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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. He died in 1947 of a cerebral hemorrhage at the age of 83 in Fair Lane, his Dearborn estate, and is buried in the Ford Cemetery in Detroit. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. In ill health, he ceded the presidency to his grandson Henry Ford II on September 21, 1945, and went into retirement. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. Edsel's 1943 death brought Henry Ford out of retirement. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Ford suffered an initial stroke in 1938, after which he turned over the running of his company to Edsel.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. The foundation no longer has any association with the Ford Motor Company, nor with the family or descendants of Henry Ford. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. The Foundation has grown immensely and, by 1950, had become national and international in scope.[2]. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Henry Ford, with his son Edsel, founded the Ford Foundation in 1936 as a local philanthropic organization with a broad charter to promote human welfare. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. His knowledge of the Ontario town of the same name is believed to have led to the renaming of the Georgia town, formerly known as Ways Station.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). He contributed substantially to the community, building a chapel and schoolhouse and employing a large number of local residents. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. Ford also maintained a vacation residence (known as the "Ford Plantation") in Richmond Hill, Georgia. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. (The airfield was across the street and is now the site of a Ford Motor Company test track.) He heavily sponsored the Stout Metal Airplane Company, which developed the Ford Tri-Motor, an early airliner. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. Ford was an early promoter of aviation, building the Dearborn Inn as the first airport hotel.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. Lloyd Shaw. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. Which he shared with his friend Dr. This established that magnetic force and light were related. Ford also had an interest in American folk music and frequently sponsored square dances, one of his particular interests. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". It was opened in 1929 as the Edison Institute and, although greatly modernized, remains open today.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. About the same time, he began collecting materials for his museum, which had a theme of practical technology. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. It may have inspired the creation of Old Sturbridge Village as well. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. This plan never saw fruition, but Ford repeated it with the creation of Greenfield Village in Dearborn, Michigan.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He moved the schoolhouse from the Mary had a little lamb nursery rhyme from Sterling, Massachusetts and purchased the historical Wayside Inn.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. In the 1920s, Ford began work to turn Sudbury, Massachusetts into an Americana-themed historical village. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. Ford had an interest in what today would be known as "Americana". Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. [Detroit News, July 31, 1938.]. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. The decoration was given "in recognition of [Ford's] pioneering in making motor cars available for the masses." The award was accompanied by a personal congratulatory message from Adolf Hitler.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Ford was the first American and the fourth person given this award, at the time Nazi Germany's highest honorary award given to foreigners. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. In July of that year, Ford was awarded (and accepted) the Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle (Großkreuz des Deutschen Adlerordens). His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. In 1938, for instance, it opened an assembly plant in Berlin, the purpose of which was to supply trucks to the Wehrmacht. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. Ford's indirect financial backing of the Nazis was also undeniable, as Ford Motor Company was active in Germany's military buildup prior to World War II.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. Regardless of whether direct financial support was provided, Ford repeatedly voiced his overt approval of Hitler's theories. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. However, a 1933 Congressional investigation into the matter was unable to substantiate whether contributions were actually sent. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. in the 1920s, and Winifred Wagner, daughter-in-law of Richard Wagner, who said they requested funds from Ford to aid the National Socialist movement in Germany. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. This can in part be traced to statements from Kurt Ludecke, Germany's representative to the U.S.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. There is also some evidence that Henry Ford gave Adolf Hitler direct financial backing when Hitler was first starting out in politics. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. Henry Ford spent years bestowing gushing praise on Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime, although this praise abated as the United States entered WWII. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. His writings continue to be used as propaganda by various groups, often appearing on anti-Semitic and neo-Nazi websites. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Some claim that Ford neither wrote nor signed this letter and have questioned the sincerity of his apology.

His greatest work was with electricity. On January 7, 1942, Henry Ford wrote a public letter to the ADL denouncing hatred against the Jews and expressing his hope that anti-Jewish hatred would cease for all time. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. He later retracted the International Jew and the Protocols. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. Lawsuits in response to anti-Semitic remarks led Ford to close the Dearborn Independent in December 1927. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. None of this work was actually penned by Ford, though they required his tacit approval since he was the paper's publisher.

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Denounced by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), the articles nevertheless explicitly condemned pogroms and violence against Jews (Volume 4, Chapter 80), preferring to blame incidents of mass violence on the Jews themselves. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. The Independent also published, in Ford's name, several anti-Jewish articles which were released in the early 1920s as a set of four bound volumes, cumulatively titled "The International Jew, the World's Foremost Problem." These volumes were distributed through Ford's car dealerships. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. The American Jewish Historical Society describes the ideas presented in it as "anti-immigrant, anti-labor, anti-liquor, and anti-Semitic". At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. The paper ran for eight years, during which it republished "Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion," which has since been discredited by virtually all historians as a forgery.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. Henry Ford began publication of a newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, in 1919. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. Under pressure from Edsel and his wife, Clara, Henry Ford finally agreed to collective bargaining at Ford plants, and the first contract with the UAW was signed in June 1941. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. A sit-down strike by the UAW union on April 2, 1941 closed the River Rouge Plant. . Ford was the last Detroit automaker to recognize the United Auto Workers union (UAW).

