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Miami, Florida

"The Magic City, The American Riviera, The Sixth Borough"


Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida.

Founded 1896
City Government Style Mayor-Council
Mayor Manuel “Manny” Diaz (R)
Area
 - Total
 - Water

55.27 mi² (143.15km²)
19.59 mi² (50.73 km²) 35.44%
Population
 - City (2005)
 - Density

382,894
10,734.34/mi²
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5
Time zone Central: UTC-6
Latitude
Longitude
25°47' N
80°13' W
City of Miami Official Website

Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S. state of Florida. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States.

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. The U.S. Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1.

Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking).

The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States.

Two vessels of the U.S. Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city.

History

Early history

The origin of the name Miami is unknown. One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida.

Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.

See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta

American settlement

Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. They built a fort in 1743. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay.

People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves.

In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river.

The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land.

The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami.

In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer.

Miami Avenue in 1896

In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion.

Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549.

Early growth

Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:

During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings.

This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. These delays gave investors a chance to think again. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. The Great Depression followed.

On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1].

During World War II, the U.S. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel.

Immigrant influx

Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S. with very little. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966.

Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. [citation needed]

In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti. As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting.

Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. policy. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel at night.

On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. The agreement codified the new U.S. policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. citizens.

On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated.

These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons.

Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States.

Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities.

Miami Vice

Hurricane Andrew

In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface.

The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music.

In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations.

Geography and climate

Geography

Downtown Miami as seen from Watson Island

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level.

Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction.

Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways.

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. km). Of that area, 35.67 sq. miles (92.68 sq. km) are land and 19.59 sq. miles (50.73 sq. km) are water. Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston.

The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1.

Climate

The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season.

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida.

Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. [3]

The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean.

Notable neighborhoods/areas

People and culture

Demographics

The Miami skyline, as it is seen from the northeast on Biscayne Bay.

Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%).

There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25.

In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 38 years. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. 28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree.

A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home.

Area Attractions

Downtown Miami at night

Museums and Galleries

Media

Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper.

Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS).

Sports

The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten.

The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise.

Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games.

A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County.

Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools.

Education

Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools.

Colleges and universities

Notable secondary institutions

Economy

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters.

Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach).

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing.

Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas.

Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s.

Transportation

A couple of Miami metro buses in Miami Beach, Florida.

Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA.

The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually.

Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County.

Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:

For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid.

Miami in television and film

The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish.

The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami.

Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina.

Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. See also Movies made in Miami.


This page about Miami includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Miami
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See also Movies made in Miami. Models offered include:. Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. Nikon use the term Speedlight for their flash guns. The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina.
. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc .
.

As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. Some common designations are listed below with the descriptions of each. Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. These help consumers know what features the lens has. The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami. Nikon Lenses have designated acronyms used in their names (for example, the lens AF-S 18-70 mm f/3.5-4.5G DX ED IF). There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon.".

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. Nikon's raw image format format is named NEF, for Nikon Electric File. The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February.
. For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid. [3]. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:. They will continue to produce the low-end FM10 and the high-end F6, and announced a commitment to service all of the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases.

Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. In January 2006 Nikon announced [2] that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, focusing their efforts to the digital camera market. Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County. (As of September 2004). Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. Nikon is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange under number 7731.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). . Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services. [1]. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually. In January 2006, Nikon announced that it would stop making most of its film camera models and focus on digital models. The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. The facility now includes corporate offices, a fully equipped training center, and extensive applications, technology, service, sales and marketing departments.

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA. In 1990, NPI opened its current Belmont, California headquarters. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). Fueled by a rapidly growing customer base, the company quickly expanded. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. was established in the United States to sell and service Nikon stepper equipment. Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s. Since then, Nikon has introduced over 50 models of stepper/scanners for the production of semiconductors and liquid crystal displays. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership. By 1980, the first stepper, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. After the war it reverted to its civilian product range with a single factory and 1400 employees. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas. During World War II the company grew to 19 factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights and periscopes to the Japanese military.

Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. Over the next 60 years this growing company became a leading manufacturer of optical lenses and precision equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. According to the U.S. Nikon Corporation was established in 1917 when two leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kogaku K.K. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt. Nikon's main competitors include Canon, Konica Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus. Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. Nikon has helped lead the transition to digital photography with both the Coolpix line of consumer and prosumer cameras as well as system cameras like the Nikon D100, the more recent Nikon D70, D70s and the D50, and professional DSLRs including the D1 and D2 series (see below).

