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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him.

Early career

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity.

At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered.

In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy.

Scientific career

His greatest work was with electricity. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. This device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory.

Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. (However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position).

Michael Faraday on a British £20 banknote.

His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes.

His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.

References

  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0007163762.
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1400060168.

Quotations

  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true."
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes

External links

  • The Christian Character of Michael Faraday
  • Michael Faraday Directory
  • Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg

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He died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867.
. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.
. Faraday married Sarah Barnard in 1821 but they had no children. In accepting her 2003 Nobel Peace Prize, Shirin Ebadi said:. He served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Cyrus was still being cited in the twenty-first century.

Faraday was also devoutly religious and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Entitled The Garden of Cyrus, it may well be a Royalist criticism upon the autocratic rule of Cromwell. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life. The English philosopher Sir Thomas Browne named his 1658 discourse after the benevolent ruler. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. The Cyropaedia of Xenophon, based on the latter's knowledge of the great king's upbringing, was an influential political treatise in ancient times, and again during the Renaissance. His picture has been printed on British £20 banknotes. His exploits, real and legendary, were used as moral instruction or a source of inspiration for political philosophies.

(However, his affiliation with James Clerk Maxwell helped in this regard, as Maxwell was able to translate Faraday's experiments into mathematical language.) He was regarded as handsome and modest, declining a knighthood and presidency of the Royal Society (Davy's old position). His spectacular conquests triggered the age of empire building, as carried out by his successors as well as the Greeks and Romans in the following centuries. Faraday was known for designing ingenious experiments, but lacked a good mathematics education. The Bible records a remnant of the Jewish population returning to the Promised Land from Babylon, following an edict from Cyrus. He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a candle; this was the origin of the Christmas lectures for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name. A good example of this policy is found in his treatment of the Jews in Babylon. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. By pursuing a policy of generosity, instead of repression, and by favoring the local religion, he was able to make his new subjects his enthusiastic supporters.

This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. His statesmanship came out particularly in his treatments of newly conquered peoples. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. Cyrus was distinguished no less as statesman than as a soldier. This established that magnetic force and light were related. The tomb northeast of Persepolis (پرسپولیس), which has been claimed as that of Cyrus, is evidently not his, as its location does not fit the reports. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". Both Strabo and Arrian give descriptions of his tomb, based upon reports of men who saw it at the time of Alexander the Great's invasion.

The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He was buried in the town of Pasargadae. In 1845 he discovered what is now called the Faraday effect and the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism. Ctesias reports that Cyrus met his death in the year 529 BC, while warring against tribes northeast of the headwaters of the Tigris. He also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. The Massagetae were similar to the Scythians in their dress and mode of living; they fought on horseback and on foot.
Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases. The queen of the Massagetae, Tomyris, prevailed after Cyrus previously defeated Tomyris's son Spargapises.

That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century. According to Herodotus, Cyrus met his death in a battle with the Massagetae, a tribe from the southern deserts of Kharesm, Kizilhoum in the southernmost portion of the steppe region. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. Cyrus died in battle, but his empire was to reach its zenith long after his death. Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Cyrus is the result of this union. Faraday then used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. But they also consider him as being married to Princess Mandane of Media (ماد), a daughter of Astyages, King of the Medes and Princess Aryenis of Lydia.

These in turn evolved into the generalization known as field theory. Cambyses is considered by Herodotus and Ctesias to be of humble origin. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. They were succeeded by their respective sons Cambyses I of Anshan and Arsames of Persia. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Inscriptions indicate that when the latter died, two of his sons shared the throne as Cyrus I of Anshan and Ariaramnes of Persia. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. 700 BC) who was succeeded by his son Teispes of Anshan.

He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The royal history given on the cylinder is as follows: The founder of the dynasty was King Achaemenes (ca. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi. Many historians consider it to be the first declaration of human rights. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. It was discovered in 1879 in Babylon and today is kept in the British Museum. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Upon his taking of Babylon, Cyrus issued a declaration, inscribed on a clay barrel known as the Cyrus Cylinder, which contains an account of his victories and merciful acts as well as a documentation of his royal lineage.

This device is known as a homopolar motor. The administrators of these provinces, called satraps, had considerable independence from the emperor, and from many parts of the realm Cyrus demanded no more than tribute and conscripts. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery. Cyrus organized the empire into provincial administrations called satrapies. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. From the list of countries subject to Persian rule given on the first tablet of the great Behistun Inscription of Darius, written before any new conquests could have been made except that of Egypt, the dominion of Cyrus must have comprised the largest empire the world had yet seen, stretching from Asia Minor and Judah in the west to the Indus valley in the east. In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted, discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor. Cyrus assumed the title of 'king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four sides of the world'.

