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Michael FaradayMichael Faraday
Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.
Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.
Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.
At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.
In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.
His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.
Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.
His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.
Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.
Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.
In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.
In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.
He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.
Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.
His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.
His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.
Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.
Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.
He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.
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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. In addition to this miscalculation, his nickname le petit caporal adds to the confusion, as non-francophones mistakenly take petit as meaning "small"; in fact, it is an affectionate term reflecting on his camaraderie with ordinary soldiers. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. This corresponds to 5 feet 6.5 inches in English feet, or 1.686 meters , making him slightly taller than an average Frenchman of the 19th century. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. After his death in 1821, the French emperor's height was recorded as 5 feet 2 inches in French feet. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Contrary to popular belief (perpetuated by the above-mentioned caricatures), Napoleon was not especially short.
Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. See the discussion in  about the significance of the theorem. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. The theorem states that if we construct equilateral triangles on the sides of any triangle (all outward or all inward), the centres of those equilateral triangles themselves form an equilateral triangle, as illustrated on the right. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. In mathematics Napoleon is traditionally given credit for discovering and proving Napoleon's theorem, although there is no specific evidence that he did so. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. Langewiesche also credits Napoleon with reorganizing what had been the Holy Roman Empire made up of more than 1,000 entities into a more streamlined network of 40 states providing the basis for the German Confederation and the future unification of Germany under the Second Reich in 1871.
(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Professor Dieter Langewiesche of the University of Tübingen describes the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany by expanding the right to own property and breaking the back of feudalism. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. The Code Napoléon was adopted throughout much of Europe and remained after Napoleon's defeat. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Nevertheless, Napoleon is also sometimes referred to as the "Armed Soldier of Democracy.". This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. 'Boney was a warrior') and poem, and as the grand enemy threatening the gates.
This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. He is remembered in song (e.g. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. However, he also had admirers in Britain (especially among the Whigs). This established that magnetic force and light were related. During his lifetime, he was often caricatured as a tyrannical (and diminutive) ogre, and these images have continued to colour the British memory of him. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". In Britain he is remembered as a despot.
The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. Furthermore, the Napoleonic Wars also exported the Revolution to the rest of Europe, and it is believed that the movements of national unification and the rise of the nation state, notably in Italy and Germany, were rooted in and precipitated—if not caused—by the Napoleonic rule of those areas. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. He ended the lawlessness and disorder spawned by the Revolution; in modern terms, he was a "law and order" ruler. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. In France, Napoleon is also seen as having preserved the Revolution by creating and perpetuating its myth.
That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. (See Above) Hundreds of millions have visited his tomb since that date. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. This may have been due to arsenic poisoning. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Upon opening the tomb, they found that Napoleon's body was completely preserved, as if he had died yesterday. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. This final wish was not executed until 1840, when his remains were taken to France in the frigate Belle-Poule and entombed in Les Invalides, Paris.
These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Napoléon had asked in his will to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but when he died in 1821 he was buried on Saint Helena. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Napoleon also formally adopted his stepson Eugène de Beauharnais and Joséphine's cousin, Stéphanie de Beauharnais, after assuming the Imperial throne, in order to arrange "dynastic" marriages for them. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Other information points to his having had further illegitimate children:. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. He acknowledged at least two illegitimate children, both of whom had descendants:.
He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. Napoleon was twice married:. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. A team of physicians from the University of Monterspertoli led by Professor Biondi recently confirmed this. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. 91 kg (200 lb), confirming the autopsy result reported by Antommarchi. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. 76 kg (168 lb) while a year earlier he weighed approx.
This device is known as a homopolar motor. From a multitude of forensic reports they derive that Napoleon at his death weighed approx. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. In May, 2005 a team of Swiss physicians claimed that the reason for Napoleon's death was stomach cancer (which was also the cause of his father's death). Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A group of Researchers from the San Francisco Medical Examiner's Department speculate that this treatment may have led to Napoleon's death by causing a serious potassium deficiency . In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. The medical regime imposed on Napoleon by his doctors included treatment with antimony potassium tartrate, regular enemas and a 600 milligram dose of mercuric chloride to purge his intestines in the days immediately prior to his death.
His greatest work was with electricity. This has led to speculation that Napoleon might have suffered from that disease. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. Prior to the discovery of antibiotics, arsenic was also a widely used, but ineffective, treatment for syphilis. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. The group suggested that the most likely source in this case was a hair tonic. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. The lead investigator, Ivan Ricordel (head of toxicology for the Paris Police), stated that if arsenic had been the cause, Napoléon would have died years earlier.
