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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. So the emperor squandered his efforts on an impossible task; the more bitter for him because during his last years he took a greater interest in theological matters. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. Although the pope assented to the condemnation, the West believed that the emperor had acted contrary to the decrees of Chalcedon; and though many delegates emerged in the East subservient to Justinian, yet many, especially the Monophysites, remained unsatisfied. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. In the condemnation of the Three Chapters Justinian tried to satisfy both the East and the West, but succeeded in satisfying neither. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Neither, for that matter, could he escape these issues; for instance, the Three-Chapter Controversy (see also Pope Vigilius).

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Justinian, however, felt restrained in that policy by the complications that would have ensued with the West. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. For many at court, he did not go far enough: Theodora especially would have rejoiced to see the Monophysites favored unreservedly. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. His constant aim now remained to win the Monophysites, yet not to surrender the Chalcedonian faith. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. The serious blunder that he had made at the beginning by abetting after Justin's accession a severe persecution of the Monophysite bishops and monks and thereby embittering the population of vast regions and provinces, he remedied eventually.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). 8). Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. 6), and congratulated himself that Pope John II admitted the orthodoxy of the imperial confession (Cod., I., i. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Again, Justinian reviewed the same approvingly in the religious edict of March 15, 533 (Cod., L, i. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. By degrees, however, Justinian came to understand that the formula at issue not only appeared orthodox, but might also serve as a conciliatory measure toward the Monophysites, and he made a vain attempt to do this in the religious conference with the followers of Severus of Antioch, in 533.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. At the outset he was of the opinion that the question turned on a quibble of words. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. A signal proof was his attitude in the Theopaschite controversy. This established that magnetic force and light were related. While no compromise could ever be accepted by the dogmatic wing of the church, his sincere efforts at reconciliation gained him the approval of the major body of the church. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". His policy towards Rome, though inconsistent at times, bore the mark of greatness.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. Novellae, cxxxi.) remained the cornerstone of his Western policy, offensive as it was to many in the East -- nonetheless he felt himself entirely free to take a despotic stance toward the popes such as Silverius and Vigilius. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The recognition of the Roman see as the highest ecclesiastical authority (cf. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Justinian entered the arena of ecclesiastical statecraft shortly after his uncle's accession in 518, and put an end to the Monophysite schism that had prevailed between Rome and Byzantium since 483.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. This problem proved the more difficult because the dissenting groups in the East exceeded the party for Chalcedon in the East both in numerical strength and in intellectual ability; and so the course of events demonstrated the incompatibility of the two aims: whoever chose Rome and the West must renounce the East, and vice versa.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. In the next place, the factions in the East which had become stirred up and disaffected on account of Chalcedon needed restraining and pacifying. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. In the first place they had a policy of preserving the unity between East and West, between Constantinople and Rome; and this remained possible only if they swerved not from the line defined at Chalcedon. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. The emperors, however, had to wrestle with a twofold problem. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. The letter of Pope Leo I to Flavian of Constantinople was widely considered in the East as the work of Satan; so that nobody cared to hear of the Church of Rome.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. For one thing, the radicals on all sides felt themselves constantly repelled by the creed which had been adopted by the Council of Chalcedon with the design of mediating between the dogmatic parties. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. From the middle of the fifth century onward increasingly arduous tasks confronted the emperors of the East in the province of ecclesiastical polity. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. The new Hagia Sophia, with its numerous chapels and shrines, gilded octagonal dome, and mosaics, became the centre and most visible monument of Eastern Orthodoxy in Constantinople. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. Justinian also rebuilt the Church of Hagia Sophia, the original site having been destroyed during the Nika riots.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. Both the Codex and the Novellae contain many enactments regarding donations, foundations, and the administration of ecclesiastical property; election and rights of bishops, priests and abbots; monastic life, residential obligations of the clergy, conduct of divine service, episcopal jurisdiction, etc. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. Indeed, were not the despotic character of his measures so glaring, one might be tempted to call him a father of the Church. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. On the other hand, it is true, he neglected no opportunity for securing the rights of the Church and clergy, for protecting and extending monasticism. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Bishops without number had to feel the tyrant's wrath.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. 970B); while, on his side, the emperor, in the case of the Patriarch Anthimus, reinforced the ban of the Church with temporal proscription (Novellae, xlii). A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. The bishops in attendance at the Second Council of Constantinople in 536 recognized that nothing could be done in the Church contrary to the emperor's will and command (Mansi, Concilia, viii. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. 7), and accorded legal force to the canons of the four ecumenical councils (Novellae, cxxxi.). In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. He made the Nicaeno-Constantinopolitan creed the sole symbol of the Church (Cod., I., i.

