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Miami, Florida

"The Magic City, The American Riviera, The Sixth Borough"


Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida.

Founded 1896
City Government Style Mayor-Council
Mayor Manuel “Manny” Diaz (R)
Area
 - Total
 - Water

55.27 mi² (143.15km²)
19.59 mi² (50.73 km²) 35.44%
Population
 - City (2005)
 - Density

382,894
10,734.34/mi²
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5
Time zone Central: UTC-6
Latitude
Longitude
25°47' N
80°13' W
City of Miami Official Website

Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S. state of Florida. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States.

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. The U.S. Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1.

Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking).

The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States.

Two vessels of the U.S. Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city.

History

Early history

The origin of the name Miami is unknown. One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida.

Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.

See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta

American settlement

Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. They built a fort in 1743. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay.

People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves.

In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river.

The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land.

The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami.

In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer.

Miami Avenue in 1896

In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion.

Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549.

Early growth

Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:

During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings.

This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. These delays gave investors a chance to think again. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. The Great Depression followed.

On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1].

During World War II, the U.S. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel.

Immigrant influx

Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S. with very little. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966.

Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. [citation needed]

In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti. As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting.

Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. policy. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel at night.

On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. The agreement codified the new U.S. policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. citizens.

On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated.

These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons.

Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States.

Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities.

Miami Vice

Hurricane Andrew

In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface.

The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music.

In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations.

Geography and climate

Geography

Downtown Miami as seen from Watson Island

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level.

Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction.

Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways.

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. km). Of that area, 35.67 sq. miles (92.68 sq. km) are land and 19.59 sq. miles (50.73 sq. km) are water. Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston.

The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1.

Climate

The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season.

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida.

Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. [3]

The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean.

Notable neighborhoods/areas

People and culture

Demographics

The Miami skyline, as it is seen from the northeast on Biscayne Bay.

Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%).

There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25.

In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 38 years. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. 28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree.

A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home.

Area Attractions

Downtown Miami at night

Museums and Galleries

Media

Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper.

Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS).

Sports

The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten.

The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise.

Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games.

A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County.

Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools.

Education

Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools.

Colleges and universities

Notable secondary institutions

Economy

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters.

Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach).

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing.

Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas.

Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s.

Transportation

A couple of Miami metro buses in Miami Beach, Florida.

Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA.

The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually.

Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County.

Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:

For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid.

Miami in television and film

The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish.

The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami.

Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina.

Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. See also Movies made in Miami.


This page about Miami includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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See also Movies made in Miami. The new Mustang was also nominated for the North American Car of the Year award for 2005 and won the Canadian Car of the Year award that year. Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. The Mustang made Car and Driver's Ten-Best list five times: 1983, 1987, 1988, 2005 and 2006. The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina. On hand for the closing ceremonies was the aforementioned first production Mustang, also built at Dearborn. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . The last car off the Dearborn line was a bright red 2004 Mustang GT convertible.

As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. With the conversion of the River Rouge Plant to F-150 trucks in Dearborn, Michigan on May 10, 2004, a plant that built Mustangs from the very beginning, production has been moved to the AutoAlliance International plant in Flat Rock, Michigan. Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. Number one is currently on display at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan and a photo of the car can be viewed at their website. The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami. John's, Newfoundland, Ford offered him Mustang number one million in exchange in 1966; he chose a new, made-to-order Mustang instead. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish. Originally purchased new by Stanley Tucker, an airline pilot from St.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. Even the very first production Mustang is still around. The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February. Mechanical parts are as close as the corner auto parts store, Ford dealer or wrecking yard with most out-of-production parts available as highly accurate reproductions. For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid. Thanks to continued interest in the marque, restoring Mustangs is a popular hobby. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:. Many view the 1964-1973 models as American automotive icons the equal of the 1955 to 1957 full-size Chevrolets and the Corvette.

Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. Ford continues to sell about 150,000 Mustangs annually. Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. See also Motor Trend, May 2005 [1]. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County. More details have been leaked from Ford over the past couple of months. Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. Introduced at the 2005 New York International Auto Show, the GT500 will make use of a 5.4 L Modular supercharged V8 first developed for the Ford GT supercar.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). Shelby and Ford will return with a Shelby-branded Mustang, the Shelby GT500, for 2007. Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services. The 2006 model year offered a new "Pony Package" for the popular V6 models, which included upgraded suspension, Bullitt-style wheels, wider tires, unique grille treatment with road lamps, rear deck spoiler, special door striping and special Pony emblems. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually. Half of all sports cars now sold in the United States are Mustangs. The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. The new Mustang has been selling very well for Ford and as a result was exempt from the 2005 Employee Discount Pricing Program.

