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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. With the genius and legacy of Leonardo da Vinci having captivated authors and scholars generations after his death, the following examples of "Da Vinci fiction" can be found in culture and literature. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. his tank. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. While most of Leonardo's inventions were not realized, many were technologically feasible as it was demonstrated recently, e.g. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. In January 2005, researchers discovered the hidden laboratory used by Leonardo da Vinci for studies of flight and other pioneering scientific work in previously sealed rooms at a monastery next to the Basilica of the Santissima Annunziata, in the heart of Florence.[6].

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. They remained obscure until the 19th century, and were not directly of value to the development of science and technology. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Technological historian Lewis Mumford suggests that Leonardo kept notebooks as a private journal, intentionally censoring his work from those who might irresponsibly use it (the tank, for instance). His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Why Leonardo did not publish or otherwise distribute the contents of his notebooks remains a mystery to those who believe that Leonardo wanted to make his observations public knowledge. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. In his years in the Vatican, he planned an industrial use of solar power, by employing concave mirrors to heat water.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Other inventions include a submarine, a cog-wheeled device that has been interpreted as the first mechanical calculator, and a car powered by a spring mechanism. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. even though he later held war to be the worst of human activities. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Owing to his sometime employment as a military engineer, his notebooks also contain several designs for military machines: machine guns, an armoured tank powered by humans or horses, cluster bombs, etc. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. It was never built, but Leonardo's vision was resurrected in 2001 when a smaller bridge based on his design was constructed in Norway.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. The bridge was intended to span an inlet at the mouth of the Bosphorus known as the Golden Horn. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. In 1502 Leonardo da Vinci produced a drawing of a single span 720-foot (240 m) bridge as part of a civil engineering project for Sultan Beyazid II of Constantinople. This established that magnetic force and light were related. On January 3, 1496 he unsuccessfully tested a flying machine he had constructed. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". Fascinated by the phenomenon of flight, Leonardo produced detailed studies of the flight of birds, and plans for several flying machines, including a helicopter powered by four men (which would not have worked since the body of the craft would have rotated) and a light hang-glider which could have flown.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. It is not known if an attempt was made to build the device. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The design, which has come to be called Leonardo's robot, was probably made around the year 1495 but was rediscovered only in the 1950s. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. His study of human anatomy led also to the design of the first known robot in recorded history.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. Because he actively searched for bodily deformed people to paint them, he is also considered to be the beginner of caricature.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. It is important to note that he was not only interested in structure but also in function, so he was anatomist and physiologist at the same time. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. He not only studied the anatomy of human, but also of other beings. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. He was a master of topographic anatomy. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. He often drew muscles and tendons of the cervical muscles and of the shoulder.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. He was one of the firsts who drew the fetus in the intrauterine position (he wished to learn about "the miracle of pregnancy"). This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. He drew many images of the lungs, mesentery, urinary tract, sex organs, and even coitus. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. He was also able to represent exceptionally well the human skull and cross-sections of the brain (transversal, sagittal, and frontal). The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. He also studied the inclination of pelvis and sacrum and stressed that sacrum was not uniform, but composed of five vertebrae.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. Leonardo drew many images of the human skeleton, and was the first to describe the double S form of the backbone. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. However, his book was published only in 1580 (long after his death) under the heading Treatise on painting. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Together with Marcantonio, he prepared to publish a theoretical work on anatomy and made more than 200 drawings. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. In 30 years, Leonardo dissected 30 male and female corpses of different ages.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. From 1510 to 1511 he collaborated with the doctor Marcantonio della Torre (1481 to 1511). A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. Later he dissected also in Milano in the hospital Maggiore and in Rome in the hospital Santo Spirito (the first mainland Italian hospital). Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. As he became successful as an artist, he was given permission to dissect human corpses at the hospital Santa Maria Nuova in Florence. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Leonardo started to discover the anatomy of the human body at the time he was apprenticed to Andrea del Verrocchio, as his teacher insisted that all his pupils learn anatomy.

