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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. http://www.azargoshnasp.net/~iran/Din/traditionaldateofzoroaster.pdf [4]. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. London. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. 1. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. “The Traditional Date of Zoroaster Explained”, BSOAS, Vol 40, No.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Shapur Shahbazi, Ali Reza. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. The Gathas of Zarathushtra, Heidelburg, 1991. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. http://www.transoxiana.com.ar/Eran/Articles/gnoli.html [3] Humbach, Helmut. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. "Agathias and the Date of Zoroaster," Eran ud Aneran, Festrschrift Marshak, 2003.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Gnoli, Gherardo. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. Zoroaster in History, Biennial Yarshater Lecture Series 2, Bibliotheca Persica 2000. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. Gnoli, Gherado. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism, University of Chicago Press, 1984.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. Boyce, Mary. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. Its opening fanfare (corresponding to the book's prologue) was memorably used to score the opening sequence of Stanley Kubrick's movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. This established that magnetic force and light were related. Richard Strauss's Opus 30, inspired by Nietzsche's book, is also called Also sprach Zarathustra. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". It was this act that Nietzsche proposed to invert.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. Nietzsche asserted that he had chosen to put his ideas into the mouth of Zarathustra because the historical prophet had been the first to proclaim the opposition between "good" and "evil", by rejecting the Daeva (representing natural forces) in favor of a moral order represented by the Ahuras. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. Nietzsche fictionalizes and dramatizes Zarathustra toward his own literary and philosophical aims, presenting him as a returning visionary who repudiates the designation of good and evil and thus marks the observation of the death of God. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. In the nineteenth century, the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche used the name of Zarathustra in his seminal book Also sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spake Zarathustra).
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. With the translation of the Avesta by Abraham Anquetil-Duperron, Western scholarship of Zoroastrianism began.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. Enlightenment writers such as Voltaire promoted research into Zoroastrianism in the belief that it was a form of rational Deism, preferable to Christianity. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. He appears in Mozart's opera The Magic Flute under the variant name "Sarastro", who represents moral order in opposition to the "Queen of the Night". Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. By this time his name was associated with lost ancient wisdom and was appropriated by Freemasons and other groups who claimed access to such knowledge. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. Zoroaster was known as a sage, magician and miracle-worker in post-Classical Western culture, though almost nothing was known of his ideas until the late eighteenth century.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Other prominent immortals are Geush Urvan, defender of animals, and Sraōša, Pahlavi Srōš "Obedience".. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. what builder created light and darkness? Through whom does exist dawn, noon and night?" (Yasna 44, 4-6). His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. who feeds and waters the plants? .. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. Zoroaster describes Ahura Mazdā in a series of rhetorical questions, "Who established the course of the sun and stars? ..

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. In the yasnas, Zoroaster refers to these forces as "the Better and the Bad.". Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. The two opposing forces in this battle are Ahura Mazdā (Ohrmazd) (God) and Ahriman (The Devil). Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. This may also be conceptualized as a battle between Darkness and Light. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. This is often related to a struggle between good and evil in a Western paradigm.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. A cosmic struggle between Aša "The Truth" (Pahlavi Ahlāyīh) and Druj "The Lie" (Pahlavi Druz) is presented as the foundation of our existence. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. If basic precepts of Zoroastrianism are to be distilled into a single maxim, the maxim is Humata, Hukhta, Huvarshta (Good Thoughts, Good Words, Good Deeds). Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. The teachings of Zoroaster are presented in seventeen liturgical, texts, or "hymns", the yasna which is divided into groups called Gāthās. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. It is possible that Zoroaster lived sometime in the 13th century BC to the 11th century BC, prior to the settlement of Iranian tribes in the central and west of the Iranian Plateau.