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA. Ford engineers designed a z-fold top that gives it a finished appearance with the top down. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). The 2005 Mustang convertible was designed from the ground up to deliver a more rigid body structure without additional weight. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. Shortly after its launch at the North American International Auto Show in January, Ford started production of the Mustang convertible, available with either the V6 or V8 engine. Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. One particularly interesting feature is the optional color-changing gauges.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s. Modern production facilities and computer aided design have allowed the new Mustang to have 100% more structural rigidity over its predecessor, and have greatly increased build quality as well as fit and finish. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership. It retains the traditional but controversial live rear axle, and offers improved handling and ride. Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. The GT has a 300 hp (224 kW) 4.6 L 3-valve Modular V8 with variable valve timing. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas. The base Mustang uses a 210 hp (156 kW) Ford Cologne V6 engine.

Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. The car featured an aesthetic that Senior Vice President of Design J Mays referred to as "retro-futurism.". According to the U.S. Exterior styling was designed by Sid Ramnarace, drawing inspiration from 1960s Mustangs. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt. At the 2004 North American International Auto Show, Ford introduced a completely redesigned Mustang (code named "S-197") on an all-new D2C platform for the 2005 model year. Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. It also marked the end of this design of the Mustang, as 2005 ushered in an all-new model.

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. Available in both Standard and GT editions, it consisted of 40th Anniversary badging, special metallic red paint with gold stripes, enhanced interior, and some "special" collectable items for the owner. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach). In 2004, Ford produced a special 40th Anniversary Edition of the Mustang. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Power was a huge 390 horses (290 kW). Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. It used a iron block 4.6 engine.

Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters. It received a T56 transmission coupled with a supercharged DOHC V8. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. After an absence of a year, the Cobra returned, this time with vastly increased power and handling. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. With the end of production of the Camaro and Firebird lines in 2002, only the Mustang remains as the sole survivor of the ponycar era. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. The lone remaining 1960s muscle car marques, Mustang, Camaro and Firebird, grew in power and handling better than the cars that preceded them.

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. As electronic engine management and emissions technology developed, so too did performance. Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Furthermore, smoked headlights from the Cobra R and a new deck style wing replaced the old chrome look headlights and the sweeping wing. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools. In 2001, a hood scoop, similar in design to the 35th anniversary scoops, and side scoops (nonfunctional) were added to GT models and made optional on the V6 as part of a "pony package". Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. 17 inch American Torque Thrust wheels reminiscent of the originals were also used on this car and made optional on GTs wrapped in 245/45ZR performance rubber by Goodyear.

The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County. More telling is the torque curve, which was vastly improved over the base GT models, 90% of its 302 lbft avaliable from 2000 RPM. A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). Moreover, a new intake design and mufflers added put the horsepower at 265, which was later revised to 270. Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games. Many lauded the improvements and called it the best handling production Mustang ever. The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise. The car was slightly lowered and had name brand shocks with the addition of short length subframe conncetors which improved the handling.

The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten. It was reminiscent of the 1968 390 fastback model driven by Steve McQueen in the movie of the same name. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. In 2001, Ford offered a Special version of its GT with the "Bullitt" nameplate. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. The Cobra also had side exhaust outlets and "smoked" headlights, the latter making its way onto all Mustangs the following year. The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. Minor exterior enhancements such as the addition of a front splitter and rear wing added downforce and stability at speed.

Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS). It received a 6-speed transmission from Tremec, the T56, the same transmission used in the Chevrolet Corvette and Camaro and the Dodge Viper. Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. The Cobra R utilized an iron block, claiming 385 hp (287 kW) and 385 ft·lbf (522 N·m) torque. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper. In 1995 and 2000 the Cobra Rs had increased displacement engines (5.8 L and 5.4 L, respectively) that made these cars extremely potent track machines. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. The suspensions were finely tuned.

However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. Unlike the early Rs, one did not need a racing license to buy one of these race Cobras. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. Race cars, they were stripped of air conditioning, radios, and back seats. Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. Special Cobra R versions were available in limited editions in 1993, 1995, and 2000. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home. The Cobra also received an independent rear suspension, which was also modular.

Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. Redline was set at 7000 rpm for the DOHC Cobra. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. A switch was made from "B" style heads as used in the early 32 valve DOHC Modulars to "C" heads, which added to the low end torque of the engine. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. The Cobras received similar improvements. A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. As a "modular" family, earlier 4.6 L SOHCs can swap out their heads with "Power Improved" heads as offered through the Ford Parts Catalog.

