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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. It has not been ruled out that the bodies were cadavers when Franklin got them; Franklin had an avid interest in anatomy and the damages done to the bodies support that. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. The Times of London reported on February 11, 1998:. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. In 1998, workmen restoring Franklin's London home dug up the remains of six children and four adults hidden below the home. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. It is one of the few National Memorials located on private property.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. The memorial is located in Philadelphia's Franklin Institute. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Many of Franklin's personal possessions are also on display there. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. In 1976, as part of a bicentennial celebration, Congress dedicated the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial in Franklin's hometown of Philadelphia, including a 20-foot high marble statue. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. Franklin also appears on the $1,000 Series EE Savings Bond (See Treasury security).

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). He has also appeared on a $50 bill in the past, as well as several varieties of the $100 bill from 1914 and 1918, and every $100 bill from 1928 to present. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. As a result, $100 bills are sometimes referred to in slang as "Benjamins" or "Franklins." From 1948 to 1964, Franklin's portrait was also on the half dollar. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Franklin's likeness adorns the American $100 bill. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. In recent years a number of anti-Semitic groups have been promoting a fabricated quotation which has been debunked by historians: Neo-Nazi Theory (American founding fathers).

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. (excerpt from Philadelphia Inquirer article by Clark De Leon). In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. Franklin's Boston trust fund accumulated almost $5,000,000 during that same time and eventually was used to establish a trade school that, over time, became the Franklin Institute of Boston. This established that magnetic force and light were related. When the trust came due, Philadelphia decided to spend it on scholarships for local high school students. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". From 1940 to 1990, the money was used mostly for mortgage loans.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. During the lifetime of the trust, Philadelphia used it for a variety of loan programs to local residents. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. As of 1990 over $2,000,000 had accumulated in Franklin's Philadelphia trust since his death. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Franklin, who was 79 years old at the time, wrote back to the Frenchman, thanking him for a great idea and telling him that he had decided to leave a bequest to his native Boston and his adopted Philadelphia of 1,000 pounds to each on the condition that it be placed in a fund that would gather interest over a period of 200 years.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. The Frenchman wrote a piece about Fortunate Richard leaving a small sum of money in his will to be used only after it had collected interest for 500 years.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. In it he mocked the unbearable spirit of American optimism represented by Franklin. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. The origin of the trust began in 1785 when a French mathematician named Charles-Joseph Mathon de la Cour wrote a parody of Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanack called Fortunate Richard. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. At his death Franklin bequeathed £1000 (about $4400 at the time) each to the cities of Boston and Philadelphia, in trust for 200 years. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. Benjamin Franklin died on April 17, 1790 at the extremely advanced age (for that time) of 84, and was interred in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Because of his involvement in abolition, its cause was greatly debated around the states, especially in the House of Representatives. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Their argument against slavery was backed by the Pensylvania Abolitionist Society and its president, Benjamin Franklin. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. On February 11, 1790, Quakers from New York and Pennsylvania presented their petition for abolition. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. These writings included:.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. In his later years, as congress was forced to deal with the issue of slavery, Franklin wrote several essays that attempted to convince his readers of the importance of the abolition of slavery and of the integration of Africans into American society. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. Later, he finished his autobiography between 1771 and 1788, at first addressed to his son, then later completed for the benefit of mankind at the request of a friend. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. It is now called Franklin and Marshall College. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Franklin donated £200 towards the development of Franklin College, which would later merge with Marshall College in 1853.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. Also in 1787, a group of prominent ministers in Lancaster, Pennsylvania proposed the foundation of a new college to be named in Franklin's honor. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. He was 70 years old when he signed the Declaration, and 81 when he signed the Constitution. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. Franklin also has the distinction of being the oldest signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. He is the only Founding Father who is a signatory of all three of the major documents of the founding of the United States: The Declaration of Independence, The Treaty of Paris and the United States Constitution.