His greatest work was with electricity. As did most people at the time, he believed that the Sun revolved around the Earth, and that the Moon reflects the sun's light due to its being covered by water. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. Since he lacked formal education in Latin and mathematics, contemporary scholars mostly ignored Leonardo the scientist. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. Throughout his life, he planned a grand encyclopedia based on detailed drawings of everything. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. His approach to science was an observatory one: he tried to understand a phenomenon by describing and depicting it in utmost detail, and did not emphasize experiments or theoretical explanations.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. This is explainable by the fact that it is easier to pull a quill pen than to push it; by using mirror-writing, the left-handed writer is able to pull the pen from right to left. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. He was left-handed and used mirror writing throughout his life. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. These notes were made and maintained through Leonardo's travels through Europe, during which he made continual observations of the world around him. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Perhaps even more impressive than his artistic work are his studies in science and engineering, recorded in notebooks comprising some 13,000 pages of notes and drawings, which fuse art and science.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. Chiaroscuro is the technique of modelling and defining forms through contrasts of light and shadow. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. It is characterized by subtle transitions between colour areas, creating an atmospheric haze or smoky effect. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. One of them, a colour shading technique called sfumato, used a series of custom-made glazes by Leonardo. . Leonardo pioneered new painting techniques in many of his pieces.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. After producing a fantastic variety of studies in preparation for the work, he left the city, with the mural unfinished due to technical difficulties. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. After returning to Florence, he was commissioned for a large public mural, The Battle of Anghiari; his rival Michelangelo was to paint the opposite wall. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. (In 1999 a pair of full-scale statues based on his plans were cast, one erected in Grand Rapids, Michigan, the other in Milan [5].) The Hunt Museum in Limerick, Ireland has a small bronze horse, thought to be the work of an apprentice from Leonardo's original design. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Because of war with France, the project was never finished.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. In Milan he spent 17 years making plans and models for a monumental seven metre (24 ft) high horse statue in bronze called "Gran Cavallo". Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. None of his sculptures have survived. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Of his paintings, only seventeen survived. Michael Faraday Directory. After extensive, ambitious plans and many drawings, the painting was left unfinished and Leonardo left for Milan.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. For example, in 1481 he was commissioned to paint the altarpiece The Adoration of the Magi. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Leonardo often planned grandiose paintings with many drawings and sketches, only to leave the projects unfinished. Finish. The name Mona Lisa is not the one given to the piece of art at the time, nor was it known by this title until much later. "Work. It is well known that Leonardo made extensive use of many tricks in this painting, including the so-called Golden Ratio.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Thousands of people see it each year in the Louvre, perhaps drawing their own interpretation on what is known as the Mona Lisa's most infamous and enigmatic feature - her smile. ISBN 1400060168. He most likely kept it with him at all times, and did not travel without it. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Though there is significant debate whether Leonardo himself painted the Mona Lisa, or whether it was the work of his students, it is known that it was probably his favourite piece. Hamilton, James (2004). Leonardo is well known for his artistry and paintings, such as Last Supper (Ultima Cena or Cenacolo, in Milan) 1498, and the Mona Lisa (also known as La Gioconda, now at the Louvre in Paris), 1503-1506.

ISBN 0007163762. Melzi was his principal heir and executor, but Salai was not forgotten: he received half of Leonardo's vineyard. Harper Collins, London. He was buried in the Chapel of Saint-Hubert in the castle of Amboise. Faraday: The Life. According to his wish, 60 beggars followed his casket. Hamilton, James (2002). Leonardo da Vinci died at Clos Lucé, France, on 2nd May, 1519.

Francis became a close friend. In 1518 Salai left Leonardo and returned to Milan, where he eventually perished in a duel. The King granted Leonardo and his entourage generous pensions: the surviving document lists 1000 écus for the artist, 400 for Melzi (named "apprentice") and 100 for Salai (named "servant"). In 1516, he entered Francis' service, being given the use of the manor house Clos Lucé (also called "Cloux") next to the king's residence at the royal Chateau Amboise.

In 1515 Francis I of France retook Milan, and Leonardo was commissioned to make a centrepiece (a mechanical lion) for the peace talks between the French king and Pope Leo X in Bologna, where he must have first met the King. However, he was probably of pivotal importance in the relocation of David (in Florence), one of Michelangelo's masterpieces, against the artist's will. From 1513 to 1516, he lived in Rome, where painters like Raphael and Michelangelo were active at the time, though he did not have much contact with these artists. In 1506 he returned to Milan, now in the hands of Maximilian Sforza after Swiss mercenaries had driven out the French.

In Florence he entered the services of Cesare Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander VI, acting as a military architect and engineer; with Cesare he travelled throughout Italy. He left with Salai and his friend Luca Pacioli (the first man to describe double-entry bookkeeping) for Mantua, moving on after 2 months to Venice (where he was hired as a military engineer), then briefly returning to Florence at the end of April 1500. Leonardo stayed in Milan for a time, until one morning when he found French archers using his life-size clay model of the "Gran Cavallo" for target practice. When the French returned under Louis XII in 1498, Milan fell without a fight, overthrowing Sforza [4].