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree. Power came from redesigned heads and cams. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]. These changes were incorporated into the 2001 model year Cobra. Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. As a result, the Cobra was not produced in 2000, and the company developed new parts to replace the missing power. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. There were recalls for the 1999 model year Cobras, which were given intake and exhaust improvements, putting power at 320 hp to match the original claim.

28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. While the Cobra claimed 320 hp (239 kW), dyno runs by Car and Driver magazine and numerous buyers contradicted this claim and Ford was later proved to have misstated the power gains. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. In 1999, Mustang GT's power increased to 260 hp (194 kW) at 5250 rpm and a healthy 302 ft·lbf (409 N·m) of torque at 400 rpm; redline was at 6000 rpm. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. Although it was still humbled by the Corvette-engined Camaro in performance, it was more practical and sold well. The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. Moreover, bite was added to the Mustang's bark.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males. Gone were many of the soft lines of the early SN-95s. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. A model refresh dubbed "New Edge" came in 1999. The median age is 38 years. This was also the last year of the "Round Body Mustang". In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. In 1998 the SOHC 4.6L V8 power was increased to 225 hp (168 kW) with a more aggressive computer and larger exhaust tail pipes.

The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25. The Cobra version was updated that year with a 305 hp (227 kW) dual over head cam configuration of the 4.6 L V8. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The engine has 2 valves per cylinder—one for intake and one for exhaust—and true dual exhaust. There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. This engine had been introduced in Lincoln models and was part of Ford's plan to "modernize" its engine lineup. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%). In 1996, the 5.0 engine was replaced by a 215 hp (160 kW) 4.6 L SOHC "Modular" V8 engine.

The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. The Mustang was named Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year for the third time in 1994. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. A high-performance 240 hp (179 kW) 5.0 L engine, larger brakes, and suspension modification were available on the Cobra models. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. The base model came with a 3.8 L V6 engine while the GT featured the "5.0" 4.9 L V8. The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. It greatly revived the popularity of the brand.

There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). The car remained rear-wheel drive. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. The new design, code named "SN-95" by Ford, was still based on the "Fox" platform but featured dramatically new styling that incorporated some stylistic throwbacks to earlier Mustangs. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. For 1994, the Mustang underwent its first major redesign in 14 years. Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. The "5.0" Mustangs, cars that gave birth to an entire aftermarket performance industry, continue to remain extremely popular today.

Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean. Although this would be the last major redesign for years, popularity of the Mustang remained high due to its low cost and high performance. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. In 1987, the Mustang received its first stylistic redesign in eight years, incorporating both interior and exterior changes. Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. The high performance Mustang buyer wanted a powerful V8 under the hood and this new attitude would be reflected when the SVT team brought out the Cobra in 1993. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. (For the price of one SVO you could almost get two Mustang GTs powered by the equally powerful 5.0 liter engine.) However, SVT would learn its lesson.

The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. Many people believe that it came down to cost. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. But for all of its handling improvements and performance goodies it never really caught on with the Mustang crowd and was dropped after 1986. The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. Powered by a 2.3 L turbocharged four making 175 hp (130 kW), the SVO was targeted at the European and Japanese performance cars of the day and its base price of $15,596 reflected it as well. [3]. In 1984, Ford's in house performance team, SVT—or Special Vehicle Team, unveiled the Mustang SVO.

That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. Virtually all of the SSP Mustangs were of the coupe or "notchback" style cars; 5 examples made for the CHP in 1982 were of the Hatchback model. The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. The small rear seat and manual transmission were generally considered ill-suited for a law enforcement vehicle. Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). Depending on which agency bought them, extras like rollcages (requested by Oregon State Police) and power windows (requested by New York State Police) made each SSP unique to their respective departments. During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida. Some of the options that came with the car included:.

Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). Nearly 15,000 of these special units were made until their discontinuation in 1993. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. Taking the Fox 5.0 Mustangs in production at the time, Ford produced the Ford Mustang SSP (Special Service Package) and modified them to suit the needs of the police and law enforcement departments. As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. Also in 1982, the California Highway Patrol asked Ford to produce a capable and lightweight police car due to the bulkiness of current police cars like the Ford Fairmont and LTD/Crown Victoria and the problems incurred with Camaros with their camshafts at pursuit speeds. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). Wringing a then-respectable 157 hp (134 kW) from its "5.0" (actually 4.94 L, 302 in³) Windsor V8 and backed by a four-speed transmission, aggressive tires and stiff suspension, magazine ads of the period shouted, "The Boss Is Back." Over the years, power and torque gradually increased, peaking in 1987 at 225 hp (168 kW).

