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Miami, Florida

"The Magic City, The American Riviera, The Sixth Borough"


Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida.

Founded 1896
City Government Style Mayor-Council
Mayor Manuel “Manny” Diaz (R)
Area
 - Total
 - Water

55.27 mi² (143.15km²)
19.59 mi² (50.73 km²) 35.44%
Population
 - City (2005)
 - Density

382,894
10,734.34/mi²
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5
Time zone Central: UTC-6
Latitude
Longitude
25°47' N
80°13' W
City of Miami Official Website

Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S. state of Florida. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States.

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. The U.S. Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1.

Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking).

The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States.

Two vessels of the U.S. Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city.

History

Early history

The origin of the name Miami is unknown. One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida.

Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.

See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta

American settlement

Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. They built a fort in 1743. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay.

People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves.

In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river.

The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land.

The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami.

In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer.

Miami Avenue in 1896

In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion.

Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549.

Early growth

Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:

During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings.

This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. These delays gave investors a chance to think again. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. The Great Depression followed.

On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1].

During World War II, the U.S. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel.

Immigrant influx

Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S. with very little. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966.

Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. [citation needed]

In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti. As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting.

Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S. policy. In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States.

Downtown Miami, as seen from the Intercontinental Hotel at night.

On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. The agreement codified the new U.S. policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. citizens.

On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated.

These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons.

Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States.

Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities.

Miami Vice

Hurricane Andrew

In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface.

The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music.

In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations.

Geography and climate

Geography

Downtown Miami as seen from Watson Island

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level.

Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction.

Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways.

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq. km). Of that area, 35.67 sq. miles (92.68 sq. km) are land and 19.59 sq. miles (50.73 sq. km) are water. Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston.

The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1.

Climate

The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season.

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida.

Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. [3]

The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean.

Notable neighborhoods/areas

People and culture

Demographics

The Miami skyline, as it is seen from the northeast on Biscayne Bay.

Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%).

There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25.

In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 38 years. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. 28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree.

A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home.

Area Attractions

Downtown Miami at night

Museums and Galleries

Media

Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper.

Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS).

Sports

The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten.

The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise.

Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games.

A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County.

Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools.

Education

Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools.

Colleges and universities

Notable secondary institutions

Economy

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters.

Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach).

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing.

Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas.

Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s.

Transportation

A couple of Miami metro buses in Miami Beach, Florida.

Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA.

The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually.

Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County.

Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:

For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid.

Miami in television and film

The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish.

The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami.

Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina.

Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. See also Movies made in Miami.


This page about Miami includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Miami
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See also Movies made in Miami.
Helmet Developers. Various movies have been filmed or take place in Miami. Some well-known manufacturers of motorcycle helmets are:. The most famous are the Saturday night variety show Sábado Gigante and the daytime talk show Cristina. Besides as protection in vehicle crashes, the full face motorcycle helmet is sometimes used in robberies and other crimes and in riots, as a mask to prevent recognition and to protect the head from injury by weapon, as at Riot control#Helmets. This includes gameshows, variety shows, news programs, and telenovelas like Morelia, Guadalupe, La Mujer de Mi Vida etc . This choice is described in greater detail in the standards section.

As a result, many Spanish-language programs are filmed in the many television production studios, predominantly in Hialeah and South Miami. Most standard helmet tests use speeds between 5 and 7 m/s. Miami is a center for Latin television and film production. In practice, motorcycle helmet manufacturers choose the impact speed they will design for based on the speed used in standard helmet tests. The sitcom The Golden Girls took place in Miami. So helmets help most in impacts at the speeds they were designed for, and continue to help but not as much in impacts that are at different speeds. There were also people and gangsters in the game who speak Haitian Creole and Spanish. Still, a helmet with a stiffer foam that stopped the head before the liner crush space ran out would have done a better job.

The video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City takes place in a fictional city inspired by Miami, including some of the same architecture and geography. However, in the absence of the helmet, the head would have been brought to a sudden stop from a higher speed causing more injury. The Miami International Film Festival is a week-long event held each February. When the crush space of the liner runs out, the head will stop suddenly which is not ideal. For information on the street grid, see Miami-Dade County, Florida#Streete grid. If the impact is faster than the one the helmet was designed for, the head will completely crush the liner and slow down but not stop in the process. Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving the county are:. If the helmet is in a real impact that is slower than the one for which it was designed, it will still help but the head will be decelerated a little more violently than was actually necessary given the available space between the inside and outside of the helmet, although that deceleration will still be much less than what is would have been in the absence of the helmet.