His greatest work was with electricity. Also, the absence of any mention of Achaemenids or even any West Iranian tribes such as Medes and Persians, or even Parthians, in the Gathas makes it unlikely that historical Zoroaster ever lived in the court of a 6th century satrap. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. This would stand sharply apart from the view of a Zoroaster living in the court of an Achaemenid satrap such as Wištaspa. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. Furthermore, a look at the Gathas and their composition shows us that the society in which they were composed was a nomadic society that lived at a time prior to settlement in large urban areas and depended greatly on pastoralism. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. Since the date of the composition of the Rig Veda has been put at somewhere between the 15th century BC to the 12th century BC, we can also assume that the Gathas were composed close to that time, at sometime before 1000 BC.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. These similarities suggest that Old Avestan and Vedic were very close in time, probably putting Old Avestan at about one century after Vedic. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. The closeness in composition of Old Avestan and Vedic is so much that some parts of the Gathas can be transliterated to Vedic only by following the rules of sound change (such as the development of Indo-Iranian “s” to Avestan “h”). After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. On the other hand, Old Avestan is very close to the language of the Rig Veda (known as Vedic Sanskrit). At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. The language of the Gathas, as well as the text known as “Yasna Haptanghaiti” (the Seven Chapter Sermon), is called “Old Avestan” and is significantly different and more archaic than the language of the other parts of the Avesta, “Young Avestan”.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. As we know, Zoroaster himself composed the eighteen poems that make up the oldest parts of the Avesta, known as “the Gathas”. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. However, from an early time, scholars such as Bartholomea and Christensen noticed the problems with the “Traditional Date”, namely the linguistic difficulties that it presents. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. This date, which was suggested in the Sassanian commentaries on the Avesta (Bundahišn), gives the date of Zoroaster's life as “258 years before Alexander the Great”. . Henning and continued by Gnoli among others, is what is known as “the Traditional Date of Zoroaster”.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. B. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. A point of view held by many 19th century scholars, among them Taghizadeh and W. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Here we shall look at the most prominent of these arguments. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Accordingly, any date from the 6th century BC to 6000 BC has been suggested, although some with more merit than others.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Different sources ranging from linguistic evidence to textual sources and traditional dates have been used by various scholars to determine the date of Zoroaster. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. One of the most important, and dividing, of all issues regarding the Iranian history is “the date of Zoroaster”, that is the date when he lived and composed his Gathas. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Zoroastrianism then seems to have acquired a solid footing in eastern Iran, where it continues to survive in dwindling numbers. Michael Faraday Directory. Zoroaster may have emanated from the old school of Median Magi and appeared first among the Medes as the prophet of a new faith, but met with sacerdotal opposition and turned eastward.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. Eduard Meyer maintains that the Zoroastrian religion must have been predominant among the Medes, therefore, estimates the date of Zoroaster at 1000 BC, in agreement with Duncker (Geschichte des Altertums, 44, 78). Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. Assyrian inscriptions relegate him to a more ancient period. Finish. According to the Arda Wiraf, Zoroaster taught an estimated 300 years before the invasion of Alexander the Great. "Work. The matriarchal name is the only link to the Achaemenidian lineage.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Hutaōsa is the same name as Atossa, who apparently was queen consort to Cambyses II, Smerdis and Darius I. ISBN 1400060168. Antiquated sources suggest Vištaspa was Hystaspes, father of Darius I. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. Placing the date of King Vištaspa is difficult. Hamilton, James (2004). His death is not mentioned in the Avesta; in the Šahnāma, he is said to have been murdered at the altar by the Turanians in the storming of Balkh.

ISBN 0007163762. His sons and daughters are repeatedly mentioned. Harper Collins, London. His first disciple, Maidhyoimaōngha, was his cousin; his father was, according to the later Avesta, Pourušaspa, his mother Dughdova, his great-grandfather Haēcataspa, and the ancestor of the whole family Spitama, for which reason Zoroaster usually bears this surname. Faraday: The Life. Apart from this connection, the new prophet relies especially upon his own kindred (hvaētuš). Hamilton, James (2002). The actual role of intermediary was played by the pious queen Hutaōsa.

