This page will contain images about Michael Faraday, as they become available.|
Michael FaradayMichael Faraday
Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.
Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.
Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.
At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.
In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.
His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.
Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.
His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.
Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.
Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.
In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.
In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.
He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.
Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.
His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.
His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.
Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.
Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.
He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.
This page about Michael Faraday includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Michael Faraday
News stories about Michael Faraday
External links for Michael Faraday
Videos for Michael Faraday
Wikis about Michael Faraday
Discussion Groups about Michael Faraday
Blogs about Michael Faraday
Images of Michael Faraday
He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. Grandchildren. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. Children. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. Wives. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Female lovers.
Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. . Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. Under Roman law emancipated slaves may still be required to render certain services, including sexual ones, to their former master. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. For a man or boy to participate in the passive role during anal sex it generally indicated that they were a slave or one that had earned his freedom. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. In ancient Rome male homosexuality was common and widespread throughout society, but it was thought to be improper for a freeborn boy or man to be penetrated anally as Caesar was in his youth.
(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). Male lovers. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. See Etymology of the name of Julius Caesar.. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. See Military career of Julius Caesar.. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. See Literary works of Julius Caesar..
This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. In 42 BC, Julius Caesar was formally deified as "the Divine Julius" (Divus Iulius), and Caesar Augustus henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of a God"). In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This final civil war, culminating in Antony and Cleopatra's defeat at Actium, resulted in the ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman Emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus. This established that magnetic force and light were related. A third civil war then broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This triumvirate deified Caesar as Divus Julius and – seeing that Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder – brought back the horror of proscription, abandoned since Sulla, and proscribed its enemies in large numbers in order to seize even more funds for the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius, whom Antony and Octavian defeated at Philippi.
The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. A new triumvirate was found — the Second and final one — with Octavian, Antony, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus as the third member. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. Octavius, only aged nineteen at the time of Caesar's death, proved to be ruthless and lethal, and while Antony dealt with Decius Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavius consolidated his position. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. In addition, Gaius Octavius was also, for all intents and purposes, the son of the great Caesar, and consequently the loyalty of the Roman populace shifted from the dead Caesar to the living Octavius.
That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. Antony, who had been as of late drifting from Caesar, capitalized on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates, perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular, and had been since Gaul and before, were enraged that a small group of high-browed aristocrats had killed their champion. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Caesar's death also marked, ironically, the end of the Roman Republic, for which the assassins had struck him down. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. Shakespeare's Et tu, Brute? (Latin, "And (even) you, Brutus?") – in the play, Julius Caesar, are without ancient authority.
These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. In antiquity, however, his last words were generally thought to be those reported by Suetonius (Jul. 82.2) as: καὶ σὺ τέκνον? (Greek, "You too, (my) son?"). This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. Pompey had recently been deified by the Senate, some accounts report that Caesar prayed to Pompey as he lay dying. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Caesar sustained twenty-three (as many as thirty-five by some accounts) stab wounds, which ranged from superficial to mortal, and ironically fell at the feet of a statue of his best friend and greatest rival, Pompey the Great. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. Caesar had personally pardoned most of his murderers or personally advanced their careers.
He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. Among the assassins who locked themselves in the Temple of Jupiter were Gaius Trebonius, Decimus Junius Brutus, Marcus Junius Brutus, and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. A few days before, a soothsayer had said to Caesar, "Beware the Ides of March." As the Senate convened, Caesar was attacked and stabbed to death by a group of Senators who called themselves the Liberators (Liberatores); the Liberators justified their action on the grounds that they committed tyrannicide, not murder, and were preserving the Republic from Caesar's alleged monarchical ambitions. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. Caesar summoned the Senate to meet in the Theatrum Pompeium (built by Pompey) on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Made up mostly of men that Caesar had pardoned already, they knew their only chance to rid Rome of Caesar was to prevent him ever leaving for Parthia.
This device is known as a homopolar motor. Caesar planned to leave in April of 44 BC for campaigns in Parthia, and a secret opposition that was steadily building had to act fast. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. Still there was no voice of support from the crowd, and Caesar rose from his chair and refused Antony again, saying, "I will not be king of Rome!" The crowd wildly endorsed Caesar's actions. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. The crowd roared with approval, but Antony, undeterred, attempted to place it on Caesar's head again. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. When Mark Antony ran into the Forum and was raised to the Rostra by the priests attending the event, Antony produced a diadem and attempted to place it on Caesar's head, saying "the people offer this the title of king to you through me." Caesar quickly refused being sure that the diadem did not touch his head.
His greatest work was with electricity. On February 15, 44 BC, Caesar sat upon his gilded chair on the Rostra and watched the race. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. At the coming festival of the Lupercalia, the biggest test of the Roman people for their willingness to accept Caesar as king was to take place. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. He ordered those arrested to be released, and instead took the tribunes before the Senate and had them stripped of their positions. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. Caesar acted harshly.
When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Not long after the incident with the diadem, two tribunes had citizens arrested after they called out the title Rex to Caesar as he passed by on the streets of Rome. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. The fear of Caesar becoming king continued when someone placed a diadem on the statue of Caesar on the Rostra. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. But the seeds of conspiracy were beginning to grow within the Senate. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Some among the population even began to refer to him as Rex (Latin for king), but Caesar refused to accept the title.
At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. This title even began to show up on coinage bearing Caesar's likeness, placing him above all others in Rome. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. He had been named Dictator Perpetuus, making him dictator for the remainder of his life. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. At the onset of 44 BC, the honors bestowed upon Caesar continued and the subsequent rift between him and the aristocrats deepened. . He was also given censorial authority as prefect of morals (praefectus morum) for three years.
The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. He was appointed dictator a third time, and then nominated for nine consecutive one-year terms as dictator, effectively making him dictator for ten years. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. He was given the title Pater Patriae ("Father of the Fatherland"). Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. Plutarch records that at one point, Caesar informed the Senate that he felt his honours were more in need of reduction than augmentation, but withdrew this position so as not to appear ungrateful. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. As a result of this reform, the year 46 BC was in fact 445 days long to bring the calendar into line.