It was here that seventy tons of bronze that had been set aside for Leonardo's "Gran Cavallo" horse statue (see below) were cast into weapons for the Duke in an attempt to save Milan from the French under Charles VIII in 1495. From around 1482 to 1499, Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan [3], employed Leonardo and permitted him to operate his own workshop complete with apprentices. He was also a respected judge on matters of beauty and elegance, particularly in the creation of pageants. Vasari reports a story that as a young man in Florence he often bought caged birds just to release them from captivity.

Under the heading, "Of the beasts from whom cheese is made," he answers, "the milk will be taken from the tiny children." [2]). His respect for life led him to being a vegetarian at least part of his life (although the term 'vegan' would fit him well, as he even entertained the notion that taking milk from cows amounts to stealing. It is apparent from the works of Leonardo and his early biographers that he was a man of high integrity and very sensitive to moral issues. Leonardo had many other friends who are now figures renowned in their fields, or for their influence on history; these included Niccolò Machiavelli, Cesare Borgia and Franchinus Gaffurius.

Melzi, however, became Leonardo's pupil and life companion. Though Salai was always introduced as Leonardo's "pupil", he never produced any work of artistic merit. Salai eventually accepted Melzi's continued presence and the three undertook journeys throughout Italy. In 1506, Leonardo met Count Francesco Melzi, the 15 year old son of a Lombard aristocrat.

Some believe this can be explained by Leonardo's role as a mentor and teacher, which required male assistants to aid him in his work, and that his appreciation of androgynous beauty was due solely to his fascination with the workings of both sexes of the human body. Gian entered Leonardo's household around 1488 at the age of 10, becoming his servant and assistant for the next thirty years. One of his lovers is thought to have been Gian Giacomo Caprotti da Oreno (nicknamed Salai (Little Devil)). It has therefore been widely assumed that he was a homosexual.

Though he kept his private life particularly secret, it is known that he surrounded himself with handsome young men throughout his life, and his art reflects an appreciation of androgynous beauty (and in at least one instance, sexuality). There is no evidence that Leonardo was ever intimately involved with any woman, nor in a close friendship with one. Rocke reports that in a fictional dialogue on l'amore masculino (male love) written by the contemporary art critic and theorist Gian Paolo Lomazzo, Leonardo appears as one of the protagonists and declares, "Know that male love is exclusively the product of virtue which, joining men together with the diverse affections of friendship, makes it so that from a tender age they would enter into the manly one as more stalwart friends." In the dialogue, the interlocutor inquires of Leonardo about his relations with his assistant, Salai, "Did you play the game from behind which the Florentines love so much?". Modern critics contend that Leonardo's love of boys was well-known even in the sixteenth century.

For some time afterwards, Leonardo and the others were kept under observation by Florence's Officers of the Night - a kind of Renaissance vice squad, charged with suppressing the practice of sodomy, which a majority of male Florentines engaged in, as shown by surviving legal records of the Podestà and the Officers of the Night. After two months in jail, he was acquitted because no witnesses stepped forward. In 1476, he was accused anonymously, along with three other men, of sodomy with a 17 year-old model, Jacopo Saltarelli, who was a notorious male prostitute. Later, he became an independent painter in Florence.

In this role, Leonardo also worked with Lorenzo di Credi and Pietro Perugino. His early sketches were of such quality that his father soon showed them to the painter Andrea del Verrocchio, who subsequently took on the fourteen-year old Leonardo as an apprentice. Leonardo grew up with his father in Florence, where he started drawing and painting. Leonardo signed his works "Leonardo" or "Io, Leonardo" ("I, Leonardo").

Leonardo was born before modern naming conventions developed in Europe; his name "Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci", simply means "Leonardo, son of [Mes]ser Piero, from Vinci". It has been suggested, albeit on scanty evidence [1], that she was a Middle Eastern slave owned by Piero. Leonardo was born in Anchiano, near Vinci, Italy, the illegitimate child of Ser Piero da Vinci, a young notary, and Caterina, most likely a peasant girl. .

Renaissance humanism saw no mutually exclusive polarities between sciences and arts. In addition, he helped advance the study of anatomy, astronomy, and civil engineering. He is also known for designing many inventions that anticipated modern technology, although few of these designs were constructed in his lifetime. Leonardo is famous for his masterly paintings, such as The Last Supper and Mona Lisa.

He has been described as the archetype of the "Renaissance man" and as a universal genius. Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. ISBN 8809038916 (hardback). Giunti.

Leonardo da Vinci: Artist, Scientist, Inventor. Simona Cremante (2005). ISBN 0-140-29681-6. Penguin.

Leonardo da Vinci, The Flights of the mind. Charles Nicholl (2005). Dépot légal 4° trimestre 1965. Somogy.

Léonard de Vinci, L'homme et son oeuvre. Fred Bérence (1965). ISBN 3822817341 (hardback). Taschen.