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. The most famous incident, in 1937, was a bloody brawl between company security men and organizers that became known as The Battle of the Overpass. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. Bennett employed various intimidation tactics to squash union organizing. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. To forestall union activity, he promoted Harry Bennett, a former Navy boxer, to be the head of the Service Department. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Conversely, Ford was adamantly against labor unions in his plants.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. The "short week," as Ford called it in a contemporary interview, was required so that the country could "absorb its production and stay prosperous.". Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. In granting workers an extra day off, Ford ensured leisure time for the working class. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. In 1926, Ford instituted the five-day, forty-hour work-week, effectively inventing the modern weekend. Michael Faraday Directory. Even with these requirements a large percentage of workers were able to qualify for the profit sharing.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. The company established a Sociological Department complete with 150 investigators and support staff in order to verify this last point. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. The wage was offered to men over the age of 22, who had worked at the company for 6 months or more, and, importantly, conducted their lives in a manner of which Ford approved. Finish. Ford labeled the increased compensation as profit sharing rather than wages. "Work. The program called for a reduction in length of the workday from 9 to 8 hours and a raise in minimum daily pay from $2.34 to $5 for qualifying workers.

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". On January 5, 1914 Ford announced his five-dollar a day program. ISBN 1400060168. Henry Ford had very specific thoughts on relations with his employees. A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. By 1945 Henry Ford's senility was quite evident, and his wife and daughter-in-law forced his resignation in favor of his grandson, Henry Ford II. Hamilton, James (2004). Roosevelt considered a federal bailout for Ford Motor Company so that wartime production could continue.

ISBN 0007163762. President Franklin D. Harper Collins, London. The company saw hard times during the next two years, losing $10 million a month. Faraday: The Life. Henry Ford II was released from the navy and became an executive vice president, while Harry Bennett had a seat on the board and was responsible for personnel, labor relations, and public relations. Hamilton, James (2002). The issue was settled for a period when Henry himself, at the age of 79, took over the presidency personally.

Edsel's widow Eleanor, who had inherited Edsel's voting stock, wanted her son Henry Ford II to take over the position. Henry Ford advocated Harry Bennett to take the spot. On May 26, 1943, Edsel Ford died, leaving a vacancy in the company presidency. The design never caught on.

Furthermore, it ran on grain alcohol (ethanol) instead of gasoline. It weighed 30% less than a standard car of the same size, and was said to be able to withstand blows ten times greater than could steel. This project culminated in 1942, when on January 13 Ford patented an automobile made almost entirely of plastic, attached to a tubular welded frame. Soybean-based plastics were used in Ford automobiles throughout the 1930s in plastic parts such as car horns, in paint, etc.

Henry Ford long had an interest in plastics developed from agricultural products, especially soybeans. During the thirties, Ford also overcame his objection to finance companies, and the Ford-owned Universal Credit Company became a major car financing operation. Subsequently, the company adopted an annual model change system similar to that in use by automakers today. The result was the highly successful Ford Model A, introduced December, 1927 and produced through 1931, with a total output of over four million automobiles.

Edsel also managed to prevail over his father's initial objections in the inclusion of a sliding-shift transmission. The elder Ford pursued the project with a great deal of technical expertise in design of the engine, chassis, and other mechanical necessities, while leaving it to his son to develop the body design. By 1926, flagging sales of the Model T convinced Henry of what Edsel had been suggesting for some time: a new model was necessary. Half of these were Ford Model Ts.

By 1928 there were about 30 million cars world wide. Henry Ford's assembly line was so unique that it turned the Ford Motor Company into a Giant, (and became a tool for every other industry that creates merchandise in the assembly line, of course the assembly line does not use people anymore, but uses robots) while the other car companies were still stuck with the technologies of the earlier days. But that's what made it unique. One screw held 10 or 20 parts.

The Model T was a very simple car, as simple as it could be made. For the first time everyone could own a car, the downside was that every Model T produced after 1913, (the year the assembly line was created) was painted black because the paint dried a lot faster than any other color. The cars sales triggered the modern era of vehicles. The Model T's key to success was the fact that it had been made in the assembly line, which allowed for many different cars to be made consecutively, identically and much faster than other hand made vehicles.

Despite urgings from Edsel, Henry steadfastly refused to incorporate new features into the Model T or to form a customer credit plan. Other auto makers offered payment plans through which consumers could buy their cars, which usually included more modern mechanical features and styling not available with the Model T. By the mid 1920's, sales of the Model T began to decline due to rising competition. The company remained privately held by the family until 1956, when the family allowed a public offering of a portion of the company without ceding control.