When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. More recent analysis on behalf of the magazine Science et Vie showed that similar concentrations of arsenic can be found in Napoleon's hair in samples taken from 1805, 1814 and 1821. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. There, it could have reacted with calomel-and-mercury-based compounds—common medicines at the time—and thus been the immediate cause of his death. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. The arsenic severely weakened Napoléon and remained in his system. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. This analysis on hair from Napoléon suggests that large but non-lethal doses were absorbed at random intervals.
At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. Cutting up hairs into short segments and analysing each segment individually provides a histogram of arsenic concentration in the body. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. In 2001, Pascal Kintz, of the Strasbourg Forensic Institute in France, added credence to this claim with a study of arsenic levels found in a lock of Napoleon's hair preserved after his death: they were seven to thirty-eight times higher than normal. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. Arsenic was also used in some wallpaper, as a green pigment, and even in some patent medicines. . Arsenic was at the time sometimes used as a poison as it was undetectable when administered over a long period of time.
The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. He describes Napoléon in the months leading up to his death, and led many, most notably Sten Forshufvud and Ben Weider, to conclude that he had been killed by arsenic poisoning. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. In 1955, the diaries of Louis Marchand, Napoléon's valet, appeared in print. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Francesco Antommarchi, Napoleon's personal physician, gave stomach cancer as a reason for Napoleon's death in his death certificate. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. The cause of Napoleon's death has been disputed on numerous occasions, and the controversy remains to this day.
He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. . Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Though not apparently enamoured of the language, he was a serious student under the tutelage of Emmanuel, comte de Las Cases, even pondering how much money he might have saved had he not required translation of English documents. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. He felt it important that he understand the mother tongue of his enemies, and he was particularly interested in what the British press wrote about him. Michael Faraday Directory. A footnote to his legacy: it would appear that Napoleon made an effort to study the English language while living in exile during his last years.
The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. When he died, on 5 May 1821, his last words were: "France, the Army, head of the Army, Joséphine.". Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. In the last half of April 1821, he wrote out his own will and several codicils (a total of 40-odd pages). Finish. Whilst there, with a small cadre of followers, he dictated his memoirs and criticized his captors. "Work. Napoleon was imprisoned and then exiled by the British to the island of Saint Helena (2,800 km off the Bight of Guinea) from 15 October 1815.
"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Off the port of Rochefort, Napoléon made his formal surrender while on board HMS Bellerophon on 15 July 1815. ISBN 1400060168. Napoléon's final defeat came at the hands of the Duke of Wellington and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at the Battle of Waterloo in present-day Belgium on 18 June 1815. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. He arrived on 20 March, quickly raising a regular army of 140,000 and a volunteer force of around 200,000 and governed for a Hundred Days. Hamilton, James (2004). Following a brief silence, the soldiers erupted into shouts of "Vive L'Empereur!" The soldiers sent to stop the former emperor instead joined the ranks behind him and marched with Napoléon to Paris.
ISBN 0007163762. If any man would shoot his emperor, he may do so now". Harper Collins, London. When he was within earshot of the men, he threw open his coat and shouted "Soldiers of the Fifth, you recognize me. Faraday: The Life. Napoléon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse, and confidently walked up to the line of soldiers. Hamilton, James (2002). When he returned to the mainland, King Louis XVIII sent the Fifth Regiment, led by Marshal Michel Ney who had formerly served under Napoléon in Russia, to meet him at Grenoble.
Napoléon escaped from Elba on 26 February 1815 and returned to the mainland on 1 March 1815. The French government refused to pay the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and he heard rumours that he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic. On Elba, Napoléon became concerned about his wife and, more especially, his son, in the hands of the Austrians. In France, the royalists had taken over and restored King Louis XVIII to power.
He told Caulaincourt "I shall live, since death is no more willing to take me on my bed than on the battlefield.". The very next day, however, the Emperor was back to his normal self. When Napoleon saw his doctor, he asked the doctor to end his suffering, which seems to confirm Caulaincourt's suspicions. There is no way of knowing, however, whether it was really poison, a sedative whose effects were being resisted by Napoleon's body, or simply an anxiety attack.
He believed it to be, not illogically, attempted suicide. General Caulaincourt, Napoleon's former foreign minister, witnessed Napoleon writhing, retching, and suffering from spasms of hysteria followed by moments of calm. While exiled in Elba, some claim Napoleon attempted to poison himself. They let him keep the title of "Emperor" but restricted his empire to that tiny island.