Leonardo Da Vinci: The Complete Paintings and Drawings. Frank Zollner & Johannes Nathan (2003). A reprint of the original 1883 edition. 2 volumes.

ISBN 0486225720 and ISBN 0486225739 (paperback). Dover. The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Jean Paul Richter (1970).

ISBN 0806513500 (paperback). Carol Publishing Group. The 100. Hart (1992).

Michael H. ISBN 0385323816 (paperback). Delacorte Press. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci: Seven Steps to Genius Every Day.

Gelb (1998). Michael J. The cartoon The Tick features Leonardo in Leonardo DaVinci and his Fightin' Genius Time Commandos! (Season 2, Episode 17, 1995). Peter Barnes's Leonardo's Last Supper centres on Leonardo being "resurrected" in a filthy charnel house after being prematurely declared dead.

The movie Hudson Hawk starring Bruce Willis and Danny Aiello revolves around Leonardo da Vinci's inventions. The movie Ever After from 1998 starring Drew Barrymore and Patrick Godfrey as Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo in the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles was named after Leonardo da Vinci. Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code revolves around a conspiracy based on elements of Leonardo's Last Supper and other works, claiming that he belonged to the Priory of Sion (a sect generally regarded as fictitious).

The Dargaud cartoon character Léonard by Turk and De Groot. Terry Pratchett's character Leonard of Quirm is a pastiche of Leonardo. In the mainstream DC Universe, according to "Secret Origins" #27, Leonardo is an ancestor of the famed Freemason Cagliostro, as well as Zatara and Zatanna who are both magicians (in the Magic (illusion) and Magic (paranormal) senses) and Superheroes. DC Comics's Vertigo division published a twelve-issue miniseries about Leonardo and his apprentice Salai, entitled "Chiaroscuro: The Private Life of Leonardo da Vinci.".

The DC Comics Elseworlds story Black Masterpiece, in Batman Annual #18 shows Leonardo's apprentice becoming a Renaissance Batman, using the Master's devices in his war on Florentine crime. Dann has his genius protagonist actually create his flying machine. The novel The Memory Cathedral by Jack Dann is a fictional account of a "lost year" in the life of Leonardo. The novel Pasquale's Angel by Paul McAuley, set in an alternate universe Florence, portrays Leonardo as "the Great Engineer", creating a premature industrial revolution (see clockpunk).

Theodore Mathieson's short story "Leonardo Da Vinci: Detective" portrays him using his genius to solve a murder during his time in France. Leonardo also appears as a character in several Doctor Who novels. The Doctor goes back in time to visit Leonardo's workshop and claims to be an old acquaintance of the artist. The 1979 Doctor Who story City of Death features a theft of the Mona Lisa.

Da Vinci (NCC-81623), a Saber-class vessel, named for the artist. (Starfleet Corps of Engineers) novels, the main starship of the series is called the U.S.S. Also, in the S.C.E. Actor James Daly played Flint / Leonardo in Star Trek: The Original Series, while John Rhys-Davies portrayed Leonardo in Star Trek Voyager.

Leonardo appears again in the Star Trek universe, in the series Star Trek Voyager, where his workshop is created as a holographic simulation. Leonardo's abilities and knowledge are thus attributed to centuries of scientific and artistic study. In the Star Trek: Original Series episode "Requiem for Methuselah", Leonardo da Vinci is revealed to be one of many aliases to "Flint", an immortal man born in the year 3834 BC. Bacchus (1515) – Louvre, Paris, France.

1514) – Louvre, Paris, France. John the Baptist (c. St. 1510) – Louvre, Paris, France.

Anne (c. The Virgin and Child with St. Leda and the Swan (1508) - (Only copies survive – best-known example in Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy). The Madonna of the Rocks or The Virgin of the Rocks (1508) – National Gallery, London, UK.

Mona Lisa or La Gioconda (1503-1505/1506) – Louvre, Paris, France. 1499-1500) – National Gallery, London, UK. John the Baptist (c. Anne and St.

The Virgin and Child with St. Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy. Last Supper (1498) – Convent of Sta. La belle Ferronière (1495-1498) – Louvre, Paris, France.

Madonna Litta (1490-91) – Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia. 1490) – Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan, Italy. Portrait of a Musician (c. Lady with an Ermine (1488-90) – Czartoryski Museum, Krakow, Poland.

The Madonna of the Rocks (1483-86) – Louvre, Paris, France. Adoration of the Magi (1481) – Uffizi, Florence, Italy. The Virgin with Flowers (1478-1481) – Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany. The Benois Madonna (1478-1480) – Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

1475) – National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, USA. Ginevra de' Benci (c. Annunciation (1475-1480) – Uffizi, Florence, Italy.

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