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Miami, Florida

"The Magic City, The American Riviera, The Sixth Borough"


Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida.

Founded 1896
City Government Style Mayor-Council
Mayor Manuel “Manny” Diaz (R)
Area
 - Total
 - Water

55.27 mi² (143.15km²)
19.59 mi² (50.73 km²) 35.44%
Population
 - City (2005)
 - Density

382,894
10,734.34/mi²
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5
Time zone Central: UTC-6
Latitude
Longitude
25°47' N
80°13' W
City of Miami Official Website

Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S. state of Florida. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States.

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. The U.S. Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1.

Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking).

The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States.

Two vessels of the U.S. Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city.

History

Early history

The origin of the name Miami is unknown. One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida.

Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.

See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta

American settlement

Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. They built a fort in 1743. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay.

People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves.

In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river.

The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land.

The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami.

In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer.

Miami Avenue in 1896

In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion.

Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549.

Early growth

Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:

During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings.

This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. These delays gave investors a chance to think again. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. The Great Depression followed.

On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1].

During World War II, the U.S. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel.

Immigrant influx

Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S. with very little. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966.

Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. [citation needed]

In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti. As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting.

Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. policy. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel at night.

On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. The agreement codified the new U.S. policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. citizens.

On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated.

These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons.

Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States.

Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities.

Miami Vice

Hurricane Andrew

In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface.

The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music.

In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations.

Geography and climate

Geography

Downtown Miami as seen from Watson Island

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level.

Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction.

Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways.

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. km). Of that area, 35.67 sq. miles (92.68 sq. km) are land and 19.59 sq. miles (50.73 sq. km) are water. Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston.

The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1.

Climate

The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season.

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida.

Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. [3]

The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean.

Notable neighborhoods/areas

People and culture

Demographics

The Miami skyline, as it is seen from the northeast on Biscayne Bay.

Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%).

There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25.

In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 38 years. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. 28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree.

A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home.

Area Attractions

Downtown Miami at night

Museums and Galleries

Media

Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper.

Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS).

Sports

The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten.

The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise.

Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games.

A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County.

Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools.

Education

Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools.

Colleges and universities

Notable secondary institutions

Economy

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters.

Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach).

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing.

Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas.

Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s.

Transportation

A couple of Miami metro buses in Miami Beach, Florida.

Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA.

The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually.

Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County.

Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:

For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid.

Miami in television and film

The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish.

The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami.

Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina.

Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. See also Movies made in Miami.


This page about Miami includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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See also Movies made in Miami. But the N64 guaranteed the second place in the market, easily outselling the Sega Saturn (10 million). Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. With 32 million Nintendo 64 units sold worldwide [2], Nintendo was unsuccessful in recapturing the preceding SNES's market share and the fifth generation was taken over by the PlayStation which had sold over 100 million units worldwide. The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina. Backup/development units:. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . If the chip did not match the game's boot code, the game would not run.

As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. To discourage playing of copied games by piggybacking a real cartridge, Nintendo produced five different versions of the chip. Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. Unlike previous versions, the N64 lockout chip contains a seed value which is used to calculate a checksum of the game's boot code. The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami. Each Nintendo 64 cartridge contains a so-called lockout chip to prevent manufacturers from creating unauthorized copies of the games. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish. Naboo enjoyed an impressive draw distance and large amounts of snow and rain even with the high resolution, thanks to their efforts.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. Then for Naboo they took what they learned from Rogue and pushed the machine even farther to make the game run at 640x480, and implement enhancements for both particles and the landscape engine. The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February. In Rogue Squadron the team tweaked the microcode for a landscape engine to create the alien worlds. For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid. Factor 5 also showed ingenuity with their Star Wars games, Rogue Squadron and Battle for Naboo, where their team again used custom microcode. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:. In the end, the game was more feature filled than the PC version (quite a feat) and was one of the most advanced games for Nintendo 64.

Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. Factor 5's microcode allowed almost unlimited realtime lighting, and significantly boosted the polygon count. Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. They wrote microcode for realtime lighting, because the SGI code was poor for this task, and they wanted to have more lighting than even the PC version had used. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County. They took advantage of the cartridge as a texture streaming source to squeeze as much detail into each environment, and work around RAM limitations. Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. The tool would analyze each texture and try to choose the best texture format to work with the machine and look as good as possible.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). To work around the 4KB texture cache the programmers came up with custom texture formats and tools to help the artists make the best possible textures. Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services. For starters, the Z-buffer could not be used because it alone used up a huge amount of the console's texture fillrate. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually. The machine was taxed to the limit running at 640x480 though, so they absolutely needed to scrape every last bit of performance they could out of N64. The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. In this game the Factor 5 team decided they wanted the game to run in high resolution mode (640x480) because of how much they liked the crispness it added.

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA. One of the best examples of rewritten µcode on N64 was with Factor 5's Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). It was, however, far more difficult to program for and to reach peak performance/quality. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. Still, with these drawbacks to the hardware, the machine was architecturally superior in nearly every way to the PlayStation. Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. There was no memory prefetch or read under write functionality either.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s. The R4300 CPU was the worst off component because it had to go through the RCP to access main memory, and could not use DMA (the RCP could) to do so, so its RAM access performance was quite poor. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership. Game developers also said that the N64's memory controller setup was fairly poor, and this magnified the situation somewhat. Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. A high latency memory subsystem creates delays in how fast the processors can get the data they need, and how fast they can alter this data. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas. The RDRAM was incredibly high latency memory (640 ns read) and this mostly cancelled out its high bandwidth advantage.

Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. The unified memory subsystem of Nintendo 64 was another critical weakness for the machine. According to the U.S. This game also used custom microcode to improve the RSP's capabilities. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt. In fact, World Driver Championship was one of the most polygon-loaded N64 games and frequently would push past Sony Playstation's typical in-game polygon counts. Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. Most Nintendo 64 games were actually fillrate limited, not geometry limited, which is ironic considering the great concern for N64's low ~100,000 polygon per second rating during its time.

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. Z-Buffering significantly crippled the RDP's fillrate so managing the Z-depth of objects, so things would appear in the right order and not on top of each other, was put on the programmer instead of the hardware to get maximum speed. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach). There were other challenges for developers to work around. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Conker's Bad Fur Day is possibly the best example of this ingenuity. Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. Creative developers towards the end of N64's lifetime managed to use tricks such as multi-layered texturing and heavily clamped small texture pieces to simulate larger textures.

Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters. To put this in perspective, this cache could be quickly filled with even small textures (a 64x64 4-bit/pixel texture is 2KB and a 128x64 4-bit/pixel texture is 4KB). Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. To make matters worse, because of how the renderer was designed, if mip mapping was used the texture cache was effectively halved to 2KB. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. This was the primary cause of N64's blurry texturing, secondary to the blurring caused by the trilinear filtering and limited ROM storage. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. This made it extremely difficult to load large textures into the rendering engine, especially textures with high color depth.

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. One major flaw was the limited texture cache of 4KB. Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The Nintendo 64 had some glaring weaknesses that were caused by a combination of oversight on the part of the hardware designers, limitations on 3D technology of the time, and manufacturing capabilities. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools. Two of the SGI microcodes. Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. Factor 5, Boss Game Studios, and Rare).

The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County. Several companies were able to create custom microcode programs that ran their software far better than SGI's generic software (i.e. A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). Some developers noted that the default SGI microcode ("Fast3D") was actually quite poorly profiled for use in games (it was too accurate), and performance suffered as a result. Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games. As a result, it was extremely easy to make mistakes that would be very hard to track down; mistakes that could cause seemingly random bugs or glitches. The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise. Programming RSP microcode was said to be quite difficult because the N64 µcode tools were very basic, with no debugger, and poor documentation.

The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten. However, Nintendo was quite unwilling to share the microcode tools with developers until the end of N64's lifecycle when they shared this information with a select number of companies. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. By altering the microcode run on the device it can perform different operations, create new effects, be better tuned for speed or quality, among other possibilities. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. The RSP is completely programmable, through microcode (µcode). The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. This created a fascinating system that was quite flexible and moldable to the game's needs, but it also assumed the programmer would be able to properly profile the code to optimize usage of each part of the machine.

Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS). Workload on N64 could be arranged almost in any way the programmer saw fit. Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. It was relatively common to do audio on the main CPU to increase the graphics performance. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper. Nintendo 64 was one of the few consoles without a dedicated audio chip so these tasks fell on the RSP and/or CPU. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. In a typical N64 game the RSP would do transforms, lighting, clipping, triangle setup, and some of the audio decoding.

However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. The RSP was the transform portion of the RCP, although it was really just a DSP, similar to a MIPS R4000 core, designed to work with 8-bit integer vector operations. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. The RDP component basically just read a FIFO buffer and rasterized polygons. Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. The CPU was primarily used for game logic, such as input management, some audio, and AI, while the RCP did everything else. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home. The Nintendo Revolution uses "12cm discs" for storage, which are just encrypted DVDs, thus making it the first Nintendo console to use a standardized storage format.

Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. In 2001, the Nintendo 64 was replaced by the disc-based Nintendo GameCube, although even with this system they refused to use mainstream CD/DVD technology, opting for the DVD-based but incompatible GameCube Optical Disc. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. The N64 also secured its share of the mature audience thanks to GoldenEye 007, Resident Evil 2, Shadow Man, Doom 64 and Quake II. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. Much of this success was credited to Nintendo's strong first-party franchises, such as Mario and Zelda, which had strong name brand appeal yet appeared exclusively on Nintendo platforms. A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. N64 took second place for its generation of consoles while the PlayStation finished first, with 40% and 51% of the market respectively.

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree. Despite the controversies, the N64 still managed to support many popular games, giving it a long life run. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]. While most PlayStation games rarely exceeded $50, N64 titles could reach $80. Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. Publishers had to pass these higher expenses to the consumer so N64 games tended to sell for slightly higher prices than PlayStation games did. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. The cost of producing an N64 cartridge was far higher than producing a CD: one gaming magazine at the time cited average costs of twenty-five dollars per cartridge, versus 10 cents per CD.

28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. This incident provided a highly-publicized denunciation of Nintendo's cartridge-based system which caused negative publicity for Nintendo. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. Despite the fact that all six previous Final Fantasy games had been published on Nintendo systems, the series' producer, Squaresoft, chose to release Final Fantasy VII on the Sony PlayStation. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. disc debate came to an infamous climax during the release of Final Fantasy VII. The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. The cartridge vs.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males. As a result many game developers which had traditionally supported Nintendo game consoles were now developing games for the competition because of the higher profit margins found on CD based platforms. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. These discs are much cheaper to manufacture and distribute, resulting in lower costs to third party game publishers. The median age is 38 years. At that time, competing systems from Sony and Sega (the PlayStation and Saturn, respectively) were using CD-ROM discs to store their games. In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. Later cartridges such as Resident Evil 2 featured more ROM space, which demonstrated that N64 was capable of detailed in-game graphics when the media permitted, but this performance came late in the console war and at a high price.

The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25. While N64 games generally had higher polygon counts, the limited storage size of ROM carts limited the amount of available textures, resulting in games which had a plain and flat-shaded look. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. Graphically, benefits of the Nintendo cartridge system were mixed. There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. Nintendo later approached the Dutch electronics giant Philips to develop a Super NES CD-ROM drive, but that deal also went nowhere. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%). Nintendo sued Sony over the PlayStation name, although they later settled.

The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. Sony reportedly kept the name for their later 32-bit system to spite Nintendo. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. In addition to the CD-ROM add on, Sony would release a combination Super NES/CD-ROM system in one unit, which would have been called the PlayStation. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. Nintendo later backed out of the contract due to Sony's insistence that they would receive all licensing revenue for games released on CD-ROM. The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. While Nintendo chose the cartridge format for the N64, the company originally signed a contract with Sony in 1988 to develop a CD-ROM drive add-on for the SNES.

There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). Nintendo's choice had several advantages:. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. The Nintendo 64 was the last mainstream home video game console to use ROM cartridges to store its games. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. In G4's recent 'Top 10 Games Consoles' feature, the Nintendo 64 was voted number one against other consoles. Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha.
The last Nintendo 64 game to be released in the United States was Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 3 on August 20, 2002 while Mario Party 3 released on 16 November 2001 was the last title Europe would see.

Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean. Some of their more popular titles include:. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. Apart from Nintendo's own in-house development, Rareware produced a steady stream of titles for the N64. Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. Super Mario 64 is still considered to have set the standard for 3D platform games and is considered by many to be one of the greatest games ever published. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. Some of Nintendo's most notable games for the N64 are:.

The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. The early N64 development system was an SGI Indy equipped with an add-on board that contained a full N64 system. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. The system was designed by Silicon Graphics Inc., and features their trademark dithered 32-bit graphics. The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. Regardless, the Nintendo 64 was the first popular system to have these features. [3]. The Vectrex in fact had introduced analog joysticks, while the first to feature four controller ports was the Bally Astrocade.

That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. The first game console to bill itself as "64-bit" was actually the Atari Jaguar (although the truth of this is disputed, as the Jaguar merely had two 32-bit processors- albeit its graphics processor was 64-bit). The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. Nintendo touted many of the system's more unusual features as groundbreaking and innovative, but many of these features had in fact been implemented before. Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). Killer Instinct was the most advanced game of its time graphically, featuring pre-rendered movie backgrounds which were streamed off the hard drive and animated as the characters moved horizontally. During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida. In fact, the hardware had nothing to do with what was finally released; the arcade games used hard drives and TMS processors.

Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). After first announcing the project, two companies, Rareware (UK) and Midway (USA), created the arcade games Killer Instinct and Cruis'n USA which claimed to use the Ultra 64 hardware. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. . As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. Once unveiled to the public the name changed to Nintendo Ultra 64, referring to its 64-bit processor, and Nintendo dropped "Ultra" from the name on February 1, 1996, just five months before its Japanese debut. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). The name Project Reality came from the speculation within Nintendo that this console could produce CGI on par with then-current supercomputers.

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. During the developmental stages the N64 was referred to by its code name, Project Reality. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season. Official coverage by Nintendo soon followed a few weeks later on the nascent Nintendo Power website, and then in volume #85 of their print magazine. The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. The first published photos from the event were presented on the web via coverage by Game Zero magazine two days after the event. The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1. The N64 was first publicly introduced on November 24, 1995 as the Nintendo Ultra 64 at the 7th Annual Shoshinkai Software Exhibition in Japan (though preview pictures from the Nintendo "Project Reality" console had been published in American magazines as early as June, 1993).

Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston. The Nintendo 64 cost $199 at launch in the United States. km) are water. It was released with only two launch games in Japan and North America (Super Mario 64 and PilotWings 64) while Europe had a third launch title in the form of Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire (which was released earlier in the other markets). miles (50.73 sq. The N64 was released on June 23, 1996 in Japan, September 29, 1996 in North America and Puerto Rico, 1 March 1997 in Europe/Australia and September 1, 1997 in France. km) are land and 19.59 sq. The Nintendo 64, commonly called the N64, is Nintendo's third home video game console.

miles (92.68 sq. CD64, by Success Compu. Of that area, 35.67 sq. Z64, by Harrison Electronics. km). Doctor V64 and Doctor V64jr, by Bung Enterprises Ltd. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. Adapters to play Game Boy games - there is an unofficial adaptor to play Game Boy cartridges, similar to the Super Game Boy and an official adapter, able to play Game Boy Color games (never released).

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. It featured networking capabilities similar to the (SNES) Satellaview. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways. 64DD - The official N64 Disk Drive attachment was a commercial failure and was consequently never released outside of Japan. state of Florida. Rare's Perfect Dark was initially going to be compatible with the Transfer Pak in order to use pictures taken with the Game Boy Camera in the game but this function was scrapped. Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. Pokémon Stadium is a game that relies heavily on the Transfer Pak.

As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction. Transfer Pak - an accessory that plugged into the controller and allowed the Nintendo 64 to transfer data between Game Boy and N64 games. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. It has (since its release in 1997 alongside Star Fox 64) become a built-in standard for the current generation console controllers. Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Rumble Pak - an accessory that plugged into the controller and vibrated during game play. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level. Mad Catz marketed its own version of Expansion Pak called the High Rez Pack doing the same job for less money, though there were reports of overheating due to inferior quality.