Highways including US 1, US 27, US 41, and US 441. The result is that the manufacturer must choose a likely speed of impact and optimize the helmet for that impact speed. Miami-Dade County is served by four Major Interstates (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. It depends on the impact speed of the head, which is of course unknown at the time of manufacture of the helmet. Several transit expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County. So how stiff is that? The answer, significantly, is that it depends. Furthermore, Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system, connects the major cities and airports of the South Florida metropolitan area. This means that an ideal helmet liner is stiff enough to decelerate the impacting head to a dead stop in a smooth uniform manner just before it completely crushes the liner and no stiffer.

Local public transportation includes Metrobus and Metrorail, a metro rapid transit system (both operated by Miami-Dade Transit). The head cannot move any further so after crushing the liner it comes suddenly to a dead stop, causing high accelerations that injure the brain. Miami is connected to Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services. What happens then? Well, beyond the liner is a hard plastic shell and beyond that is whatever the helmet is hitting, which is presumably an unyielding surface. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing nearly ten million tons of cargo annually. If the liner is too soft, the head will crush it completely upon impact without coming to a stop. The main seaport, The Port of Miami, is the largest cruise ship port in the world, serving over 18 million passengers per year. This implies a limit to how soft the liner can be.

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL/KFLL) also serves the metropolitan area, and actually handles more total passengers who are originating or ending their trip in south Florida than does MIA. Unfortunately, there is a limit to how thick the helmet can be for the simple reason that the helmet quickly becomes impractical if the liner is more than 1 or 2 inches thick. MIA is the USA's third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's JFK and Los Angeles' LAX), and the seventh largest such gateway in the world (bested only by those two airports; combined with London's Heathrow, Paris' Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam's Schiphol, and Hong Kong's Chek Lap Kok international airports). It is clear then that it is very important that the liner in a motorcycle helmet is soft and thick so the head decelerates at a gentle rate as it sinks into it. Identified as MIA or KMIA by various world aviation authorities, it is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier; and is also served by many foreign airlines. Small blood vessels are also damaged causing bleeding (petechial hemorrhages) deep within the brain. Miami's main international hub is Miami International Airport, which is one of the busiest international airports in the world, serving over 35 million passengers every year. This movement produces stretching and tearing of axons (diffuse axonal injury) and the insulating myelin sheath, injuries which are the major cause of loss of consciousness in a head trauma.

As of 2005, the Miami area is witnessing its largest real estate boom since the 1920s. The resulting shearing forces cause different levels in the brain to move relative to one another. Miami ranks first among least affordable cities for home ownership. These forces, associated with the rapid acceleration and deceleration of the head, are smallest at the point of rotation of the brain near the lower end of the brain stem and successively increase at increasing distances from this point. Miami is also one of the least affordable places to live, with 69% of its residents spending at least 30% of their household income on home ownership. In these situations rotational forces such as might occur in whiplash-type injuries are particularly important. In 2004, Miami fell to #3 in the rankings behind Detroit, Michigan and El Paso, Texas. Another characteristic, susceptibility to shearing forces, plays a role primarily in injuries which involve rapid and forceful movements of the head, such as in motor vehicle accidents.

Census Bureau 2002 American Community Survey, Miami was the poorest city in the United States, with 31% of the residents having incomes below the federal poverty line. Blood vessels linking the brain to the inside of the skull may also break during this process, causing dangerous bleeds. According to the U.S. Then the brain rebounds in the opposite direction, stretching the tissue near the impact site and squeezing the tissue on the other side of the head. This case was a class action on behalf of all afflicted Florida smokers and their families, represented by a prominent and successful Miami-raised husband and wife legal team, Stanley and Susan Rosenblatt. During an impact to the front of the head, the brain lurches forwards inside the skull, squeezing the tissue near the impact site and stretching the tissue on the opposite side of the head. Miami has also served as host venue for legendary legal proceedings, most notably the astounding $145 Billion verdict leveled against the nation's 5 largest cigarette manufacturers. Think of how you lurch backwards and forwards while standing on a bus as it accelerates or stops.