He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Caesar ordered a complete overhaul of the Roman calendar in 46 BC, establishing a 365-day year with a leap year every fourth year (this Julian Calendar was subsequently modified by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 into the modern calendar). Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He made plans for the distribution of land to his veterans and for the establishment of veteran colonies throughout the Roman world. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Caesar tightly regulated the purchase of state-subsidized grain and forbade those who could afford privately supplied grain from purchasing from the grain dole. Michael Faraday Directory. A general cancellation of one-fourth of all debt also greatly relieved the public and helped to endear him even further to the common population.
The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. If a member of the social elite did harm or killed a member of the lower class, then all the wealth of the perpetrator was to be confiscated. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. This theoretically would help preserve the continued operation of local farms and businesses and prevent corruption abroad. Finish. He passed a law that prohibited citizens between the ages of 20 and 40 from leaving Italy for more than three years unless on military assignment. "Work. Caesar, however, did have a reform agenda and took on various social ills.
"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". A temple and priesthood, the Flamen maior, was established and dedicated in honor of his family. ISBN 1400060168. Even a tribe of the people's assembly was to be named for him. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. The month of his birth, Quintilis, was renamed July (Latin Julius) in his honor and his birthday, July 13, was recognized as a national holiday. Hamilton, James (2004). He also was given the power to appoint magistrates to all provincial duties, a process previously done by drawing of lots or through the approval of the Senate.
ISBN 0007163762. They elected him consul for life, and allowed him to hold any office he wanted, including those generally reserved for plebeians, like the tribunate. Harper Collins, London. A temple to Libertas was to be built in his honor, and he was granted the title Liberator. Faraday: The Life. The Senate continued to encourage more honors. Hamilton, James (2002). He celebrated a fifth triumph, this time to honor his victory in Hispania.
When Caesar actually returned to Rome in October of 45 BC, he gave up his fourth consulship (which he had held without colleague) and placed Quintus Fabius Maximus and Gaius Trebonius as suffect consuls in his stead. This was the first time in Roman history that a living Roman was featured on a coin, clearly placing him above the Roman state, and tradition. In yet more scandalous behavior, Caesar had coins minted bearing his likeness. Since Quirinus was the deified likeness of the city and its founder and first king, Romulus, this act identified Caesar not only on equal terms with the gods, but with the ancient kings as well.
A statue of Caesar was placed in the temple of Quirinus with the inscription To the Invincible God. The title of Imperator also became a legal title that he could use in his name for the rest of his life. A large estate was being built at Rome's expense, and on state property, for Caesar's exclusive use. Along with the games, Caesar was honored with the right to wear triumphal clothing, including a purple robe (reminiscent of the kings of Rome) and laurel crown, on all public occasions.
Great games and celebrations were to be held on April 21 to honor Caesar's great victory. Even though Caesar had not proscribed his enemies, instead pardoning nearly every one of them, there seemed to be little open resistance to Caesar, at least publicly. While away, the Senate had already begun bestowing honors on Caesar. Caesar returned to Italy in September, 45 BC, and among his first tasks was to file his will, naming Octavian as his sole heir.
It was after the battle of Munda that Caesar stopped referring to Octavian as his nephew and called him his son. He certainly learned a great deal about provincial administration from his now all-powerful uncle. Caesar was joined by his nephew Octavian just prior to the battle of Munda, and the young man secured himself as Caesar's heir during the campaign in Hispania. Gnaeus Pompey was later killed and his brother Sextus who garrisoned Corduba managed to flee Hispania entirely.
Over the next few months, Caesar mopped up in Hispania and brutally punished the people for their disloyalty. Still, it would turn out to be the final major battle and victory of Caesar's career, and one that effectively ended land-based resistance. Up to 30,000 men were slaughtered in the carnage, including Labienus, but Gnaeus Pompey managed to escape. Caesar's army overwhelmed the retreating enemy and was merciless in its zeal to end the war.
Pompey's men seemed to have viewed this as a general retreat by the one man who knew Caesar so well, and panic was the result. Labienus, in command of Pompey's cavalry, recognized the threat and broke off from the main battle with his cavalry to secure the camp, but this seemed to have dire consequences. Positioned on Caesar's right wing, the Tenth started to push back Gnaeus Pompey's wing. Finally after an epic struggle, Caesar's Tenth Legion, under his nephew Octavian, began to make the difference.
Caesar himself later told friends that he had fought many times for victory, but Munda was the first time he had fought for his life. The exhausting battle was taking its toll and both commanders left their strategic overview positions to join their men in the ranks. As his army marched to meet Pompey, and the battle was joined, it soon became clear that this would be among the most ferociously fought battles of Caesar's career. Caesar was forced to march uphill against the strong enemy position, but he was never one to shirk from a chance at open battle.
In March of 45 BC, the two armies faced off in the Battle of Munda with Gnaeus Pompey holding the high ground. Caesar's arrival was completely unexpected by the enemy, and the surprise gave him an early advantage. Caesar arrived in Hispania in late November or early December of 46 BC, with eight legions and 8,000 cavalry of his own. Despite this great loss for the Senatorial faction, Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, together with Titus Labienus, Caesar's former propraetorian legate (legatus propraetore) and second in command in the Gallic War, escaped to Hispania, where they continued to resist Caesar's dominance of the Roman world.
After Cato saw that his forces were defeated by Caesar, in traditional Roman fashion, he fell on his sword and committed suicide. He quickly gained a significant victory at Thapsus over the forces of Metellus Scipio, who was killed in battle, and Cato. Thence, in 46 BC, he proceeded to Africa to deal with the remnants of Pompey's Senatorial supporters under Cato the Younger. His victory was so swift and so complete that he commemorated it in his triumph with the words: Veni Vidi Vici ("I came, I saw, I conquered").
