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Miami, Florida

"The Magic City, The American Riviera, The Sixth Borough"


Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida.

Founded 1896
City Government Style Mayor-Council
Mayor Manuel “Manny” Diaz (R)
Area
 - Total
 - Water

55.27 mi² (143.15km²)
19.59 mi² (50.73 km²) 35.44%
Population
 - City (2005)
 - Density

382,894
10,734.34/mi²
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5
Time zone Central: UTC-6
Latitude
Longitude
25°47' N
80°13' W
City of Miami Official Website

Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S. state of Florida. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States.

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. The U.S. Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1.

Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking).

The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States.

Two vessels of the U.S. Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city.

History

Early history

The origin of the name Miami is unknown. One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida.

Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.

See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta

American settlement

Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. They built a fort in 1743. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay.

People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves.

In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river.

The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land.

The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami.

In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer.

Miami Avenue in 1896

In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion.

Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549.

Early growth

Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:

During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings.

This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. These delays gave investors a chance to think again. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. The Great Depression followed.

On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1].

During World War II, the U.S. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel.

Immigrant influx

Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S. with very little. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966.

Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. [citation needed]

In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti. As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting.

Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. policy. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel at night.

On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. The agreement codified the new U.S. policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. citizens.

On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated.

These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons.

Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States.

Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities.

Miami Vice

Hurricane Andrew

In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface.

The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music.

In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations.

Geography and climate

Geography

Downtown Miami as seen from Watson Island

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level.

Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction.

Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways.

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. km). Of that area, 35.67 sq. miles (92.68 sq. km) are land and 19.59 sq. miles (50.73 sq. km) are water. Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston.

The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1.

Climate

The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season.

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida.

Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. [3]

The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean.

Notable neighborhoods/areas

People and culture

Demographics

The Miami skyline, as it is seen from the northeast on Biscayne Bay.

Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%).

There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25.

In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 38 years. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. 28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree.

A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home.

Area Attractions

Downtown Miami at night

Museums and Galleries

Media

Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper.

Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS).

Sports

The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten.

The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise.

Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games.

A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County.

Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools.

Education

Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools.

Colleges and universities

Notable secondary institutions

Economy

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters.

Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach).

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing.

Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas.

Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s.

Transportation

A couple of Miami metro buses in Miami Beach, Florida.

Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA.

The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually.

Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County.

Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:

For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid.

Miami in television and film

The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish.

The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami.

Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina.

Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. See also Movies made in Miami.


This page about Miami includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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See also Movies made in Miami. Broadcast media:. Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. Newspapers serving Milwaukee include:. The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina. As of 2006, it has an enrolment of 95,600 students and employs 6,100 full-time and substitute teachers in 223 schools. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . Milwaukee maintains Milwaukee Public Schools, the largest school district in Wisconsin.

As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. To this day, the Packers maintain two separate season ticket plans, reflecting their time in Milwaukee: the Gold package, made up primarily of former Milwaukee season ticket holders, have a three-game package consisting of the annual Midwest Shrine preseason contest plus the second and fifth regular-season home games each year, and the Green package (made up of original Green Bay ticket holders) attend the annual Bishop's Charities preseason game and the remaining six regular-season contests. Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. The Packers won, 27-0. The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami. The 1939 Championship between the Packers and the New York Giants was played at State Fair Park. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish. In addition, the Green Bay Packers played a portion of their home schedule in Milwaukee from 1933 through 1994:.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. Previous sports teams to play in Milwaukee have included:. The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February. Olympic Team training facility for speed skating. For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid. The Mile is not far from the Pettit National Ice Center, a U.S. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:. The Milwaukee Mile auto racing facility, the oldest active auto race track in the United States, is located on the Wisconsin State Fair Grounds in West Allis.

Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. It is also home to a number of professional sports teams including:. Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Milwaukee was also an epicenter of the breakcore scene in early 2000s with labels like Addict Records and Zod Records. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County. Milwaukee was home to a vibrant rave scene in the early Nineties, especially fostering hardcore techno, thanks to Drop Bass; but the scene moved south to Chicago after reaction by city authorities. Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. Milwaukee is also home to a vibrant club scene booking regular international DJs such as Richie Hawtin, LTJ Bukem, Mark Farina, Derrick Carter and others.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). Venues such as Pabst Theater and The Rave bring internationally-known and critically acclaimed acts to Milwaukee every day. Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services. Beer City Skateboards is not only a skateboard company, but a punk rock label as well, home to DRI and Millions of Dead Cops. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually. Coo Coo Cal gave Milwaukee a national foothold in the hip-hop market with his hit single "My Projects". The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. Local hip-hop action includes acts like Rusty Ps and Black Elephant.

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA. A range of musicians have called Milwaukee home, including Hildegarde, Woody Herman, Liberace, blues giant Hubert Sumlin, the BoDeans, Violent Femmes, Citizen King, The Gufs, The Promise Ring, Oil Tasters, Die Kruezen, Boy Dirt Car, Shiverhead, among others. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). Although Milwaukee isn't known historically as a club scene music mecca, it does have a vibrant history of rock, blues, punk, ska, industrial music, goth and pop music bands. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. Along the same lines, the tradition of tailgating (for almost any event, but especially Brewers games), where copious amounts of beer and other potent potables are ceremoniously consumed, is deeply engrained in culture of the city and its residents both young and old. Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. Due in large part to its brewery history, the city has been called "the nation's watering hole" with more bars per capita than any other large city in the country (one bar for every 1600 people or approximately 375 bars, four bars for every square mile).

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s. Smaller festivals througout the year celebrate the city's German, Native American, African-American, Italian, Irish, Asian, Arab, and Polish heritage. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership. Listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest music festival in the world, Summerfest attracts around 900,000 visitors a year to its twelve stages. Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. Milwaukee, "A Great Place on a Great Lake" and "Genuine American," has also advertised itself as the "City of Festivals," emphasizing an annual lakefront fair called Summerfest. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas. The Milwaukee Youth Arts Center, a first-of-its-kind Arts-in-education facility, is a national model.

Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. Additionally, Milwaukee is home to artistic performance venues such as the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts, Pabst Theatre, Riverside Theatre, and Milwaukee Theatre. According to the U.S. Milwaukee is home to the Florentine Opera, the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, the Milwaukee Ballet, Milwaukee Repertory Theatre, Skylight Opera Theatre, First Stage Children's Theater,Milwaukee Youth Theatre, and a number of other arts organizations. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt. The Milwaukee Public Museum, Mitchell Park Horticultural Conservatory and Milwaukee County Zoo are also notable public attractions. Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. The museum includes a "brise soleil," a moving sunscreen that quite literally unfolds like the wing of a bird.

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. Milwaukee's most visually prominent cultural attraction is the Milwaukee Art Museum, especially its new $100 million wing designed by Santiago Calatrava in his first American commission. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach). Milwaukee also has a large number of financial service firms, particularly those specializing in mutual funds and transaction processing systems, and a disproportionate number of publishing and printing companies. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Paul region. Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. The Milwaukee area ranked number five in the nation when measuring the number of Fortune 500 companies as a share of the population, just behind the number four Minneapolis-St.

Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters. Among these are Briggs & Stratton, Harley-Davidson, Johnson Controls, Manpower Inc., Marshall & Ilsley, Northwestern Mutual, Rockwell Automation, Roundy's Supermarkets, Metavante, Kohl's, and Wisconsin Energy. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. Milwaukee is headquarters to six Fortune 1000 manufacturers and six Fortune 1000 service companies. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. Service and managerial jobs are the fastest growing segments of the Milwaukee economy, and healthcare makes up 27% of all service jobs in the city. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. Milwaukee's reputation as a blue collar town is more accurate, however, with 22 percent of the workforce involved in manufacturing — second only to San Jose, CA and far higher than the national average of 16.5%.

