting place at The Panthéon in Paris. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. He was finally buried at an abbey in Champagne. Hamilton, James (2004). Because of his criticism of the church Voltaire was denied burial in church ground.
ISBN 0007163762. Stories about his death in a state of terror and despair are shown as false. Harper Collins, London. The excitement of the trip was too much for him and he died in Paris on May 30, 1778. Faraday: The Life. Voltaire returned to a hero's welcome in Paris at age 83 in time to see his last play, Irene, produced. Hamilton, James (2002). A much more solid gain to his happiness was the adoption, or practical adoption, in 1776 of Reine Philiberte de Varicourt, a young girl of noble but poor family, whom Voltaire rescued from the convent, installed in his house as an adopted daughter, and married to the marquis de Villette.
The death of Louis XV and the accession of Louis XVI excited even in his aged breast the hope of re-entering Paris, but he did not at once receive any encouragement, despite the reforming ministry of Turgot. In this way Voltaire, who had been an old man when he established himself at Ferney (now Ferney-Voltaire), became a very old one almost without noticing it. But the general events of this Ferney life are somewhat of that happy kind which are no events. In 1768 he entered into controversy with the bishop of the diocese; he had differences with the superior landlord of part of his estate, the president De Brosses; and he engaged in a long and tedious return match with the republic of Geneva.
Volumes and almost libraries have been written on the Calas affair, and we can but refer here to the only less famous cases of Sirven (very similar to that of Calas, though no judicial murder was actually committed), Espinasse (who had been sentenced to the galleys for harbouring a Protestant minister), Lally (the son of the unjustly treated but not blameless Irish-French commander in India), D'Etalonde (the companion of La Barre), Montbailli and others. Here, too, he began that series of interferences on behalf of the oppressed and the ill-treated which is an honour to his memory. How he built a church and got into trouble in so doing at Ferney, how he put "Deo erexit Voltaire" on it (1760-1761) and obtained a relic from the pope for his new building, how he entertained a grand-niece of Corneille, and for her benefit wrote his well-known "commentary" on that poet, are matters of interest, indeed. Further lampoons were directed at Fréron, an excellent critic and a dangerous writer, who had attacked Voltaire from the conservative side, and at whom the patriarch of Ferney, as he now began to be called, levelled in return the very inferior farce-lampoon of L'Ecossaise, of the first night of which Fréron himself did an admirably humorous criticism.
These were directed at literary victims such as Lefranc de Pompignan or Palissot. The suppression of the Encyclopédie, to which he had been a considerable contributor, and whose conductors were his intimate friends, drew from him a shower of lampoons directed now at l'infâme. Above all, he now being comparatively secure in position, engaged much more strongly in public controversies, and resorted less to his old labyrinthine tricks of disavowal, garbled publication and private libel. His new occupations by no means quenched his literary activity - he reserved much time for work and for his immense correspondence, which had for a long time once more included Frederick, the two getting on very well when they were not in contact.
Many of the most celebrated men of Europe visited him there, and large parts of his usual biographies are composed of extracts from their accounts of Ferney. At Les Délices (which he sold in 1765) he had become a householder on no small scale; at Ferney (which he increased by other purchases and leases) he became a complete country gentleman, and was henceforward known to all Europe as squire of Ferney. At the end of 1758 he bought the considerable property of Ferney, about four miles from Geneva, and on French soil. As for himself, he looked about for a place where he could combine the social liberty of France with the political liberty of Geneva, and he found one.
He undoubtedly instigated d'Alembert to include a censure of the prohibition in his Encyclopédie article on "Geneva," a proceeding which provoked Rousseau's celebrated Lettre à D'Alembert sur les spectacles. But he never was the man to take opposition to his wishes either quietly or without retaliation. Voltaire obeyed this hint as far as Les Délices was concerned, and consoled himself by having the performances in his Lausanne house. In July 1755 a very polite and, as far as Voltaire was concerned, indirect resolution of the Consistory declared that in consequence of these proceedings of the Sieur de Voltaire the pastors should notify their flocks to abstain, and that the chief syndic should be informed of the Consistory's perfect confidence that the edicts would be carried out.
Voltaire had infringed this law already as far as private performances went, and he had thought of building a regular theatre, not indeed at Geneva but at Lausanne. Geneva had a law expressly forbidding theatrical performances in any circumstances whatever. All was, however, not yet quite smooth with him. The earthquake at Lisbon, which appalled other people, gave Voltaire an excellent opportunity for ridiculing the beliefs of the orthodox, first in verse (1756) and later in the unsurpassable tale of Candide (1759).