In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. Closed head injury results from violent acceleration of the head which causes the brain to move around inside the skull. Even major TV networks sometimes forget this, as when Good Morning America visited Miami Beach and Charles Gibson thanked the mayor of Miami (but he was standing next to the mayor of Miami Beach). The most common type of head injury in motorcycle accidents is closed head injury, meaning injury in which the skull is not broken as distinct from an open head injury like a bullet wound. However, it is important to note that Miami Beach is not a part of the city of Miami. Therefore, the primary purpose of a helmet is to prevent traumatic brain injury while skull and face injuries are a significant secondary concern. Tourism is also an important industry: the beaches of Greater Miami draw visitors from across the country and around the world, and the Art Deco nightclub district in South Beach (located in Miami Beach) is widely regarded as one of the most glamourous in the world. They frequently result in death, permanent disability or personality change and, unlike bone, neurological tissue has very limited ability to recover after an injury.

Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, and is one of the leading candidates to become the trading bloc's headquarters. Brain injuries are much more serious. Additionally, downtown Miami has the largest concentration of international banks in the country. Skull fractures are usually not life threatening unless the fracture is depressed and impinges on the brain beneath and bone fractures usually heal over a relatively short period. Miami International Airport and the Port of Miami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. The common perception that a helmet's purpose is to save you from splitting your head open is misleading. Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including Alienware, Autonation Burger King, Citrix Systems, DHL, Norwegian Cruise Line, and Ryder System. To understand the action of a helmet, it is first necessary to understand the mechanism of head injury.

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for many multinational corporations, including American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Microsoft, Oracle, SBC Communications and Sony. The purpose of the foam liner is to crush during an impact, thereby increasing the distance and period of time over which the helmet stops and reducing its acceleration. Miami is served by Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The purpose of the hard outer shell is. Both are Divsion One NCAA Schools. The conventional motorcycle helmet has two principal protective components: a thin, hard, outer shell made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic, fiberglass or kevlar and a soft, thick, inner liner usually made of expanded polystyrene foam or expanded polypropylene foam. Miami is home to the University of Miami Hurricanes and FIU Golden Panthers. For the best protection, helmets should be replaced after any impact, and every three or so years even if no impact is known to have occurred.

The Miami Fusion, a defunct Major League Soccer team played at Lockhart Stadium in nearby Broward County. Note that impacts may, of course, come from things other than crashing, such a dropping a helmet, and may not cause any externally visible damage. A number of defunct teams were located in Miami, including the Miami Floridians (ABA), Miami Gatos (NASL), Miami Screaming Eagles (WHA), Miami Seahawks (AAFC), Miami Sol (WNBA), Miami Toros (NASL), Miami Tribe (PSFL), and the Miami Tropics (SFL). Motorcycle helmets are generally designed to break in a crash (thus expending the energy otherwise destined for the wearer's skull), so they provide little or no protection after their first impact. Miami is also the home of the Miami Orange Bowl, the home site for all University of Miami Hurricanes football games. They generally have fabric and foam interiors for both comfort and protection. The Florida Panthers NHL team plays in neighboring Broward County, Florida at the BankAtlantic Center in the city of Sunrise. Modern helmets are constructed from plastics, often reinforced with kevlar or carbon fiber.

The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the city has hosted a total of ten. Some motorcycle helmets have a built-in so-called MROS (Multiple Reflective Optic System): a set of reflective surfaces inside the helmet which together function as a rear-view mirror [1]. The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Dolphins Stadium. A "novelty helmet" can protect the scalp against sunburn while riding and - if it stays on during a crash - might protect the scalp against abrasion, but it has no capability to protect the skull or brain. The Miami Dolphins and the Florida Marlins both play their games in the suburb of Miami Gardens. Such helmets are often smaller and lighter than DOT-approved helmets, and are unsuitable for crash protection because they lack the energy-absorbing foam that protects the brain by allowing it to come to a gradual stop during an impact. The Miami Heat is the only major league team that plays its games in Miami. There are other helmets - often called "beanies" or "novelty helmets" - which are not certified and generally only used to provide the illusion of compliance with mandatory helmet laws.

Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (UPN), WBZL (The WB), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (i), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (FOX), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS). All of these types of helmets are secured by a chin strap, and their protective benefits are greatly reduced if the chin strap is not fastened. Miami is the 12th largest radio market and the 17th largest television market in the U.S. The rider may thus eat or drink without unfastening the chinstrap and removing the helmet. The newspaper also published The Herald, a daily Fort Lauderdale paper. A subset called "Convertible", "Flip-face" or "Flip-up" is also available; in these helmets, the chin bar pivots upwards (or, in some cases, may be removed). It published, in addition to a daily Miami-Dade edition, a daily Monroe County edition, a daily Nassau edition, and a daily International Edition. From most to least protective, they are:.