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. In 1982, Ford reintroduced a high-performance Mustang GT which opened the door for an entirely new era of the muscle car. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season. Mustang IIs were seen in the Charlie's Angels TV series — two of the angels drove a Cobra II and Mustang Ghia coupe. The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. This "third generation" 1979 model (based on the Fox platform) gave much to its successors for nearly the next 25 years, along with thousands of upgrades, improvements and restyling over that time. The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1. However, on the momentum of the Mustang II's understated success and under the direction of Ford's new styling chief, Jack Telnack, a totally new Mustang hit the streets in 1979.

Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston. Chrysler ended production of the Barracuda and its stablemate, the Dodge Challenger in 1974 and GM nearly discontinued the Camaro and Firebird. km) are water. The Arab oil embargo, skyrocketing insurance rates and aforementioned US emissions and safety standards that destroyed the straight-line performance of virtually every car of the period certainly didn't help. miles (50.73 sq. Despite innovations such as rack-and-pinion steering and a separate engine subframe that greatly decreased noise, vibration, and harshness, the Mustang II never caught the public's fancy like the original had ten years prior. km) are land and 19.59 sq. It is also worth noting that four of the five years of the Mustang II are on the top-ten list of most-sold Mustangs.

miles (92.68 sq. The car sold well, with sales of more than 400,000 units its first year. Of that area, 35.67 sq. Like the car that preceded it, the Mustang II had its roots in another compact, the Ford Pinto, though less so than the original car was based on the Falcon. km). Since the car was never meant to have a V8 in the first place, it became a mad scramble to reengineer the car in order to reinstate the 302 in³ (4.9 L) V8 option in time for the 1975 model year. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. A 2.8 L V6 was the sole optional engine, meaning the popular V8 option would disappear for the first and only time in 1974, and Ford was swamped by buyer mail and criticized in the automotive press for it.

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. for installation in an American car. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways. Available as a hardtop or three-door hatchback, the new car's base engine was a 2.3 L SOHC I4, the first fully metric engine built in the U.S. state of Florida. Though Iacocca insisted that the Mustang II be finished to quality standards unheard of in the American auto industry, the Mustang II suffered from being not only smaller than the original car, but heavier and slower as well. Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. The 1974 introduction of the short-lived Mustang II earned Ford Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year honors again and actually returned the car to more than a semblance of its 1964 predecessor in size, shape, and overall styling.

As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction. This was more radically different a car than anyone could have imagined in 1964, and Ford was deluged with mail from fans of the original car who demanded that the Mustang be returned to the way it was. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. Car companies switched from "gross" to "net" horsepower and torque ratings in 1972, making it difficult to compare horsepower and torque ratings. Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Both cars were excellent performers, but at nowhere near the level of the Boss cars and original Cobra Jet. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level. Two more high-performance engines were introduced in 1972, the 351 "HO" and 351 Cobra Jet.

By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. emission control regulations. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. Ironically, that very same body style that was designed for the sole purpose of big-block installation versions were limited to a maximum of 351 in³ (5.8 L) in 1972 and 1973, due almost entirely to extremely strict U.S. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Knudsen's turn at the helm would see the last high-performance big-block Mustang, 1971's 375 horsepower (280 kW) 429 Super Cobra Jet. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. Now based on the mid-sized Ford Fairlane/Mercury Comet instead of the compact Falcon, the Mustang grew larger and heavier with each passing year, culminating with the 1971-73 models designed under the supervision of Ford's new product design manager, Semon "Bunkie" Knudsen, originally of General Motors.

All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Ford originally intended to call the car Trans Am, but Pontiac had beaten them to it, applying the name to a special version of the Firebird. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. This combination meant that the Boss 302 was good for a conservatively rated 290 horsepower (216 kW) through its four-speed manual transmission. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. The automotive press gushed over the result, deeming it the car "the GT-350 should have been." Boasting a graphic scheme penned by Ford designer Larry Shinoda, the "Baby Boss" was powered by an engine that was essentially a combination of the new-for-1968 302 in³ (4.9 L) V8 and topped with cylinder heads from the yet to be released new-for-1970 351 in³ (5.8 L) "Cleveland". This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. The Boss 302 was Ford's attempt to mix the power of a musclecar with the handling prowess of a sports car.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. Also available during that two-year period was another homologation special for the up-and-coming sport of Trans-American sedan racing. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year. In the case of the latter, there simply wasn't enough room under the hood. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. While power steering was a "mandatory option" on the Boss 429, neither an automatic transmission nor air conditioning were available. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. Intentionally underrated for advantages both in racing as well as insurability at 375 hp (280 kW) and 450 ft·lbf (610 N·m) of torque even with racing touches straight from the factory such as aluminum heads with hemispherical combustion chambers and a combination of O-rings and seals in place of head gaskets, it was believed that yet another 75 to 100 hp (50 to 75 kW) was on tap once the single four-barrel carburetor and intake, restrictive factory exhaust system and engine speed governor were replaced or removed.