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. Although most people associate Milwaukee with beer, today companies like Miller Brewing employ less than one percent of the city's workers. Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Residents may also use the Milwaukee County Transit System to get around the city as well as the county via the bus. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools. Milwaukee also has many internal freeways as well. Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. I-94 comes up from Chicago to enter Milwaukee continues to Madison I-43 also enters Milwaukee from the south and continues to Green Bay where it ends.

The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County. Milwaukee uses the Interstate Highways for its main transportation. A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). Out of the total population, 31.6% of those under the age of 18 and 11.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games. 21.3% of the population and 17.4% of families are below the poverty line. The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise. The per capita income for the city is $16,181.

The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten. Males have a median income of $32,244 versus $26,013 for females. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. The median income for a household in the city is $32,216, and the median income for a family is $37,879. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.2 males. The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. For every 100 females there are 91.6 males.

Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS). The median age is 31 years. Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. In the city the population is spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who are 65 years of age or older. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper. The average household size is 2.50 and the average family size is 3.25. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. 33.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older.

However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. There are 232,188 households out of which 30.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% are married couples living together, 21.1% have a female householder with no husband present, and 41.8% are non-families. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. 12.00% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. The racial makeup of the city is 49.98% White, 37.34% African American, 0.87% Native American, 2.94% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.10% from other races, and 2.71% from two or more races. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home. There are 249,225 housing units at an average density of 1,001.7/km² (2,594.4 per square mile).

Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. The population density is 2,399.5/km² (6,214.3 per square mile). Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there are 596,974 people, 232,188 households, and 135,133 families residing in the city. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. Other large population groups include Polish (12.7%), Irish (10%), English (5.1%), Italian (4.4%), French (3.9%), and Hispanic origin totaled 6.3%. A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. In the 2000 census, over a third (38 percent) of Milwaukeeans reported that they were of German descent.

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree. The 1982 event, also known as Cold Sunday, featured temperatures as low as -40°F (-40°C) in some of the suburbs as little as 10 miles (16km) to the north of Milwaukee, although the city itself did not approach such cold temperatures. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]. The coldest temperature ever experienced by the city was -26°F (-32°C) on both January 17, 1982 and February 4, 1996. Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. Milwaukee's all-time record high temperature is 105°F (41°C) set on July 17, 1995. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Also, the relative humidity in the summer is far higher than that of comparable cities at the same latitude, meaning that it feels hotter than it really is.

28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. Milwaukee's proximity to Lake Michigan causes a convection current to form mid-afternoon, resulting in the so-called lake effect, causing the temperatures to be warmer in the winter, and cooler in the summer ("cooler by the lake" is practically boilerplate language for local meteorologists during the summer). The per capita income for the city is $15,128. It is crossed by Interstate 43 and Interstate 94, which come together downtown at the Marquette Interchange. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. Milwaukee lies along the shores and bluffs of Lake Michigan at the confluence of three rivers: the Menomonee, the Kinnickinnic and the Milwaukee. The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. The total area is 0.88% water.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males. 248.8 km² (96.1 square miles) of it is land and 2.2 km² (0.9 mi²) of it is water. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 251.0 km² (96.9 square miles). The median age is 38 years. While the city still faces a shrinking population[1], it continues to make plans for increasing its future revitalization through various projects. In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. Starting in the late 1960s, however, like many cities in the Great Lakes "rust belt," Milwaukee saw its population start to decline due to various factors, ranging from the loss of blue collar jobs to the phenomenon of "white flight." However, in recent years, the city began to make strides in improving its economy, neighborhoods, and image, resulting in the revitalization of neighborhoods such as the Third Ward, east side,and more recently, Bay View, along with attracting new businesses to its downtown area.

The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25. This helped make Milwaukee one of the 15 largest cities in the nation, and by the mid-1960s, its population reached nearly 750,000. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. states. There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. From the late 19th century until the 1950s, Milwaukee, like many northern industrial cities, saw tremendous growth from immigrants from Germany, Hungary, Poland and other central European nations, as well as the northward migration of African-Americans from southern U.S. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%). The liberal tradition of these peoples led to decades of socialist government in Milwaukee during the twentieth century.