However, it also does have news bureaus in Broward, Monroe, and Nassau, Bahamas. There are three basic types of motorcycle helmets. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million subscribers focusing mainly on issues that affect the Miami and Miami-Dade area. Modern standards setters choose the severity of the standard test impact to be somewhere between these two extremes, so that manufacturers are doing their best to protect the riders who can be helped by their helmet during a head impact. Miami is served by two English-language newspapers, The Miami Herald and South Florida Sun-Sentinel, and Spanish-language El Nuevo Herald. On the other hand, if an impact is so mild that the rider is unlikely to be injured at all so long as he is wearing a helmet than that impact is not a demanding test. (74%) of people who speak another language other than English at home. If currently available data suggest that the rider is unlikely to survive in such an impact, regardless of how well his helmet performs, then there is little point in demanding that helmets be optimized for this impact.

Miami has one of the largest populations in the U.S. It is possible to deduce how well the 'perfect' helmet outlined in the Function section of this page would perform in an impact of a given severity. Other languages that are spoken throughout the city include Afrikaans, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, and Russian. The speeds are chosen based on modern knowledge of the human tolerance for head impact, which is by no means complete. The City of Miami has three official languages - English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole. Some of these are more severe than the impacts used in the standard tests and some are less so. A wide variety of languages are commonly spoken throughout the city. Overall, there is a very wide range of severity in the impacts that could conceivably happen in a motorcycle impact.

The city ranks second-to-last in people over 18 with a high school diploma, with 23% of the population not having that degree. So a perpendicular impact against a flat steel anvil at 5 m/s might be about as severe as a 30 m/s oblique impact against a concrete surface or a 30 m/s perpendicular impact against a sheet metal car door or windscreen. The city proper ranks 14th.[5]. The sheet metal wall of a car door may bend inwards to a depth of 7.5 - 10 cm (3 - 4 inches) during a helmeted head impact, meaning that it generates more stopping distance for the rider's head than the helmet itself. Based on the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports Program, Miami ranks as the second most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States, based number of murders, rapes, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts that have occurred in the metropolitan area. The other vital factor in determining the severity of an impact is the nature of the surface struck. Out of the total population, 38.2% of those under the age of 18 and 29.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Of course, other surfaces are perpendicular to the motorcylists velocity such as trees, walls and the sides of other vehicles.

28.5% of the population and 23.5% of families are below the poverty line. For example, the surface of the road is almost parallel to the direction the motorcyclist moves in so only a small component of his velocity is directed perpendicular to the road while he is riding. The per capita income for the city is $15,128. This confusion is relieved by understanding that the perpendicular impact speed of the helmet is usually not the same as the road speed of the motor cycle and that the severity of the impact is determined not only by the speed of the head but also by the nature of the surface it hits. Males have a median income of $24,090 versus $20,115 for females. At first glance, this is confusing given that motorcyclists frequently ride at speeds of 20 or 30 m/s. The median income for a household in the city is $23,483, and the median income for a family is $27,225. Most motorcycle helmet standards use impacts at speeds between 4 and 7 m/s.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.3 males. drag racing, bicycling, horseback riding), and many riders in North America consider Snell certification a benefit when considering buying a helmet. For every 100 females there are 98.9 males. The Snell Memorial Foundation has developed stricter requirements and testing procedures for motorcycle helmets, as well as helmets for other activities (e.g. The median age is 38 years. Of the above standards, the DOT standard is by far the most lax. In the city the population is spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who are 65 years of age or older. Among them are:.

The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.25. Worldwide, many developed countries have defined their own sets of standards that are used to judge the effectiveness of a motorcycle helmet in an accident, and define the minimal acceptable standard thereof. 30.4% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. In some countries, most notably the USA, there is significant popular opposition to compulsory helmet use, based on these safety and also philosophical objections (see Helmet law defense league). There are 134,198 households out of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 18.7% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 37.9% are non-families. As with seat belt legislation the actual effects of imposing helmet wearing are a matter of dispute with evidence available indicating a risk compensation effect. In 2004, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) ranked Miami first in terms of percentage of residents born outside of the country it is located in (59%), followed by Toronto (43%). These laws vary considerably, often exempting mopeds and other small-displacement bikes.