His greatest work was with electricity. While in retirement by 1787, he agreed to attend as a delegate the meetings that would produce the United States Constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. In addition, after his return from France in 1785, he became a slavery abolitionist who eventually became president of The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. When Franklin was recalled to America in 1785, Le Ray honored him with a commissioned portrait painted by Joseph Siffred Duplessis that now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. He conducted the affairs of his country towards that nation with such success, which included securing a critical military alliance and negotiating the Treaty of Paris (1783), that when he finally returned, he received a place only second to that of George Washington as the champion of American independence.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Franklin was so popular that it became fashionable for wealthy French families to decorate their parlors with a painting of him. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. Ben Franklin remained in France until 1785, a favorite of French society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. He lived in a home in the Parisian suburb of Passy donated by Jacques-Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont who would become a friend and the most important foreigner to help the United States win the war of independence. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. In December of 1776 he was dispatched to France as commissioner for the United States.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. On his arrival in Philadelphia he was chosen as a member of the Continental Congress and assisted in editing the Declaration of Independence. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. In 1767 he crossed to France, where he was received with honor; but before his return home in 1775 he lost his position as postmaster through his share in divulging to Massachusetts the famous letter of Hutchinson and Oliver. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. This also led to an irreconcilable conflict with his son, who remained ardently loyal to the British Government. . Even his effective work in helping to obtain the repeal of the act did not regain his popularity, but he continued his efforts to present the case for the Colonies as the troubles thickened toward the crisis of the Revolution.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. This perceived conflict of interest, and the resulting outcry, is widely regarded as a deciding factor in Franklin's never achieving higher elected office. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. In London he actively opposed the proposed Stamp Act, but lost the credit for this and much of his popularity because he secured for a friend the office of stamp agent in America. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. On his return to America, he played an honorable part in the Paxton affair, through which he lost his seat in the Assembly, but in 1764 he was again dispatched to England as agent for the colony, this time to petition the King to resume the government from the hands of the proprietors. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. In his letter “Cooling by Evaporation” Franklin noted that “one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer’s day.”.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Another thermometer showed the room temperature to be constant at 65 °F (18 °C). Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. With each subsequent evaporation, the thermometer read a lower temperature, eventually reaching 7 °F (-14 °C). Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. On one warm day in Cambridge England in 1758, Franklin and fellow scientist John Hadley experimented by continually wetting the ball of a mercury thermometer with ether and using bellows to evaporate the ether. Michael Faraday Directory. To understand this phenomenon more clearly Franklin conducted experiments.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. Franklin noted a principle of refrigeration by observing that on a very hot day, he stayed cooler in a wet shirt in a breeze than he did in a dry one. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. In 1758, the year in which he ceased writing for the Almanac, he printed "Father Abraham's Sermon," one of the most famous pieces of literature produced in Colonial America. Finish. At Oxford University Franklin was awarded an honorary doctorate for his scientific accomplishments and from then on went by "Doctor Franklin." He also managed to secure a post for his illegitimate son, William Franklin, as Colonial Governor of New Jersey. "Work. In 1757 he was sent to England to protest against the influence of the Penn family in the government of Pennsylvania, and for five years he remained there, striving to enlighten the people and the ministry of the United Kingdom as to colonial conditions.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". While the plan was not adopted, elements of it found their way into the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. ISBN 1400060168. Franklin proposed a broad Plan of Union for the colonies. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. This meeting of several colonies had been requested by the Board of Trade in England to improve relations with the Indians and defense against the French. Hamilton, James (2004). In 1754 he headed the Pennsylvania delegation to the Albany Congress.

ISBN 0007163762. It was during this period that Franklin was involved in the creation of not only the aforementioned first volunteer fire department and free public library, but also many other civic enterprises. Harper Collins, London. His most notable service in domestic politics was his reform of the postal system, but his fame as a statesman rests chiefly on his diplomatic services in connection with the relations of the colonies with Great Britain, and later with France. Faraday: The Life. In politics he proved very able both as an administrator and as a controversialist; as an office-holder, he made use of his position to advance his relatives, though doing so was all but expected in a world dominated by political patronage. Hamilton, James (2002). Pennsylvania Hospital was the first hospital in what was to become the United States of America.