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. Only a hood scoop, 15 in (380 mm) "Magnum 500" wheels with Goodyear "Polyglas" tires and a small "BOSS 429" decal on each front fender hinted that the largest and, in racing trim, most powerful Ford V8 of all time was fitted under the hood. In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations. Available in 1969 and 1970 only, and looking like a standard Mustang SportsRoof (the new corporate name for the fastback) with the new Mach 1 musclecar version's deluxe interior, the Boss 429 sported none of the garish decals and paint schemes of the day. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music. 1969 saw the introduction of both the car's third body style and a hand-built muscle car intended solely to satisfy the homologation rules of NASCAR, the Boss 429. The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. A drag racer for the street bowed during the middle of the 1968 model year as the 428 Cobra Jet (7.0 L), underrated at 335 hp (250 kW) but produced 410 hp (305 kW).

A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface. The high-performance 289 option now took a supporting role on the option sheet behind a massive 320 hp (239 kW), 390 in³ (6.4 L) engine direct from the Thunderbird, which was equipped with a four-barrel carburetor. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. The 1967 model year would see the first of the Mustang's many major redesigns with the installation of big-block V8 engines in mind. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. The 1966 Mustang debuted with only moderate trim changes, and a few new options such as an automatic transmission for the "Hi-Po," new interior and exterior colors, an AM/eight-track "Stereosonic" sound system and one of the first AM/FM monaural radios available in any car. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. The Mustang was pitted against the Dodge Charger in the film's famous car chase through the streets of San Francisco.

In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. The 1968 Mustang fastback gained pop culture status when it was used to great effect as Steve McQueen's car of choice in the crime thriller Bullitt. While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities. This genre of small, sporty and often powerful automobiles was unofficially dubbed the "pony car" as a tribute to the car that started it all. Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. In 1968 American Motors (AMC) would introduce the Javelin and later, the 2-seater, high-performance AMX. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States. Even Lincoln-Mercury joined the fray in 1967 with the introduction of an "upmarket Mustang" (and subsequent Motor Trend Car of the Year), the Mercury Cougar, using the name originally given to the Mustang during the development phase.

The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. It took GM until the 1967 model year to counter with the Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. The Monza was a fine performer, but was only a six-cylinder compared to the Mustang's available eight-cylinder. Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. As for GM, they were certain that they had a Mustang fighter in their rear-engined Corvair Monza, but sales figures didn't even come close. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons. Though the "'Cuda" would grow into one of the most revered muscle cars of all time, it started out at first, just Plymouth Valiant with a hastily grafted fastback rear window.

However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. Chrysler had just introduced a car only a few weeks before that would be a competitor, the Plymouth Barracuda. These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. It was a success that left General Motors utterly flat-footed and the Chrysler Corporation only slightly less so. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated. In its first two years of production, three Ford Motor Company plants in San Jose, Dearborn and Metuchen, New Jersey produced nearly 1.5 million Mustangs, a sales record unequalled before or since. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. Though Shelby's influence on the car diminished as Ford's grew, the 1965 to 1970 GT-350 and its "big-block" brother, the 1967 to 1970 GT-500 are among the most sought-after automobiles in the world; so too are the high-performance models offered over the years by other automotive tuners following in Shelby's footsteps.