His greatest work was with electricity. 993). However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. 1, p. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. 5); whereas he subsequently declared that he designed to deprive all disturbers of orthodoxy of the opportunity for such offense by due process of law (MPG, lxxxvi. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. At the very beginning of his reign, he deemed it proper to promulgate by law his belief in the Trinity and the Incarnation; and to threaten all heretics with the appropriate penalties (Cod., I., i.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. He regulated everything, both in religion and in law. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. As with his secular administration, despotism appeared also in the emperor's ecclesiastical policy. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. 481). At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Nau, in Revue de l'orient, ii., 1897, p.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. At Constantinople, on one occasion, not a few Manicheans, after strict inquisition, were executed in the emperor's very presence: some by burning, others by drowning (F. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. 12). Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. The consistency of Justinian's policy meant that the Manicheans too suffered severe persecution, experiencing both exile and threat of capital punishment (Cod., I., v. . He opposed them with rigorous edicts, but yet could not prevent hostilities towards Christians from taking place in Samaria toward the close of his reign.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. The emperor had much trouble with the Samaritans, finding them refractory to Christianity and repeatedly in insurrection. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. 2). Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. (Procopius, De Aedificiis, vi. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. The Jews at Borium, not far from Syrtis Major, who resisted Belisarius in his Vandal campaign, had to embrace Christianity; their synagogue became a church.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. The recalcitrant were menaced with corporal penalties, exile, and loss of property. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. 8, 553), and forbade, for instance, the use of the Hebrew language in divine worship. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. 12), and threaten their religious privileges (Procopius, Historia Arcana, 28); but the emperor interfered in the internal affairs of the synagogue (Nov., cxlvi., Feb. Michael Faraday Directory. The Jews, too, had to suffer; for not only did the authorities restrict their civil rights (Cod., I., v.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. 433 sqq.). Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Niebuhr, Bonn, 1831, pp. Finish. 20; Malalas, ed. "Work. 5 sqq.) conducted a mission among the Nabataeans, and Justinian attempted to strengthen Christianity in Yemen by despatching an ecclesiastic of Egypt (Procopius, Bellum Persicum, i.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". eccl., iv. ISBN 1400060168. 482) and the Bishop Longinus (John of Ephesus, Hist. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. The Presbyter Julian (DCB, iii. Hamilton, James (2004). 19).

ISBN 0007163762. 2) was abolished; and so were the remnants of the worship of Isis on the island of Philae, at the first cataract of the Nile (Procopius, Bellum Persicum, i. Harper Collins, London. The worship of Ammon at Augila in the Libyan desert (Procopius, De Aedificiis, vi. Faraday: The Life. 15) in Caucasia. Hamilton, James (2002). 22) and the Tzani (Procopius, Bellum Persicum, i.

3; Evagrius, iv. 23), the Abasgi (Procopius, iv. 4; Evagrius, iv. 20), the Huns dwelling near the Don (Procopius, iv.

eccl., iv. 14; Evagrius, Hist. Other peoples also accepted Christianity: the Heruli (Procopius, Bellum Gothicum, ii. Nau, in Revue de l'orient chretien, ii., 1897, 482).

F. In Asia Minor alone, John of Ephesus claimed to have converted 70,000 pagans (cf. Paganism was actively suppressed. Perhaps the most noteworthy event occurred in 529 when the teaching Academy of Plato of Athens was placed under state control by order of Justinian, effectively strangling this training-school for Hellenism.

Contemporary sources (John Malalas, Theophanes, John of Ephesus) tell of severe persecutions, even of men in high position. 9 and 10) which decreed the total destruction of Hellenism, even in the civil life; these provisions were zealously enforced. The Codex contained two statutes (Cod., I., xi. Those of a different belief had to recognize that the process which imperial legislation had begun from Constantius II down would now vigorously continue.

Justinian's religious policy reflected the imperial conviction that the unity of the empire unconditionally presupposed unity of faith; and with him it seemed a matter of course that this faith could be only the orthodox. Nevertheless, under Justinian, the empire's territory expanded greatly, if only for a short time. Narses failed to defend Italy against either the Ostrogoths or the Lombards. In 551, Byzantine forces conquered part of southern Spain from the Visigoths.

Belisarius briefly suffered imprisonment, but Justinian later pardoned him and he defeated the Bulgars when they appeared on the Danube for the first time in 559. The eunuch general Narses took over Belisarius' command, and the historian Procopius, a former officer in Belisarius' army, accused Narses of treason. After establishing a new peace in the East in 545, Belisarius returned to Italy, where the Ostrogoths had since recaptured Rome. Unhappy with Belisarius, Justinian dispatched him to the East to defend against renewed attacks by the Persians.

Belisarius disagreed with Justinian over what to do with the reconquered land; Justinian wanted to let the Ostrogoths rule a tributary state, but Belisarius preferred to make Italy an imperial Roman territory. Belisarius then advanced into Sicily and Italy, recapturing Rome (536) and the Ostrogoth capital at Ravenna (540) in what has become known as the Gothic War. In 533 Belisarius reconquered North Africa from the Vandals after the Battle of Ad Decimum, near Carthage. Justinian considered fleeing the capital, but remained in the city on the advice of Theodora, and Belisarius arrived to crush the rebellion a few days later.

