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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. See also: Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. It is not believed his carcinoma was a result of his work with ionizing radiation because his investigations were only for a short time and he was one of the few pioneers in the field who used protective lead shields routinely. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. Röntgen died in 1923 of carcinoma of the bowel. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Although he accepted an appointment at Columbia University in New York City and had actually purchased transatlantic tickets, the outbreak of World War I changed his plans and he remained in Munich for the rest of his career.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Röntgen had family in the United States (in Iowa) and at one time he planned to emmigrate. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. In 1888, he became the physics chair at the University of Würzburg and in 1900 he became the physics chair at the University of Munich, by special request of the Bavarian government. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. In 1876, he returned to Strasbourg as a professor of Physics and in 1879, he became the Chair of the physics department at the University of Giessen. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. In 1867 he became a lecturer at Strasbourg University and in 1871 became a professor at the Academy of Agriculture at Hohenheim, Württemberg.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). from the University of Zurich. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. In 1869, he graduated with a Ph.D. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. He then began to attend the Polytechnic at Zurich to study mechanical engineering. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. In 1865, he attended the University of Utrecht.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. He later attended Utrecht Technical School, from which he was expelled for producing a caricature of one of the teachers, a "crime" he claimed not to have committed. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. He received his early education at the Institute of Martinus Herman van Doorn. This established that magnetic force and light were related. His family moved to Apeldoorn in the Netherlands when he was three years old. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". He was born in Lennep (now a part of Remscheid), Germany, to a clothmaker.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. (On November 2004 IUPAC named the element Roentgenium after him as well.). In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. He did not even want the rays to be named after him. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Like Pierre Curie would do several years later he refused to take out any patents related to his discovery on moral grounds.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. Röntgen donated the monetary reward from the prize to his university.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. The award was officially, "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him". Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. In 1901 Röntgen was awarded the very first Nobel Prize in Physics. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. None of his conclusions have yet been proven false. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. He published a total of 3 papers on x-rays between 1895 and 1897.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Röntgen was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Medicine from University of Würzburg after his discovery. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. On January 5, 1896, an Austrian newspaper reported Röntgen's discovery of a new type of radiation. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Röntgen's original paper, "On A New Kind Of X-Rays," was published 50 days later on December 28, 1895. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. He later reported that it was at this point that he determined to continue his experiments in secrecy, because he feared for his professional reputation if his observations were in error.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. Imagine Röntgen's astonishment as he saw the first radiographic image, his own flickering ghostly skeleton on the barium platinocyanide screen. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. At one point while he was investigating the ability of various materials to stop the rays, he brought a small piece of lead into position while a discharge was occurring. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.
. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. He had planned to use the screen in the next step of his experiment and would have made the discovery at that point a few moments later.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. The idea that he just happened to notice the barium platinocyanide screen totally misrepresents his investigative powers. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. However, the investigators did not realize the significance of their discovery, filed their film for further reference, and thereby lost the opportunity for recognition of one of the greatest physics discoveries of all time. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. In fact, x-rays were produced and a film image recorded at the University of Pennsylvania two years earlier. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. With the investigations he and his colleagues in various countries were pursuing, the discovery was imminent.

His greatest work was with electricity. Röntgen's discovery of x-rays was no accident and he was not working alone. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. Although the new rays would eventually come to bear his name when they became known as Röntgen Rays, he always preferred the term x-rays. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. In the following weeks he ate and slept in his laboratory as he investigated nearly all the properties of the new rays he temporarily termed x-rays, using the mathematical designation for something unknown. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. Novermber 8 was a Friday and Röntgen took advantage of the weekend to repeat his experiments and make his first notes.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. He speculated that a new kind of ray might be responsible. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. He quickly determined that the screen would fluoresce at a distance from the tube much greater than his previous tests. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. Röntgen spent the next several hours repeating the experiment again and again. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Striking a match, he discovered the shimmering had come from the location of the barium platinocyanide screen he had been intending to use next.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. To be sure he tried several more discharges and saw the same shimmering each time. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. It was at this point that he noticed a faint shimmering from a bench a meter away from the tube. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. As he passed the Ruhmkorff coil charge through the tube, he determined that the cover was light-tight and turned to prepare the next step of the experiment. . Before setting up the barium platinocyanide screen to test his idea, Röntgen darkened the room to test the opacity of his cardboard cover.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. He covered the Hifforf-Crookes tube with the cardboard and attached electrodes to a Ruhmkorff coil to generate an electrostatic charge. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. He carefully constructed a black cardboard covering similar to the one he had used on the Lenard tube. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. In the late afternoon of November 8, 1895 he determined to test his idea. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. It occured to Röntgen that the Hifforf-Crookes tube, which had a much thicker glass wall than the Lenard tube, might also cause this fluorescent effect.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. He knew the cardboard covering prevented light from escaping, yet Röntgen observed that the invisible cathode rays caused a fluorescent effect on a small cardboard screen painted with barium platinocyanide when it was placed close to the aluminum window. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. In early November Röntgen was repeating an experiment with one of Lenard's tubes in which a thin aluminum window had been added to permit the cathode rays to exit the tube but a cardboard covering was added to protect the aluminum from damage by the strong electrostatic field that is necessary to produce the cathode rays. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. By late 1895 these investigators were beginning to explore the properties of cathode rays outside the tubes. Michael Faraday Directory. During 1895 Röntgen was using equipment developed by his colleagues Hertz, Hifforf, Crookes, and Lenard to explore the effects of high tension electrical discharges in evacuated glass tubes.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. Röntgen's name is usually given as Roentgen in English, therefore most scientific and medical references to him are found under this spelling. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. The machine which Röntgen built to emit these rays, was the x-ray machine. Finish. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (March 27, 1845 – February 10, 1923) was a German physicist, of the University of Würzburg, who, on November 8, 1895, produced wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation that are now known as x-rays or Röntgen Rays. "Work.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". ISBN 1400060168. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Hamilton, James (2004).

ISBN 0007163762. Harper Collins, London. Faraday: The Life. Hamilton, James (2002).

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