The ethnic makeup of the city is 34.1% Cuban, 22.3% African American, 5.6% Nicaraguan, 5.0% Haitian, and 3.3% Honduran. Motorcycle helmets are generally believed to greatly reduce injuries and fatalities in motorcycle accidents, thus many countries have laws requiring acceptable helmets to be worn by motorcycle riders. 11.83% of the population are non-Hispanic whites. . 65.76% of the population are Latino of any race. The primary goal of a motorcycle helmet is to protect the rider's head during impact, although many helmets provide additional conveniences, such as face shields, ear protection, intercom etc. The racial makeup of the city is 66.62% White, 22.31% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.42% from other races, and 4.74% from two or more races. A motorcycle helmet is a type of protective headgear used by motorcycle riders.

There are 148,388 housing units at an average density of 1,606.2/km² (4,159.7/mi²). Philips (scalp-like membrane to protect against rotational injury). The population density is 3,923.5/km² (10,160.9/mi²), making Miami one of the most densely populated cities in the country. Z1R. As of the census of 2000, there are 362,470 people, 134,198 households, and 83,336 families residing in the city. Suomy. Miami is the 46th most populous city in the U.S., just behind Minneapolis and Omaha. Shoei (pronounced show-eh).

Locally, the storm is credited as the No Name Storm of 2000, though the depression went on to become Tropical Storm Leslie upon entering the Atlantic Ocean. Schuberth. In addition, a tropical depression in October of 2000 passed over the city creating record rainfall and flooding. Nolan. Despite this, the city has been fortunate in not having a direct hit by a hurricane since 1950's Hurricane King, although many other hurricanes have affected the city, including Hurricane Cleo in 1964, Betsy in 1965, Andrew in 1992, Irene in 1999, and Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma in 2005. HJC. Due to its location between two major bodies of water known for tropical activity, Miami is also statistically the most likely major city to be struck by a hurricane in the world, trailed closely by Nassau, Bahamas, and Havana, Cuba. Bell.

The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is late August through the end of September [4]. Arai. Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30 but has been known to start and end outside of these dates. AGV. The South Florida metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, is the second largest metropolitan area in the world after Tokyo that receives regular cyclonic activity. This is important because the foams used have very little resistance to penetration and abrasion. [3]. to provide structure to the inner liner so it does not disintegrate upon abrasive contact with pavement.

That same day, Miami experienced its first and only recorded snowfall since weather records began in the 1830s. to prevent penetration of the helmet by a pointed object that might otherwise puncture the skull, and. The coldest recorded temperature in the city of Miami was 27 °F (-2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917, though the coldest temperature ever recorded in the metropolitan area was 20 °F (-6.6 °C) near Homestead, Florida, on January 19, 1977. DOT FMVSS 218 (USA). Officially, Miami's warmest recorded temperature was 103ºF (39.4ºC) on July 17, 2004, though summer humidity often places the heat index in the 110s (43 to 48ºC). BS 6658 (United Kingdom). During the dry season, the Gulf Stream keeps the cold fronts from adversely affecting Miami as they do in more northern areas of the state of Florida. NZ 5430 (New Zealand).

Temperatures are generally moderated by cold fronts which dip down from the northern states; average temperatures are around 60ºF (15ºC) and lower depending on whether there is a cold front and rarely dip below 40ºF (4ºC). JIS T8133 (Japan). During winter, humidity is significantly lower allowing for cooler conditions to prosper. 22 (Europe). As the morning progresses, humidity builds as water evaporates culminating in near-daily afternoon showers settling into a humid evening and cool night. UN/ECE Regulation No. A typical summer day does not see temperatures below 70ºF (21º C). CSA CAN3-D230-M85 (Canada).

The area owes its warm, humid climate to the Gulf Stream, which moderates climate year-round. AS 1698 (Australia). The area does not experience temperate seasons and the year is instead divided into a wet and dry season which alternates every six months with the dry season taking place during the winter months and the wet season coinciding with the summer's hurricane season. The City of Miami, as well as the rest of Southern Florida has a warm, humid subtropical climate year round, with occasional cold fronts during the winter. The city is located at 25°47′16″N, 80°13′27″WGR1.

Miami is slightly smaller in land area than San Francisco and Boston. km) are water. miles (50.73 sq. km) are land and 19.59 sq.

miles (92.68 sq. Of that area, 35.67 sq. km). According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 mi² (143.15 sq.

In terms of land area, the city of Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as Alligators and Crocodiles venturing onto suburban communities and major highways. state of Florida. Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S.