His Orphelin de Chine, performed at Paris in 1755, was very well received; the notorious La Pucelle appeared in the same year. His residence at Geneva brought him into correspondence (at first quite amicable) with the most famous of her citizens, Rousseau. He kept open house for visitors; he had printers close at hand in Geneva; he fitted up a private theatre in which he could enjoy what was perhaps the greatest pleasure of his whole life—acting in a play of his own, stage-managed by himself. At Les Délices he set up a considerable establishment, which his great wealth made him able easily to afford.
He was here practically at the meeting-point of four distinct jurisdictions—Geneva, the canton Vaud, Sardinia, and France, while other cantons were within easy reach; and he bought other houses dotted about these territories, so as never to be without a refuge close at hand in case of sudden storms. Voltaire had no plans to remain in the city, and immediately bought a country house just outside the gates, which he named Les Délices. In the summer he went to Plombières, and after returning to Colmar for some time, journeyed in the beginning of winter to Lyons, and thence in the middle of December to Geneva. His exclusion from France, however, was chiefly metaphorical, and really meant exclusion from Paris and its neighbourhood.
Nor did an extremely offensive performance of Voltaire's—the solemn partaking of the Eucharist at Colmar after due confession—at all mollify his enemies. Permission to establish himself in France was now absolutely refused. At Colmar he was not safe, especially when in January 1754 a pirated edition of the Essai sur les moeurs, written long before, appeared. He had been, in the first blush of his Frankfort disaster, refused, or at least not granted, permission even to enter France proper.
Even now, however, in his sixtieth year, it required some more external pressure to induce him to make himself independent. Voltaire's second stage was now over. The last-named place he reached (after a leisurely journey and many honours at the little courts just mentioned) at the beginning of October, and here he proposed to stay the winter, finish his Annals of the Empire and look about him. Voltaire left Frankfurt on the 7th of July, travelled safely to Mainz, and thence to Mannheim, Strasbourg and Colmar.
This situation was at last put an end to by the city authorities, who probably felt that they were not playing a very creditable part. He was followed, arrested, his niece seized separately, and sent to join him in custody; and the two, with the secretary Collini, were kept close prisoners at an inn called the Goat. At last Voltaire tried to steal away. The resident, Freytag, was not a very wise person (though he probably did not, as Voltaire would have it, spell "poésie" (poetry) "poéshie"); constant references to Frederick were necessary; and the affair was prolonged so that Madame Denis had time to join her uncle.
An excuse was provided in the fact that the poet had a copy of some unpublished poems of Frederick's, which would have implicated Frederick's homosexuality were they to be published, and as soon as Voltaire arrived hands were laid on him, at first with courtesy enough. Frankfurt, nominally a free city, but with a Prussian resident who did very much what he pleased, was not like Gotha and Leipzig. Once more, on the 25th of May, he moved on to Frankfurt. From Leipzig, after a month's stay, Voltaire moved to Gotha.
In the second place, in direct disregard of a promise given to Frederick, a supplement to Akakia appeared, more offensive than the main text. In the first place, the poet chose to linger at Leipzig. There was a rather distinct excuse for Frederick's wrath. It was nearly three months afterwards that the famous, ludicrous and brutal arrest was made at Frankfurt, on the persons of himself and his niece, who had met him meanwhile.
A kind of reconciliation occurred in March, and after some days of good-fellowship Voltaire at last obtained the long-sought leave of absence and left Potsdam on the 26th of the month (1753). One day Voltaire sent his orders back; the next Frederick returned them, but Voltaire had quite made up his mind to fly. Things were now drawing to a crisis. It could not be proved that he had ordered the printing, and all Frederick could do was to have the pamphlet burnt by the hangman.
Alas! Voltaire had sent copies away; others had been printed abroad; and the thing was irrecoverable. But again the affair blew over, the king believing that the edition of Akakia confiscated in Prussia was the only one. Frederick did not like disobedience, but he still less liked being made a fool of, and he put Voltaire under arrest. In a few days printed copies appeared.
