This page will contain images about Michael Faraday, as they become available.

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

This page about Michael Faraday includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Michael Faraday
News stories about Michael Faraday
External links for Michael Faraday
Videos for Michael Faraday
Wikis about Michael Faraday
Discussion Groups about Michael Faraday
Blogs about Michael Faraday
Images of Michael Faraday

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. In recognition of the enormous contribution inventors make to the nation and the world, the Congress, pursuant to Senate Joint Resolution 140 (Public Law 97 - 198), has designated February 11, the anniversary of the birth of Thomas Alva Edison, as National Inventors' Day. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. The destroyer USS Edison (DD-439) was launched in 1940 in his honor. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. The town has many Edison historical landmarks including the gravesites of Edison's parents. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. The depot is appropriately been named the Thomas Edison Depot Museum.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. The Port Huron Museums, in Port Huron, MI, restored the original depot that Thomas Edison worked out of as a young newsbutcher. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. The hotel was renamed The Hotel Edison, and retains that name today. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. The City Hotel, in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, was the first building to be lit with Edison's three-wire system. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. Life magazine (USA), in a special double issue, placed Edison first in the "100 Most Important People in the Last 1000 Years," noting that his light bulb "lit up the world.".

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). The Edison Medal is the oldest award in the area of electrical and electronics engineering, and presented annually "for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts.". Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. The first medal was presented in 1909 to Elihu Thomson, and surprisingly to Tesla in 1917. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Four years later the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), later IEEE, entered into an agreement with the group to present the medal as its highest award. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. The Edison Medal was created on 11 February 1904 by a group of Edison's friends and associates.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. There is a Thomas Alva Edison Memorial Tower and Museum in the town of Edison. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. The town of Edison, New Jersey, and Thomas Edison State College, a nationally-known college for adult learners in Trenton, New Jersey, are named for the inventor. This established that magnetic force and light were related. See also incandescent light bulb. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". For a discussion of Edison's Record company and its role in the recording industry, see: Edison Records.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. Main article : List of Edison patents. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. His contributions to technology benefited people world-wide, and in 1878, he was named Chevalier of the Legion of Honor of France, and in 1889 was made a Commander in the Legion of Honor. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. The 13.5 acre (55,000 m²) property is maintained by the National Park Service as the Edison National Historic Site.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. The remains of Thomas and Mina Edison are now buried there.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. He purchased a home known as Glenmont in 1886 as a wedding gift for Mina in West Orange, New Jersey. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. His second marriage was to Mina Miller (1865-1946), also with three children, Madeleine, Charles (who took over the company), and Theodore Miller. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. He was married twice, the first time in 1871 to Mary Stilwell (1855-1884), with whom he had three children—Marion Estelle, Thomas Jr., and William Leslie—before she died at age 29, probably of typhoid fever. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. Until we stop harming all other living beings, we are still savages.".

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Edison was a vegetarian: "Non-violence" he said, " leads to the highest ethics, which is the goal of all evolution. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. "Nature," he said, "is not merciful and loving, but wholly merciless, indifferent."[3]. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Thomas Edison was a freethinker, and was most likely a deist, claiming he did not believe in "the God of the theologians," but did not doubt that "there is a Supreme Intelligence." However, he rejected the idea of the supernatural, along with such ideas as the soul, immortality, and a personal God. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. In April of 1896, Edison and Thomas Armat's Vitascope was used to project motion pictures in public screenings in New York City.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. In 1894, Edison experimented with synchronizing audio with film; the Kinetophone loosely synchronized a Kinetoscope image with a cylinder phonograph. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. On August 9, 1892, Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Now, people could go to a penny arcade, put in a coin, put on the headphones, and watch a film through the peep-hole. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. This was especially important to Thomas Edison because he had been searching for a way to entertain customers that were listening to music on his phonograph.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. This device was installed in penny arcades, where people could watch short, simple films. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. In 1891, Thomas Edison built a Kinetoscope, or peep-hole viewer. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. American Mutoscope Company" [2]. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. In 1902, a US court rejected Edison's claim that he be granted sole rights over all aspects of movie production in the case "Edison v.