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. Among its famous products are Nikkor camera lenses (notably those designed for the company's own F-mount SLR cameras), Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F-series of professional 135 film SLR cameras, and the Nikon D-series digital SLRs. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach). The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku ("Japan Optical") and an imitation of Zeiss Ikon. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies. Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. As of 2002, it has about 14,000 employees.

Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters. It was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kōgaku Kōgyō (日本光學工業株式會社); the company was renamed Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン), after its cameras, in 1988. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) TYO: 7731 is a Japanese company specializing in optics and imaging. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. Nikon mailing list.

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. Photosapien Photography Forum. Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Nikonians - see also Nikonian. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools. Fansites and forums:

    . Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. Photography in Malaysia - Nikon Pictorial History.

    The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County. Nikon Field Guide and Nikon Flash Guide support at bythom.com. A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). Nikon Historical Society. Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games. Yahoo! - Nikon Corporation Company Profile. The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise. Nikon Digital Camera Resources - Custom tone curves.

    The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten. Data:

      . The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. NIKON NEWS - Magazine on Nikon products and photography published by Nikon Switzerland in German and French. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. - Semiconductor Photolithography USA website. The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. Nikon Precision Inc.

      Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS). USA website. Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. Nikon Corp. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper. website. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. Nikon Corp.

      However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. Official websites:

        . The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. SB-16A. Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. SB-16B, and. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home. SB-27,.

        Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. SB-23,. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. SB-22s,. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. SB-24,. A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. SB-29s,.

        The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree. SB-30,. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]. SB-50DX,. Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. SB-80DX,. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. R1C1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s, SU-800, and accessories),.

        28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. R1 Wireless Close Up Speedlight Flash System (2 SB-R200s and accessories) ,. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. SB-R200 (remote flash),. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. SU-800 (slave trigger),. The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. SB-600,.

        For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males. SB-800,. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. Lens for Plaubel Makina medium-format camera. The median age is 38 years. Lenses for Bronica medium-format cameras. In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. Screwmount lenses for Leica rangefinder cameras.

        The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25. Lenses for Nikon S-series rangefinder cameras. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. 70-180 mm f/4.5-5.6 ED AF-D Micro. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%). 200 mm f/4D ED-IF AF Micro.

        The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. 105 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. 60 mm f/2.8D AF Micro. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S VR DX. The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. 55-200 mm f/4-5.6G ED AF-S DX.

        There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). 18-55 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED AF-S DX. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. 18-70 mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. 17-55 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S DX. Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. 12-24 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S DX.

        Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean. 10.5 mm f/2.8G ED AF DX. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. 200-400 mm f/4G ED-IF AF-S VR. Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. 80-400 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF VR. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. 80-200 mm f/2.8D ED AF.

        The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. 70-200 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. 35-70 mm f/2.8D AF. The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. 28-70 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S. [3]. 17-35 mm f/2.8 ED-IF AF-S.

        That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6G AF. The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. 70-300 mm f/4.5-5.6D ED AF. Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). 28-200 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF. During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida. 28-105 mm f/3.5-4.5D AF.

        Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). 28-100 mm f/3.5-5.6G AF. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. 28-80 mm f/3.3-5.6G AF. As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. 24-120 mm f/3.5-5.6G ED-IF AF-S VR. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). 24-85 mm f/3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S.

        The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. 24-85 mm f/2.8-4D IF AF. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season. 18-200 mm f/3.5-5.6 G ED-IF AF-S VR DX. The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. 18-35 mm f/3.5-4.5D ED-IF AF. The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1. 600 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II.

        Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston. 500 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S II. km) are water. 400 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II. miles (50.73 sq. 300 mm f/4D ED-IF AF-S. km) are land and 19.59 sq. 300 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S II.

        miles (92.68 sq. 300 mm f/2.8G ED-IF AF-S VR. Of that area, 35.67 sq. 200 mm f/2G ED-IF AF-S VR. km). 180 mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. 135 mm f/2D AF DC.

        In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. 105 mm f/2D AF DC. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways. 85 mm f/1.8D AF. state of Florida. 85 mm f/1.4D AF. Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. 50 mm f/1.8D AF.

        As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction. 50 mm f/1.4D AF. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. 35 mm f/2D AF. Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. 28 mm f/2.8D AF. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level. 28 mm f/1.4D AF.

