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Miami, Florida

"The Magic City, The American Riviera, The Sixth Borough"


Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida.

Founded 1896
City Government Style Mayor-Council
Mayor Manuel “Manny” Diaz (R)
Area
 - Total
 - Water

55.27 mi² (143.15km²)
19.59 mi² (50.73 km²) 35.44%
Population
 - City (2005)
 - Density

382,894
10,734.34/mi²
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5
Time zone Central: UTC-6
Latitude
Longitude
25°47' N
80°13' W
City of Miami Official Website

Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S. state of Florida. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States.

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. The U.S. Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1.

Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking).

The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States.

Two vessels of the U.S. Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city.

History

Early history

The origin of the name Miami is unknown. One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida.

Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.

See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta

American settlement

Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. They built a fort in 1743. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay.

People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves.

In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river.

The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land.

The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami.

In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer.

Miami Avenue in 1896

In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion.

Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549.

Early growth

Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:

During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings.

This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. These delays gave investors a chance to think again. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. The Great Depression followed.

On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1].

During World War II, the U.S. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel.

Immigrant influx

Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S. with very little. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966.

Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. [citation needed]

In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti. As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting.

Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. policy. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel at night.

On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. The agreement codified the new U.S. policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. citizens.

On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated.

These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons.

Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States.

Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities.

Miami Vice

Hurricane Andrew

In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface.

The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music.

In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations.

Geography and climate

Geography

Downtown Miami as seen from Watson Island

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level.

Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction.

Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways.

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. km). Of that area, 35.67 sq. miles (92.68 sq. km) are land and 19.59 sq. miles (50.73 sq. km) are water. Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston.

The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1.

Climate

The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season.

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida.

Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. [3]

The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean.

Notable neighborhoods/areas

People and culture

Demographics

The Miami skyline, as it is seen from the northeast on Biscayne Bay.

Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%).

There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25.

In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 38 years. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. 28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree.

A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home.

Area Attractions

Downtown Miami at night

Museums and Galleries

Media

Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper.

Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS).

Sports

The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten.

The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise.

Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games.

A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County.

Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools.

Education

Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools.

Colleges and universities

Notable secondary institutions

Economy

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters.

Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach).

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing.

Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas.

Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s.

Transportation

A couple of Miami metro buses in Miami Beach, Florida.

Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA.

The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually.

Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County.

Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:

For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid.

Miami in television and film

The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish.

The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami.

Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina.

Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. See also Movies made in Miami.


This page about Miami includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Miami
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See also Movies made in Miami. Many interest groups form around a particular type of riding or style of bike:. Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. BMW Motorrad has no national owners clubs, but, uniquely, has many independent clubs in different countries, such as BMW Motorcycle Owners of America (BMWMOA) and BMW Riders Association (BMWRA). The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina. Groups also organise themselves to offer support and advice. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . Such clubs include:.

As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. Most manufacuturers subsidize a club to foster a sense of community between, provide services to, and make money from the owners of their bikes. Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. There are many brands of motorcycles currently produced as well as vintage brands which can be found here List of motorcycle manufacturers. The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami. Within motorcycle culture, people congregate around brand names, type of bike, and individual models. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish. Riders will sometimes stop and help if another rider has broken down.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. When riders pass each other in the opposite direction, riders often wave or nod. The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February. Like most minority cultures, motorcyclists in developed countries "stick together." Most cities have several bars and hangouts where riders congregate. For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid. He encourages more people to engage in such an experience. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:. In an article called, "Arizona Road Trip Fulfills Lifelong Dream," a Massachusetts man travels all over Arizona on a Harley Davidson Dyna Low Rider and explains the joy of his trip.

Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. Often, motorcyclists just love the thrill of traveling the world on the back of a bike. Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Many of those who ride motorcycles prefer the more neutral terms "rider" or "motorcyclist." In Australia and New Zealand the word "bikie" is used instead of "biker". Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County. In American speech, the term biker has come to be associated with members of the gangs described above. Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. This phenomenon is known by sociologists as availability error, and all minority groups in society tend to fall afoul of it.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). This is because the very small number of events where a non-motorcyclist is offended by a motorcyclist (perhaps by excess exhaust noise, reckless behaviour, or news reporting of a motorcycle gang incident) are amplified in popular thought. Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services. In much of the developed world, motorcycles are thought of as a cheap and efficient means of transportation, but they are tainted by a stereotype of riders as anti-social and reckless, even though the majority are safe and law-abiding. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually. In less developed nations, motorcycles are often the only motorized transportation affordable to the majority of the population. The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. The upsurge in extreme sports and hobbies coincides with the upsurge in workplace and home safety.

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA. It has been theorized based on data, that humans have some innate need for risk. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). See Born again biker. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. A substantial increase in the number of riders (regardless of age) indicates a greater number of inexperienced riders, who are more likely to be involved in accidents. Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. Many of these riders are either new to the sport, or have not been on a motorcycle for many years; they would benefit from rider training as much or more so than any new rider.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s. and Europe are also seeing a surge in motorcycle ownership, thanks in large part to an older demographic, people in their 40's and 50's. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership. The U.S, U.K. Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. See also: Squid_(motorcycle) Hooligan. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas. These people contribute significantly to the fatality and injury rates of motorcyclists.

Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. Because of this, they sometimes attract people — typically, but not exclusively, young men — with a propensity to take great risks or behave dangerously and anti-socially. According to the U.S. Motorcycles are typically more agile, can accelerate more quickly, and are generally perceived to be more fun to ride than an average car. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt. Gangs represent far less than 1% of motorcyclists. Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. Most motorcycle organizations have law-abiding and peaceful members, and many raise money for charities through organized events and rides.

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. Others are purportedly fraternal organizations, the most well known of these being the Hells Angels. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach). Some of these subcultures have been loose-knit social groups such as the Cafe racers of 1950s Britain, and the Mods and Rockers of the 1960s. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Across the world, and both past and present, motorcycles have been associated with subcultures of society. Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. For a complete discussion, see the main article: Motorcycle Safety.

Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters. Most of these accident are caused by car drivers though who tend to underestimate the speed and acceleration of motorcycles or simply overlook them. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. Given that motorcycles cover less distance than cars per year on average, the figure per unit distance is likely to be much worse. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. The rate for motorcycles is 66.7 per 100,000. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. According to the US Highway Safety Authority, in 2002 20.9 cars out of 100,000 ended up in fatal crashes.

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. Motorcycles have a far higher rate of crippling and fatal accidents per unit distance than automobiles. Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools. For a complete discussion of contemporary motorcyle types, see the main article: types of motorcycle. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools. Motorcyles have been built in myriad different models for innumerable different purposes. Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. Riders without a fuel gauge usually learn how many miles / km they can do with a full tank of fuel, and then use a trip meter if available to judge when they must refill the tank.

The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County. There is not actually a separate reserve tank, the intake for the petcock has two pipes, one extending higher into the fuel tank than the other, when fuel no longer covers the long pipe the rider switches to the shorter pipe. A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). Fuel gauges are becoming more common, however traditionally a reserve tank arrangement has been used with a petcock on the side of the motorcycle allowing the rider to switch to a reserve fuel supply when the main fuel supply is exhausted; this is typically done while the vehicle is in motion. Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games. Almost all motorcycles have a speedometer, an odometer and a tachometer. The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise. In any case, a canister of nitrous oxide is rapidly expended, and impractical for sustained use on a road-going bike by any sane rider.

The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten. Using methods like nitrous oxide are fine on dragstrips, but while not illegal, can be very dangerous on the street. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. It's very easy to blow the head gaskets or burn the valves of the engine with careless nitrous oxide injection. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. Engines using large amounts of nitrous oxide need precise mixtures and/or configurable timing and carburation. The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. The main benefits of nitrous oxide are three-fold —.

Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS). With great care, an engine can be helped to "sprint" by injecting small amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O). Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. However, due to the special motorcycle dynamics, turbochargers are rarely used on production bikes. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper. In addition, the compression ratio must be considered and adjusted accordingly, as an "overboosted" engine will destroy itself as well. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. Engine internals such as pistons and connecting rods must be replaced with stronger ones for all but the smallest boost.

However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. On low boost settings, the turbocharger can increase power and fuel range. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. Since more air is being forced into the engine, the air/fuel ratio must be changed to prevent the engine from running lean [and potentially destroying itself]. Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. Turbochargers are generally more effective than superchargers because turbos spin using the exhaust gases while a supercharger uses engine power to spin it directly (usually via a belt system), robbing power. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home. One of the most effective ways of increasing power is forced induction.

Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. There is even a school of thought that louder systems are safer, as they attract the attention of (car) drivers, who might otherwise have failed to notice the motorcyclist. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. Most countries have limits on how much noise can legally be produced by vehicles, however this usually does not deter motorcyclists from fitting louder exhaust systems. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. Aftermarket exhaust systems are usually louder, by varying degrees, than stock systems. A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. A "custom" tuned exhaust will often operate only at a narrower range of engine RPM, and therefore more suited to more specialised applications, usually racing (road or drag).

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree. However many modern production bikes already have tuned exhausts. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]. This helps evacuate the exhaust from the engine more rapidly, and permits a longer power-stroke. Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. Another way to increase performance is to install a tuned exhaust system. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Replacing stock shocks and fork springs as well as changing damping and valving rates will result in dramatic improvements in motorcycle stability and increased speed and rider confidence as a result.

28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. Suspension is typically the one element of the motorcycle that will receive the least amount of engineering attention from the factory. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. More usable improvements can be had by improving and upgrading suspension components. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. Done correctly, this increases the velocity of the fuel / air mixture entering the cylinder, packing more mixture in per revolution. The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. Enlarging cylinder head ports, while common practice amongst many tuners, is often unnecessary (unless a big-bore kit has been fitted) to the extent that many engines benefit from decreasing the volume in the cylinder head.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males. Blueprinting, or meticulous restoration of an engine to (or beyond) factory tolerances can help to improve an engine's efficiency and restore power that would otherwise be lost. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. Improper attempts at tuning can yield benefits in one particular part of an engine's power band, while impairing performance everywhere else, provoking a net loss of power or handling. The median age is 38 years. Engine modifications can yield appreciable performance improvements, but this is often costly and very time-consuming. In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. This is obvious, but often neglected.

The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25. On the engine, keep the air filter and drive chain (or drive belt) clean, use high-quality lubricants and fuel with precisely-tuned spark plugs, air / fuel mixture, and timing. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The right tires kept at the proper pressure will contribute to both speed and safety. There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. The next-most-common cause of loss of speed is one of the easiest to remedy: rolling resistance. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%). Even experienced riders can benefit from top-level instructors helping to fine-tune their skills, as well as the opportunity to practice crash-avoidance techniques in a more controlled environment (and without risking one's own motorcycle).

The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. By attending riding schools and increasing rider education levels, a motorcyclist will be able to ride more skillfully and, thus, more safely. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. The most efficient way to improve the handling and speed of a motorcycle is via increased operator skill. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. The use of an approved helmet is required by law in many countries (or individual localities therein). The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. Wearing a t-shirt, shorts, and sandals on a motorcycle is not advised.

There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). The motorcyclist must, therefore, consider proper motorcycle attire such as helmet ("full-face" providing the most protection), gloves, boots, and leather or synthetic protective clothing. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. If a tire loses grip or goes flat, the rider may crash and make contact in a rather forceful (and very possibly a painful) manner with the road or other obstacles. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. In most cases street riders will actually achieve higher levels of performance using street tires than race compounds. Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. Race compounds are designed specifically for the short life and few heat cycles of a race environment, where street tires are designed for multiple heat cycles and use in a street environment.

Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean. However, race compound tires should NOT be used in street applications. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. Motorcycle tires can also be found in "race compounds". Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. Small cracks on the sidewall or bald spots on the tread are an indicators of the need to replace the tire. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. Tires usually have an average life expectancy of about four to five years from date of manufacture; as mentioned above, mileage is also a factor, with many street tires having a service life between 3,000 and 10,000 miles.

The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. Tires should be maintained at the proper air pressure at all times; tire pressure is critical, the difference of a few PSI can have a dramatic impact on the handling and longevity of the tire. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. Some cruiser tires have raised white lettering on the sidewalls as a "retro" detail. The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. Cruisers and "Sport Touring" tires try to find the best compromise between grip and durability. [3]. Touring tires are usually harder rubber and last longer but provide less grip (significantly less grip while cold, and the heavier rubber takes longer to warm up), while sport/performance tires provide amazing grip but may only last 1,000 miles (1,600 km) or less.

That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. Dirtbike tires have knobby, deep treads for maximum grip on loose dirt, mud, or gravel — such tires tend to be less stable on paved surfaces. The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. There are tires designed for dirtbikes, touring, sport and cruiser bikes. Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). That is the small area that is in contact with the road surface while riding. During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida. Motorcycles use pneumatic tires ('tyres' in the UK) which come in many configurations, the most important part of any being the contact patch.

Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). However, the additional gearsets are a source of power loss and add to bike weight. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. This arrangement is superior in terms of noise, cleanliness, and is virtually maintenance free. As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. Inside the bell housing a bevelled gear on the shaft mates with another on the wheel mount. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). A shaft drive is completely enclosed, the visual cue is a tube extending from the rear of the transmission to a bell-housing on the rear wheel.

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. The belt is frequently toothed. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season. However, belt drives are limited in the amount of power they can transmit. The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. A belt drive is still subject to stretch, but operates very quietly, cleanly, and efficiently. The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1. Many manufacturers offer cruiser models with final drive options of a belt, or a shaft.

Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston. Many motorcyclists replace the chain and both sprockets as a set to maintain efficiency and safety. km) are water. Chains do deteriorate, and excessive wear on the front and rear sprockets can be dangerous. miles (50.73 sq. The lubricant is subject to being thrown off the fast-moving chain and results in grime and dirt buildup. km) are land and 19.59 sq. Final drive from the gearbox to the rear wheel is typically accomplished with a chain, which requires both lubrication and adjustment for elongation (stretch) through wear.

miles (92.68 sq. Advanced drivers can perform "full-throttle upshifts" on racing mounts, but this risks both the warranty and mechanical integrity. Of that area, 35.67 sq. Aided by beveled edges on the gears, shifting gears is simple for novices - no double clutching or grinding of gears. km). The two shafts are always geared together (except in neutral), always spinning at a speed nearly approximating the next higher or lower gear ratio. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. Also, gear synchronizers typically found in passenger cars with manual transmissions are not necessary.

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. The small mass of the whole arrangement allows for extremely quick gear changes. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways. Operating the shift lever slides individual gears on one shaft, to intersect with a matching gear on the other. state of Florida. One shaft is geared to the final drive mechanism, and the other to the clutch. Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. Internally, a rotating cam on the shift lever operates cogs on two counter-rotating shafts carrying a variety of gears.

As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction. From neutral, you may select either first or second gear, but higher gears may only be accessed in order - you may not shift from second gear to fourth gear, without shifting through third gear. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. The most commonly used transmission is a sequential gearbox. Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. A lever on the handlebar, through a cable or hydraulic arrangement, uses mechanical advantage to release the clutch spring, allowing the engine to freewheel with respect to the transmission. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level. Whether wet (rotating in engine oil) or dry, the plates are squeezed together by a spring, causing friction buildup between the plates until they rotate as a single unit, driving the transmission directly.