The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. Milwaukee still today has a large German-American population. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. German immigrants helped increase the city's population during the 1840s and the following decades. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. Juneau was Milwaukee's first mayor. The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. Walker.

There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). In 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring rival towns to incorporate as the City of Milwaukee: Kilbourntown to the west, which was founded by Byron Kilbourn, and Walker's Point to the south, founded by George H. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. Juneau bought out his father-in-law's trading business, and in 1833 he founded a town on the east side of the Milwaukee River. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. In 1818, Frenchman Solomon Juneau settled in the area. Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. Milwaukee received its name from the Indian word Millioke which means "The Good Land", or "gathering place by the water." French missionaries and traders passed through the area in the late 1600s and 1700s.

Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean. The Milwaukee area was originally inhabited by the Fox, Mascouten, Potawatomi, and Winnebago Indian tribes. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. . Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. The city is located in the southeastern portion of the state on the western shore of Lake Michigan. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. The city of Milwaukee is the 22nd largest city in the United States.

The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. The city's population is 592,765 (2005 estimate) with an estimated total of 1,709,926 in the Milwaukee metropolitan area (2005). Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin, United States and the county of Milwaukee. The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity.
Location of Milwaukee in
Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. [3]. Some Milwaukeeans use the unique expression "ainahey", short for "ain't it, hey?" to reaffirm something obvious, used in the same way as "of course", and similar to the colloquial "don'chaknow", short for "don't you know?".

That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. It is also common for people to refer to ATMs as a "Tyme Machine," referring to the name of the dominant debit card in Wisconsin. The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. One well known colloquialism common to Milwaukee and the surrounding area, is the word "bubbler," which refers to a drinking fountain. Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). Timmerman Airport. During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida. Lawrence J.

Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). General Mitchell International Airport. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. List of Milwaukee area radio stations. As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. List of Milwaukee area television stations. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). Vital Source Magazine.

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. UWM Post. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season. The Leader. The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. Marquette Tribune. The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1. Shepherd Express.

Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston. MKE (magazine). km) are water. Milwaukee Magazine. miles (50.73 sq. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. km) are land and 19.59 sq. Wisconsin Lutheran High School.

miles (92.68 sq. Washington High School. Of that area, 35.67 sq. Vincent High School. km). Thomas More. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. South Division High School.

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. Rufus King High School. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways. Riverside University High School. state of Florida. Reagan College Preparatory. Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. Pulaski High School.

As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction. Professional Learning Institute. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. Pius XI High School. Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. North Division Virtual University High School. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level. New School for Community Service.

By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. Milwaukee School of Languages. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. Milwaukee School of Entrepreneurship. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Milwaukee Lutheran High School. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. Milwaukee High School of the Arts.

All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Metropolitan High School. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. Marquette University High School. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Madison University High School. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. Rufus King International Baccalaureate High School.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. Juneau Business High School. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year. John Marshall High School. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. Hamilton High School. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. Divine Savior Holy Angels High School.

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. Custer High School. In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations. Bradley (Lynde & Harry) Technology & Trade High School. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music. Bay View High School. The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. Wisconsin Lutheran College.

A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. Mount Mary College. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. Milwaukee School of Engineering. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. Milwaukee Institute of Art and Design.

In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. Milwaukee Area Technical College. While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities. Medical College of Wisconsin. Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. Marquette University. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States. Cardinal Stritch University.

The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. Alverno College. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. Milwaukee County Stadium, 1953-1994. Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. Marquette Stadium, 1952. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons. Wisconsin State Fair Park, 1934-51.

However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. Borchert Field, 1933. These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. Milwaukee Wave United (Outdoor Soccer) 2003 - They only played one season. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated. Milwaukee Rampage (Outdoor Soccer) 1994 - 2002. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. Milwaukee Mustangs (American football—Arena Football League), played at the Bradley Center from 1994 to 2001.

