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Miami, Florida

"The Magic City, The American Riviera, The Sixth Borough"


Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida.

Founded 1896
City Government Style Mayor-Council
Mayor Manuel “Manny” Diaz (R)
Area
 - Total
 - Water

55.27 mi² (143.15km²)
19.59 mi² (50.73 km²) 35.44%
Population
 - City (2005)
 - Density

382,894
10,734.34/mi²
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5
Time zone Central: UTC-6
Latitude
Longitude
25°47' N
80°13' W
City of Miami Official Website

Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S. state of Florida. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States.

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. The U.S. Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1.

Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking).

The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States.

Two vessels of the U.S. Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city.

History

Early history

The origin of the name Miami is unknown. One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida.

Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.

See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta

American settlement

Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. They built a fort in 1743. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay.

People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves.

In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river.

The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land.

The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami.

In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer.

Miami Avenue in 1896

In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion.

Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549.

Early growth

Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:

During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings.

This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. These delays gave investors a chance to think again. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. The Great Depression followed.

On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1].

During World War II, the U.S. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel.

Immigrant influx

Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S. with very little. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966.

Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. [citation needed]

In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti. As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting.

Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. policy. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel at night.

On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. The agreement codified the new U.S. policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. citizens.

On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated.

These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons.

Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States.

Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities.

Miami Vice

Hurricane Andrew

In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface.

The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music.

In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations.

Geography and climate

Geography

Downtown Miami as seen from Watson Island

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level.

Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction.

Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways.

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. km). Of that area, 35.67 sq. miles (92.68 sq. km) are land and 19.59 sq. miles (50.73 sq. km) are water. Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston.

The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1.

Climate

The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season.

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida.

Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. [3]

The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean.

Notable neighborhoods/areas

People and culture

Demographics

The Miami skyline, as it is seen from the northeast on Biscayne Bay.

Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%).

There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25.

In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 38 years. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. 28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree.

A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home.

Area Attractions

Downtown Miami at night

Museums and Galleries

Media

Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper.

Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS).

Sports

The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten.

The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise.

Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games.

A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County.

Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools.

Education

Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools.

Colleges and universities

Notable secondary institutions

Economy

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters.

Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach).

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing.

Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas.

Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s.

Transportation

A couple of Miami metro buses in Miami Beach, Florida.

Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA.

The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually.

Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County.

Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:

For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid.

Miami in television and film

The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish.

The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami.

Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina.

Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. See also Movies made in Miami.


This page about Miami includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Miami
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See also Movies made in Miami. Production figures from official Mazda records:. Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. The NC was named the 2005-2006 Japan Car of the Year and also the Australian Car of the Year. The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina. In the March 2005 edition of the same magazine, the six-decade countdown culminated in the "Ten Best Sports Cars of All Time" issue, of which the Miata secured the number 10 spot, bested only by the likes of exotics and otherwise unobtainable icons of automotive history. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . In the November 2004 edition of Sports Car International magazine, the Miata was chosen as the best sports car of the 1990s.

As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. The NA was also Wheels Magazine's Car of the Year for 1989 with the NC taking the award for 2005. Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. The Miata has been on Car and Driver magazine's annual Ten Best list seven times: The NA from its introduction in 1990 through 1992; the NB on its introduction in 1998 as well as 1999 and 2001; and the NC on its introduction in 2006. The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami. The MX-5 Hardtop will retail for US$2,000–3,000 more than the soft top model. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish. Mazda will reportedly launch a coupé convertible version of the MX-5 with a three-piece folding metal hardtop for 2006.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. The 2006 special edition "3rd Generation Limited" featured added chrome accents and special wheels. The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February. A Car and Driver test revealed a 0-60 mph (97 km/h) time of 6.5 seconds for the NC. For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid. Unlike the NA to NB update, which was mostly a nose/tail/interior change, there are substantial differences in almost every body panel, so current accessories will not work with the new design. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:. Some design elements have been adopted to reinforce the family relationship with the RX-8.

Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. The styling harkens back to the original design while adopting a clean, more muscular profile reminiscent of the Audi TT. Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Suspension has been changed from a 4-wheel double-wishbone setup to a front wishbone rear multilink setup and technologies like traction control and stability control have been added to increase drivability. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County. The frame was developed specifically for the new MX-5 only. Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. Despite internet rumors, the 3rd generation shares no structural components with the RX-8.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). 5-speed and 6-speed manual transmissions are offered as well as a 6-speed automatic transmission with steering wheel mounted paddle shifters. Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services. Despite the engine upgrade, impressive engineering allows the car to maintain a perfect 50-50 weight distribution. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually. It uses Mazda's 16-valve, 2.0 L MZR I4 engine, producing 170 hp (128 kW) and 140 ft·lbf (190 N·m). The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. Production of the next-generation Mazda MX-5 (NC) began in May 2005 and went on sale in August, for the 2006 model year.

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA. Though not officially a "Limited Edition" production run, only a small number of Mazdaspeed Miatas were produced during model years 2004 and 2005. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). Other features included a special suspension, upgraded transmission and clutch assemblies, upgraded drivetrain components, Racing Hart 17 inch wheels, special interior trim, and special exterior paint. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. It featured a light-pressure turbo BPT engine for 178 hp rather than the S-VT BP-Z3. Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. 2004 saw the introduction of the turbocharged Mazdaspeed MX-5.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s. 32,000 2001 and 2002 model year Miatas were recalled in December of 2005 for excessive emissions. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership. Owners who did not take up the buy back offer were offered an apology and free servicing for the warranty period. Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. Car and Driver magazine and numerous owners confirmed the missing power, and Mazda was forced to buy back a number of 2001 cars due to these misleading power claims. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas. In the United States, Mazda erroneously quoted the power figure for the Japanese and Australian model in early catalogues.

Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. The same engine produced 110 kW (146 hp) in vehicles sold in the United States and Europe (likely due to more restrictive emission standards). According to the U.S. These modifications resulted in power output of 117 kW (155 bhp) for models delivered in Japan and Australia. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt. The intake and exhaust system also received a minor upgrade. Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. The 1.8 L BP-Z3 engine was slightly modified and now featured variable valve timing on the intake camshaft.

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. With the minimum of options the 2001 model weighed 1065 kilograms. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach). The body was strengthened, gaining 16% in bending rigidity and 22% in tortional rigidity. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. The upgraded tyres and suspension allowed the new model to pull 0.88g in lateral grip in tests by Car & Driver. Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. A 6-speed transmission became available for the top models, as well as 16 in (406 mm) rims with 205/45 low-profile tyres and larger brakes (10.6 inch diameter at the front and 10.9 inch at the rear).

Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters. The seats were upgraded also, incorporating more support in the side areas. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. Some cockpit elements were also changed, with instrument panel guages having a white face and red numbers. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. There were some minor design changes, with the 18 July 2000 press release announcing the new model describing the changes as "resulting in an even sportier and more forceful look". Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. In 2001, a facelift to the NB was released.

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. The second generation Miata could reach 60 MPH (96 km/h) in 7.9 seconds and had a top speed of 123 MPH (197 km/h). Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Performance. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools. Power output of the new engine is quoted at 105 kW (140 hp) with 119lbft of torque. Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. The new intake manifold received a set of flappers that could uncover a resonance chamber - this was needed to fix a dead spot in the torque curve that the new head created.

The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County. The intake runners in the head were straightened and the intake manifold was mounted higher up. A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). The intake cam was changed to a solid lifter design with a stronger cam. Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games. The engine compression ratio was raised from 9.0:1 to 9.5:1 by adding slightly domed pistons. The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise. The BP-4W engine remained at 1.8 L but received several minor updates.