In the Treaty of Fontainebleau the victors exiled the Corsican to Elba, a small island in the Mediterranean 20 km off the coast of Italy. The Allies, however, demanded unconditional surrender and Napoléon abdicated again, unconditionally, on 11 April. His marshals asked Napoléon to abdicate, and he did so on 6 April in favour of his son. Paris was occupied on March 31, 1814.
The French armies could only delay, not prevent, inevitable defeat. Although some historians consider the defensive campaigns of late 1813 and early 1814 to be among Napoleon's most brilliant, the French were now surrounded (with British armies pressing from the south in addition to the Coalition forces moving in from Germany) and vastly outnumbered. After this Napoléon withdrew in an orderly fashion back into France, but his army was now reduced to less than 100,000 against more than half a million Allied troops. This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost both sides a combined total of over 120,000 casualties.
Some of the German states switched sides in the midst of the battle, further undermining the French position. Eventually the French army was caught by a force twice its size at the Battle of Nations (October 16-19) at Leipzig. However, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon as Sweden and Austria joined the Coalition. It appeared the Napoleon of old was back and that the Coalition might be forced to conclude a peace treaty if this run continued.
Napoleon assumed command in Germany and soon inflicted a series of defeats on the Allies culminating in the Battle of Dresden on August 26-27, 1813 causing almost 100,000 casualties to the Coalition forces (the French sustaining only around 30,000). Heartened by Napoleon's losses in Russia, Prussia soon rejoined the Coalition that now included Russia, the United Kingdom, Spain, and Portugal. This force continued to expand, with Napoleon aiming for a force of 400,000 French troops supported by a quarter of a million German troops. A small Russian army harassed the French in Poland and eventually 30,000 French troops there withdrew to Germany to rejoin the expanding force there - numbering 130,000 with the reinforcements from Poland.
Napoleon was determined not to lose hold of Germany and there was a lull in fighting over the winter of 1812–13 whilst both the Russians and the French recovered from their massive losses of around half a million soldiers each. In total French losses in the campaign were 570,000 against about 400,000 Russian casualties and several hundred thousand civilian deaths. The French suffered greatly in the course of a ruinous retreat; the Army had begun as over 650,000 frontline troops, but in the end fewer than 40,000 crossed the Berezina River (November 1812) to escape. Within the month, fearing loss of control in France, Napoleon left Moscow.
Moscow began to burn in accordance with orders of the city's military governor and commander-in-chief, Fyodor Rostopchin. The Russians retreated and Napoleon was able to enter Moscow, assuming that Alexander I would negotiate peace. It appeared both Barclay and Kutuzov had been correct in their assessments of the situation for, outside Moscow on 7 September, the Russian army was defeated after what may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history - the Battle of Borodino (see article for comparisons to the first day of the Battle of the Somme). Kutuzov also soon came under criticism for this and finally offered battle.
Realising the reality of the situation, Kutuzov continued Barclay's strategy. Criticized over his tentative strategy of continual retreat, Barclay was replaced by Kutuzov. The Russians then repeatedly avoided battle with the Grande Armée, although in a few cases only because Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity presented itself. A brief attempt at resistance was offered at Smolensk (August 16-17), but the Russians were defeated in a series of battles in the area and Napoleon resumed the advance.
The Russians under Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly were unable to successfully defeat Napoleon's huge, well-organized army and retreated instead. Napoleon also rejected requests to free the Russian serfs, fearing this might provoke a conservative reaction in his rear. For political reasons this was unlikely to happen (principally because it would bring Prussia and Austria into the war against France). Polish nationalists wanted all of Russian Poland to be incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Warsaw and a new Kingdom of Poland created.
Napoleon, in an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists, termed the war the "Second Polish War" (the first Polish war being the liberation of Poland from Russia, Prussia and Austria). Victor Hugo would write in his poem, "Russia 1812" (1873):. On June 23, 1812, Napoleon's invasion of Russia commenced. Napoleon ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the vast Russian heartland, and prepared his forces for an offensive campaign.