Thomas Bond obtained a charter from the Pennsylvania legislature to establish a hospital. In 1751 Franklin and Dr. This initiated the notion that some storms travel, eventually leading to the synoptic charts of dynamic meteorology, replacing sole dependence upon the charts of climatology. One day Franklin inferred that reports of a storm elsewhere in Pennsylvania must be the storm that visited the Philadelphia area in recent days.

As a printer and a publisher of a newspaper, Franklin frequented the farmers' markets in Philadelphia to gather news. 46) refers to Franklin's inference that electric charge is not created by rubbing substances, but only transferred, so that "the total quantity in any insulated system is invariable." This assertion is known as the "principle of conservation of charge.". In his classic work (A History of The Theories of Electricity & Aether), Sir Edmund Whittaker (p. Franklin established two major fields of physical science, electricity and meteorology.

The cgs unit of electric charge has been named after him: one franklin (Fr) is equal to one statcoulomb. In recognition of his work with electricity, Franklin was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and received its Copley Medal in 1753. See, for example, the 1805 painting by Benjamin West of Benjamin Franklin drawing electricity from the sky. Instead he used the kite to collect some electric charge from a storm cloud, which implied that lightning was electrical.

If Franklin did perform this experiment, he did not do it in the way that is often described (as it would have been dramatic but fatal). Petersburg, Russia, were spectacularly electrocuted during the months following Franklin's experiment.) Franklin, in his writings, displays that he was aware of the dangers and offered alternative ways to demonstrate that lightning was electrical, as shown by his invention of the lightning rod, an application of the use of electrical ground. Georg Wilhelm Richmann of St. (Others, such as Prof.

Franklin's experiment was not written up until Joseph Priestley's 1767 History and Present Status of Electricity; the evidence shows that Franklin was insulated (not in a conducting path, as he would have been in danger of electrocution in the event of a lightning strike). On June 15, Franklin conducted his famous kite experiment and also successfully extracted sparks from a cloud (unaware that d'Alibard had already done so, 36 days earlier). On May 10, 1752, Thomas Francois d'Alibard of France conducted Franklin's experiment (using a 40-foot-tall iron rod instead of a kite) and extracted electrical sparks from a cloud. In 1750 he published a proposal for an experiment to prove that lightning is electricity by flying a kite in a storm that appeared capable of becoming a lightning storm.

He is also often credited with labeling them as positive and negative respectively. Franklin proposed that "vitreous" and "resinous" electricity were not different types of electrical fluid (as electricity was called then) but the same electrical fluid under different pressures (See electrical charge). These include his investigations of electricity. This lucrative business arrangement provided leisure time for study, and in a few years he had made discoveries that gave him a reputation with the learned throughout Europe and especially in France.

He created a partnership with his foreman, David Hill, which provided Franklin with half of the shop's profits for 18 years. In 1748, he retired from printing and went into other businesses. He began the electrical research that, along with other scientific inquiries, would occupy him for the rest of his life (in between bouts of politics and money-making). He founded an American Philosophical Society to help scientific men discuss their discoveries.

It was later merged with the University of the State of Pennsylvania, to become the University of Pennsylvania, today a member of the Ivy League. The Academy opened on August 13, 1751, and seven men graduated on May 17, 1757, at the first commencement; six with a Bachelor of Arts and one as Master of Arts. In 1743, he set forth a scheme for The Academy and College of Philadelphia, which he was appointed President of on November 13, 1749. Franklin began to concern himself more with public affairs.

In 1736 he created the Union Fire Company, the first volunteer firefighting company in America. The success of this library encouraged the opening of libraries in other American cities, and Franklin felt that this enlightenment partly contributed to the American colonies' struggle to maintain their privileges. The newly founded Library Company ordered its first books in 1732, mostly theological and educational tomes, but by 1741 the library also included works on history, geography, poetry, exploration and science. Franklin and several other members of a philosophical association joined their resources in 1731 and began the first public library in Philadelphia.