The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten. Engine. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. Sports models were equipped with the wider wheels and 195/50VR15 tires. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. Alloy wheels were now of 14 inch or 15 inch diameter of either 5.5 or 6 inch width, depending on the model. The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. ABS was offered as an option.

Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS). Front brakes were of 255 mm (10 in) diameter with 251 mm (9.9 in) at the rear. Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. The wheel, tyre and brakes package on the second generation Miata was significantly upgraded. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper. The second generation Miata continued to employ four-wheel independent suspension, with enlarged anti-roll bars of 22 mm (0.87 in) at the front and 11 mm (0.43 in) at the rear. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. Suspension and wheels.

However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. The new model was slightly more aerodynamic than the original, with a Cd figure of 0.36. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. With the minimum of options, the NB weighed 1000 kilograms. Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. Ground clearance was a slightly reduced 135 mm (5.3 in). (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home. The new car had grown slightly in width compared to the earlier model with dimensions: length 3955 mm (155.7 in); width 1680 mm (66.1 in); height 1235 mm (48.6 in) and wheelbase 2265 mm (89.2 in).

Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. Although almost all parts of the car were different, the most notable changes were the headlights: The first model's retractable headlights had been exchanged for fixed ones. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. Body and chassis. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. Specifications. A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. Prices in the United States, the main market for the Miata, started at US$19,770.

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree. In Japan, the Eunos name was dropped, as the marque was considered a commercial failure, but the successful Roadster was incorporated into the Mazda brand. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]. The NB features a more-powerful engine and more modern styling cues borrowed from the aggressive RX-7. Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. With its introduction, the earlier MX-5 Miata became known as the NA or Mark 1. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. This model is known as the NB (referring to the model number printed on the VIN plate) or Mark 2.

28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. In 1998, Mazda released the updated model year 1999 MX-5 Miata. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. (These special editions refer to North American markets only). Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. This generation was phased out in the 1997 model year, with the final 1500 Mark-1 Miatas produced being the "STO" ("Still The One") versions. The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. These included all of the luxury options from the C package as well as special paint and, sometimes, special wheels.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males. A special "R Package" was introduced for racing, and the annual special editions were formalized as "M Editions". For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. A "B Package" added some options, while the "C Package" included a tan interior and top and leather seats. The median age is 38 years. The standard model was called the "A Package" for the Miata models. In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. There were a number of trim levels and special editions available.

The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25. Later 1.8 engines were up in power to 133 bhp due to the use of a more sophisticated engine management system (OBD-II). 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. In some markets such as the UK the 1.6 engine continued to be available as a lower-cost option, but was detuned to only 88 bhp to make it less competitive with the 1.8. There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. The new engine produced 98 kW (130 hp) and the standard model weighed 990 kilograms (2183 lbs). In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%). The MX-5 Miata was freshened for 1994 with the introduction of a more powerful 1.8 L BP engine, dual airbags, a geared, torque-sensing limited slip differential, and other options.

The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. The first generation Miata could reach 60 MPH (96 km/h) in 8.2 seconds and had a top speed of 119 MPH (190 km/h). 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. Performance. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. The engine employs an L-Jetronic fuel injection system and a crank angle sensor instead of a distributor. The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. The original Miata came with a 1.6 L double overhead cam inline four-cylinder engine, producing 90 kW (120 bhp) and 100 lbft of torque.

There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). Engine. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. Four wheel disc brakes of 235 mm (9.3 in) diameter (ventilated) at the front and 231 mm (9.1 in) at the rear stopped 5.5 inch wide 14 inch alloy wheels with 185/60HR14 radial tires. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. The Miata employs independent double wishbone suspension on all four wheels with an 18 mm (0.71 in) anti-roll bar at the front. Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. Suspension and wheels.

Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean. The body was reasonably aerodynamic, with a Cd figure of 0.38. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. Without options, the NA model MX-5 weighed 940 kilograms. Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. Ground clearance is 140mm (5.5 in). Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. The overall dimensions are: length 3970 mm (156.3 in); width 1675 mm (65.9 in); height 1235 mm (48.6 in); wheelbase 2265 mm (89.2 in).

The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. The body shell of the Miata is all-steel with an aluminium bonnet. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. Body and chassis. The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. Specifications. [3]. Instead, the Mazda MX-5 was called the Eunos Roadster in its own market.

That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. In Japan, the car was not badged as a Mazda, as the company was experimenting with the creation of different brands for deluxe models, similar to Nissan's Infiniti and Toyota's Lexus. The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. The Miata would be available for purchase by the public from July 1989 as a 1990 model. Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). The Miata was unveiled at the Chicago Auto Show on 10 February 1989, with a price tag of US$13,800. During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida. The Miata meets the public.

Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). The project then returned to Japan for final engineering details and production issues to be decided. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. The task of constructing five engineering mules was again allocated to International Automotive Design, who also conducted the first front and rear crash tests on the prototype. As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. The project was now code-named P729 by Mazda. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). After some minor changes in the design, presented in clay model form by the designers from Mazda (North America), the project was given final approval on 18 January 1986.

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. The prototype was completed in August 1985 and code-named the V705 by Mazda. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season. The prototype was built with a fiberglass body, a 1.4 L engine from a Mazda Familia and other compenents from a variety of early Mazda models. The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. The Duo 101 design, so named as either a soft-top or hard-top could be used, was referred to International Automotive Design in Worthing, England for the construction of a running prototype. The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1. It was at the second round of the competition in August 1984 , when full scale clay models were presented, that the front-engined rear-wheel drive design, code-named the Duo 101, was selected as the basis for Mazda's new light-weight sports car.

Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston. On paper the mid-engined car appeared the most impressive, although it was known at the time that such a layout would struggle to meet the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) requirements of the project. km) are water. Designs were presented on paper. miles (50.73 sq. The first round of judging the competing designs for the MX-5 was held in April 1984. km) are land and 19.59 sq. The role of designing a front-engine, rear-wheel drive light-weight sports car was assigned to Mazda (North America) whilst the Tokyo Design Studio designed front engined, front-wheel drive and mid-engined, rear-wheel drive cars for the competition.

miles (92.68 sq. The design of the first generation Miata was the result of a competition between Mazda (North America) and the Tokyo Design Studio. Of that area, 35.67 sq. A competition to design a light-weight sports car. km). Since production began, over 700,000 Miatas have been made, leading the Guinness Book of Records to name it the world's best-selling sports car on February 13, 2002. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. The Miata is popular in amateur and stock racing events, particularly the Sports Car Club of America's Solo-II autocross series, as well as Spec Miata driving.

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. Inducing oversteer is easy and well controllable. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways. With a 50:50 front/rear weight balance (when measured with an average weight driver and a 2/3 full gas tank), the car has a very neutral handling, which makes it easy to drive for the beginner, and fun for the advanced driver. state of Florida. Many Miatas feature limited slip differentials and antilock brakes, but none have traction control. Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. Miatas also incorporate a unique trusswork called the Powerplant Frame (PPF) which connects the engine to the differential, minimizing flex and creating a tight, responsive feel.

As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction. The body is a conventional, but very light, unibody shell. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. It comes with a 1.6 L, 1.8 L or 2.0 L longitudinally mounted engine coupled to a manual transmission (an automatic transmission is available, though rare). Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. The Miata has a traditional front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout and 4-wheel independent double wishbone suspension. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level. Its design is inspired by, some say copied from, the Lotus Elan, a 1960s roadster that is widely considered to be one of the best handling sports cars of its day.

By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. The first Miata was designed in California, USA and Worthing, England. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. The Miata was designed to be a basic roadster with a minimum of unnecessary weight and complexity. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. . Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The Miata is the world's best-selling sports car, with 720,407 cars produced and sold between February 1989 and March 31, 2005.