However Napoleon anticipated this and after the initial reports of Russian war preparations he began expanding his Grande Armée to a massive force of over 600,000 men (despite already having over 300,000 men deployed in Iberia). Large numbers of troops were deployed to the Polish borders (reaching over 300,000 out of the total Russian army strength of 410,000). By 1812, advisors to Alexander suggested that a vast revolution was brewing across Germany and that the time was right for an invasion of the French Empire (and the recapture of Poland). This enraged Napoleon, who it seems had genuinely liked Alexander since their meeting and thus felt betrayed.
The first signs that the alliance was deteriorating was the easing of the application of the Continental System in Russia. Despite being an avid admirer of Napoleon since first meeting him in 1807, Alexander had been under strong pressure from the Russian aristocracy to break off the alliance with France, as they considered it an insult to Russian pride. Although the Congress of Erfurt had sought to preserve the Russo-French alliance, by 1811 tensions were again increasing between the two nations. Main article: Napoleon's invasion of Russia..
Following this a new peace was signed between Austria and France and in the following year the Austrian Archduchess Marie-Louise married Napoleon, following his divorce of Josephine. After both sides had licked their wounds for two months the principal French and Austrian armies engaged again near Vienna resulting in a French victory at Battle of Wagram (6 July). A bloody draw at Aspern-Essling (May 21-22, 1809) near Vienna was the closest Napoleon ever came to a defeat in a battle with more or less equal numbers on each side. However at this time Austria broke its alliance with France without warning and Napoleon was forced to assume command of forces on the Danube and German fronts.
The Spanish, inspired by nationalist and Catholic opposition to the French, rose in revolt. He installed one of his marshals and brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, as the King of Naples, his brother Joseph Bonaparte, as king of Spain . After mixed results were encountered by his generals Napoleon himself intervened and defeated the Spanish army, retook Madrid and then defeated a British army sent to support the Spanish, driving it to the coast and ignoble withdrawal from Iberia (in which its commander, Sir John Moore, was killed). When Spain refused Napoleon sent forces into Spain as well.
Portugal did not comply with this Continental System and in 1807 Napoleon sought Spain's support in an invasion of Portugal. The English economy did suffer to an extent from this - but no more so than the French Empire's economy and neither nation was in a position to challenge the other. Napoleon attempted to enforce a Europe-wide commercial boycott of Britain called the "Continental System". Since he failed at conquering the British militarily, he decided to try to conquer them economically, by banning all merchandise and ships from continental Europe.
Main articles: Peninsular War, Fifth Coalition.. Between 1809 and 1813 Napoleon also served as Regent of the Grand Duchy of Berg for his brother Louis Bonaparte. In the French part of Poland, he established the Duchy of Warsaw with King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony as ruler. He placed puppet rulers on the thrones of German states, including his brother Jerome as king of the new state of Westphalia.
After a major victory at Friedland he signed a treaty at Tilsit in East Prussia with the Russian tsar Alexander I, dividing Europe between the two powers. Napoleon marched on through Poland but was attacked by the Russians at the bloody Battle of Eylau on 6 February 1807. He secured a major victory against Austria and Russia at Austerlitz (2 December), forcing Austria yet again to sue for peace; and, in the following year, humbled Prussia at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (14 October 1806). Napoleon then finally abandoned all hope of invading Britain, and turned his attention once again to his Continental rivals.
A plan by the French, along with the Spanish, to defeat the Royal Navy failed dramatically at the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805), and Britain gained lasting control of the seas. By 1805 the Third Coalition against Napoleon had formed in Europe. Then at Milan's cathedral on 26 May 1805, Napoleon was crowned King of Italy, with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. After the Imperial regalia had been blessed by the Pope, Napoleon crowned himself before crowning his wife Joséphine as Empress.
Claims that he seized the crown out of the hands of Pope Pius VII during the ceremony in order to avoid subjecting himself to the authority of the pontiff are apocryphal; in fact, the coronation procedure had been agreed upon in advance. Napoleon crowned himself Emperor on 2 December 1804 (illustration, right) at Notre-Dame Cathedral. Bonaparte then used this incident to justify the re-creation of a hereditary monarchy in France, with himself as Emperor, on the theory that a Bourbon restoration would be impossible once the Bonapartist succession was entrenched in the constitution. After a hurried secret trial, the Duke was executed on 21 March.
In retaliation, Bonaparte ordered the arrest of the Duc d'Enghien, in a violation of the sovereignty of Baden. In January 1804, Bonaparte's police uncovered an assassination plot against him, supposedly sponsored by the Bourbons. The dispute over Malta provided the pretext for Britain to declare war on France in 1803 to support French royalists. Recognizing that the French possessions on the mainland of North America would now be indefensible, and facing imminent war with Britain, he sold them to the United States—the Louisiana Purchase—for less than three cents per acre ($7.40/km²).