Caesar met King Pharnaces in the Battle of Zela. In so doing, he was also able to rebuild his war chest through the various tributes paid to him. Heading towards the trouble with Pharnaces, Caesar traveled through Judaea and Syria, accepting apologies and granting pardons to those foreign kings and Roman governors who had supported Pompey. By the campaign season of 47 BC, Caesar left Egypt and began an overland march through the far eastern provinces.
Once again Caesar gathered his forces and marched off to face another threat. Making matters worse, though, Pharnaces II of Pontus, son of the great Roman enemy Mithridates the Great was making incursions against neighboring provinces in the Roman East. While Caesar and Cleopatra enjoyed their love affair in earnest, however, Republican forces in Hispania and Africa continued to be a threat. Traveling on Cleopatra's barge as far south as his men would let him, they toured the entire country all the way to the border of Ethiopia.
Over the next several months, Caesar and Cleopatra went on what seemed like a honeymoon vacation along the Nile. By January of 47 BC, Caesar secured the reign of Cleopatra by enforcing the will of her father Ptolemy XII with both military and political force, and married her to her younger brother Ptolemy XIV. He would place Cleopatra on the throne of Egypt and use her as the key to controlling the vast wealth of Egypt. Caesar, at 52 years old and 35 years her elder, easily withstood her seduction attempts, and seduced her.
She was elegant and charismatic, but most of all, she had power and money, and Caesar supposed she was susceptible to manipulation. Though little is known of the actual meeting, it is quite clear that the young queen made an enormous impression on Caesar. Cleopatra was slipped into some bed coverings and presented to Caesar as a gift. Caesar privately requested a meeting with Cleopatra in order to take stock of her before making a decision.
He had two goals while in Egypt, secure grain and repayment of Egyptian debts, and also to settle the matter of who should rule the country: Cleopatra or Ptolemy. When Caesar arrived with just 4,000 men, or just under one full legion, he immediately took over the palace and presumed to secure his authority. Turning away from the slave who presented Pompey's head, Caesar burst into tears at the sight of his rival, former friend, and son-in-law. Caesar, despite realizing Pompey's death made him the master of Rome, was overcome with grief.
When Caesar arrived in pursuit of Pompey, to certainly, by all accounts, grant him a pardon and welcome him back to Rome, Ptolemy presented Caesar with Pompey's head and his signet ring. On July 24, 48 BC, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus was dead, just short of 58 years old. Stabbed in the back and decapitated, his body was burned on the shore and his head was brought to the king in order to present as a gift to Caesar. While waiting off-shore to receive word from the boy-king, Ptolemy XIII, Pompey was betrayed and assassinated.
Respected as the conqueror of the East, Pompey certainly felt comfortable heading into Egypt. Pompey himself fled to Egypt, where his own horrible fate awaited him. Following the defeat at Pharsalus, the majority of the remaining Pompeian forces surrendered to Caesar, and the major part of the war was essentially over. In surveying the carnage, Caesar supposedly said, "They would have it so, I, Gaius Caesar, after so much success, would be condemned had I dismissed my army.".
Still, the sight of the field apparently had a profound effect on the new master of the Roman world. He claimed that 15,000 enemy soldiers were killed, including 6,000 Romans, and 25,000 were captured, while losing only 200 of his own men, though both numbers are likely either over- or under-exaggerated. As the battle closed, Caesar reviewed the field and was likely shaken by the effects of civil war. Caesar lured Pompey into Greece where he decisively defeated Pompey's numerically superior army — Pompey had nearly twice the number of infantry and considerably more cavalry — at the Battle of Pharsalus in an exceedingly short engagement in 48 BC.
Caesar barely avoided a catastrophic defeat. Caesar first faced Pompey on July 10, 48 BC at Dyrrhacium. His exhausted and poorly supplied army was able to secure new sources of food and essentially become re-energized for the continuing campaign. He quickly incorporated the towns of the region under his control.
Caesar briefly returned to Italy before marching into Thessaly with eight legions. While marching back through southern Gaul, he took the city of Massila (present day Marseille) from Pompeiian forces. Caesar's army marched into Hispania and defeated the Pompeiian forces at Ilierda. He is said to have boasted "I'm off to meet an army without a leader, then I will meet a leader without an army." Caesar meant that Pompey had left seven legions in Hispania while he fled to Greece.
He was soon joined by legions from Gaul, and set off for Hispania with nine legions. When Caesar entered Rome, he was elected Dictator, but only served for eleven days when he left office and served as consul instead. Despite having two legions to Caesar's one, Caesar's Gallic legions were on the move to join him so Pompey and the rest of Caesar's opposition had little choice but to leave Rome immediately and abandon Italy to Caesar. He is then reported to have muttered the now famous phrase, from the work of the poet Menander, Alea iacta est, usually translated as "The die is cast." The Rubicon was crossed and Caesar officially invaded the legal border from his province into Italy, thus starting the civil war.
Caesar seemed to contemplate the situation understandably for some time before making his final fateful decision. He likely arrived around January 11, and stopped on the northern bank of the small river border, the Rubicon. Around the January 10 49 BC, word reached Caesar and he marched south with the Thirteenth Legion from Ravenna towards the southern limit of Cisalpine Gaul's border. On January 1, 49 BC and the days immediately following, the Senate rejected Caesar's final peace proposal and declared him a public enemy.
Caesar's only options throughout were either to surrender willingly and face certain prosecution along with the end of his career or life, or go to war. Laws were passed while Pompey was consul without colleague that forced a candidate to be present in Rome to run for office. His jealousy over Caesar's success and his ultimate goal of acceptance and power within the Senate took him ever further from the alliance with Caesar. By this time, however, Pompey, likely the only man able to smooth things over, had clearly sided with the Optimates.