Of this Frederick was not aware; but he did get some wind of the diatribe itself, sent for the author, heard it read to his own great amusement, and either actually burned the manuscript or believed that it was burnt. Even Voltaire did not venture to publish this lampoon on a great official of a prince so touchy as the king of Prussia without some permission, and if all tales are true, he obtained this by another piece of something like forgery—getting the king to endorse a totally different pamphlet on its last leaf, and affixing that last leaf to Akakia. But Maupertuis must needs write his Letters, and thereupon (1752) appeared one of Voltaire's most famous, though perhaps not one of his most read works, the Histoire du docteur Akakia et du natif de Saint-Malo. The king took his president's part; Voltaire took Konig's.
Maupertuis got into a dispute with one Konig. In the early autumn of 1751 one of the king's parasites, and a man of much more talent than is generally allowed, horrified Voltaire by telling him that Frederick had in conversation applied to him (Voltaire) a proverb about "sucking the orange and flinging away its skin", and about the same time the dispute with Pierre de Maupertuis, which had more than anything else to do with his exclusion from Prussia, came to a head. However, he succeeded in finishing and printing the Siècle de Louis XIV, while the Dictionnaire philosophique is said to have been devised and begun at Potsdam. The king's disgust at this affair (which came to an open scandal before the tribunals) was so great that he was on the point of ordering Voltaire out of Prussia, and Darget the secretary had trouble resolving the matter (February 1751).
He was accused of forgery -- of altering a paper signed by Hirsch after he had signed it. Voltaire had not been in the country six months before he engaged in a discreditable piece of financial gambling with Hirsch, the Dresden Jew. Frederick, though his love of teasing for teasing's sake has been exaggerated by Macaulay, was a martinet of the first water, had a sharp though one-sided idea of justice, and had not the slightest intention of allowing Voltaire to insult or to tyrannize over his other guests and servants. He was restless, and in a way Bohemian.
Voltaire was not humble enough to be a mere butt, as many of Frederick's lead poets were; he was not enough of a gentleman to hold his own place with dignity and discretion; he was constantly jealous both of his equals in age and reputation, such as Maupertuis, and of his juniors and inferiors, such as Baculard D'Arnaud. It was quite impossible that Voltaire and Frederick should get on together for long. But Frenchmen regarded Voltaire as something of a deserter; and it was not long before he bitterly repented his desertion, though his residence in Prussia lasted nearly three years. Voltaire insisted for the consent of his own king, which was given without delay.
He pressed him to remain; he gave him (the words are Voltaire's own) one of his orders, twenty thousand francs a year, and four thousand additional for his niece, Madame Jenis, in case she would come and keep house for her uncle. At first the king behaved altogether like a king to his guest. In 1751, Voltaire accepted Frederick of Prussia's invitations and moved to Berlin. He went on writing satires like Zadig, and engaged in a literary rivalry with Crébillon père, a rival set up against him by Madame de Pompadour.
He was deeply disturbed for a time, and considered settling down in Paris. Madame du Chatelet's death is another turning-point in Voltaire's life. In September 1749 she died after the birth of a child. He once lay in hiding for two months with the duchesse du Maine at Sceaux, where were produced the comedietta of La Prude and the Tragedie de Rome sauvée, and afterwards for a time lived chiefly at Lunéville; here Madame du Chatelet had established herself at the court of King Stanislaus I of Poland, and carried on a liaison with the soldier-poet, Jean François de Saint-Lambert, an officer in the king's guard.
He had various proofs of the instability of his hold on the king during 1747 and in 1748. He did not indeed hold it very long, but was permitted to sell it for a large sum, retaining the rank and privileges. His favour at court had naturally exasperated his enemies; it had not secured him any real friends, and even a gentlemanship of the chamber was no solid benefit, except from the money point of view. Then the tide began to turn.
He, who had been for years admittedly the first writer in France, was at last elected to the Académie française in the spring of 1746. All this assentation had at least one effect. But he was not a thoroughly skilful courtier, and one of the best known of Voltairians is the contempt or at least silence with which Louis XV received the maladroit and almost insolent inquiry Trajan est-il content? addressed in his hearing to Richelieu at the close of a piece in which the emperor had appeared with a transparent reference to the king. In the same year he wrote a poem on Fontenoy, he received medals from the pope and dedicated Mahomet to him, and he wrote court divertissements and other things to admiration.