In 1803, Bonaparte faced a major setback when an army he sent to reconquer Santo Domingo and establish a base was destroyed by a combination of yellow fever and fierce resistance led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. Britain failed to evacuate Malta and Egypt as promised, and protested against France's annexation of Piedmont, and Napoleon's Act of Mediation in Switzerland (although neither of these areas was covered by the Treaty of Amiens). In Britain, the brother of Louis XVI was welcomed as a state guest although officially Britain recognized France as a republic. The "legitimate" monarchies of Europe were reluctant to recognize a republic, fearing that the ideas of the revolution might be exported to them.
The peace between France and Britain was uneasy at best. As a result the Treaty of Lunéville was signed in February 1801, under which the French gains of the Treaty of Campo Formio were reaffirmed and increased; the British also committed themselves to sign a peace treaty and finally signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, under which Malta was to be handed over to France. Moreau led France to victory at Hohenlinden. As negotiations became more and more fractious, Bonaparte gave orders to his general Moreau to strike Austria once more.
Napoleon's brother Joseph, who was leading the peace negotiations in Lunéville, reported that due to British backing for Austria, Austria would not recognize France's newly gained territory. Although the campaign began badly, the Austrians were routed in June at Marengo, leading to an armistice. He and his troops crossed the Alps in spring (although he actually rode a mule, not the white charger on which David famously depicted him). In 1800, Bonaparte returned to Italy, which the Austrians had reconquered during his absence in Egypt.
Bonaparte sought to restore law and order after the excesses of the Revolution, and reform the administration of the State. Although Bonaparte was an authoritarian ruler, the same was true of most continental European countries at the time. Although contemporary standards may consider these procedures as favoring the prosecution, when enacted they sought to preserve personal freedoms and to remedy the prosecutorial abuses commonplace in European courts. In 1808, a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted precise rules of judicial procedure.
Other codes were commissioned by Bonaparte to codify criminal and commerce law. The Code was prepared by committees of legal experts under the supervision of Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, who held the office Second Consul from 1799 to 1804; Bonaparte, however, participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. His set of civil laws, the Napoleonic Code or Civil Code, has importance to this day in many countries. He negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church, seeking to reconcile the mostly Catholic population with his regime.
Bonaparte instituted several lasting reforms including centralized administration of the départements, higher education, a tax system, a central bank, law codes, and road and sewer systems. This made him the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, which made him First Consul for life. Although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, he was outmanoeuvred by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. On 9 November (18 Brumaire), and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control and dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government.
The plot included Bonaparte's brother Lucien, then serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, and Talleyrand. Bonaparte was approached by one of the Directors, Sieyès, seeking his support for a coup to overthrow the constitution. The Republic was bankrupt, however, and the corrupt and inefficient Directory was more unpopular with the French public than ever. By the time he returned to Paris in October, the military situation had improved thanks to several French victories.
Although he was later accused by political opponents of abandoning his troops, his departure actually had been authorized by the Directory, which had suffered a series of military defeats to the forces of the Second Coalition, and feared an invasion. On 23 August, he abruptly set sail for France, taking advantage of the temporary departure of British ships blockading French coastal ports. While in Egypt, Bonaparte had kept a close eye on European affairs, relying largely on newspapers and dispatches that arrived only irregularly. Eventually Napoleon was forced to withdraw from Egypt in 1801, under constant British and Ottoman attacks.
On 25 July, he defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at Abukir. He was unable to reduce the fortress of Acre, and was forced to retreat to Egypt in May. In early 1799 he led the army into the Ottoman province of Syria, now modern Israel, and defeated numerically superior Ottoman forces in several battles, but his army was weakened by disease and poor supplies. His goal of strengthening the French position in the Mediterranean Sea was thus frustrated, but his army nonetheless succeeded in consolidating power in Egypt, although it faced repeated nationalist uprisings.