By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. The expansion pack was shipped with some games and also available separately. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. Supporting games usually offered higher video resolutions when it was present, or in the case of Perfect Dark, unlocked 100% of game play. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Only a few games such as Perfect Dark and Star Wars: Rogue Squadron supported the expansion, while games such as Donkey Kong 64 and The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask required it for play. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. It contained 4MB of RAM.

All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Expansion Pak - a memory expansion that plugged into the console's memory expansion port. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. Games by Konami were particularly notorious as they often required the controller Pak to save even though the games could have easily contained three or more save-slots (such as in the case of Holy Magic Century). Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Over time, the Controller Pak lost ground to the convenience of a back-up battery (or flash memory) found in some cartridges. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. A Controller Pak was initially useful or even necessary for the earlier N64 games.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. The number of pages that a game occupied varied. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year. The original models from Nintendo offered 256KB Flash RAM, split into 123 pages, but third party models had much more, often in the form of compressed memory. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. Controller Pak - a memory card that plugged into the controller and allowed the player to save game progress and configuration. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. Nintendo never allowed this code to be used in shipping games.

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. Turbo3D microcode: 500,000-600,000 polygons per second with PSX quality. In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations. Fast3D microcode: < ~100,000 polygons per second. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music. Controller: 1 analog stick; 2 shoulder buttons; one digital cross pad; six face buttons, 'start' button, and one digital trigger. The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. Weight: 2.4 lb (1.1 kg).

A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface. Dimensions: 10.23 x 7.48 x 2.87 inches (260 x 190 x 73mm) WxDxH

    . As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. Media: 4 MB to 64 MB (32-Mbit to 512-Mbit) cartridges. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. Sampling: 48 kHz (max, 44.1 kHz is CD-quality). The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. Channels: 100 PCM (max, 16-24 avg.).

    In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. Sound: 16-bit ADPCM Stereo

      . While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities. 150,000 polygon/s (all RDP features enabled). Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. Colors: 16.7 million (32,768 on-screen). For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States. Resolution: 256x224 to 640x480 pixels flicker-free, interlaced.

      The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. Environment mapping. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. Perspective correction. Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. Trilinear Filtered Mipmap Interpolation (increases texture map rendering speed). However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons. Texture mapping (placing images over shapes, for example mapping a face image to a sphere creates head)

        .

        However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. Anti-aliasing (smoothes jagged lines and edges). These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. Z-buffering (maintains 3D spatial relationships, is Mario in front of the tree or vice-versa?). In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated. RDP (Reality Drawing Processor) handles all pixel drawing operations in hardware, such as:

          . It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. RSP (Reality Signal Processor) controls 3D graphics and sound functions.

          On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. Graphics: SGI 62.5MHz RCP (Reality Coprocessor) contains two sub-processors:

            . citizens. Data path: Custom 9-bit Rambus at 500 MHz (max). That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. Bandwidth: 562.5 MB/s. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. RAM: 4 MB RDRAM (upgradeable to 8 MB with 4MB Expansion Pak)
              .

              policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. Manufactured by NEC using 0.35µm transistor fabrication process. The agreement codified the new U.S. 4.6 million transistors. On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. On-chip memory management unit (MMU). During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States. Operations: 93 MIPS (millions of instructions per second).

              military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). Bandwidth: 250 MB/s. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. Addressable Memory Space: 4 GB (Virtual 1 TB). policy. Instruction Set: MIPS R4000 64-bit. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. Bus Width: 32-bit address and data.

              Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. L1 cache: 24 KB (split: 16 KB instruction, 8 KB data). In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting. Processor: 93.75 MHz NEC VR4300 (info), based on MIPS R4300i series 64-bit RISC CPU

                . As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. Storing data at first required a cartridge battery whose energy would diminish over time, though the battery generally lasted for years, and in subsequent games EEPROMs were used instead. In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti. Most cartridges store individual profiles and game progress on the cartridge itself, eliminating the need for separate and expensive memory cards.