On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. Even the car's basic body structure was stiffened up front with an angled brace intended for the export models and so-called "Monte Carlo" bar triangulating the under-hood shock absorber towers. citizens. Modifications to both the street and racing versions included a side-exiting exhaust, Shelby 15 in (380 mm) magnesium wheels (though some early cars were fitted with the factory steel wheels), fiberglass hood with functional scoop, relocated front control arms to reduce understeer and neutralize handling, quicker steering, Koni shock absorbers, a Detroit Locker rear end with Ford Galaxie drum brakes, metallic brake linings at all four corners, rear-mounted battery, rear anti-sway bar with beefed-up front anti-sway bar, dash-mounted gauges, a fiberglass parcel shelf and spare tire holder where the rear seat was intended to be, and considerable engine work, boosting output to 306 hp (228 kW). That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. These few cars were converted to street, road racing and drag trim in Shelby's plant at Los Angeles International Airport. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. Designated simply "GT-350", these purpose-built performance cars started as "Wimbledon White" fastbacks with black interiors shipped from the San Jose, California assembly plant and fitted with the hi-po 289, four-speed manual transmission, front disc brakes, less hood and rear seat, and identifying trim.

policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. This was the body style that car builder and former race driver Carroll Shelby would convert, with Ford Motor Company's blessing, into a special model designed with only two things in mind, namely winning races and beating Chevrolet's Corvette. The agreement codified the new U.S. When the 1965 model year production began in September 1964, the Mustang 2+2 fastback, with its swept-back rear glass and distinctive ventilation louvers made its debut. On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. During the car's early design phases, however, a fastback model was strongly considered. During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States. Originally, the Mustang was available as either a hardtop or convertible.

military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). Additionally, reverse lights were added to the car in 1965. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. The DC generator was replaced by a new AC alternator on all Fords and the now-famous Mustang GT was introduced, available with either four-barrel engine and any body style. policy. A 225 hp (168 kW) four-barrel 289 in³ (4.7 L) was next in line, followed by the unchanged "Hi-Po" 289. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. Production of the 260 in³ (4.2 L) engine ended with the close of the 1964 model year with a new, two-barrel carbureted 200 hp (149 kW) 289 in³ (4.7 L) taking its place as the base V8.

Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. The 170 in³ (2.8 L) I6 engine made way for a new 200 in³ (3.3 L) version which had 120 hp (89 kW) at 4400 rpm and 190 ft·lbf (258 N·m) at 2400 rpm. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting. First was an almost complete change to the engine lineup. As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. Some major changes to the Mustang occurred at the start of 1965 model year production, a mere five months after its introduction. In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti. And though most of the mechanical parts were directly taken from the Falcon, the Mustang's body shell was completely different from the Falcon's, sporting a longer wheelbase, wider track, lower seating position and overall height and an industry first: The "torque box." This was an innovative structural system that greatly stiffened the Mustang's unitized body construction and helped contribute to its excellent handling, at least compared to other cars of the time.

[citation needed]. Curved side glass was used as well, but at a price since the technology to produce distortion-free curved safety glass was still fairly young. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. As far as the design itself was concerned, Ford stylists basically threw out the company handbook on design limitations, pushing the stamping technology of the time to its limit in such design areas as the sweep of the rear lower valence and the remarkably complicated front end stampings and castings. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. Not only did the project wrap up in under eighteen months, it wrapped up under budget as well thanks to the decision to use as many existing mechanical parts as possible. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor. Still, Iacocca persevered and was given the green light to produce the Mustang in mid-1962, which gave the design team only eighteen months to design and develop the car.

Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. Because the company was still smarting financially after the demise of the Edsel Division in late 1959, upper management at Ford under Robert McNamara (later United States Secretary of Defense under Lyndon Johnson) wasn't willing to take such a major risk. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966. Despite his repeated attempts to receive the go-ahead to produce such a car, his proposals fell on mostly deaf ears. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. Incredibly, no domestic manufacturer up until that time had anything remotely resembling an affordable yet youthful and sophisticated automobile aimed at this burgeoning market, and Iacocca knew it. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country. The timing of the car's introduction coincided perfectly with the first wave of the postwar "baby boom" which was heading off to work in a strong economy.

Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue. The list would continue to grow through much of the Mustang's history, adding trim packages like the Interior Decor Group (or "pony interior") and GT package (which included disc brakes, handling package, and other items), as well as additional engine choices and convenience items. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. Disc brakes for the front wheels became optional later in 1965. with very little. Other options included limited-slip differential, styled wheels and wheelcovers, power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, center console, a vinyl top, various radios, a bench seat, and various other accessories. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S. At $442.60 (not counting the mandatory four-speed transmission) it was the single most expensive Mustang option, and only 7,273 of the 680,992 Mustangs sold in 1965 were so equipped.

In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. The HiPo engine included a handling package (stiffer springs and shock absorbers, stiffer front anti-roll bar, fast-ratio steering, and wider tires) optional on other Mustangs. Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. Starting in June 1964, the new 271 hp (202 kW "K-code" High Performance engine became available. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950. With the latter and four-speed manual, Road & Track recorded a 0-60 mph (0-96 km/h) time of 8.9 seconds, with the standing quarter mile in 17 seconds at 85 mph. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country. The standard six-cylinder engine could be replaced with a 164 hp (122 kW) 260 in³ (4.2 L) for $116.00 or a 210 hp (157 kW) 289 in³ (4.7 L) V8.