Although Bonaparte had massive success against the native Mamluk army in the Battle of the Pyramids (his 25,000 man strong invading force defeated a 100,000 man army), his fleet was largely destroyed by Nelson at The Battle of the Nile, so that Bonaparte became land-bound. Bonaparte's expedition seized Malta from the Knights of Saint John on June 9 and then landed successfully at Alexandria on July 1, eluding (temporarily) pursuit by the Royal Navy. In a largely unsuccessful effort to gain the support of the Egyptian populace, Bonaparte also issued proclamations casting himself as a liberator of the people from Ottoman oppression, and praising the precepts of Islam. This deployment of intellectual resources is considered by some an indication of Bonaparte's devotion to the principles of the Enlightenment, and by others as a masterstroke of propaganda obfuscating the true imperialist motives of the invasion.
An unusual aspect of the Egyptian expedition was the inclusion of a large group of scientists assigned to the invading French force: among the other discoveries that resulted, the Rosetta Stone was found. The Directory, although troubled by the scope and cost of the enterprise, readily agreed to the plan in order to remove the popular general from the centre of power. In March 1798, Bonaparte proposed an expedition to colonize Egypt, then a province of the Ottoman Empire, seeking to protect French trade interests and undermine Britain's access to India. Bonaparte himself proceeded to the peace negotiations with Austria, then returned to Paris in December as the conquering hero and the dominant force in government, far more popular than any of the Directors.
This left Barras and his Republican allies in firm control again, but dependent on Bonaparte's "sword" to stay there. Bonaparte soon sent General Augereau to Paris to lead a coup d'etat and purge the royalists on 4 September (18 Fructidor). The royalists, in turn, began attacking Bonaparte for looting Italy and overstepping his authority in dealings with the Austrians (not without justification on both counts). Elections in mid-1797 gave the royalist party increased power, alarming Barras and his allies on the Directory.
In May 1797 he founded a third newspaper, published in Paris, entitled Le Journal de Bonaparte et des hommes vertueux. He published two newspapers, ostensibly for the troops in his army, but widely circulated within France as well. While campaigning in Italy, Bonaparte became increasingly influential in French politics. He often won battles by concentrating his forces on an unsuspecting enemy by using spies to gather information about opposing forces and by concealing his own troop deployments.
He was also a master of both intelligence and deception. Contemporary paintings of his headquarters during the Italian campaign depict his use of the world's first telecommunications system, the Chappe semaphore line, first implemented in 1792. He was known as an aggressive commander who enjoyed the loyalty of highly motivated soldiers. As he described it: "I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning." An artillery officer by training, he devised new tactics and employed his artillery as a mobile force to support infantry attacks, benefiting from France's technological advantage in this branch of armaments.
However, he owed much of his great military success not merely to innovation, but as well to his encyclopedic knowledge and superior application of conventional military thought. As a battle field planner, he was known for his creative use of mobile artillery tactics. He was able to absorb the substantial body of military knowledge of his time and to apply it to the real-world circumstances of his era. Bonaparte was a brilliant military strategist.
Later in 1797, Bonaparte organized many of the French dominated territories in Italy into the Cisalpine Republic. Bonaparte then marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending over 1,000 years of independence. The resulting Treaty of Campo Formio gave France control of most of northern Italy, along with the Low Countries and Rhineland, but a secret clause promised Venice to Austria. In early 1797, he led his army into Austria and forced that power to sue for peace.
The pope later died of illness while in captivity. It was not until the next year that General Berthier captured Rome and took Pope Pius VI prisoner on February 20. Bonaparte ignored the Directory's order to march on Rome and dethrone the Pope. Because Pope Pius VI had protested the execution of Louis XVI, France retaliated by annexing two small papal territories.
He drove the Austrian forces out of Lombardy and defeated the army of the Papal States. At the Lodi, he gained the nickname of "The Little Corporal" (le petit caporal), a term reflecting his camaraderie with the ordinary soldiers. Just days after his marriage, Bonaparte took command of the French "Army of Italy", leading it on a successful invasion of Italy. Within weeks he was romantically attached to Barras' former mistress, Josephine de Beauharnais, whom he married in 1796.
He later boasted that he had cleared the streets with a "whiff of grapeshot." This triumph earned him sudden fame, wealth, and the patronage of the new Directory, particularly that of its leading member, Barras. He utilized the artillery the following day to repel the attackers. He seized artillery pieces with the aid of a young cavalry officer, Joachim Murat, who would later become his brother-in-law. Bonaparte was given command of the improvised forces defending the Convention in the Tuileries Palace.
In 1795, Bonaparte was serving in Paris when royalists and counter-revolutionaries organized an armed protest against the National Convention on 3 October. As a result, he was briefly imprisoned following the fall of the elder Robespierre in 1794, but was released within two weeks. His actions brought him to the attention of the Committee of Public Safety, and he became a close associate of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre. A successful assault of the position, during which Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh, led to the recapture of the city and a promotion to brigadier-general.