Zoroaster was closely related to both: his wife, Hvōvi, was the daughter of Frashaōštra, and the husband of his daughter, Pourucista, was Jamaspa. The court of Vištaspa included two brothers, Frašaōštra and Jamaspa; both were, according to the later legend, viziers of Vištaspa. In the Gāthās he appears as a historical personage. Eventually he met Vištaspa, king of Bactria.

Yasnas 53 & 9 suggest that he ventured to Rai and was unwelcome. He then appears to have left his native district. According to Yasnas 5 & 105, he prayed for the conversion of King Vištaspa. The Iranian Muslim writer Shahrastani endeavours to solve the conflict by arguing that his father was a man of Atropatene, while the mother was from Rai.

According to Yasna 59, 18, the zaraθuštrotema, or supreme head of the Zoroastrian priesthood, had his residence in Ragha at a later (Sassanian) time. This same text identifies Ērān Wēj with the district of Arran on the river Aras (Araxes) close by the northwestern frontier of the Medes. The Būndahišn or Creation (20, 32 and 24, 15) says the Dhraja River in Ērān Wēj was his birthplace and the home of his father. Yasnas 9 & 17 cite Airyanem Vaējah, "Homeland of the Aryans" (Pahlavi Ērān Wēj), on the Ditya River, as the home of Zoroaster, and the scene of his first appearance.

Textual evidence regarding the birthplace of Zoroaster is conflicting. They are the last surviving account of his doctrinal discourses presented at the court of King Vištaspa. The Vendidad also gives accounts of the dialogues between Ahura Mazda and Zoroaster. The Gāthās within the Avesta make claim to be the ipsissima verba of the prophet.

The historical Zoroaster, however, eludes categorization as a legendary character. (Yasht, 17,19). In the later Avesta, he is depicted wrestling with the Daēva or "evil immortals" (Pahlavi Dēwān), and, in remarkable prescience of Jesus in the New Testament, is tempted by Ahriman to renounce his faith. It is important to note the differences between the Zoroaster of the later Avesta and the Zoroaster of the Gāthās.

He had difficulty spreading his teachings, and was even treated with ill-will in his mother's hometown (an exceptional insult in his culture and time). However, they seem to contain allusions to personal events, overcoming obstacles in life imposed by competing priests and the ruling class. The Gāthās are poetic admonitions and prophecies, cast in the form of dialogues with God and the Aməa Spəntas "Immortals" (Pahlavi Amahraspandān). These human qualities support a historical Zoroaster, despite a lack of historical detail.

He faces outward opposition and unbelief and inward doubt. Here he is a mortal, empowered by trust in his God and the protection of his allies. Plutarch, drawing partly on Theopompus, speaks of Zoroastrianism in Isis and Osiris. Dio Chrysostom relates Zoroaster's Ahura Mazdā to Zeus.

Plutarch compares him with Lycurgus and Numa Pompilius (Numa, 4). He seems to have enjoyed exploring the wilderness from a young age. According to tradition and Pliny's Natural History, Zoroaster laughed on the day of his birth and lived in the wilderness. The Greek writers recount a few points regarding the childhood of Zoroaster and his hermit lifestyle.

His first converts were his wife and children and a cousin named Maidhyoimangha. His illumination from Ahura Mazda came at age 30. His mother was Dughdova; his father was Pourushaspa Spitāma, son of Haecadaspa Spitāma. His wife was named Hvōvi, and they had three daughters, Freni, Friti and Pourucista, and three sons, Isat Vastar, Uruvat-Nara and Hvare Ciθra.

The Greeks refer to him as a Bactrian (coming from present day Afghanistan), a Median or a Persian about 3-5,000 years ago. It is fair to say that Zoroaster lived in the northeastern area of ancient Iranian territory. The biographies in the seventh book of the Dēnkard (9th century) and the Šahnāma are mythic. The 13th section of the Avesta, the Spena Nask, the description of Zoroaster's life, has perished over the centuries.