Belisarius gained this task as a reward after successfully putting down the Nika riots in Constantinople in January of 532, in which chariot racing fanatics had forced Justinian to dismiss the unpopular Tribonian, and had then attempted to overthrow Justinian himself. However, his primary military ambitions focused on the western Mediterranean, where his general Belisarius spearheaded the reconquest of parts of the territory of the old Roman Empire. Like his Roman predecessors and Byzantine successors, Justinian initially engaged in war against Sassanid Persia. It remains influential to this day.

It eventually passed to Eastern Europe where it appeared in Slavic editions, and it also passed on to Russia. Tribonian's law code ensured the survival of Roman Law, it would pass to the West in the 12th century and become the basis of much European law code. As a collection it gathers together the many sources in which the leges (laws) and the other rules were expressed or published: proper laws, senatorial consults (senatusconsulta), imperial decrees, case law, and jurists' opinions and interpretations (responsa prudentum). The Corpus forms the basis of Latin jurisprudence (including ecclesiastical Canon law: ecclesia vivit lege romana) and, for historians, provides a valuable insight into the concerns and activities of the remains of the Roman Empire.

The Novellae appeared in Greek, the common language of the Empire. The Authenticum or Novellae Constitutiones, a collection of new laws issued during Justinian's reign, later supplemented the Corpus. The Corpus was in Latin, the traditional language of the Roman Empire, but which most citizens of the Eastern Empire poorly understood. Justinian commissioned quaestor Tribonian to the task, and he issued the first draft of the Corpus Juris Civilis on April 7, 529 in three parts: Digesta (or Pandectae), Institutiones, and the Codex.

Justinian achieved lasting influence for his judicial reforms, notably the summation of all Roman law, something that had never been done before in the mass of unorganized Roman Laws with no coherence. Theodora died in 548; Justinian outlived her for almost twenty years, and died on November 13 or 14, 565. Aside from his main history, Procopius also wrote the Secret History, which reports on various scandals at Justinian's court. Both historians became very bitter towards Justinian and Theodora.

Procopius provides our primary source for the history of Justinian's reign, although the chronicle of John of Ephesus (which survives as the basis for many later chronicles) contributes many valuable details. And finally his talented generals Belisarius and Narses. His finance ministers John of Cappadocia and Peter Barsymes who managed to collect taxes more efficiently than any before thus funding Justinians wars. Other talented individuals included Tribonian his legal adviser.

The marriage was a source of scandal, but Theodora would prove to be very intelligent, street smart, a good judge of character and Justinians greatest supporter. Theodora would become very influential in the politics of the Empire, and later emperors would follow Justinian's precedent and marry outside of the aristocratic class. Justinian would have in earlier times been unable to marry her because of her class, but he had passed a law allowing intermarriage between social classes. In 523 he married Theodora, who was by profession a courtesan about 20 years his junior.

He surrounded himself with men and women of extraordinary talent, "new men" culled not from the aristocratic ranks, but those based on merit. To this end he directed his great wars and his colossal activity in reconquering the western provinces from the Germanic tribes. He believed in a Mediterranean wide Christian order politically, religiously and economically, united and ruled from Constantinople under a single Christian emperor. Justinian viewed himself as the new Constantine.

He was the last emperor to attempt to restore the Roman Empire to the territories it enjoyed under Theodosius I. He was a man of unusual capacity for work (sometimes called the "Emperor Who Never Sleeps"), and possessed a temperate, affable, and lively character; but was also unscrupulous and crafty when it served him. His administration had world-wide impact, constituting a distinct epoch in the history of the Byzantine Empire and the Orthodox Church. Four months later, Justinian became the sole sovereign, upon Justin's death, at the mature age of 40.

He was functioning as virtual regent long before Justin made him associate emperor on April 1, 527. Justinian was appointed consul in 521, and later as commander of the army of the east. His military career featured rapid advancement, and a great future opened up for him when, in 518, Justin became emperor. Justinian was superbly well educated, in jurisprudence, theology and Roman history.

His uncle adopted him and ensured the boy's education. Justinian was born in a small village called Tauresina (Taor) in Illyricum (near Skopje), in the Balkan peninsula, probably on May 11, 483 to Vigilantia, the sister of the highly esteemed General Justin, who rose from the ranks of the army to become emperor. . He is also known as "The last Roman Emperor." He is considered a saint in the Orthodox Church, commemorated on November 14.

One of the most important rulers of Late Antiquity, he is best remembered for his reform of the legal code through the commission of Tribonian, and the military expansion of imperial territory that was achieved during his reign, primarily through the campaigns of Belisarius. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus or Justinian I (May 11, 483–November 13/14, 565), was Eastern Roman Emperor from August 1, 527 until his death.

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