As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20ft (4.57 to 6.1m) beneath the city without hitting water, impeding underground construction. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer [2], a natural underground river that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level.

By 15,000 years ago the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet below the contemporary level. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas.

All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamon interglacial raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.5 m.) above the current level. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 15 m (50 feet) thick.

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24.1km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains the city of Miami Beach and its famous South Beach district. The elevation of the area never rises above 15ft (4.5m) and averages at around 3ft (0.91m) above sea level in most neighborhoods especially near the coast.

The City of Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades and Biscayne Bay that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. In the 1990s, various crises struck South Florida: drug wars, tourist shootings, Hurricane Andrew, the Elián González uproar, and, most recently, the controversial 2003 FTAA negotiations. This image began to draw the entertainment industry to Miami, and the city remains a hub of fashion, filmmaking, and music. The popular television program Miami Vice, which dealt with counter-narcotics agents in an idyllic upper-class rendition of Miami, spread the city's image as America's most glamorous tropical paradise.

A classic fictional example of this is the 1983 gangster film, Scarface. As the money arrived, so did a violent crime wave that lasted through the early 1990s and that has only begun to die down in the 21st century. Luxury car dealerships, five-star hotels, condominium developments, swanky nightclubs, and other signs of prosperity began rising all over the city. The drug industry brought billions of dollars into Miami, which were quickly funneled through dummy businesses and into the local economy.

In the 1980s, Miami became the United States' largest transshipment point for cocaine from Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. While commonly thought of as mainly a city of Hispanic and Caribbean immigrants, the Miami area is home to the largest Finnish, French, and South African immigrant communities in the United States; as well as one of the largest Israeli, Russian, and Turkish communities. Today there are sizable legal and illegal populations of Argentinians, Bahamians, Barbadians, Brazilians, Colombians, Cubans, Dominicans, Dutch, Ecuadorians, French, Haitians, Jamaicans, Israelis, Italians, Nicaraguans, Peruvians, Russians, South Africans, Turks, and Venezuelans throughout the metropolitan area. For example, Miami's Italian-born community numbers only around 45,000, but it is the wealthiest Italian American community in the United States.

The majority of Miami's European immigrant communities are recent immigrants, many living in the city seasonally, with a high disposable income. In addition, large immigrant communities have settled in Miami from around the globe, including Europe, Africa, and Asia. Since then, the Latin and Caribbean-friendly atmosphere in Miami has made it a popular destination for tourists and immigrants from all over the world, and the third-biggest immigration port in the country after New York City and Los Angeles. However, because it was stated that Cubans were escaping for political reasons, this policy did not apply to Haitians, who the government claimed were seeking asylum for economic reasons.

However, those who do not make it to dry land ultimately are repatriated unless they can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to Cuba. These agreements with the Cuban government led to what has been called the Wet Foot-Dry Foot Policy, whereby Cubans who make it to shore can stay in the United States – likely becoming eligible to adjust to permanent residence under the Cuban Adjustment Act. In the agreement, the Cuban government pledged not to retaliate against those who are repatriated. It also established a new policy of directly repatriating Cubans interdicted at sea to Cuba.

On May 2, 1995, a second agreement with the Castro government paved the way for the admission to the United States of the Cubans housed at Guantanamo, who were counted primarily against the first year of the 20,000 annual admissions committed to by the Clinton Administration. citizens. That number is in addition to the admission of immediate relatives of U.S. In addition, the United States committed to admitting a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants per year.

policy of placing Cuban refugees in safe havens outside the United States, while obtaining a commitment from Cuba to discourage Cubans from sailing to America. The agreement codified the new U.S. On September 9, 1994, the United States and Cuba agreed to “normalize” migration between the two countries. During an eight-month period beginning in the summer of 1994, over 30,000 Cubans and more than 20,000 Haitians were interdicted and sent to live in camps outside the United States.

military installations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (or to Panama). In a controversial action, the administration announced that Cubans interdicted at sea would not be brought to the United States but instead would be taken by the Coast Guard to U.S. policy. To prevent it from becoming another Mariel Boatlift, the Clinton Administration announced a significant change in U.S.

Another major Cuban exodus occurred in 1994. In the 1990s, the presence of Haitians was acknowledged with Haitian Creole language signs in public places and ballots during voting. As the Haitian population grew, the area known today as Little Haiti emerged, centered around Northeast Second Avenue and 54th Street. In the 1980s, Miami started to see an increase in immigrants from other nations such as Haiti.