Caesar badly desired the ability to run for the consulship in absentia, thereby allowing him the safe transfer of protection from his proconsular imperium, granted by his command in Gaul, to that of the actual consulship once again. The years 50 BC and 49 BC were pivotal because during this time frame, Caesar's imperium, namely safety from prosecution, was set to expire. Prosecuting Caesar, whether the goal was death, exile or just a symbolic limitation of his power, would prevent his re-establishment of the populares agenda that he so masterfully instituted previously. The Optimates despised Caesar and his conquests and looked for every opportunity to strip him of his command.
The whole campaign resulted in 800 conquered cities, 300 subdued tribes, one million men sold into slavery and another three million dead in battle. The defeat of Vercingetorix led to an effective end of the Gallic Wars. Forced back into Alesia after the defeat of his relief force, with no hope of additional reinforcements, and only with the starving remnants of his own army, Vercingetorix was forced to surrender. By the end of the battle, the Germanic cavalry would virtually wipe out the retreating Gauls, leaving only Vercingetorix on the inside.
The battle that was once very close to the possible end of Caesar, turned into an all out rout and the Gauls outside the Roman walls were slaughtered. Overall, the Romans may have been outnumbered as many as six to one. The Gauls on both sides hammered the weakness in the Roman wall. October 2 would prove to be the final battle of Alesia.
By the time the relief force arrived, Vercingetorix and his army were in dire straits, with many of his men likely on the verge of surrender. Inside Alesia, however, conditions were terrible, with an estimated 180,000 people (including non-combatant women and children) running out of food and supplies. This force marched from the territory of the Aedui to crush the Romans between two forces larger than that of their target. According to Caesar, nearly 250,000 Gauls came in support of their besieged king.
A massive army was raised to defend Vercingetorix. The first wall was designed to keep Vercingetorix in, and the second wall to keep his allies out. This wall, nearly identical to the first in construction and type, extended as much as fifteen miles around the inner wall and left enough of a gap in between to fortify the entire Roman army. In one of the most brilliant siege tactics in the history of warfare, and a testament to the skill of Roman engineering, Caesar ordered a second wall to be built on the outside of the first.
Walls, ditches and forts of various sizes stretched the entire circle for a total length of ten miles. Caesar ordered the complete circumvallation of the Alesian plateau, which would not only enclose the Gauls, but keep his large army occupied during the siege. With an alleged army of some 80,000 men, Vercingetorix and his Gauls were in shock from Caesar's Germanic cavalry allies and were in no condition to meet the 60,000 Romans legionaries on the battlefield. Caesar followed Vercingetorix's retreating army to the fortified town of Alesia.
Caesar had no choice but to consolidate his forces against the formidable revolt. Caesar had to make haste from Cisalpine Gaul and joined his army in the late winter/early spring of 52 BC. Other neighboring tribes soon joined the growing revolt, especially in the absence of the legions who occupied the northern and eastern portions of Gaul. Initially hesitant, a young chieftan, Vercingetorix, came to the forefront to rally the Gauls.
Among those tribes were the Arverni. New discontent was brewing among the tribes of south-central Gaul. Instead, Pompey married Cornelia Metella, the daughter of Metallus Scipio, one of Caesar's greatest enemies. Still away in Gaul, Caesar tried to secure Pompey's support by offering him one of his nieces in marriage, but Pompey refused.
Without Crassus or Julia, Pompey began to drift towards the Optimates faction, and relations with Caesar withered. And to make matters worse, Crassus had been killed in 53 BC during his ill-fated campaign in Parthia. In 54 BC, his only daughter, Julia Caesaris, died in childbirth, leaving both Pompey and Caesar heartbroken. But not all was going Caesar's way.
At year's end in 55 BC, Caesar had traveled to the farthest point in the known world and held most of Gaul firmly in his hands. Even after an unsuccessful first invasion, Caesar succeeded in invading a second time with the largest naval invasion in history until the Invasion of Normandy, nearly 2,000 years later. His rear secured, Caesar looked for another glorious Roman ‘first’ and moved his body north to prepare for the invasion of Britain. With that short diversion, Caesar secured peace among the Germans, as the Suevi remained relatively peaceful for some time after, and secured a crucial alliance with the Ubii.
After spending only eighteen days in Germanic territory, the Romans returned across the Rhine, burning their bridge in the process. Caesar, rather than risk this glorious achievement in a pitched battle with a fierce foe, decided that discretion was the better part of valor. The Romans made an example of them by burning their stores and their villages before receiving word that the Suevi were beginning to assemble in opposition. Only one tribe resisted, fleeing their towns rather than submit to Caesar.
Within a short time of his crossing, nearly all tribes within the region sent hostages along with messages of peace. This alone assuredly, impressed the Germans and Gauls, who had little comparative capability in bridge building. In so doing, a monstrous wooden bridge was built in only ten days, stretching over 300 feet across the great river. By June of 56 BC, Caesar became the first Roman to cross the Rhine into Germanic territory.
It was decided, in order to impress the Germans and the Roman people that bridging the Rhine would have the most significant effect. With the situation secure on the Gallic side of the river, Caesar decided it was time to settle the matter with the aggressive Germans once and for all, lest they invade again. In the end, there is no account of how many were killed, but Caesar also claims to have not lost a single man. The Romans butchered indiscriminately, sending the mass of people fleeing to the Rhine, where many more succumbed to the river.
A full-scale assault was then launched on the German camp and according to Caesar, 430,000 leaderless German men, women and children were assembled. Before Caesar attacked, his cavalry was attacked by surprise and seventy-eight Romans were killed. The invaders sent ambassadors to Caesar saying they only desired peace, but Caesar demanded their removal from Gaul and marched his legions against them. Before Caesar could focus on Britain, a German invasion across the Rhine into Ubian territory forced his attention on Germania.
Caesar quickly returned to Gaul set into motion the first Roman invasion of Britain. The presence of these men, along with the popularity of Crassus and Pompey went a long way to stabilize the situation. Caesar took no chances however, and sent his legate, Publius Crassus, back to Rome with 1,000 men to "keep order". Despite bitter resistance from the Optimates, including a delay in the election, the two were eventually confirmed as consuls.