He was much employed, owing to Richelieu's influence, in the fetes of the dauphin (Louis, dauphin de France)'s marriage, and was rewarded through the influence of Madame de Pompadour on New Year's Day 1745 by the appointment to the post of historiographer-royal, temporarily achieving a secure social and financial position. He also returned, not too well advisedly, to the business of courtiership, which he had given up since the death of the regent. During these years much of the Essai sur les moeurs and the Siècle de Louis XIV was composed. It was in this same year that he received the singular diplomatic mission to Frederick which nobody seems to have taken seriously, and after his return the oscillation between Brussels, Cirey and Paris was resumed.
This last was, and deserved to be, the most successful of its author's whole theatre. Mahomet was first performed at Lille in that year; it did not appear in Paris till August next year, and Mérope not till 1743. Brussels was again the headquarters in 1741, by which time Voltaire had finished two of his best plays, Mérope and Mahomet. At last, in September 1740, master and pupil met for the first time at Cleves, an interview followed three months later by a longer visit.
Frederick, now king of Prussia, made not a few efforts to get Voltaire away from Madame du Chatelet, but unsuccessfully, and the king earned the lady's cordial hatred by persistently refusing or omitting to invite her. In April 1739 a journey was made to Brussels, to Paris, and then again to Brussels, which was the headquarters for a considerable time, owing to some law affairs, of the Du Chatelets. The best-known accounts of Cirey life, those of Madame de Graffigny, date from the winter of 1738-39; they are very amusing, depicting the frequent quarrels between Madame du Châtelet and Voltaire, his intense suffering under criticism, his constant dread of the surreptitious publication of the Pucelle (which Émilie actually hid from him to prevent him from publishing it and losing his life, but which he kept reciting to visitors), and so forth. He spent about three months in the Low Countries, but in March 1737 returned to Cirey and continued writing, making experiments in physics (he had at this time a large laboratory), and busying himself with iron-founding, the chief industry of the district.
He was soon in trouble again, this time for the poem, Le Mondain, and he at once crossed the frontier and made for Brussels. In March 1736 he received his first letter from Frederick II of Prussia, then crown prince. In the very first days at Cirey Voltaire had written a pamphlet with the title of Treatise on Metaphysics. The principal literary results of his early years here were the Discours en vers sur l'Homme, the play of Aizire and L'Enfant prodigue (1736), and a long treatise on the Newtonian system which he and Madame du Châtelet wrote together.
At Cirey he wrote indefatigably and did not neglect business. In March 1735 the hat was formally taken off him, and he was at liberty to return to Paris, a liberty of which he availed himself sparingly. Cirey provided him with a safe and comfortable retreat, and with every opportunity for literary work. Émilie's temper was violent, and after more than a decade she began affairs with lovers other than Voltaire, though he stayed with her.
It was not till the summer of 1734 that Cirey, a half-dismantled country house on the borders of Champagne, France and Lorraine, was fitted up with Voltaire's money and became the headquarters of himself, of his hostess, and now and then of her accommodating husband. He now obtained a settled home for many years and, taught by his numerous brushes with the authorities, he began his future habit of keeping out of personal harm's way, and of at once denying any awkward responsibility, which made him for nearly half a century at once the leader of European heretics in regard to all established ideas. He had written important and characteristic work before, but had not decided a direction. If the English visit may be regarded as having finished Voltaire's education, the Cirey residence was the first stage of his literary manhood.
He himself was safe in the independent duchy of Lorraine with Émilie de Breteuil, marquise du Châtelet, with whom he began to be intimate in 1733; he had now taken up his abode with her at the château of Cirey. The book was condemned (June 10, 1734), the copies seized and burned, a warrant issued against the author, and his dwelling searched. It was published with certain "remarks" on Blaise Pascal, more offensive to orthodoxy than itself, and no mercy was shown to it. Both were likely to make bad blood, for the latter was, under the mask of easy verse, a satire on contemporary French literature, especially on Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, and the former was, in the guise of a criticism or rather panegyric of English ways, an attack on everything established in the church and state of France.
In the middle of this period, in 1733, two important books, the Lettres philosophiques sur les Anglais and the Temple du gout appeared. He then took lodgings with an agent of his, one Demoulin, in an out-of-the-way part of Paris, and was, for some time at least, as much occupied with contracts, speculation and all sorts of means of gaining money as with literature. In the following winter the death of the comtesse de Fontaine-Martel, whose guest and supposed lover he had been, turned him out of a comfortable abode. In 1732 two more tragedies appeared with great success: Eriphile and Zaire.