[citation needed]. During this time, many of the middle class non-Hispanic whites in the community emigrated out of the city, often referred to as "white flight." In 1960, Miami was 90% non-Hispanic white; by 1990 it was only about 10% non-Hispanic white. Castro used the boatlift as a way of purging his country of many criminals and the mentally ill. Unlike the previous exodus of the 1960's, most of the Cuban refugees arriving were poor.

Later, the Mariel Boatlift of 1980 brought 150,000 Cubans to Miami in a single flotilla, the largest in civilian history. In the case of Cubans, this dilemma was resolved by the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966. However, parole only allows an individual permission to enter the country, not to stay permanently. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Attorney General’s authority was used to grant special permission (called “parole”) to allow Cubans to enter the country.

Most of the exiles settled into the Riverside neighborhood, which began to take on the new name of "Little Havana." This area emerged as a predominantly Spanish-speaking community, and Spanish speakers elsewhere in the city could conduct most of their daily business in their native tongue. The city, for the most part, welcomed the Cuban exiles. with very little. Many of the exiles who escaped were middle class to upper class people who had all of their possessions taken from them, and they arrived in the U.S.

In 1965 alone, 100,000 Cubans packed into the twice-daily "freedom flights" between Havana and Miami. Following the 1959 revolution that unseated Fulgencio Batista and brought Fidel Castro to power, Cuban exiles began traveling to Florida en masse. Many servicemen and women returned to Miami after the war, pushing the population up to half a million by 1950. government constructed many training, supply, and communications facilities around Miami, taking advantage of its strategic location at the southeastern corner of the country.

During World War II, the U.S. Four other people were wounded, but President-elect Roosevelt was not harmed.[1]. Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago, who was shaking hands with Roosevelt, was shot and died a few days later. On February 15, 1933, an assassination attempt was made on President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Miami's Bayfront Park.

The Great Depression followed. This economic bubble was already collapsing when the catastrophic Great Miami Hurricane in 1926 ended what was left of this boom. Finally this transport choke-up got so bad that Miami's mayor declared an embargo on all incoming goods except food. These delays gave investors a chance to think again.

Sometimes a ship bringing these supplies in ran aground, blocking the port. This speculation boom started to waver because of building construction delays caused by bulk of building materials overloading the transport system into the area. Some early developments were razed ten years after their initial construction to make way for even larger buildings. During the early 1920s, the authorities in Miami allowed gambling and were very lax in regulating Prohibition, and so thousands of people migrated from the northern United States to the Miami region, creating a construction boom and building a skyline of high-rise buildings where none had existed before.

Miami's growth up to World War II was astronomical:. In 1900, 1,681 people lived in Miami, Florida; in 1910, 5,471; and in 1920, 29,549. So on July 28, 1896, the City of Miami was incorporated with 444 citizens (243 of which were identified as white and 181 as black). Henry Flagler was adamant that new city would not be named after himself.

Initially, most residents wanted to name the city "Flagler". She wrote to Flagler again, persuading him to visit the area and see it for himself: he did so, and concluded at the end of his first day that the area was ripe for expansion. Fortunately, unlike the rest of the state, Miami was unaffected, and Tuttle's citrus became the only citrus on the market that year. In 1894, however, Florida was struck by a terrible winter that destroyed virtually all of the citrus crop in the northern half of the state.

She initially pressured railroad magnate Henry Flagler to expand his rail line, the Florida East Coast Railroad southward to the area, but he initially declined the offer. In 1891, a wealthy Cleveland, Ohio woman named Julia Tuttle purchased an enormous citrus plantation in the area. However as late as the 1890s, only a handful of families made their homes in Miami. Some of the Seminole remained in the Everglades.

At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Even so, it slowed down the settlement of southeast Florida. The Third Seminole War (1855-1858) was not as destructive as the second one. He charted the “Village of Miami” on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, Fitzpatrick’s nephew, William English, reestablished the plantation in Miami. It caused almost a total loss of population in the Miami area. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas.

The area became a war zone during the Second Seminole War. Fort Dallas was located on Fitzpatrick’s Plantation on the north bank of the river. In the 1830s, Richard Fitzpatrick bought land on the Miami River from the Bahamians. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves.

Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that crashed onto the treacherous Great Florida reef. Many Spanish colonists, along with residents of other lands, established homes and farms along the Miami River and Biscayne Bay. They built a fort in 1743.

Spanish settlers built a mission at the mouth of the Miami River by 1567. Pedro Menendez de Avilés and his men visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566. See also: Spanish contacts with the Tequesta. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.