With the matter resolved, Crassus and Pompey returned to Rome to stand for the elections of 55 BC. Pompey, jealous over Caesar’s growing army, wanted the security of a provincial command with legions, and Crassus wanted the opportunity for military glory and plunder to the east in Parthia. Pompey and Crassus were to be elected as joint consuls for 55 BC, with Pompey receiving Hispania as his province and Crassus to get Syria. An agreement was reached in which Caesar would have his extension while granting Pompey and Crassus a balance of power opportunity.
Caesar had to have his command extended in order to ensure safety from recall and prosecution. However, Caesar needed Crassus and Pompey to get along in order to hold the whole thing together. Though support in Rome was unravelling, this meeting showed the scope and size of the ‘triumvirate’ as being a much larger coalition than just three men. He instead, called them both to Lucca for a conference, and the three triumvirs were joined by up to 200 Senators.
Pompey was in northern Italy attending to his duties with the grain commission, and Crassus went to Ravenna to meet with Caesar. In the midst of planning his next steps in Gaul, Britain and Germania, Caesar returned to Cisalpine Gaul and knew he had to reaffirm support within the Senate. By 56 BC, as Caesar was pushing Roman control throughout the entire Gallic province, the political situation in Rome was dangerously falling apart. For now, though, Caesar returned to Cisalpine Gaul to attend to political matters in Rome.
And despite his confidence, the Gallic tribes were not nearly as subdued as he thought. First Caesar would have to deal with more Germanic incursions before he could cross to Britain. Still, the conquest was not quite as complete as it seemed. With the defeat of the Gallic resistance, Caesar next began to focus his attention across the channel.
In all, dozens of tribes were forced to surrender to Roman domination and hundreds of thousands of prisoners were sent back to Rome as slaves. Before long, the Veneti were completely defeated, and like many tribes before them, sold into slavery. Roman ingenuity took over, however, and they began using hooks launched by archers to grapple the Venetian ships to their own. At first the Gallic vessels outmatched the Romans, and Brutus could do little to hamper Venetian operations.
The Veneti controlled the waterways with a formidable fleet of their own and were augmented by British Celts. Decimus Brutus, the young future assassin of Caesar, was sent north to modern day Brittany to build a fleet amongst the Veneti. With the help of Gallic auxilia, Crassus quickly brought Roman control to the westernmost portion of Gaul. Publius Crassus, son of Marcus Crassus, was sent to Aquitania with twelve legionary cohorts to subdue the tribes there.
Caesar sent his generals to every corner of Gaul, quelling any Gallic resistance in their way. As the campaign year of 56 BC opened, Caesar found that Gaul still was not quite ready for Roman occupation. Caesar continued north, conquering all in his path, either through politics or by force. Though it would be another difficult campaign, this was exactly the sort of fortune that Caesar wanted.
By defending his "allies" from external aggression, he could now easily secure the necessary legalities to continue aggression against the Belgae. It not only was a victory in the field, but a political and propaganda win as well. The victory was two fold for Caesar. With eight legions the Romans crushed the attack in a hard fought affair.
The Belgae, in reprisal against this, began to attack. Caesar moved quickly, surprising Gallic tribes before they could join the opposition, and made fast allies of them. As Caesar arrived, likely in July 57 BC, the rumors of Gallic opposition proved true. Caesar hurried back to his legions, raising two new legions of mainly Gallic "citizens" in the meantime, bringing his total to eight.
Word came to Caesar that a confederation of northern Gallic tribes under the Belgae was building to confront the Roman presence in Gaul. Despite cries of great thanks from various Gallic tribes, discontent was growing. In the spring of 57 BC, Caesar was in Cisalpine Gaul attending to the administration of his governorship. He forced the Germans back east across the Rhine, and used the "defense of Roman allies" as his cause to continue north in conquest.
Around the same time, in late 59 BC, the Germanic leader Ariovistus, chieftain of the Germanic Suebi, lead an invasion of Gaul and raided the border regions, but Caesar quelled the situation at that point by arranging an alliance with the Germans in early 58 BC. In the next few days following the battle while chasing down the fleeing enemy, it seems that at least another 20,000 were killed. According to Caesar himself, of the 370,000 enemy present, only 130,000 survived the battle. Near the Aeduan capital, Caesar crushed the Helvetii, slaughtering the enemy wholesale with little regard for combat status.
After several skirmishes, Caesar occupied the high ground with his six legions, and lured the enemy into a poorly matched battle. After setting off, and disregarding Caesar's objection, the two forces inevitably met. In total, according to Caesar, nearly 370,000 tribesmen were gathered, of which about 260,000 were women, children and other non-combatants. Several other local tribes joined the Helvetii in lesser numbers making the entire force among the largest and most powerful in all of Gaul.
Without question, Caesar opposed the idea and hastily recruited two more fresh legions in preparation. Other Gallic Celts and people within the province of Gallia Narbonensis feared that the Helvetii would not just move through as they proposed, but would plunder everything in their path as they went. In order to make such a move, however, the Helvetii would have to march not only through Roman-controlled territory, but that of the Roman allied Aedui tribe as well. However, as soon as he took office, a Celtic tribe living in modern day Switzerland, the Helvetii, had planned a move from the Alpine region to the west of modern France.
Beyond the province of Transalpine Gaul was a vast land comprising modern France, called Gallia Comata, where loose confederations of Celtic tribes maintained varying relationships with Rome. Caesar took official command of his provinces of Illyricum, Cisalpine Gaul and Transalpine Gaul in 59 BC. Marching quickly to the relative safety of his provinces, to invoke his five year imperium and avoid prosecution, Caesar was about to alter the geopolitical landscape of the ancient world. At the age of forty, while already holding the highest office in Rome and defeating his enemies at every turn, the true greatness of his career was yet to come.
