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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. Element 96 Curium (Cm) was named in her and Pierre's honour. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. Her picture also appeared on the French 500 franc note and on stamps and coins. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. Curie's picture was on the Polish inflationary late-1980s 20,000-zloty banknote. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. An extremely ahistorical Marie Curie appears as a character in the comedy Young Einstein by Yahoo Serious.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Oscar-nominated film based on it. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. S. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. There is a 1943 U. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. In 1995, Madame Curie was the first woman laid to rest under the famous dome of The Panthéon in Paris on her own merits.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Her younger daughter, Eve Curie, wrote her biography Madame Curie after her death. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. Her elder daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, won a Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1935, the year after Marie Curie's death. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Her death near Sallanches, France in 1934 was from leukemia, almost certainly due to her massive exposure to radiation in her work. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. In her later years, she was disappointed by the myriad of physicians and makers of cosmetics who used radioactive material without precautions.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. In 1921, she did a tour of the United States, where she was welcomed triumphantly, to raise funds for research on radium. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. Promptly after the war started, she cashed in her and her husband's gold Nobel Prize Medals for the war effort. This established that magnetic force and light were related. Marie personally provided the tubes, milked from the radium she purified. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". These units were powered using tubes of radium emanation, a colorless, radioactive gas given off by radium, later to be identified as radon.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. During World War I, she pushed for the use of mobile radiography units for the treatment of wounded soldiers. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. It is a strange coincidence that Paul Langevin's grandson Michel later married her granddaughter Hélène Langevin-Joliot. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. France at the time was still reeling from the effects of the Dreyfus affair, so the scandal's effect on the public was all the more acute.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. Despite her fame as an honored scientist working for France, the public's attitude to the scandal tended towards xenophobia—she was a foreigner, from an unknown land (Poland was still referred to as a geographical area, under the Russian Tsar), an area known to have a significant Jewish population (Marie was an atheist, raised a Catholic, but that didn't seem to matter).

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. After her husband's death, she supposedly had an affair with physicist Paul Langevin, a married man who had left his wife, which resulted in a press scandal, invented by her academic opponents to smear her credibility. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. She is one of only two people who has been awarded a Nobel Prize in two different fields, the other being Linus Pauling. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. She was the first person to win or share two Nobel Prizes. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. In an unusual move, Curie intentionally did not patent the radium isolation process, instead leaving it open so the scientific community could research unhindered.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Eight years later, she received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1911 "in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element". This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. She was the first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Together with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, 1903: "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel". The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. The first they named polonium after Marie's native country, and the other was named radium from its intense radioactivity.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. Over several years of unceasing labour they refined several tons of pitchblende, progressively concentrating the radioactive components, and eventually isolated initially the chloride salts (refining radium chloride on April 20, 1902) and then two new chemical elements. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. By 1898 they deduced a logical explanation: that the pitchblende contained traces of some unknown radioactive component which was far more radioactive than uranium; thus on December 26th Marie Curie announced the existence of this new substance. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Together they studied radioactive materials, particularly the uranium ore pitchblende, which had the curious property of being more radioactive than the uranium extracted from it. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. At the Sorbonne she met and married another instructor, Pierre Curie.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. Eventually, with the monetary assistance of her elder sister, she moved to Paris and studied chemistry and physics at the Sorbonne, where she became the first woman to teach. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. Due to her gender, she was not allowed admission into any Russian or Polish universities so she worked as a governess for several years. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. After graduating from high school, she suffered a mental breakdown for a year. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. She was notable for her diligent work ethic, neglecting even food and sleep to study.

His greatest work was with electricity. Born in Warsaw, Poland, her first years were sorrowful ones, marked by the death of her sister and, four years later, her mother. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. . In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. Marie Curie (Maria Skłodowska-Curie, November 7, 1867 – July 4, 1934), (Dolega coat of arms) was a Polish-born French chemist and pioneer in the early field of radiology and a two-time Nobel laureate.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Obsessive Genius: The Inner World of Marie Curie, by Barbara Goldsmith, ISBN 0393051374. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. Marie Curie: A Life, by Susan Quinn, ISBN 0201887940. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. Madame Curie: A Biography, by Eve Curie, ISBN 0306810387. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. .

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Michael Faraday Directory.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Finish. "Work.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". ISBN 1400060168. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Hamilton, James (2004).

ISBN 0007163762. Harper Collins, London. Faraday: The Life. Hamilton, James (2002).

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