Its inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled an area covering much of Southeastern Florida including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern parts of Palm Beach County. Native Americans are known to have settled in the Miami region for about 10,000 years. After contact with Europeans they were named after their name for the lake, becoming known as the Mayaimi tribe, while the lake's name was eventually replaced with the Miccosukee tribe's words oka (water) and chobi (big), "big water." There is no evidence that there was any connection between the Miami Indian tribes and the southeastern United States, let alone in south Florida. Another theory is that the name comes from the original name of Lake Okeechobee, Mayaimi, which meant "big water" by the natives that lived there.

One possibility is that it comes from a Native American word for "sweet water." The area was a concentration of water because the Miami River is essentially a funnel for water from the Everglades to the Atlantic Ocean. The origin of the name Miami is unknown. . Navy have been named USS Miami in honor of the city.

Two vessels of the U.S. The region's importance as an international financial and cultural center has elevated Miami to the status of world city; because of its cultural and linguistic ties to North, South, Central America, and the Caribbean it is sometimes called "The Gateway of the Americas." Miami, along with Atlanta, ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States. Greater Miami is regarded as a cultural melting pot, heavily influenced both by its very large population of ethnic Latin Americans and Caribbean islanders (many of them Spanish- or Haitian Creole-speaking). Miami's explosive population growth in recent years has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country as well as by immigration.

Census Bureau estimate of the population of Miami in 2004 was 379,724 1. The U.S. According to the 2000 census the city of Miami had a population of 362,470 while the larger metropolitan area had a population over 5 million. In 1940, 172,172 people lived in Miami, Florida.

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. It is also the largest city in the South Florida metropolitan area, which is comprised of Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County making up the largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern United States. It is the second largest city in Florida and the county seat (and largest city) of Miami-Dade County. Miami and the surrounding metropolitan area sits between the Miami River, Biscayne Bay, the Everglades and the Atlantic Ocean.

state of Florida. Miami is a major city located in the southeast corner of the U.S.
Location of Miami in Miami-Dade County, Florida. SR 924 (Gratigny Parkway) Miami Lakes to Opa Locka.

SR 878 (Snapper Creek Expressway) Kendall to Turnpike/Homestead. SR 874 (Don Shula Expressway) 826/Bird Road to 878. SR 836 (Dolphin Expressway) Downtown to Turnpike via MIA. SR 826 (Palmetto Expressway) Golden Glades Interchange to US-1/Kendall.

821 (The HEFT or Homestead Extension of the Florida Turnpike: SR 91/Miami Gardens to US-1/Florida City). SR 112 (Airport Expressway) Downtown to MIA. William Turner Technical High School - Technical School. Ransom Everglades Middle School - Magnet and Gifted School.

New World School of the Arts - Magnet School. Miami Palmetto Senior High School - Nationally Recognized Top Rated Public High School. Miami High School - Oldest Still Functioning School. Miami Country Day School- Prep School.

MAST Academy High School - Magnet School. LaSalle High School - Prep School. Gulliver Preparatory School - Prep School. Krop High School - Magnet School.

Michael M. Dr. Design and Architecture Senior High School - Magnet School. Coral Reef High School - Magnet School.

Christopher Columbus High School - Prep School. Belen Jesuit Preparatory School - Prep School. University of Miami [17]. Thomas University.

St. Devry University [16]. Nova Southeastern University [15]. Miami-Dade College [14].

Miami International University of Art and Design. Johnson and Wales University. Florida Memorial University. Florida International University.

Barry University [13]. Vizcaya Museum & Gardens [12]. Vizcaya-Miami Art Museum. Museum of Contemporary Art (MoCa) [11].

Miami Art Museum [10]. Historical Museum of South Florida. Parrot Jungle Island. Monkey Jungle [9].

Miami Seaquarium [8]. Miami Museum of Science and Planetarium. Miami Metro Zoo [7]. Little Havana.

Jerry Herman Ring Theatre. Fruit & Spice Park. Fairchild Tropical Gardens. Everglades National Park [6].

Deering Estate. Coral Castle. Coconut Grove. Biscayne National Park.

Bayside Marketplace. Barnacle Historic State Park. Wynwood. Overtown.

Omni Performing Arts District. Little Haiti. Little Havana. Government Center.

Design District. Coconut Grove. Buena Vista. Brickell Avenue.

Bay Point Estates. Allapattah.

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