He formulated a successful plan: he placed guns at Point l'Eguillete in order to force the British fleet from the harbour or suffer certain destruction had they remained. Through the help of fellow Corsican Saliceti, he was appointed as artillery commander in the French forces besieging Toulon, which had risen in revolt against the Terror and was occupied by British troops. After coming into conflict with the increasingly conservative nationalist leader, Pasquale Paoli, Bonaparte and his family were forced to flee to France in June 1793. Bonaparte supported the Jacobin faction, and gained the position of lieutenant-colonel of a regiment of volunteers.
He spent most of the next several years on Corsica, where a complex three-way struggle was played out among royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. Napoleon served on garrison duty in Valence and Auxonne until after the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 (although he took nearly two years of leave in Corsica and Paris during this period). Upon graduation in September, 1785, he was commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant of artillery, and took up his new duties in January 1786, at the age of 16. Although he had initially sought a naval assignment, he studied artillery at the École Militaire.
Upon graduation from Brienne in 1784, Bonaparte was admitted to the elite École Royale Militaire in Paris, where he completed the two year course of study in only one year. He earned high marks in mathematics and geography, and passable grades in other subjects. He spoke French with a marked Italian accent throughout his life, and was a poor speller. He had to learn to speak French before entering the school.
At age 10, Napoleon was admitted to a French military school at Brienne-le-Château, a small town near Troyes, on 15 May 1779. Napoleon's noble, moderately well-off background and family connections afforded him opportunities to study which would not have been available to a typical Corsican of the time. Her firm discipline helped restrain the rambunctious boy, nicknamed Rabullione (the "meddler" or "disrupter"). Ahead of her time, she had her 8 children bathe every other day—at a time when even those in the upper classes took a bath perhaps once a month.
The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, Maria Letizia Ramolino. His father, Carlo Buonaparte, an attorney, was named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI of France in 1778, where he remained for a number of years. His family was of minor Corsican nobility. Born Napoleone Buonaparte (in Corsican, Nabolione or Nabulione) in the city of Ajaccio on Corsica, Napoléone later adopted the more French-sounding Napoléon Bonaparte, the first known reference which appears in an official report dated 28 March 1796.
. Although their reigns did not survive his downfall, a nephew, Napoleon III, ruled France later in the nineteenth century. Napoleon appointed several members of the Bonaparte family as monarchs. Others consider him a tyrannical dictator whose wars and rule led to the death of millions.
Aside from his military achievements, Napoleon is also remembered for the establishment of the Napoleonic Code, and is considered by some to have been one of the "enlightened monarchs". He staged a comeback known as the Hundred Days (les Cent Jours), but was defeated decisively at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium on June 18, 1815, followed shortly afterwards by his surrender to the British and his exile to the island of Saint Helena, where he died. Over the course of little more than a decade, he acquired control of most or all of the western and central mainland of Europe by conquest or alliance until his defeat at the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig in October 1813, which led to his abdication several months later. Napoleon is considered to have been a military genius, and is known for commanding many successful campaigns, together with some spectacular failures.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, and the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799 to 18 May 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français) and King of Italy under the name Napoleon I from 18 May 1804 to 6 April 1814, and again briefly from 20 March to 22 June 1815. Barthélemy St Hilaire (August 19, 1805 - November 24, 1895) whose mother remains unknown. Hélène Napoleone Bonaparte, daughter by Countess Montholon. Karl Eugin von Mühlfeld, son by Victoria Kraus.
Émilie Louise Marie Françoise Joséphine Pellapra, daughter by Françoise-Marie LeRoy. Alexandre Joseph Colonna, Count Walewski, (May 4, 1810 - October 27, 1868), son of Marie, Countess Walewski (1789 - 1817). Charles, Count Léon, (1806 - 1881), son by Louise Catherine Eléonore Denuelle de la Plaigne (1787 - 1868). In his later life he was known as the Duke of Reichstadt.
He is known as Napoléon II of France although he never ruled. Napoléon Francis Joseph Charles Bonaparte (March 20, 1811- July 22, 1832), King of Rome. They had one child.
She produced no heirs for him, leading to a divorce. He later crowned her as Empress Joséphine. Firstly, on 9 March 1796 to Joséphine de Beauharnais.