All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. It was initially unveiled at the Chicago Auto Show on 10 February 1989. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. Popularly known as Miata in North America, it is also known just as the Mazda MX-5 in Oceania and Europe and the Eunos Roadster or Mazda Roadster in Japan. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. The Mazda MX-5 is a popular sports car built by Mazda in Hiroshima, Japan. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. 2000: 47496.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. 1999: 44851. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year. 1998: 58682. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. 1997: 27037. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. 1996: 33610.

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. 1995: 31886. In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations. 1994: 39623. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music. 1993: 44743. The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. 1992: 52712.

A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface. 1991: 63434. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. 1990: 95640. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. 1989: 45266. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. 1988: 12.

In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities. Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States.

The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons.

However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba.

On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. citizens. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year.

policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. The agreement codified the new U.S. On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States.

military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. policy. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S.

Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting. As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti.

[citation needed]. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor.

Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country.

Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. with very little. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S.

In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country.

During World War II, the U.S. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1]. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park.

The Great Depression followed. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. These delays gave investors a chance to think again.

Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings. During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before.

Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:. In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself.

Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state.

She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer. In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami. Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades.

At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas.

The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river. In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves.

Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay. They built a fort in 1743.

Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.

Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there.

One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. The origin of the name Miami is unknown. . Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city.

Two vessels of the U.S. The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking). Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration.

Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1. The U.S. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida.

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean.

state of Florida. Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S.
Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida. SR 924 (Gratigny Parkway) Miami Lakes to Opa Locka.

SR 878 (Snapper Creek Expressway) Kendall to Turnpike/Homestead. SR 874 (Don Shula Expressway) 826/Bird Road to 878. SR 836 (Dolphin Expressway) Downtown to Turnpike via MIA. SR 826 (Palmetto Expressway) Golden Glades Interchange to US-1/Kendall.

821 (The HEFT or Homestead Extension of the Florida Turnpike: SR 91/Miami Gardens to US-1/Florida City). SR 112 (Airport Expressway) Downtown to MIA. William Turner Technical High School - Technical School. Ransom Everglades Middle School - Magnet and Gifted School.

New World School of the Arts - Magnet School. Miami Palmetto Senior High School - Nationally Recognized Top Rated Public High School. Miami High School - Oldest Still Functioning School. Miami Country Day School- Prep School.

MAST Academy High School - Magnet School. LaSalle High School - Prep School. Gulliver Preparatory School - Prep School. Krop High School - Magnet School.

Michael M. Dr. Design and Architecture Senior High School - Magnet School. Coral Reef High School - Magnet School.

Christopher Columbus High School - Prep School. Belen Jesuit Preparatory School - Prep School. University of Miami [17]. Thomas University.

St. Devry University [16]. Nova Southeastern University [15]. Miami-Dade College [14].

Miami International University of Art and Design. Johnson and Wales University. Florida Memorial University. Florida International University.

Barry University [13]. Vizcaya Museum & Gardens [12]. Vizcaya-Miami Art Museum. Museum of Contemporary Art (MoCa) [11].

Miami Art Museum [10]. Historical Museum of South Florida. Parrot Jungle Island. Monkey Jungle [9].

Miami Seaquarium [8]. Miami Museum of Science and Planetarium. Miami Metro Zoo [7]. Little Havana.

Jerry Herman Ring Theatre. Fruit & Spice Park. Fairchild Tropical Gardens. Everglades National Park [6].

Deering Estate. Coral Castle. Coconut Grove. Biscayne National Park.

Bayside Marketplace. Barnacle Historic State Park. Wynwood. Overtown.

Omni Performing Arts District. Little Haiti. Little Havana. Government Center.

Design District. Coconut Grove. Buena Vista. Brickell Avenue.

Bay Point Estates. Allapattah.

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