On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. Milwaukee Does (Basketball—Women's Pro Basketball League), played at MECCA Arena from 1978 to 1980. citizens. The Milwaukee Braves won the National League pennant in 1957 and 1958, and won the World Series in 1957. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. Milwaukee Braves (Baseball—MLB), played at Milwaukee County Stadium from 1953-1965. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. Louis.

policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. Milwaukee Hawks (Basketball—NBA) played at the Milwaukee Arena from 1951 to 1955 before moving to St. The agreement codified the new U.S. Milwaukee Brewers (Baseball—Minor League Baseball), member of the American Association from 1902 through 1952, played at Borchert Field. On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. Milwaukee Badgers (American football—NFL), played from 1922 to 1926. During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States. Cellular Arena.

military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). Milwaukee Wave (Indoor Soccer) playing at the U.S. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. Milwaukee Admirals (Ice hockey) playing at the Bradley Center. policy. Milwaukee Bucks (Basketball—NBA) playing at the Bradley Center. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. Milwaukee Brewers (Baseball—MLB) playing at Miller Park.

Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. Average July high/low temperatures: 79°F/62°F (26°C/17°C). In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting. Average January high/low temperatures: 26°F/11°F (-3°C/-12°C). As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti.

[citation needed]. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor.

Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country.

Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. with very little. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S.

In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country.

During World War II, the U.S. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1]. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park.

The Great Depression followed. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. These delays gave investors a chance to think again.

Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings. During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before.

Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:. In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself.

Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state.

She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer. In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami. Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades.

At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas.

The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river. In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves.

Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay. They built a fort in 1743.

Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.

Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there.

One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. The origin of the name Miami is unknown. . Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city.

Two vessels of the U.S. The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking). Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration.

Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1. The U.S. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida.

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean.

state of Florida. Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S.
Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida. SR 924 (Gratigny Parkway) Miami Lakes to Opa Locka.

SR 878 (Snapper Creek Expressway) Kendall to Turnpike/Homestead. SR 874 (Don Shula Expressway) 826/Bird Road to 878. SR 836 (Dolphin Expressway) Downtown to Turnpike via MIA. SR 826 (Palmetto Expressway) Golden Glades Interchange to US-1/Kendall.

821 (The HEFT or Homestead Extension of the Florida Turnpike: SR 91/Miami Gardens to US-1/Florida City). SR 112 (Airport Expressway) Downtown to MIA. William Turner Technical High School - Technical School. Ransom Everglades Middle School - Magnet and Gifted School.

New World School of the Arts - Magnet School. Miami Palmetto Senior High School - Nationally Recognized Top Rated Public High School. Miami High School - Oldest Still Functioning School. Miami Country Day School- Prep School.

MAST Academy High School - Magnet School. LaSalle High School - Prep School. Gulliver Preparatory School - Prep School. Krop High School - Magnet School.

Michael M. Dr. Design and Architecture Senior High School - Magnet School. Coral Reef High School - Magnet School.

Christopher Columbus High School - Prep School. Belen Jesuit Preparatory School - Prep School. University of Miami [17]. Thomas University.

St. Devry University [16]. Nova Southeastern University [15]. Miami-Dade College [14].

Miami International University of Art and Design. Johnson and Wales University. Florida Memorial University. Florida International University.

Barry University [13]. Vizcaya Museum & Gardens [12]. Vizcaya-Miami Art Museum. Museum of Contemporary Art (MoCa) [11].

Miami Art Museum [10]. Historical Museum of South Florida. Parrot Jungle Island. Monkey Jungle [9].

Miami Seaquarium [8]. Miami Museum of Science and Planetarium. Miami Metro Zoo [7]. Little Havana.

Jerry Herman Ring Theatre. Fruit & Spice Park. Fairchild Tropical Gardens. Everglades National Park [6].

Deering Estate. Coral Castle. Coconut Grove. Biscayne National Park.

Bayside Marketplace. Barnacle Historic State Park. Wynwood. Overtown.

Omni Performing Arts District. Little Haiti. Little Havana. Government Center.

Design District. Coconut Grove. Buena Vista. Brickell Avenue.

Bay Point Estates. Allapattah.

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