His greatest work was with electricity. There, he made the first copyrighted film, Fred Ott's Sneeze. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. He built what has been called the first movie studio, the Black Maria, in New Jersey. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. Edison established the standard of using 35 mm (then 1 and 3/8 inches) film with 4 perforations on the edge of each frame that allowed film to emerge as a mass medium. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. As with the electric light, an improvement upon ideas developed by others.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Edison holds the patent for the motion picture camera, but it is argued that William Kennedy Laurie Dickson actually invented it while working in the Menlo Park research lab. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. This allowed him to make his early fortune with the stock ticker, the first electricity-based broadcast system. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. With knowledge gained from years of working as a telegraph operator, he learned the basics of electricity. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. The key to Edison's fortunes was telegraphy.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. However, Sprague, who later developed many electrical innovations, always credited Edison for their work together. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. In 1884, Sprague decided his interests in the exploitation of electricity lay elsewhere, and he left Edison to found the Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Company. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. He did important work for Edison, including correcting Edison's system of mains and feeders for central station distribution. . Sprague's approach was to calculate the optimum parameters and thus save much needless tinkering.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. Prior to his arrival, Edison conducted many costly trial-and-error experiments. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. Sprague was a good mathematician, and one of Sprague's significant contributions to the Edison Laboratory at Menlo Park was the introduction of mathematical methods. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Johnson, and joined the Edison organization in 1883. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Sprague, a former naval officer, was recruited by Edward H.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Frank J. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. I was a sorry witness of such doings, knowing that a little theory and calculation would have saved him ninety percent of his labor." He profited from his good connections with Europe - European inventors often did not apply for US patents for their ideas, so that Edison was free to develop their ideas further himself and then obtain his own US patents. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. He himself said: "genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration." Nikola Tesla, possibly Edison's most famous employee who went on to be a great scientist and inventor in his own right, said about Edison's method of problem-solving: "If Edison had a needle to find in a haystack, he would proceed at once with the diligence of the bee to examine straw after straw until he found the object of his search. Michael Faraday Directory. He was the undisputed head of the team, but usually did not share credit for the inventions.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. As exemplified by the light bulb, most of Edison's inventions were improvements of ideas by others, achieved through a diligent and industrial approach and team-based development. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Since the 1950s, high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems have become more common in certain situations. Finish. AC distribution systems replaced DC, enormously extending the range and improving the safety and efficiency of power distribution. "Work. Many of Edison's inventions using DC ultimately lost to AC devices proposed by others.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Edison's series of animal executions peaked with the electrocution of Topsy the Elephant. ISBN 1400060168. Edison presided personally over several electrocutions of animals, primarily stray cats and dogs, for the benefit of the press to prove that his system of DC was safer than that of AC. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Edison went on to carry out a campaign to discredit and discourage the use of AC. Hamilton, James (2004). [1].

ISBN 0007163762. Brown, while Edison supervised their operations. Harper Collins, London. In fact, like most of the output of the Menlo Park operations, the chair was primarily invented by a few of his employees, in particular Harold P. Faraday: The Life. Popular myth has it that Edison invented the electric chair, despite being against capital punishment, solely as a means of impressing the public that AC was more dangerous than DC. Hamilton, James (2002). Edison (or, reportedly, one of his employees) employed the tactics of misusing Tesla's patents to construct the first electric chair for the state of New York to promote the idea that AC was deadly.

During the "War of Currents" era, Nikola Tesla and Edison became adversaries due to Edison's promotion of DC for electric power distribution over the more efficient alternating current (AC) advocated by Tesla, who patented AC in Graz, Austria. During the initial years of electricity distribution, Edison's DC was the standard for the United States, and Edison was not disposed to lose all his patent royalties. Main article:War of Currents.
.

On January 19, 1883, the first standardized electric lighting system employing overhead wires began service in Roselle, New Jersey. On September 4, 1882, Edison switched on the world's first electrical power distribution system, providing 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers in lower Manhattan, around his Pearl Street laboratory. On January 25, 1881, Edison and Alexander Graham Bell formed the Oriental Telephone Company. The first investor-owned electric utility was the 1882 Pearl Street Station, New York City.

In 1880, Edison patented a electric distribution system. This company and its technological heritage became General Electric in 1892. After losing a court battle with Joseph Swan, they formed a joint company (Ediswan) to market the invention. Litigation continued until October 6, 1889, when a judge ruled that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid.

patent office ruled that Edison's patent was based on the work of William Sawyer and was invalid. On October 8, 1883, the U.S. On January 27, 1880, he filed a patent in the United States for the electric incandescent lamp. Edison made the first public demonstration of incandescent lighting on December 31, 1879, in Menlo Park.

Morgan and the Vanderbilts. In 1878, Edison formed Edison Electric Light Company in New York City with several financiers, including J.P. The quadruplex telegraph was Edison's first big financial success. When Edison asked Western Union to make an offer, he was shocked at the unexpectedly large amount that Western Union offered; the patent rights were sold for $10,000.

The quadruplex telegraph could send four simultaneous telegraph signals over the same wire. The Menlo Park research lab was made possible by the sale of the quadruplex telegraph that Edison invented in 1874. While the earlier inventors had produced electric lighting in laboratory conditions, Edison concentrated on commercial application and was able to sell the concept to homes and businesses by mass-producing relatively long-lasting light bulbs and creating a system for the generation and distribution of electricity. By 1879, they had increased the burning time enough to make the light bulb commercially viable.

After Edison purchased the Woodward and Evans patent of 1875, his employees experimented with a large number of different materials to increase the bulb's burning time. Edison took the features of these earlier designs and set his workers to the task of creating longer-lasting bulbs. In 1878, Edison applied the term filament to the element of glowing wire carrying the current, although English inventor Joseph Swan used the term prior to this. Several designs had already been developed by earlier inventors including Joseph Swan, Henry Woodward, Mathew Evans, James Bowman Lindsay, William Sawyer, Humphrey Davey, and Heinrich Göbel.