As 59 BC came to a close, Caesar had the support of the people, along with the two most powerful men in Rome (aside from himself), and the opportunity for infinite glory in Gaul. In an additional stroke of luck, the current governor of Gallia Narbonensis died, and this province was assigned to Caesar as well. Caesar's future campaigns would all be conducted at his own discretion. This five-year term, unprecedented for an area that was relatively secure, was an obvious sign of Caesar's ambition for external conquests.
Caesar was given the proconsulship of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, granting him the opportunity to match political victories with military glory. In what seemed to be a mere political edge, the marriage blossomed into romance by all accounts. Pompey was married to Caesar's daughter Julia. Already secure with Crassus, by marrying the daughter of his client Piso, Caesar next strengthened his alliance with Pompey.
After Bibulus' withdrawal, the year of the consulship of Caesar and Bibulus was often referred to jokingly thereafter as the year of "Julius and Caesar". Instead, however, he simply gave Caesar complete autonomy to pass almost any proposal he wanted to. Bibulus spent the remainder of his consular year trying to use religious omens to declare Caesar's laws as null and void, in an attempt to bog down the political system. The law carried with overwhelming public support and Bibulus retired to his home in disgrace.
At this point the so-called first triumvirate was made publicly known with both Pompey and Crassus voicing public approval of the measure in turn. His reply was simply to say that the bill would not be passed even if everyone else wanted it. While speaking before the citizen assemblies, Caesar asked his co-consul Bibulus his feelings on the bill, as it was important to have the support of both standing consuls. Caesar rebuked the Senate and took it directly to the people.
Still Cato the Younger and the Optimate faction opposed the concept simply because it was Caesar's idea. Doing so would not only alleviate the problem of the unemployed mob in Rome but would satisfy Pompey and his legions. Unused land in parts of Italy would be restored and offered to Pompey's veterans. Next on the agenda was the appeasement of Pompey.
Once in office in 59 BC, Caesar's first order of business was to pass a law that required the public release of all debates and procedures of the Senate. With their help, Caesar won the election easily enough, but the Optimates managed to get Caesar's former co-aedile Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus elected as the junior consul. The alliance combined Caesar's enormous popularity with the plebians and legal reputation with Crassus's fantastic wealth and influence within the plutocratic Equestrian order and Pompey's equally spectacular wealth, military reputation, and Senatorial influence. Caesar and Crassus were already the best of friends from a decade back, and he solidified his alliance with Pompey by giving him his own daughter Julia Caesaris in marriage.
Pompey and Crassus agreed to use their wealth and clout to secure Caesar's consulship, and in return Caesar would lobby for both Pompey's and Crassus's political agenda. The alliance (known today as the First Triumvirate) was formed in late 60 BC, and remarkably remained a secret for some time. Pompey had already been considerably frustrated by the inability to get land reform for his eastern veterans and Caesar brilliantly patched up any differences between the two powerful leaders. Already maintaining a solid friendship with the fabulously wealthy Marcus Crassus, he approached Crassus' rival Pompey the Great with the concept of a coalition.
Even though Caesar had overwhelming popularity within the citizen assemblies, he had to manipulate formidable alliances within the Senate itself in order to secure his election. In 60 BC, Caesar's decision to forego a chance at a triumph for his achievements in Hispania put him in a position to run for consul. In the summer of 60 BC, Caesar entered Rome to run for the highest political office in the Roman Republic. The delay would force Caesar to miss his chance to run for consul and he made a fateful decision.
The Optimates surely would use this against him, forcing him to wait outside the city, as was the custom, until they confirmed his triumph. He wanted to run for consul for 59 BC and would have to be present within the city of Rome to do so, but he also wanted to receive the honor of a triumph. Caesar was now faced with a terrible dilemma, though. During one of his victories, his men hailed him as Imperator in the field, which was a vital consideration in being eligible for a triumph back in Rome.
Between 61 BC and 60 BC, he won considerable victories over the local Gallaecian and Lusitanian tribes. Arriving in Hispania, Caesar developed a remarkable reputation as a military commander. Leaving Rome even before he was officially to take over, Caesar was not taking chances. With this appointment, his creditors backed off, allowing that this position could be quite profitable.
Eventually, by 61 BC, Caesar was finally assigned to serve as the Propraetor governor of Lusitania, the province he served in as a quaestor. Crassus came to the rescue again, paying off a quarter of his 20 million denarii balance. Towards the end of his praetorship, Caesar was again in serious jeopardy of prosecution for his debts. The Senate deliberated on the matter, with Caesar one of the few men to speak up against the death penalty.
The only other option open was banishment, as imprisonment before trial was unheard of; if banished the men would simply have gone to take command of Catiline's armies in Etruria. The result was the conviction to death of five notable Roman men, Catiline's allies, without a trial. Before he could even take office, however, the Catiline Conspiracy erupted putting Caesar in direct conflict with the Optimates once again. Caesar ran for, and won, the office of Praetor Urbanus for the year 62 BC.
63 BC was an especially difficult year, not only for Caesar, but for the Roman Republic itself. Caesar himself admitted that she could be innocent in the plot, but, as he said: "Caesar's wife, like the rest of Caesar's family, must be above suspicion.". This was absolute sacrilege and Pompeia received a letter of divorce. However, Publius Clodius Pulcher managed to get in the house disguised as a woman.
These rites were exclusive to women and considered very sacred. As the wife of the Pontifex and an important matrona (Latin: married woman), Pompeia was responsible for the organization of the Bona Dea festival in December. Following the death of his wife Cornelia, he had married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla, in 67 BC. Caesar's debut as Pontifex was however marked by a scandal.
The Pontifex was elected to a lifetime term and while technically not a political office, still provided considerable advantages in dealing with the Senate and legislation. The election put Caesar in a position of considerable power, with opportunity for income. For Caesar, it also meant a relief of his debts. This office meant a new house — the Domus Publica (public house) — in the Forum, the responsibility of all Roman religious affairs and the custody of the Vestal virgins under his roof.