        By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. 24 mm f/2.8D AF. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. 20mm f/2.8D AF. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. 18 mm f/2.8D AF. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. 16 mm f/2.8D AF Fisheye.

        All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. 14 mm f/2.8D ED AF. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. Generally used to refer to manual focus lenses, however all Nikon autofocus lenses with aperture rings are also AI-S. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. AI-S added a tab to the back of the lens which affected metering on certain older cameras. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. The lens has a notch on the aperture ring that allows the camera to sense the current aperture.

        The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. AI/AI-S - Auto (aperture) Indexing. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year. DC - Indicates that the lens has controls for adjusting the shape and effect of the out-of-focus elements, also known as bokeh. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. [6]. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. These lenses are all auto focus zoom lenses and are not compatible with other bodies.

        The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. IX - Lenses optimised for use with the Pronea Advanced Photo System SLR. In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations. These include the shift-only 28mm and 35mm PC nikkors, and the tilt/shift 85mm f/2.8D PC Micro Nikkor. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music. Lens has the ability to shift and/or tilt the lens to correct perspective and adjust depth of field. The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. PC - Perspective Control.

        A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface. Micro - Indicates that the lens is capable of macro photography - subjects which appear as large or larger than they are at the film plane, not necessarily at close distances, such as with the 200mm Micro-Nikkor. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. It has the same characteristics with the D lens. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. Since the body needs to control the lens aperture, these type lenses only work with automatic bodies. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. G - Indicated after the f-number, and tells that the lens does not have an aperture ring, but instead that aperture value is controlled by the body.

        In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. The lens carries the information of the distance between the camera and the subject. While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities. It means that the lens is capable using of Nikon's RGB Matrix Metering. Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. Indicated after the f-stop number. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States. D - Distance/Dimension.

        The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. Equivalent to Canon's IS (Image Stabilizer) and Minolta's AS (Anti-shake, although this is embedded into the body of the camera). In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. Some VR lenses also support panning shot mode, detecting the horizontal movement of the lens and minimizing the vertical vibration. Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. Uses special VR lens unit to reduce camera shake evident in photographs. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons. VR - Vibration Reduction.

        However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. Although use with 35mm cameras is generally not advised, some DX Nikkor lenses can actually cover the full 35mm frame at some focal length settings. These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. A circular image is produced if used with a 35mm camera. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated. DX - Lens designed for Nikon's DX format sensors; the image circle is reduced in size by 1.5× to fit the smaller sensor in Nikon's digital SLRs. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. Focussing moves only internal lenses, meaning that the lens does not change in length during focussing.

        On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. IF - Internal Focus. citizens. More recently, Super ED glass has been introduced. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. Reduces chromatic aberration. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. ED - Extra-low Dispersion glass.

        policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. Replaced with AF-S starting in 1996. The agreement codified the new U.S. Used only in long telephoto lenses (300mm f/2.8 thru 600mm f/4.0) starting in 1992. On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. AF-I - Autofocus- Internal Coreless DC motor. During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States. First introduced in 1996.

        military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). Uses SWM, Silent Wave Motor, to focus quietly and faster; similar to Canon's USM, Ultrasonic Motor technology. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. AF-S - Autofocus-Silent. policy. AF - Autofocus. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. Nikon D2Hs.

        Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. Nikon D2X. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting. Nikon D2H. As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. Nikon D70s. In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti. Nikon D70.

        [citation needed]. Nikon D50. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. Nikon D200. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. Nikon D100. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor. Nikon D1X.

        Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. Nikon D1H. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966. Nikon D1. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. Nikon Coolpix series. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country. Nikonos line of underwater cameras.

        Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue. Nikon S3M (1960). The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. Nikon S4 (1959). with very little. Nikon S3 (1958). Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S. Nikon SP (1957).

        In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. Nikon S2 (1954). Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. Nikon S (1951). Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950. Nikon M (1949). government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country. Nikon I (1948).

        During World War II, the U.S. Nikon Pronea 600i also known as the Pronea 6i (1996) [5]. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1]. Nikon Pronea S (1997) [4]. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. Nikon F6. On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park. Nikon F5.

        The Great Depression followed. Nikon F4. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. Nikon F100. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. as the N80). These delays gave investors a chance to think again. Nikon F80 (known in the U.S.

        Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. as the N75). This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Nikon F75 (known in the U.S. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings. as the N65). During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before. Nikon F65 (known in the U.S.

        Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:. as the N55). In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549. Nikon F55 (known in the U.S. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). as the N90s). Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself. Nikon F90x (known in the U.S.

        Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". as the N90). She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion. Nikon F90 (known in the U.S. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. as the N8008s). In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state. Nikon F801S (known in the U.S.

        She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer. as the N8008). In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. Nikon F801 (known in the U.S. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami. as the N6006). Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades. Nikon F601 (known in the U.S.

        At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Nikon F501 (known in North America as the N2020). Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. as the N5005). The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. Nikon F401X (known in the U.S. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land. as the N4004s).

        After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. Nikon F401S (known in theU.S. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area. as the N4004). It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. Nikon F401 (known in the U.S. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. as the N70).

        The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Nikon F70 (known in the U.S. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river. as the N60). In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. Nikon F60 (known in the U.S. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves. as the N50).

        Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. Nikon F50 (known in the U.S. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. Nikon F301 (known in North America as the N2000). Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay. Nikon EM. They built a fort in 1743. Nikon EL2.

        Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. Nikkorex series. Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. Nikkormat series (known in Japan as Nikomat). See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta. Nikon F3 series. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle. Nikon F2 series.

        Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. Nikon F series (known in Germany as Nikkor). Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. Nikon FM2. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida. Nikon FM. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there. Nikon FG20.

        One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. Nikon FG. The origin of the name Miami is unknown. Nikon FE2. . Nikon FE. Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city. Nikon FA.

        Two vessels of the U.S. Nikon FE10. The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States. Nikon FM10. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking). Nikon FM3A. Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration. JP Morgan Chase Oppenheimer Funds (1.7%).

        Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1. (1.8%). The U.S. The Joyo Bank, Ltd. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. Nippon Life Insurance Company (2.4%). In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida. The Mitsubishi Trust and Banking Corporation (2.5%).

        Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. State Street Bank and Trust Company (2.7 %). It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States. (2.7%). It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean. Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd.(2.9%).

        state of Florida. (3.3%). Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S. The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd.
        Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Meiji Yasuda Life Insurance Company (5.6%). SR 924 (Gratigny Parkway) Miami Lakes to Opa Locka. (8.5%).

        SR 878 (Snapper Creek Expressway) Kendall to Turnpike/Homestead. The Master Trust Bank of Japan, Ltd. SR 874 (Don Shula Expressway) 826/Bird Road to 878. SR 836 (Dolphin Expressway) Downtown to Turnpike via MIA. SR 826 (Palmetto Expressway) Golden Glades Interchange to US-1/Kendall.

        821 (The HEFT or Homestead Extension of the Florida Turnpike: SR 91/Miami Gardens to US-1/Florida City). SR 112 (Airport Expressway) Downtown to MIA. William Turner Technical High School - Technical School. Ransom Everglades Middle School - Magnet and Gifted School.

        New World School of the Arts - Magnet School. Miami Palmetto Senior High School - Nationally Recognized Top Rated Public High School. Miami High School - Oldest Still Functioning School. Miami Country Day School- Prep School.

        MAST Academy High School - Magnet School. LaSalle High School - Prep School. Gulliver Preparatory School - Prep School. Krop High School - Magnet School.

        Michael M. Dr. Design and Architecture Senior High School - Magnet School. Coral Reef High School - Magnet School.

        Christopher Columbus High School - Prep School. Belen Jesuit Preparatory School - Prep School. University of Miami [17]. Thomas University.

        St. Devry University [16]. Nova Southeastern University [15]. Miami-Dade College [14].

        Miami International University of Art and Design. Johnson and Wales University. Florida Memorial University. Florida International University.

        Barry University [13]. Vizcaya Museum & Gardens [12]. Vizcaya-Miami Art Museum. Museum of Contemporary Art (MoCa) [11].

        Miami Art Museum [10]. Historical Museum of South Florida. Parrot Jungle Island. Monkey Jungle [9].

        Miami Seaquarium [8]. Miami Museum of Science and Planetarium. Miami Metro Zoo [7]. Little Havana.

        Jerry Herman Ring Theatre. Fruit & Spice Park. Fairchild Tropical Gardens. Everglades National Park [6].

        Deering Estate. Coral Castle. Coconut Grove. Biscayne National Park.

        Bayside Marketplace. Barnacle Historic State Park. Wynwood. Overtown.

        Omni Performing Arts District. Little Haiti. Little Havana. Government Center.

        Design District. Coconut Grove. Buena Vista. Brickell Avenue.

        Bay Point Estates. Allapattah.

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