By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. The clutch is typically an arrangement of plates stacked in alternating fashion, one geared on the inside to the engine, and next geared on the outside to the transmission input shaft. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. Only the largest touring motorcycles (most prominently, the Honda Goldwing) and a few models that are routinely used with a sidecar are fitted with a reverse gear. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Modern motorcycles normally have five or six forward gears. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. In contrast, racing motorcycles have all gears arranged "below" the first gear, thus pressing the gear lever always shifts up, while lifting it shifts down.

All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Neutral sits between first gear and second, so a small lift out of first causes the gearbox to change into neutral, but a large movement causes the gearbox to change into second gear. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. Downshifting is done by pressing the gear lever. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. A normal street motorcycle is put in first gear by pressing the gear lever, while second and all further gears are reached by lifting it. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. The gear lever operates by shifting gears when it is pressed or lifted.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. The transmission is controlled by a clutch lever under the left hand in standard configurations, a twistgrip throttle on the right handlebar and a gear lever at the left foot. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year. Motorcycles have, over time, been powered by an extraordinary array of engines, from very early models powered by steam, to the ubiquitous gasoline engines of today. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. Note: This technique is not recommended for public road use. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. Racers while hard on the front brake will feather the rear brake just enough to start a controlled rear slide, thus rendering a sharper turn angle.

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The technique of steering the motorcycle in a high speed turn (or lower speeds on a dirt course) using the rear brake is called "backing it in" (or "turning" on dirt). In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations. Another variation of brake use can be seen at top level motorcycle roadracing and motorcross events. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music. Trailbraking is a term used to describe carrying the braking action of a vehicle past the turn entry, allowing the rider to adjust speed all the way through a turn to the apex. The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. This is a highly skilled (and generally illegal) maneuver which requires practice to perfect.

A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface. The phenomenon known as a "stoppie" may only be achieved if the front brake is used aggressively with no application of the rear brake; if sufficient force is applied to the front brake, the rear of the motorcycle chassis will lift off the roadway, while the bike continues to move forward on the still-rotating front wheel. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. Another common misconception is that application of the rear brake will cause motorcycle instability. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. Riders fear that aggressive use of the front brake will stop rotation of the tire and cause loss of control, or a skid, and therefore often fail to use the front brake to its full potential. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. In virtually all cases, 70% to 90% of total braking force should be applied by the front brake when operated on a hard surface such as tarmac, with the remainder being simultaneously applied to the rear brake.

In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. Some manufacturers have created Antilock braking systems (ABS). While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities. There are many brake performance enhancing aftermarket parts available for most motorcycles including brake pads of varying compounds and steel braided brake lines. Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. Brakes can either be drum or disc based, with disc brakes being more common on large, modern or expensive motorcycles for their far superior stopping power, particularly in wet conditions. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States. The front brake is generally much more powerful than the rear as roughly 2/3rds of stopping power can come from the front brake when properly applied and in some cases 100% depending on the model of motorcycle and operator; rear wheels can generally lock and skid much more easily than the front due to weight distribution dynamics.

The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. However, several models have "linked brakes" which apply both at the same time, although one more than the other. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. In older motorcycles the rear may be on the left foot. Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. There are generally two independent brakes on a motorcycle, one set on the front wheel, controlled by the right hand lever, and one on the rear controlled by the right foot. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons. The rear suspension can consist of several shock arrangements:.

However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. The rear suspension supports the swingarm, which is attached via the swingarm pivot bolt to the frame and holds the axle of the rear wheel. These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. This is the speed at which the rider's feet can no longer be safely used to balance the bike. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated. The rake should be chosen so that precessive force from countersteer and body steering slightly overbalance the leaning forces from the weight of the bike, at a speed near the running speed of a person. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. The angle of rake determines how controllable the steering is.