                [citation needed]. It is possible to add specialized support chips (such as coprocessors) to ROM cartridges, as was done on some SNES games. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. While unauthorized interface devices for the PC were later developed, these devices are rare when compared to a regular CD drive as used on the PlayStation. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. ROM cartridges are difficult and expensive to duplicate, thus resisting piracy (albeit at the expense of lowered profit margin for Nintendo). Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor. This can be observed from the loading screens that appear in many PlayStation games but are virtually non-existent in N64 versions.

                Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. ROM cartridges have very fast load times in comparison to disc based games. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966. Perfect Dark. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. Killer Instinct Gold. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country. Jet Force Gemini.

                Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue. GoldenEye 007. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. Donkey Kong 64. with very little. Diddy Kong Racing. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S. Conker's Bad Fur Day.

                In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. Banjo-Kazooie and its sequel Banjo-Tooie. Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. Blast Corps.. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950. Banjo-Kazooie. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country. Wave Race 64.

                During World War II, the U.S. The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1]. The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. Super Mario 64. On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park. Super Smash Bros..

                The Great Depression followed. Star Fox 64. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. Paper Mario. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. Mario Party. These delays gave investors a chance to think again. Mario Kart 64.

                Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings. During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before.

                Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:. In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself.

                Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state.

                She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer. In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami. Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades.

                At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land.

                After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas.

                The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river. In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves.

                Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay. They built a fort in 1743.

                Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.

                Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there.

                One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. The origin of the name Miami is unknown. . Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city.

                Two vessels of the U.S. The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking). Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration.

                Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1. The U.S. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida.

                Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean.

                state of Florida. Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S.
                Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida. SR 924 (Gratigny Parkway) Miami Lakes to Opa Locka.

                SR 878 (Snapper Creek Expressway) Kendall to Turnpike/Homestead. SR 874 (Don Shula Expressway) 826/Bird Road to 878. SR 836 (Dolphin Expressway) Downtown to Turnpike via MIA. SR 826 (Palmetto Expressway) Golden Glades Interchange to US-1/Kendall.

                821 (The HEFT or Homestead Extension of the Florida Turnpike: SR 91/Miami Gardens to US-1/Florida City). SR 112 (Airport Expressway) Downtown to MIA. William Turner Technical High School - Technical School. Ransom Everglades Middle School - Magnet and Gifted School.

                New World School of the Arts - Magnet School. Miami Palmetto Senior High School - Nationally Recognized Top Rated Public High School. Miami High School - Oldest Still Functioning School. Miami Country Day School- Prep School.

                MAST Academy High School - Magnet School. LaSalle High School - Prep School. Gulliver Preparatory School - Prep School. Krop High School - Magnet School.

                Michael M. Dr. Design and Architecture Senior High School - Magnet School. Coral Reef High School - Magnet School.

                Christopher Columbus High School - Prep School. Belen Jesuit Preparatory School - Prep School. University of Miami [17]. Thomas University.

                St. Devry University [16]. Nova Southeastern University [15]. Miami-Dade College [14].

                Miami International University of Art and Design. Johnson and Wales University. Florida Memorial University. Florida International University.

                Barry University [13]. Vizcaya Museum & Gardens [12]. Vizcaya-Miami Art Museum. Museum of Contemporary Art (MoCa) [11].

                Miami Art Museum [10]. Historical Museum of South Florida. Parrot Jungle Island. Monkey Jungle [9].

                Miami Seaquarium [8]. Miami Museum of Science and Planetarium. Miami Metro Zoo [7]. Little Havana.

                Jerry Herman Ring Theatre. Fruit & Spice Park. Fairchild Tropical Gardens. Everglades National Park [6].

                Deering Estate. Coral Castle. Coconut Grove. Biscayne National Park.

                Bayside Marketplace. Barnacle Historic State Park. Wynwood. Overtown.

                Omni Performing Arts District. Little Haiti. Little Havana. Government Center.

                Design District. Coconut Grove. Buena Vista. Brickell Avenue.

                Bay Point Estates. Allapattah.

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