In the spring of the next year, Voltaire went to Rouen to get Charles XII surreptitiously printed. At the end of 1730 Brutus was actually staged. With both he took all imaginable pains to avoid offending the censorship. But he had great difficulties with two of his chief works which were ready to appear, Charles XII and the Lettres sur les Anglais.
The Henriade was at last licensed in France; Brutus, a play which he had printed in England, was accepted for performance, but kept back for a time by the author; and he began the celebrated poem of the Pucelle, the amusement and the torment of a great part of his life. He was full of literary projects, and immediately after his return is said to have increased his fortune immensely by a lucky lottery speculation. He saw England as a useful model for what he considered to be a backward France. Voltaire also greatly admired English religious toleration and freedom of speech, and saw these as necessary prerequisites for social and political progress.
He studied England's constitutional monarchy, its religious tolerance, its philosophical rationalism and most importantly the "natural sciences". While in England Voltaire was attracted to the philosophy of John Locke and ideas of Sir Isaac Newton. The new king was not fond of poetry, but Queen Caroline was, and the kingdom's prestige was enhanced through welcoming a distinguished exile from French illiberality. Soon after his arrival, George I died and George II succeeded.
He was kept in confinement a fortnight, and was then packed off to England in accordance with his own request. On the morning appointed for the duel Voltaire was arrested and sent for the second time to the Bastille. He was insulted by the chevalier de Rohan, replied with his usual sharpness of tongue, and shortly afterwards, when dining with the duke of Sully, was called out and beaten by the chevalier's hirelings, while Rohan watched. The end of 1725 brought a disastrous close to this period of his life.
Voltaire had made, however, a useful friend in another grand seigneur, as profligate and nearly as intelligent, the duke of Richelieu, and with him he passed 1724 and the next year chiefly recasting the now successful Marianne, but also writing the comedy of L'Indiscret and courting the queen. The regent had died shortly before, not to Voltaire's advantage; for he had been a generous patron. Almost at the same time, on the 4th of March, his third tragedy, Marianne, appeared and was well received at first but underwent complete damnation before the curtain fell. In November he caught smallpox and was seriously ill, so that the book was not given to the world till the spring of 1724 (and then of course, as it had no privilege, appeared privately).
In this he was disappointed but he had the work printed at Rouen nevertheless and spent the summer of 1723 revising it. de Berniêres, a nobleman of Rouen and endeavouring to procure a "privilege" for his poem. During the late autumn and winter of 1722-1723 he lived chiefly in Paris, taking a kind of lodging in the town house of M. The Henriade had got on considerably during the journey and, according to his lifelong habit, the poet, with the help of his friend Thiériot and others, had been "working the oracle" of puffery.
He stayed at Cambrai for some time, where European diplomatists were still in full session, journeyed to Brussels, where he met and quarrelled with Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, went on to the Hague and then returned. His visiting espionage, or secret diplomatic mission, began in the summer of 1722 and he set out for it in company with a certain Madame de Rupelmonde, to whom he, as usual, made love, taught deism and served as an amusing travelling companion. In return for this, or in hopes of more, he offered himself as a spy — or at any rate as a secret diplomatist — to Dubois, but meeting his old enemy Beauregard in one of the minister's rooms and making an offensive remark, he was waylaid by Beauregard some time after in a less privileged place and soundly beaten. In December 1721 his father died leaving him property, rather more than four thousand livres a year, which was soon increased by a pension of half the amount from the regent.
He again spent much of his time with Villars, listening to the marshal's stories and making harmless love to the duchess. It was a failure, and though it was recast with some success, Voltaire never published it as a whole and used parts of it in other work. He returned to Paris in the winter and his second play, Artemire, was produced in February 1720. He was informally exiled, and spent much time with Marshal Villars, again increasing his store of "reminiscences".
In the spring of the next year the production of Lagrange-Chancel's libels, entitled the Philippiques, again brought suspicion on Voltaire. It had a run of forty-five nights and brought the author not a little profit, with which Voltaire seems to have begun his long series of successful financial speculations. Oedipe was performed at the Théâtre Français on November 18 and was well received, though a rivalry grew between parties assisting its success. A further "exile" at Châtenay and elsewhere followed the imprisonment however, though Voltaire was admitted to an audience by the regent and treated graciously, he was not trusted.