On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. The front fork is the most critical part of a motorcycle. citizens. The front suspension generally consists of sliding steel tubes with long springs inside called forks which use hydraulic fluid for damping shock absorbers. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. Modern designs have the two wheels of a motorcycle connected to the chassis by a suspension arrangement, however 'chopper' style motorcycles often elect to forego rear suspension ("rigid frame"). In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. Based on The control and stability analysis of two-wheeled road vehicles:.

policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. There could be three kinds of stability problems with motorbikes:. The agreement codified the new U.S. Cabin cycle solved the problem of aerodynamics by isolating driver from outside air. On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. However, these motorcycles still effectively push their way through the atmosphere with brute force. During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States. In the absence of a fairing or windshield, a phenomenon known as the windsock effect occurs at speeds above 100 km/h, where the rider becomes a major source of drag and is pushed back from the handlebars, tiring the rider.

military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). Another problem is the fact that no designs have been discovered that can improve aerodynamic performance without unacceptably compromising the rider's ability to control the machine. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. As can be seen from the streamlined appearance of new performance motorcycles, there is much aerodynamic technology included in the design, but unfortunately no one has been able to overcome the effect from the turbulence caused by the spinning front wheel which disallows the motorcycle from cutting a clean path through the air. policy. Drag is the major factor that limits motorcycle speed, as it increases at the square of the velocity, with the resultant required horsepower increasing with the cube of velocity. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. A plastic or fiberglass shell, known as a fairing, is placed over the frame in some models to shield the rider from the wind.

Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. Performance racing motorcycles often use carbon-fiber wheels, but the expense of these wheels is prohibitively high for general usage. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting. The wheel rims are usually steel (generally with steel spokes and an aluminium hub) or 'mag' type cast or machined aluminum. As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. At least one motorcycle manufacturer (Buell) offer models that use a hollow frame as the fuel tank, and various manufacturers offer designs which use part of the frame as an oil reservoir. In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti. This tank is generally made of stamped, brazed or welded sheet metal, or blow molded high-density polyethylene.

[citation needed]. The fuel tank is usually mounted above the engine. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. Some motorcycles include the engine as a load-bearing (or stressed) member; this has been used all through bike history but is now becoming more common. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. Carbon-fiber is used in a few very expensive custom frames. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor. The chassis (or frame) of a motorcycle is typically made from welded aluminium or steel (or an alloy) struts, with the rear suspension being an integral component in the design.

Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. Variations exist:. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966. Recent years have also seen a resurgence in the popularity of many other brands, including BMW, Triumph and Ducati. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. Today, the Japanese manufacturers Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha dominate the motorcycle industry, although Harley-Davidson still maintains a high degree of popularity in America. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country. British manufacturers held a dominant position in some markets until the rise of the Japanese manufacturers (led by Honda) in the late 1960s and early 1970s who were able to produce designs faster, cheaper and of better quality.

Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue. The German NSU was the largest manufacturer from 1955 until the 1970s when Honda became the most prominent manufacturer, a title it retains to this day. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. After the Second World War, in 1951, the BSA Group became the largest producer of motorcycles in the world. with very little. After that, this honour went to Harley Davidson, until 1928 when DKW took over as the largest manufacturer. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S. Up until the First World War, the largest motorcycle manufacturer was Indian.

In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. As the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers reduced. Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. In the early period of motorcycle history there were many manufacturers as producers of bicycles adapted their designs for the new internal combustion engine. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950. In 1894, the Hildebrand & Wolfmüller was the first motorcycle that was available for purchase. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country. This machine predates the invention of the safety bicycle by many years, so its chassis is also based on the "bone-crusher" bike.