Also at this time, Henry and Edsel purchased all remaining stock from other investors, thus becoming sole owners of the company. On January 1, 1919, after unsuccessfully seeking a seat in the United States Senate, [1] Henry Ford turned the presidency of Ford Motor Company over to his son Edsel, although still maintaining a firm hand in its management—few company decisions under Edsel's presidency were made without approval by Henry, and those few that were, Henry often reversed. Ford said, "Any customer can have a car painted any colour that he wants so long as it is black." (See References at bottom). This was a record which would stand for the next 45 years.

The design, fervently promoted and defended by Henry Ford, would continue through 1927 (well after its popularity had faded), with a final total production of fifteen million vehicles. By 1918, half of all cars in America were Model Ts. Wills. Sorensen, and C.H.

"Ed" Martin, Charles E. Although Ford is often credited with the idea, contemporary sources indicate that the concept and its development came from employees Clarence Avery, P.E. It was in this year that Henry Ford introduced the moving assembly belts into his plants, which enabled an enormous increase in production. Racing was, by 1913, no longer necessary from a publicity standpoint because the Model T was already famous and ubiquitous on American roads.

Ford dropped out of the race, and soon thereafter dropped out of racing permanently, citing dissatisfaction with the sport's rules and the demands on his time by the now-booming production of the Model Ts. In 1913, Ford attempted to enter a reworked Model T in the Indianapolis 500, but was told rules required the addition of another 1,000 pounds (450 kg) to the car before it could qualify. From 1909 to 1913, Ford entered stripped-down Model Ts in races, finishing first (although later disqualified) in an "ocean-to-ocean" (across the USA) race in 1909, and setting a one-mile oval speed record at Detroit Fairgrounds in 1911 with driver Frank Kulick. In 1908, the Ford company released the Model T.

Henry Ford was also one of the early backers of the Indianapolis 500. Convinced by this success, the famous race driver Barney Oldfield, who named this new Ford model "999" in honor of a racing locomotive of the day, took the car around the country and thereby made the Ford brand known throughout the U.S. Clair in 39.4 seconds, which was a new land speed record. In a newly-designed car, Ford drove an exhibition in which the car covered the distance of a mile on the ice of Lake St.

Henry Ford, with eleven other investors and $28,000 in capital, incorporated the Ford Motor Company in 1903. Leland in 1902, and the company was reorganized as Cadillac. Ford was forced out of the company by the investors, including Henry M. During this period, he personally drove his Quadricycle to victory in a race against Alexander Winton, a well-known driver and the heavy favorite on October 10, 1901.

With his interest in race cars, he formed a second company, the Henry Ford Company. Ford raced his vehicles against those of other manufacturers to show the superiority of his designs. The Detroit Automobile Company went bankrupt soon afterward because Ford continued to improve the design, instead of selling cars. After this initial success, Ford left Edison Illuminating and, with other investors, formed the Detroit Automobile Company.

These experiments culminated in 1896 with the completion of his own self-propelled vehicle named the Quadricycle, which he test-drove on June 4 of that year. In 1891, Ford became an engineer with the Edison Illuminating Company, and after his promotion to Chief Engineer in 1893, he had enough time and money to devote attention to his personal experiments on internal combustion engines. Upon his marriage to Clara Bryant in 1888 Ford supported himself by farming and running a sawmill. This led to his being hired by Westinghouse company to service their steam engines.

In 1882, he returned to Dearborn to work on the family farm and became adept at operating the Westinghouse portable steam engine. Flower & Bros., and later with the Detroit Dry Dock Co. In 1879, he left home for the nearby city of Detroit to work as an apprentice machinist, first with James F. At 13, he saw a self-propelled vehicle, a steam powered thresher, for the first time.

As a child, Henry was passionate about mechanics, preferring to tinker in his father's shop over doing farm chores. He was the eldest of six children. Ford was born on a prosperous farm in Springwells Township (now in the city of Dearborn, Michigan) owned by his parents, William and Mary Ford, immigrants from County Cork, Ireland. .

This achievement not only revolutionized industrial production in the United States and the rest of the world, but also had such tremendous influence over modern culture that many social theorists identify this phase of economic and social history as "Fordism.". He was one of the first to apply assembly line manufacturing to the mass production of affordable automobiles. Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and is credited with contributing to the creation of a middle class in American society. Here, the Jew is a threat." - 1920.

I believe that in all these countries except our own the Jewish financier is supreme.. They are what is called the International Jew -- German Jews, French Jews, English Jews, American Jews. "The international financiers are behind all war. We want to live in the present, and the only history that is worth a tinker's damn is the history we make today." - 1916.

We don't want tradition. It's tradition. "History is more or less bunk.

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