The balance of opinion has, however, always inclined to the hypothesis of an anagram on the name "Arouet le jeune" or "Arouet l.j.", 'u' being changed to 'v' and 'j' to 'i' according to the ordinary convention. Some maintain that it was an abbreviation of a childish nickname, "le petit volontaire". The origin of the name has been much debated and attempts have been made to show that it existed in the Daumart pedigree or in some territorial designation. Ever after his exit from the Bastille in April 1718 he was known as Arouet de Voltaire, or simply Voltaire, though legally he never abandoned his patronymic.
Inveigled by a spy named Beauregard into a real or burlesque confession he was sent to the Bastille on May 16, 1717, here he recast Oedipe, began the Henriade and decided to change his name. In May 1716 he was exiled, first to Tulle, then to Sully, later, having been allowed to return, he was suspected of having been concerned in the composition of two violent libels. It seems that Voltaire lent himself to the duchess' frantic hatred of the regent, Philippe II of Orléans, and helped compose lampoons on him. He was introduced to the famous "court of Sceaux", the circle of the beautiful and ambitious duchesse du Maine.
Almost exactly at the time of the death of Louis XIV he returned to Paris where he once more became involved in high society and showed Oedipe among his acquaintances. Here he was still supposed to study law but instead devoted himself in part to literary essays and in part to historical gossip. As a result, his father sent him to stay for nearly a year (1714-15) with Louis de Caumartin, marquis de Saint-Ange, in the country. Voltaire was sent home and, for a time, pretended to work in a Parisian lawyer's office but he began writing libelous poems.
Here he met Olympe Dunoyer, a Protestant girl from a poor family, but his father stopped the affair by procuring a lettre de cachet, though he never used it. Voltaire's father tried to remove him from such society by sending him first to Caen and then, in the suite of the marquis de Châteauneuf, the abbé's brother, to The Hague. The Abbé de Châteauneuf died before his godson left school, but he had already introduced him to the famous and dissipated coterie of the Temple. So Voltaire studied law, at least nominally.
In August 1711, at the age of seventeen, he came home and decided on a writing career, which his father objected to. When she died in 1705, she left him money so he could buy books. In his earliest school years the abbé presented him to the famous author Ninon de Lenclos. Though he derided the education he had received, it formed the basis of his considerable knowledge, and probably kindled his lifelong devotion to the stage.
At the age of ten, he was sent to the Jesuit Collège Louis-le-Grand, and remained there till 1711. The Abbé de Châteauneuf, a friend of François' mother, instructed him in les belles lettres and deism, and the child showed a faculty for facile verse-making. Marguerite Arouet, of whom her younger brother was very fond, married early; the elder brother, Armand, was a strong Jansenist and had a poor relationship with François. Voltaire's mother died when he was seven years old.
He was his parent's fifth child, preceded by twin boys (one of whom survived), a girl, Marguerite-Catherine, and another boy who died in childhood. Nonetheless, throughout his life, Voltaire sometimes implied that he came from a noble background. Both parents were of Poitevin extraction, but the Arouets were long established in Paris, the grandfather being a prosperous tradesman. Voltaire was born in Paris to François Arouet and Marie-Marguerite Daumart or D'Aumard.
. François-Marie Arouet (November 21, 1694 – May 30, 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, deist and philosopher. "One hundred years from my day there will not be a Bible in the earth except one that is looked upon by an antiquarian curiosity seeker." (1776). "I shall finally have to renounce your Optimism? I'm afraid to say that it's a mania for insisting that all is well when things are going badly." (Candide, renouncing the Leibnizian Optimism).
But there are thirty, and they live in peace and happiness.". "If there were only one religion in England there would be danger of despotism; if there were two they would cut each other’s throats. "God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh.". "In this country, from time to time, we like to kill an admiral, to encourage the others" (Referencing the execution of Admiral Byng)(Candide).
"You know that these two nations are at war over a few acres of snow near Canada, and that they are spending on this little war more than all of Canada is worth.". Zaire (1732). Nanine. Mérope.
Mahomet. Eriphile (1732). Ecossaise. Épître à l'Auteur du Livre des Trois Imposteurs (Letter to the author of The Three Impostors) (1770).
Dictionnaire philosophique (1764). Candide (1759). Micromegas (1752). Zadig (1747).
Sept Discours en Vers sur l'Homme (1738). Le Mondain (1736). 1778). Lettres philosophiques sur les Anglais (1733), revised as Letters on the English (c.
Zaire (1732). Oedipe (1718).