During World War II, the U.S. It's powered by a charcoal-fired two-cylinder engine, whose connecting rods directly drive a crank on the rear wheel. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1]. There is an existing example of a Roper machine, dated 1869. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. One such machine was demonstrated at fairs and circuses in the eastern US in 1867, built by one Sylvester Howard Roper of Roxbury, Massachusetts. On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park. However,if one counts two wheels with steam propulsion as being a motorcycle, then the first one may have been American.

The Great Depression followed. They had not set out to create a vehicle form but to build a simple carriage for the engine which was the focus of their endeavours. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. It was the first petroleum-powered vehicle ever and, but for the provision of a pair of stabilizing wheels, a motorized bicycle, although they called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding car"). Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. The inspiration for the earliest motorcycles, and arguably the first motorcycle, was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt (a city district of Stuttgart) in 1885. These delays gave investors a chance to think again. .

Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. The rider sits astride the vehicle on a seat, with hands on a set of handlebars which are used to steer the motorcycle, in conjunction with the rider shifting his weight through his feet, which are supported on a set of footpegs which stick out from the frame. This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. The wheels are in-line, and at higher speed the motorcycle remains upright and stable by virtue of gyroscopic forces; at lower speeds continual readjustment of the steering by the rider gives stability. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings. A motorcycle is a two-wheeled vehicle powered by an engine. During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before. Parry Sound Sportbike Rally.

Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:. Sturgis Motorcycle Rally [5]. In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549. Port Dover Friday the 13th [4]. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). Laconia Motorcycle Week [3]. Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself. Daytona Bike Week [2].

Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". Minibikes or Pocket-Bikes as used in Pocketbike racing. She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion. Adventure Touring (dual-sport bikes) Ontario Dual Sport Club. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. Extreme Distance Events (competitive long distance riding, including Iron Butt events). In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state. Touring and Motorcycle camping (touring and dual-sport bikes).

She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer. Cruising (cruisers, or motorcycles that resemble Harley-Davidson models). In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. Street Racing (sport bikes). However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami. Classic Racing (Racing bikes from an earlier era). Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades. Track Racing (sport bikes).

At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. The Single Overhead Cam Owners Club dedicated to SOHC4 Hondas. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. East Coast Bikers Forum. The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. FJRForum. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land. Katriders.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. [1]. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area. V4HondaBBS. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. Suzuki Intruder-Boulevard Owners Club. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. Honda Owners Club.

The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Riders of Kawasaki (RoK). Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river. Harley Owners Group (HOG). In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. Yamaha Owners Club. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves. Boss Hoss Riders Association.

Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. This colder mixture helps to keep the engine running cooler, which is very useful as nitrous oxide is almost exclusively used in stressful, high RPM situations, primarily drag racing. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. This chilling effect raises the density of the mixture, packing more fuel and oxygen into the combustion chamber. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay. As nitrous oxide is stored in liquid form, it is still very cold when it evaporates and is mixed with fuel. They built a fort in 1743. More oxygen is introduced into an engine's combustion chamber.

Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. 'Softail' style monoshock, which is mounted horizontally in front of the swingarm, below the swingarm pivot bolt. Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. traditional monoshock, which is placed at the front of the swingarm, above the swingarm pivot bolt. See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta. dual shocks, which are placed at the far ends of the swingarm. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle. Rear load assemblies with appropriate stiffness and damping were successful in damping out weave and wobble oscillations.

Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. Degraded damping of the rear suspension, rear loading and increased speed amplifies cornering weave tendencies. Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. Amongst others, stiff frames, a long wheelbase, a long trail and a flat steering head angle were found to increase weave mode damping. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida. The largest contribution to the weave damping came from the cornering and camber stiffnesses and relaxation length of the rear tyre and not so much from the same parameters of the front tyre. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there. Lateral distortion should be opposed as much as possible by locating the front fork torsional axis as low as possible.