His success as aedile was, however, an enormous help for his election as Pontifex Maximus (high priest) in 63 BC, following the death of the previous holder Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius. His co-aedile Bibulus was so unspectacular in comparison that he later commented in frustration that the entire year's aedileship was credited to Caesar alone, instead of both. His debts reached several hundred gold talents (millions of dollars in today's currency) and threatened to be an obstacle for his future career. Caesar ended his year as aedile in glory but in bankruptcy.
Caesar indebted himself to the point of near financial ruin during this time, but enhanced his image irreversibly with the common people. The curule aediles were responsible for such public duties as the construction and care of temples, maintenance of public buildings, traffic, and other aspects of Rome's daily life; perhaps most important of all, the staging of public games on state holidays and management of the Circus Maximus. This magistrate position was the next step in the Roman cursus honorum and was a grand opportunity for the master of the public spectacle. All the while, Caesar continued to pursue his judicial career until his election as curule aedile in 65 BC, along with a young rival and member of the Optimates faction by the name of Bibulus.
While it was enormously expensive on a personal basis, it gave a great deal of prestige to a young Senator, and Crassus' support certainly made it an achievable task for Caesar. The maintenance of this road, which stretched from Rome to Cumae and beyond to the heel of Italy's boot, was an important and high profile position. Between the support of the laws regarding Pompey's command, Caesar served as the curator of the Appian Way. Obviously building a relationship with Rome's great general would play into his hands later.
Now as a member of the Senate, thanks to his election earlier as quaestor, Caesar supported laws which were designed to grant Pompey the Great unlimited powers in dealing with Cilician pirates in the Mediterranean. The granddaughter of Sulla, and daughter of Quintus Pompey, Pompeia Sulla, was to be his next wife. This time, however, he chose an odd alliance. Despite any personal grief over the loss of his wife, of who all accounts suggest he loved dearly, Caesar was set to remarry in 67 BC for political gain.
Caesar was released early from his office as quaestor, and allowed to return to Rome early. When asked why he would have such a reaction, his simple response was: "Do you think I have not just cause to weep, when I consider that Alexander at my age had conquered so many nations, and I have all this time done nothing that is memorable.". At the temple of Hercules in Gades, it was said that he broke down and cried. As an administrative and financial officer, the trip was largely uneventful, but it was while in Hispania that he had the famous encounter with a statue of Alexander the Great.
He drew the lots and was assigned a quaestorship in Lusitania, a Roman province roughly situated in modern Portugal and part of southern Spain. Caesar was elected quaestor by the Assembly of the People in 69 BC, at the age of thirty, as stipulated in the Roman cursus honorum. Although Caesar was very fond of both women (according to Suetonius), these speeches were interpreted by his political opponents as propaganda for his upcoming election for the office of quaestor. Julia's funeral was filled with political connotations, since Caesar insisted on parading Marius's funeral mask.
During the funerals, Caesar delivered eulogy speeches from the Rostra. It was untraditional for Roman women to have great public funerals, but Caesar broke tradition and gave them both fine funerals. These two deaths left Caesar very much alone to raise a still infant daughter, Julia Caesaris. In the same year, he lost his aunt Julia, to whom he was very attached.
In 69 BC, Caesar became a widower after Cornelia's death trying to deliver a stillborn son. But Caesar's triumph soon turned to disaster. During their time together, Caesar and Crassus would form a friendship that would later advance both of their careers in the years to come. After a series of defeats, Crassus finally overcame Spartacus in 71 BC.
The Senate appointed Crassus to the cause, and Crassus personally levied six brand new legions, and recruited the young Caesar to serve as one of his tribunes for his work as an advocate. Caesar was one of the few men to lobby for Crassus in trying to establish his command. Finally, in the year 71 BC, Marcus Crassus rose to the challenge presented by Spartacus. In 72 BC, Caesar was elected a military tribune by the Roman assemblies, his first step in political life.
The Senate sent legion after legion to handle the rebellion, but each time Spartacus was victorious. Unfortunately, Caesar returned to Rome in the middle of the slave rebellion under the ex-gladiator Spartacus. After returning to Rome in 73 BC, Caesar was elected to the College of Pontiffs. However, since they had treated him well, he had their legs broken before they were crucified to lessen their suffering.
True to his word, as soon as he was ransomed and released, he organized a naval force, captured the pirates and their island stronghold and put them to death by crucifixion as a warning to other pirates. In all he was held for thirty-eight days and would often laughingly threaten to have them all crucified. They accepted, and Caesar sent his followers to various cities to collect the ransom money. Instead, he ordered them to ask for fifty.
When they demanded a ransom of twenty talents, he laughed at them, saying they did not know whom they had captured. On the way, Caesar was kidnapped by Cilician pirates in the Mediterranean Sea. The great orator Cicero even commented, "Does anyone have the ability to speak better than Caesar?" Aiming at rhetorical perfection, Caesar traveled to Rhodes in 75 BC for philosophical and oratorical studies with the famous teacher Apollonius Molo. Back in Rome in 78 BC, when Sulla died, Caesar began his political career in the Forum at Rome as an advocate, known for his oratory and ruthless prosecution of former governors notorious for extortion and corruption.
The award was of the highest honor given to a non-commander, and when worn in public, even in the presence of the Roman Senate, all were forced to stand and applaud his presence. During the course of the battle Caesar showed such personal bravery in saving the lives of legionaries, that he was later awarded the corona civica (oak crown). In 80 BC, while still serving under Thermus, he played a pivotal role in the siege of Miletus. While still in Asia Minor, Caesar was involved in several military operations.
Despite Sulla's pardon, Caesar did not remain in Rome and left for military service in Asia and Cilicia. According to Suetonius, the dictator in relenting on Caesar's proscription said, "He whose life you so much desire will one day be the overthrow of the part of nobles, whose cause you have sustained with me; for in this one Caesar, you will find many a Marius.". In a prophetic moment, Sulla was said to comment on the dangers of letting Caesar live. Sulla pardoned Caesar and his family and allowed him to return to Rome.