Adages from this almanac such as "A penny saved is twopence clear" (often misquoted as "A penny saved is a penny earned") are now commonly quoted every day by people all over the world. In 1732 he began to issue the famous Poor Richard's Almanack (with content both original and borrowed) on which a lot of his popular reputation is based. His intelligence combined with a great deal of savvy about cultivating a positive image of an industrious and intellectual young man earned him a great deal of social respect. The Gazette gave Franklin a forum for agitating for a variety of local reforms.

On Denham's death Franklin returned to his former trade and by 1730 set up a printing house of his own from which he published The Pennsylvania Gazette to which he contributed many essays. Following this he returned to Philadelphia with the help of a merchant named Thomas Denham, who gave him a position as a clerk, shopkeeper and bookkeeper in his shop. He was not satisfied, however, and after a few months was induced by Pennsylvania Governor Sir William Keith to go to London where, finding Keith's promises empty, he again worked as a compositor in a printer's shop in what is now the Church of St Batholomew the Great, Smithfield. At age 17, he ran away to Philadelphia seeking a new start in a new city.

His brother was not impressed when he discovered his popular correspondent was his younger, precocious brother. His brother and the Courant's readers did not initially know the real author. While a printing apprentice he wrote under the pseudonym of 'Silence Dogood' who was ostensibly a middle-aged widow. He left his apprenticeship without permission and in so doing became a fugitive.

His schooling ended at ten and at 12 he became an apprentice to his brother James, a printer who published the New England Courant. Benjamin was the youngest son. Between both of his father's marriages, he produced 17 children. His father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a maker of candles, who married twice.

Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street in Boston. They had the following children: John (December 7, 1690), Peter (November 22, 1692), Mary (September 26, 1694), James (February 4, 1697), Sarah (July 9, 1699), Ebenezer (September 20, 1701), Thomas (December 7, 1703), Benjamin (January 6, 1706), Lydia (August 8, 1708), and Jane (March 27, 1712). Samuel Willard. He then remarried, to Abiah, on November 25, 1689 in the Old South Church of Boston by the Rev.

Josiah's first wife Anne died in Boston on July 9, 1689. (August 23, 1685), Ann (January 5, 1687), Joseph (February 5, 1688), and Joseph (June 30, 1689) (the first Joseph having died soon after birth). Sometime during the second half of 1683, the Franklins left England for Boston, Massachusetts; and while in Boston, they had several more children, including: Josiah Jr. They included: Elizabeth (March 2, 1678), Samuel (May 16, 1681), and Hannah (May 25, 1683).

In around 1677, Josiah married Anne Child at Ecton; and over the next few years, this couple had three children, all of whom being half-siblings of Benjamin Franklin. His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts on August 15, 1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, and his wife Mary Morrill. Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin, was born at Ecton, Northamptonshire, England on December 23, 1657, the son of Thomas Franklin, a blacksmith and farmer, and Jane White. .

Franklin's inventions include the Franklin stove, the medical catheter, the lightning rod, swimfins, improvements to the glass harmonica, and possibly bifocals. In 1775, Franklin became the first United States Postmaster General. Franklin was a member of the Freemasons, corresponded with members of the Lunar Society, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. One of the leaders of the American Revolution, he was well known also for his many quotations and his experiments with electricity.

Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 – April 17, 1790) was an American printer, journalist, publisher, author, philanthropist, abolitionist, public servant, scientist, librarian, diplomat and inventor. Dr. The film version of 1776 features Howard da Silva, who originated the role of Franklin on Broadway. A fictionalized but fairly accurate version of Franklin appears as a main character in the stage musical 1776.

Benjamin Franklin is one of the main characters of Gregory Keyes' Age of Unreason trilogy. Sidi Mehemet Ibrahim on the Slave Trade (1790).. Plan for Improving the Condition of the Free Blacks (1789), and. An Address to the Public from the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, (1789).

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