One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. Common levels of lateral stiffness at the wheel spindle deteriorates the wobble mode damping substantially with significant changes in the wobble frequency as well, and slight reduction in the weave mode damping at high speeds. The origin of the name Miami is unknown. From a stability point of view it is desirable to make the lateral stiffness as large as possible, with the possibility of an optimum value for the torsional stiffness of the rear frame. . Tyre (tire) characteristics and inflation pressures are important variables in the behaviour of the motorcycle at high speeds. Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city. The weave oscillations damp out once the rider reduced the roll angle.

Two vessels of the U.S. It can become unstable at higher speeds with fatal results. The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States. Weaving (AVI movie) is a low frequency (2-3 Hz) oscillation of the whole vehicle. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking). It can appear at moderate speeds. Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration. It is often relatively harmless but annoying (and quite frightening if previously inexperienced).

Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1. Wobbling (AVI movie) is a high frequency (7-9 Hz) oscillation of the front wheel. The U.S. Capsizing is well known in low speeds, and easy to overcome by the rider using their feet support themselves. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. However, a proper motorcycle has fewer than four wheels in contact with the ground. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida. (Early models had a single front wheel, but these were prone to rollovers.) ATVs are used off-road for utility and recreation.

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. These have two or more back wheels, usually two front wheels, an open driver's seat and a motorcycle-type handlebar. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States. Motorcycle manufacturers often also produce All-terrain vehicles or ATVs. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. There are other 3-wheeled variations, commonly referred to as a trike or motortricycle. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean. Some motorcycles can be fitted with a sidecar, this converting it into a 3-wheeler or "hack".

state of Florida. Some motorcycles have floorboards instead of footpegs. Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S. There are three basic forms of motorcycles: offroad, street and dual-purpose.
Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida. SR 924 (Gratigny Parkway) Miami Lakes to Opa Locka.

SR 878 (Snapper Creek Expressway) Kendall to Turnpike/Homestead. SR 874 (Don Shula Expressway) 826/Bird Road to 878. SR 836 (Dolphin Expressway) Downtown to Turnpike via MIA. SR 826 (Palmetto Expressway) Golden Glades Interchange to US-1/Kendall.

821 (The HEFT or Homestead Extension of the Florida Turnpike: SR 91/Miami Gardens to US-1/Florida City). SR 112 (Airport Expressway) Downtown to MIA. William Turner Technical High School - Technical School. Ransom Everglades Middle School - Magnet and Gifted School.

New World School of the Arts - Magnet School. Miami Palmetto Senior High School - Nationally Recognized Top Rated Public High School. Miami High School - Oldest Still Functioning School. Miami Country Day School- Prep School.

MAST Academy High School - Magnet School. LaSalle High School - Prep School. Gulliver Preparatory School - Prep School. Krop High School - Magnet School.

Michael M. Dr. Design and Architecture Senior High School - Magnet School. Coral Reef High School - Magnet School.

Christopher Columbus High School - Prep School. Belen Jesuit Preparatory School - Prep School. University of Miami [17]. Thomas University.

St. Devry University [16]. Nova Southeastern University [15]. Miami-Dade College [14].

Miami International University of Art and Design. Johnson and Wales University. Florida Memorial University. Florida International University.

Barry University [13]. Vizcaya Museum & Gardens [12]. Vizcaya-Miami Art Museum. Museum of Contemporary Art (MoCa) [11].

Miami Art Museum [10]. Historical Museum of South Florida. Parrot Jungle Island. Monkey Jungle [9].

Miami Seaquarium [8]. Miami Museum of Science and Planetarium. Miami Metro Zoo [7]. Little Havana.

Jerry Herman Ring Theatre. Fruit & Spice Park. Fairchild Tropical Gardens. Everglades National Park [6].

Deering Estate. Coral Castle. Coconut Grove. Biscayne National Park.

Bayside Marketplace. Barnacle Historic State Park. Wynwood. Overtown.

Omni Performing Arts District. Little Haiti. Little Havana. Government Center.

Design District. Coconut Grove. Buena Vista. Brickell Avenue.

Bay Point Estates. Allapattah.

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