Sulla ordered Caesar to divorce Cornelia in 82 BC, but Caesar refused and prudently left Rome to hide. Thus, when Sulla emerged as the winner of this civil war and began his program of proscriptions, Caesar, not yet 20 years old, was in a bad position. Both Marius and his father had left Caesar much of their property and wealth in their wills. To make matters worse, in the year 85 BC, just after Caesar turned 15, his father grew ill and soon died.
Not only was he Marius' nephew, he was also married to Cornelia Cinnilla, the youngest daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna, Marius' greatest supporter and Sulla's enemy. Caesar was tied to the Marius party through family connections. Several disputes of the Marius faction against Lucius Cornelius Sulla led to civil war and eventually opened the way to Sulla's dictatorship. Towards the end of Marius' life in 86 BC, internal politics reached a breaking point.
Marius became one of the richest men in Rome at the time and while he gained political influence, the Caesar family gained the wealth. His paternal aunt, Julia, married Gaius Marius, a talented general and reformer of the Roman army. Thus, no member of his family had achieved any outstanding prominence in recent times, though in his father's generation there was a renaissance of their fortunes. The Julii Caesares, although of impeccable aristocratic patrician stock, were not rich by the standards of the Roman nobility.
Caesar was raised in a modest apartment building (insula) in the Subura, a lower-class neighborhood of Rome. According to legend, Caesar was born by Caesarian section and is its namesake, though this is unlikely because it was only performed on dead women, and his mother lived long after he was born. Caesar was born in Rome to a well-known patrician family (gens Julia), which supposedly traced its ancestry to Julus, the son of the Trojan prince Aeneas, who according to myth was the son of Venus. .
Caesar's military campaigns are known in detail from his own written Commentaries (Commentarii), and many details of his life are recorded by later historians such as Suetonius, Plutarch, and Cassius Dio. The dramatic assassination on the Ides of March was the catalyst for a second set of civil wars, which marked the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire under Caesar's grand-nephew and adopted son Octavian, later known as Caesar Augustus. Caesar's friend Marcus Brutus conspired with others to assassinate Caesar in hopes of saving the Republic. He was proclaimed dictator for life, and heavily centralized the already faltering government of the weak Republic.
Caesar fought and won a civil war which left him undisputed master of the Roman world, and began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. In 55 BC Caesar launched the first Roman invasion of Britain. His conquest of Gallia Comata extended the Roman world all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, introducing Roman influence into what has become modern France, an accomplishment of which direct consequences are visible to this day. He was instrumental in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. 100 BC; d. July 13, ca. Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b.
Crocea Mors. Epilepsy. Marfan syndrome. Caesar cipher.
Caesarian section. Nine Worthies. Famous military writers. ^ Suetonius 2.68, 71; 1:229, 233.
^ Suetonius 1.49; 1:65-69. The Twelve Caesars – Julius Caesar, by Suetonius; Penguin Classics. Life of Caesar, by Plutarch; Oxford Classics. The Gallic War, by Julius Caesar; Loeb Classics.
42 BC Formally deified as "the Divine Julius" (Divus Julius),. March 15, Assassinated. February, Refuses the diadem offered by Antony. Appointed perpetual dictator.
Fifth consulship with Marc Antony. 44 BC –
45 BC – Defeats the last opposition in Hispania
47 BC – Campaign in Egypt; meets Cleopatra VII. Second consulship with Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. 48 BC – Defeats Pompey in Greece at Battle of Pharsalus, made dictator (serves for 11 days)
52 BC – Battle of Alesia. 53 BC/48 BC — Second term as Proconsul of Gaul. 53 BC – Death of Crassus: end of the First Triumvirate
58 BC/53 BC – First term as Proconsul of Gaul. Third marriage to Calpurnia Pisonis. 59 BC – First consulship with Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, beginning of the First Triumvirate
the Catilinarian conspiracy. Elected pontifex maximus and praetor urbanus. December, Divorces Pompeia. 63 BC – Second marriage to Pompeia Sulla,
65 BC – Curule aedile. 69 BC – Death of Cornelia, Quaestor in Hispania Ulterior. 70s – Career as an advocate. 81/79 BC – Military service in Asia and Cilicia; tryst with Nicomedes of Bithynia.
82 BC – Escapes the Sullan persecutions. 84 BC – First marriage to Cornelia Cinnilla. July 13, 100 BC – Birth in Rome; Alternatively, July 12, 102 BC. a grandson from Julia Caesaris and Pompey, dead at several days, unnamed.
Ptolemy XV Caesar (Caesarion) with Cleopatra VII, he would become an Egyptian pharaoh. Julia Caesaris with Cornelia Cinnilla. Third marriage to Calpurnia Pisonis. Second marriage to Pompeia Sulla.
First marriage to Cornelia Cinnilla. Affair with Mother of Brutus, Servilia. Affair with Cato's first wife, Bibulus' first two wives, Half the Subura, the wives of most of the opposing factions' senators. Affair with Cleopatra VII.
. The boy would become the first Roman Emperor following Caesar's death. Suetonius while saying that Caesar's affair with Nicomedes is true described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. Mark Antony charged that Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors.
It was said that soldiers sang mockingly that "Caesar conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar". Gaius Memmius made analogy to Ganymede by stating that Caesar was the "cupbearer to Nicomedes with the rest of his wantons". Bibulus named Caesar the "queen of Bithynia" saying that "of yore he was enamoured of a king, but now of a king’s estate". Dollabella said that Caesar is "the queen’s rival, the inner partner of the royal couch" and Curio called him "the brothel of Nicomedes and the stew of Bithynia".
Licinius Calvus was quoted as "whate’er Bithynia had, and Caesar’s paramour (predicator, active partner in anal sex)". Cicero says that "the virginity of this son of Venus was lost in Bithynia" with King Nicomedes.