For example, contrary to public perception, Edison did not invent the electric light bulb. Many of his inventions were not completely original, but improvements which allowed for mass production. Most of Edison's patents were utility patents, with only about a dozen being design patents. Edison was the inventor of most of the inventions produced there, though he primarily supervised the operation and work of his employees.

It was the first institution set up with the specific purpose of producing constant technological innovation and improvement. Edison's major innovation was the Menlo Park research lab, which was built in New Jersey. The "gramophone," playing gramophone records, was invented by Emile Berliner in 1887, but in the early years, the audio fidelity was worse than the phonograph cylinders marketed by Edison Records. Sound quality was still low, and replays were limited before wear destroyed the recording, but the invention enjoyed popularity.

A redesigned model using wax cylinders was produced soon after by Alexander Graham Bell. His first phonograph recorded onto tinfoil cylinders that had low sound quality and destroyed the track during replay so that one could listen only once. Edison became known as "The Wizard of Menlo Park" after the New Jersey town where he resided. This accomplishment was so unexpected by the public at large as to appear almost magical.

While non-reproducible sound recording was first achieved by Leon Scott de Martinville (France, 1857), and others at the time (notably Charles Cros) were contemplating the notion that sound waves might be recorded and reproduced, Edison was the first to publicly demonstrate a device to do so. Thomas Edison began his career as an inventor in Newark, New Jersey with the stock ticker and other improved telegraphic devices, but the invention which first gained Edison wide fame was the phonograph in 1877. Edison applied for his first patent, the electric vote recorder, on October 28, 1868. Some of his earliest inventions related to electrical telegraphy, included a stock ticker.

Edison's deafness aided him with his telegraphy work as it blocked out noises and prevented Edison from hearing the telegrapher sitting next to him. MacKenzie was so grateful that he took Edison under his wing and trained him as a telegraph operator. MacKenzie's son, Jimmie, from being struck by a runaway railcar. Partially deaf since adolescence, he became a telegraph operator after he saved the life of J.U.

Edison's life in Port Huron, Michigan was a bittersweet experience. Parker's School of natural philosophy. G. Many of his lessons came from reading R.

Edison encouraged and taught her son to read and experiment. Mrs. His mother had been a school teacher in Canada and happily took over the job of schooling her son in his academics. His mind often wandered and shortly into his schooling his teacher, Alexander Crawford, was overheard calling him "addled." This ended Edison's three-months of formal schooling.

Thomas Edison had a late start in his schooling due to childhood illnesses. The economic success in Milan was soon over, though, and seven-year-old "Al" and his family moved again, this time to Port Huron, MI. Sam's family joined him and in 1847 grew with the birth of their seventh child, Thomas Alva Edison. That town was enjoying an economic boom.

From Port Huron, Sam Edison moved to Detroit, then Peru, Ohio, and finally to Milan, Ohio. He went to Port Huron, Michigan, temporarily leaving his wife Nancy and children behind. The revolt failed and, like his grandfather, Sam fled for his life. Samuel Edison was a rebel in the MacKenzie Rebellion that sought Canadian independence.

Among them was Samuel Ogden Edison, Jr., a shingle maker, tailor, and tavern keeper who would marry Nancy Matthews Elliott. In 1811, three generations of Edisons took up farming near Vienna, Ontario. He and his family fled to Nova Scotia, Canada, settling on land the British government gave those who had been loyal to it. That got him arrested and nearly hanged.

John Edeson remained loyal to England when the colonies revolted. Thomas Alva Edison's ancestors, the Dutch Edesons, came to New Jersey in 1730. . The Edison and Ford Winter Estates are now open to the public.

They were friends until Edison died. Henry Ford, the automobile magnate lived across the street at his winter retreat (The Mangoes). In the early 1900s, Thomas Edison bought a house in Fort Myers, Florida (Seminole Lodge) as a winter retreat. Edison started the Motion Picture Patents Company, which was a conglomerate of nine major film studios (commonly known as the Edison Trust).

Nevertheless, Edison received patents worldwide, including the United States, United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Edison was frequently criticized for not sharing the credits. Most of these inventions were not completely original but improvements of earlier patents, and were actually made by his numerous employees. Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors, holding a record 1,093 patents in his name.

In 1880 Edison founded the journal Science, which in 1900 became the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. "The Wizard of Menlo Park" was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production to the process of invention. Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. Johnson had light bulbs specially made, hand-wired, and displayed at his home on Fifth Avenue in New York City on the first electrically-illuminated Christmas tree on December 22, 1882.

Edward H. Emil Berliner developed the gramophone, which is essentially an improved phonograph, with the main difference being the use of flat records with spiral grooves. Nikola Tesla developed alternating current distribution, which could be used to transmit electricity over longer distance than Edison's direct current due to the ability to transform the voltage. Lewis Latimer patented an improved method of producing the filament in light bulbs.

Tattoo gun. Autographic printer. Edison purchased the Woodward and Evans patent for the electric bulb and improved the design. Edison provided financial backing for Guglielmo Marconi's work on Radio transmission, and obtained several related patents.

Dictaphone. Kinetoscope. Phonograph.

12-19-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List