During World War II, the U.S. The buyer could choose a four-speed manual transmission ($115.90 or $188.00 with six-cylinder or eight-cylinder engines, respectively) or three-speed Cruise-O-Matic automatic transmission ($179.80 or $189.60). Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1]. The option list included several powertrain combinations. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. It also resulted in typical transaction prices hundreds of dollars above the base price, making the Mustang a profitable car for both dealer and manufacturer. On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park. Although Ford was not the first to offer an extensive array of options for buyers to choose from, (Pontiac being arguably the industry leader in that regard), the Mustang's optional equipment list enabled buyers to customize their cars to their tastes and budget.

The Great Depression followed. Much of the appeal—and the profit—in such a low-priced car came from the options list. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. Manual steering, with a 27.0:1 overall ratio (five turns lock-to-lock), was light but slow; optional power steering improved that ratio to 21.7:1 (3.7 turns lock-to-lock.) Fast-ratio manual steering offered the power steering ratio without assistance, improving steering response at the cost of great steering effort. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. The brakes were considered a weak link, improved when front disc brakes became available. These delays gave investors a chance to think again. Standard brakes were 9 in (229 mm) Falcon drums with six-cylinder engines, 10 in (254 mm) with V8s.

Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. Rear suspension was Hotchkiss drive, with a live axle on leaf springs. This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Like the Falcon and Fairlane, the Mustang had independent suspension in front, using a short-long-arm (SLA) arrangement with coil springs mounted above the upper arm. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings. Shipping weight, about 2570 lb (1170 kg) with six-cylinder engine, was also similar; a full-equipped, V8 model weighed about 3000 lb (1360 kg). During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before. With an overall width of 68.2 in (1732 mm), it was 3.4 in (86 mm) narrower, although wheel track was nearly identical.

Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:. Overall length of the Mustang and Falcon was identical, at 181.6 in (4613 mm), although the Mustang's wheelbase at 108 in (2743 mm) was slightly shorter. In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549. Although the majority of Mustangs were hardtop coupes, durability problems with the new frame led to the unusual step of engineering the (necessarily less rigid) convertible first, to ensure adequate stiffness. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). The car had a unitized platform-type frame derived from that of the 1964 Falcon, with box-section side rails and five welded crossmembers. Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself. Much of the chassis, suspension, and drivetrain was derived from the Ford Falcon and intermediate Ford Fairlane.

Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". For all its style and well-marketed sportiness, the Mustang was based heavily on familiar components. She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion. Looking like it cost hundreds of dollars more, with its "long hood/short deck" styling reminiscent of designs such as the Lincoln Continental and two-seat Ford Thunderbird with an intentional touch of Ferrari at the grille, the Mustang earned a number of prestigious auto industry awards and accolades its first year including Motor Trend Car of the Year, pace car duties for the 1964 Indianapolis 500 and the Tiffany Design Award for "excellence in design," the first automobile so honored. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. Frey and championed by Ford Division general manager Lee Iacocca, first as a two-seat mid-engined roadster then later as a four-place car, and penned by David Ash and Joseph Oros in Ford's Lincoln-Mercury Division design studios (theirs was the winning design in an intramural design contest called by Iacocca), the base, yet well-equipped Mustang hardtop with its 105 hp (78 kW), 156 ft·lbf (212 N·m) 170 in³ (2.8 L) inline six-cylinder engine and three-speed manual transmission listed for US$2,368. In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state. First conceived by Ford product manager Donald N.

She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer. . In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. In the early years, a Mustang was a good value with a good balance of sportiness, price, and performance. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami. The original Mustang inspired the term pony car and prompted many imitators. Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades. It was the most successful product launch in automotive history, setting off near-pandemonium at Ford dealers across the continent.

At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Ford introduced it to the public at the New York World's Fair on April 17, 1964, and via all three American television networks on April 19. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. Originally based on the Falcon, the first production Mustang, a white convertible with black interior, rolled off the assembly line in Dearborn, Michigan on March 9, 1964. The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. The Ford Mustang is a popular American automobile. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land. FR500C.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. Team Shinoda. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area. Steeda. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. Saleen. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. Roush Performance.