What we know of the life of Zoroaster is from the Avesta, the Gāthās, the Greek texts, oral history (which is a significant method of teaching in the tradition), and what can be inferred from archaeological evidence. Estimates for the lifetime of Zoroaster vary widely depending on the sources used. This last translation seems to have derived from a desire to give a more fitting meaning to the prophet's name than "owner of feeble camels.". A more romantic, but inaccurate, translation of the name in the past has been "[bringer of the] golden dawn", based on the mistaken assumption that the second part of the name is a variant of the Vedic word Ushas meaning "dawn".

The first part of the name was formerly commonly translated as "yellow" or "golden", from the Avestan zaray, giving the meaning "[having] yellow camels". The name zaraθ-uštra is a Bahuvrihi compound in the Avestan language, of zarəta- "feeble, old" and uštra "camel", translating to "having old camels, the one who owns old camels". . Others, however, give earlier estimates, making him a candidate as the founder of the earliest religion based on revealed scripture, while still others place him in the 6th century BC, which would make him contemporary to the rise of the Achaemenids.

Scholarly estimates are usually roughly near 1000 BC. Zoroaster is generally accepted as a historical figure, but efforts to date Zoroaster vary widely. In Modern Persian the name takes the form of Zartošt or Zardošt (زرتشت). Zoroaster was probably born in the northeastern part of Iran, though there is also a tradition that he came from Balkh in modern day Afghanistan.

Zarathushtra (Zaraθuštra), usually known in English as Zoroaster after the Greek version of the name, Ζωροάστρης, was an Iranian prophet and the founder of Zoroastrianism, which was the national religion of the Persian Empire from the time of the Achaemenidae to the close of the Sassanid period. Amərətatāt, Pahlavi Amurdād: "Immortality", the guardian of food and plants. Haurvatat: "Perfection". Spɚnta- Ārmatay-, Pahlavi Spandarmad, "Holy Thought": the female immortal of the earth.

Xšaθra- Vairya-, Pahlavi Šahrewar: "Best Rule", the power and kingdom of Ahura Mazdā and guardian of metals. Ašəm, afterwards Ašəm Vahištəm, Pahlavi Ardwahišt: "Right": truth and the embodiment of all that is true, good and right, upright law and rule (ideas practically identical for Zoroaster). Vohu Manu, Pahlavi Wahman, "Good Mind": the principle of the good. Nyberg in Die Religionen des Alten Iran (1938).

Darmesteter reports 100 BC; before 458 BC is cited by H.S. Other scholars have been arguing even later dates, now widely rejected. The Būndahišn or Creation, an important text within the religion, cites the time of Zoroaster as 258 years before Alexander's conquest of Persia, i.e., 588 BC. 1000 BC.

Gherardo Gnoli gives a date near ca. Since the Gathas are very cryptic, and open to much interpretation, such a method can also only yield very rough estimates. The historical approach compares social customs described in the Gāthās to what is known of the time and region through other historical studies. 1400 BC–1000 BC is cited by Mary Boyce in her A History of Zoroastrianism (1989).

Linguistic analysis of the Gāthās, the only texts directly connected with Zoroaster, and comparison with other known Indo-Iranian languages, especially Sanskrit, can only give rough estimates, generally dating Zoroaster to around or after 1000 BC. Indo-Iranian religion is generally accepted to have its roots in the 3rd millennium BC, but Zoroaster himself did already look back on a long religious tradition. 2000 BC based on excavations in Uzbekistan (Asgarov, 1984). However, a Russian archaeologist links Zoroaster to ca.

Archaeological evidence is usually inconclusive for questions of religion. These are the dates to which Parsis subscribe.[1] [2]. Ancient Greek estimates are dependent on Persian mythology and give dates as early as the 7th millennium BC. His name is cited by Xanthus, and in the Alcibiades of Plato as well as by Plutarch, Pliny the Elder and Diogenes Laertius.

Zoroaster was famous in classical antiquity as the founder of the religion of the Magi. Manly Palmer Hall in his book, Twelve World Teachers, arrives at a rough estimate ranging from 10000 BC to 1000 BC. Persian mythology, mainly the Šahnāma of Ferdowsi, and oral tradition place Zoroaster quite early.

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