His greatest work was with electricity. According to the Babylonian inscription this was in all probability a bloodless victory. However, it was not long before Faraday surpassed Davy. In 538 BC, Cyrus defeated Nabonidus at Opis and occupied Babylon. In a class-based society, Faraday was not considered a gentleman; it has been said that Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat him as an equal and, when on a continental tour, made Faraday sit with the servants. According to Herodotus, Cyrus spared the life of Croesus and kept him as an advisor throughout his life. Faraday eagerly left his bookbinding job as his new employer, Henry de la Roche, was hot-tempered. But before the allies could unite, Cyrus had defeated Croesus at Pterium, occupied Sardis, overthrown the Lydian kingdom, and taken Croesus prisoner (546 BC).

When John Payne of the Royal Society was fired, Davy recommended Faraday for the job of laboratory assistant. They reportedly intended to unite their armies against Cyrus and his Persians. After Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, he employed Faraday as a secretary. Astyages had been in alliance with his brother-in-law Croesus of Lydia, son of Alyattes, Nabonidus of Babylon, and Amasis II of Egypt. After Faraday sent Davy a sample of notes taken during the lectures, Davy said he would keep Faraday in mind but should stick to his current job of book-binding. Cyrus' wars had just begun. At the age of twenty Faraday attended lectures by the eminent scientist Sir Humphry Davy, president of the Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Thus the Persians gained dominion over the Iranian plateau.

At fourteen he became apprenticed to bookbinder and seller George Riebau and, during his seven year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. While he seems, at first, to have accepted the crown of Media, by 546 BC he had officially assumed the title of 'king of Persia'. His family was poor (his father was a blacksmith) and he had to educate himself. With the help of Harpagus, Cyrus led the Persians and his armies to capture Ecbatana, and effectively conquered Media. Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, near present-day Elephant and Castle, London. 554 BC–553 BC and by 550 BC–549 BC. . Harpagus, seeking vengeance, convinced Cyrus to rally the Persian people, then in a state of near-slavery to the Medes, to revolt ca.

The SI unit of capacitance, the farad (symbol F) is named after him. Many years later, when Astyages discovered that his grandson was still alive, he ordered that the son of Harpagus be beheaded and served to his father on a dinner platter. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became a viable technology. Harpagus, morally unable to kill a newborn, switched the baby with a stillborn child and reported Cyrus dead. Some historians of science refer to him as the greatest experimentalist in the history of science. He then ordered his steward Harpagus to kill the infant Cyrus. Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists in history. After the birth of Cyrus, Astyages had a dream that his Magi interpreted as a sign of an eventual overthrow by his grandson.

He also invented the earliest form of the device that was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. According to Herodotus, Cyrus was said to be part-Persian (Parsua) and part Mede and his overlord was his own grandfather Astyages who had conquered all Assyrian kingdoms apart from Babylonia. Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. In his Histories, Herodotus gives a detailed description of the rise to power of Cyrus according to the best sources available to him. Full text of The Chemical History Of A Candle from Project Gutenberg. Like his predecessors before him, Cyrus had to recognize Median overlordship. Michael Faraday Directory. However, Cyrus was not yet an independent ruler.

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday. Arsames was father of Hystaspes and would live to see his grandson become King Darius I of Persia. Publish." - his well-known advice to the young William Crookes. He apparently also soon managed to succeed Arsames to the throne of Persia though the latter was still living. Finish. In 559 BC, Cyrus succeeded his father Cambyses the Elder as King of Anshan. "Work. Cyrus had two sons: Cambyses and Smerdis, as well as several daughters, of whom Atossa is significant since she married Darius I of Persia and was mother of Xerxes I of Persia.(To see Cyrus's Portrait please visit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Cyrus_portrait.jpg ).

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true.". Cyrus, the son of a Persian noble and a Median princess, was from the Achaemenid Dynasty, which ruled the kingdom of Anshan, in what is now southwestern Iran. ISBN 1400060168. In modern Persian, Cyrus is referred to as Kouroush Bozorg — his Persian name with the Persian-derived "Great"). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. The name "Cyrus" (a Latin transliteration of the Greek Κῦρος) is the Greek version of the Old Persian Koroush or Khorvash, [in Persian khour means "sun" and vash is a suffix meaning "like"]. Hamilton, James (2004). .

ISBN 0007163762. He is perhaps best known for having declared the first ever charter of human rights (the Cyrus Cylinder) where he identifies himself as "King of Persia". Harper Collins, London. 576 – July 529 BC) founded the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid Dynasty of Anshan by unifying two Iranian tribes: the Median and the Persian. Faraday: The Life. Cyrus II of Persia, widely known as Cyrus the Great, (ca. Hamilton, James (2002).

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