The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. MACH 1 Special Edition — 2003–2004. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river. Cobra R — 1993, 1995, 2000. In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. Cobra — 1993–2004, except 2002 (Australia only) and 2000. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves. Bullitt Mustang — 2001.

Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. 7-Up Mustang — 1990. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. SVO — 1984–1986. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay. GT Enduro — 1982. They built a fort in 1743. M81 Mclaren.

Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. Boss 351. Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. Boss 429. See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta. Boss 302. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle. Mach 1.

Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. Shelby Mustang (GT-350 and GT-500). Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. 2005+. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida. 1999-2004. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there. 1994-1998.

One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. 1987-1993. The origin of the name Miami is unknown. 1979-1986. . 1974-1978. Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city. 1971-1973.

Two vessels of the U.S. 1969-1970. The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States. 1967-1968. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking). 1964.5-1966. Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration. 2.3 Turbo.

Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1. 2.3 OHC. The U.S. Ford Essex V6 3.8/232. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. Modular 4.6. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida. Straight-6.

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. Boss 429. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States. 428 Super Cobra Jet. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. 428 Cobra Jet. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean. 390 FE.

state of Florida. Boss 351. Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S. 351 Cleveland.
Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida. 5.0. SR 924 (Gratigny Parkway) Miami Lakes to Opa Locka. 351 Windsor.

SR 878 (Snapper Creek Expressway) Kendall to Turnpike/Homestead. BOSS 302. SR 874 (Don Shula Expressway) 826/Bird Road to 878. 302 Windsor. SR 836 (Dolphin Expressway) Downtown to Turnpike via MIA. 289 Windsor. SR 826 (Palmetto Expressway) Golden Glades Interchange to US-1/Kendall. 15" X 7" cast aluminum wheels.

821 (The HEFT or Homestead Extension of the Florida Turnpike: SR 91/Miami Gardens to US-1/Florida City). Full size spare tire. SR 112 (Airport Expressway) Downtown to MIA. Reinforced floor pans. William Turner Technical High School - Technical School. Single key locking doors/trunk. Ransom Everglades Middle School - Magnet and Gifted School. Relocated rear deck release.

New World School of the Arts - Magnet School. Steering wheel, leather wrapped. Miami Palmetto Senior High School - Nationally Recognized Top Rated Public High School. Non operational courtesy lights (safety feature). Miami High School - Oldest Still Functioning School. Certified calibrated Police speedometer 0-160 mph. Miami Country Day School- Prep School. 2 Piece VASCAR speedometer cable.

MAST Academy High School - Magnet School. 130 ampere heavy duty alternator. LaSalle High School - Prep School. Full instrumentation with in-dash tachometer. Gulliver Preparatory School - Prep School. Heavy duty stabilizer bars, front and rear. Krop High School - Magnet School. gallons (58 L).

Michael M. Fuel tank capacity - 15.4 U.S. Dr. Dual exhaust system w/stainless tips. Design and Architecture Senior High School - Magnet School. Stainless steel factory headers. Coral Reef High School - Magnet School. Brakes, power disc front/drum rear with rotor shields.

Christopher Columbus High School - Prep School. Auto transmission fluid cooler. Belen Jesuit Preparatory School - Prep School. 5 speed manual or 4 speed AOD transmission. University of Miami [17]. Aircraft-type silicone radiator hoses and clamps. Thomas University. Engine oil cooler.

St. Forged pistons, roller cam (Hypereutectic pistons 1993). Devry University [16]. Engine, 5.0 L HO V8 with Sequential Multi-Port Injection. Nova Southeastern University [15]. Miami-Dade College [14].

Miami International University of Art and Design. Johnson and Wales University. Florida Memorial University. Florida International University.

Barry University [13]. Vizcaya Museum & Gardens [12]. Vizcaya-Miami Art Museum. Museum of Contemporary Art (MoCa) [11].

Miami Art Museum [10]. Historical Museum of South Florida. Parrot Jungle Island. Monkey Jungle [9].

Miami Seaquarium [8]. Miami Museum of Science and Planetarium. Miami Metro Zoo [7]. Little Havana.

Jerry Herman Ring Theatre. Fruit & Spice Park. Fairchild Tropical Gardens. Everglades National Park [6].

Deering Estate. Coral Castle. Coconut Grove. Biscayne National Park.

Bayside Marketplace. Barnacle Historic State Park. Wynwood. Overtown.

Omni Performing Arts District. Little Haiti. Little Havana. Government Center.

Design District. Coconut Grove. Buena Vista. Brickell Avenue.

Bay Point Estates. Allapattah.

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