This page will contain wikis about Lauryn Hill, as they become available.

Lauryn Hill

Lauryn Hill (born May 26, 1975) is an American hip hop singer, initially establishing her reputation as the most visible and vocal member of The Fugees. She was born in South Orange, New Jersey and began singing and acting at a very young age. Her acting roles included the TV show As the World Turns (as "Kira Johnson" in 1991), and the film Sister Act II: Back in the Habit, the latter of which showcased her vocal abilities. Though the Fugees had originally formed in 1988, Hill's membership was disrupted by her acting and her education at Columbia University. The Fugees' first album, Blunted on Reality, was much-hyped but fell far short of expectations. This was followed by The Score, a multi-platinum selling album that established all three Fugees (Hill, Pras Michel and Wyclef Jean) as international successes.

Hill's other acting work includes the television series "King of the Hill" (as "Arletta the Elevator Operator"), the play "Club 127," and the motion pictures Hav Plenty (1997) and Restaurant (1998). She appeared as a singer in the soundtracks for Conspiracy Theory in 1997 on the track, "Can't take My Eyes Off of You," and Divine Secrets of the Ya-Ya Sisterhood in 2001 on the "Selah" track.

In 1998, Hill released The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill, a critical smash hit that ended up on numerous best-of lists for the year, decade and all time. Among the singles on the album was "Doo Wop (That Thing)." In 1999's Grammy Awards, Hill was nominated eleven times and won Album of the Year, Best New Artist, Best Female R&B Vocal Performance, Best R&B Song, Best R&B Album, setting a new record for a female performer. The album's title was inspired by Carter G. Woodson's book, The Miseducation of the Negro.

Soon after, Hill and her recording company were sued by Vada Nobles, Rasheem Pugh, Johari Newton and Tejumold Newton, known as "New Ark Entertainment," who claimed to have been denied full credit and compensation for their assistance on the album. They received an undisclosed amount of money and were given credit for drum programming and a small amount of lyrical, instrumental and production work.

Hill is noted as a humanitarian, and in 1996 she received an Essence Award for work which has included the 1996 founding of the Refugee Project, an outreach organization that supports a two-week overnight camp for at-risk youth, and for supporting well-building projects in Kenya and Uganda, as well as for staging a rap concert in Harlem to promote voter registration. In 1999 Hill received three awards at the 30th Annual NAACP Image Awards held at the Pasadena Civic Auditorium in California. She was named with Congressman Jesse Jackson, Jr. and others among the "10 For Tomorrow," in the EBONY 2000: Special Millennium Issue. In 1999 Ebony magazine named her one of "100+ Most Influential Black Americans."

In 1996, a call to the Howard Stern radio show stated that the caller heard Hill say "I would rather die than have a white person buy one of my albums" during an MTV interview. This is considered unlikely, however, as no recording could be found of the supposed incident. [1] (http://www.snopes.com/quotes/lauryn.htm)

Though a Fugees reunion was discussed by all of the members of the group, it has not yet happened, reportedly due to conflicts between the three Fugees, including a much-rumored feud between Hill and Wyclef Jean. Hill released an MTV Unplugged album laced with verbal interludes in 2002 to mixed reviews.

On December 13, 2003, Hill shocked officials at the Vatican by denouncing them for "corruption, exploitation, and abuses," apparently in reference to allegations of the child molestation of boys by Catholic officials in the United States of America and the cover-up of offenses by Catholic Church officials. Among those in attendance were Edmund Cardinal Szoka, American-born President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City, and President of the Governatorate of Vatican City. Two days later Pope John Paul II told a group of Bishops from Sudan that, "Scandalous behavior must at all times be investigated, confronted and corrected" in the Catholic Church.

Hill has four children by her husband, retired (American) football player Rohan Marley, son of the late reggae artist, Bob Marley: Zion David Marley, born 1997, Selah Louise Marley, born 1998, and second son Joshua, born 2002. A fourth child was born in 2003.

Hill's nickname is "L-boogie."

The three Fugees were reunited on September 18, 2004 at Dave Chappelle's Block Party in Brooklyn, New York. They headlined a bill that included a star-studded cast of who's who in hip hop, including Kanye West, Common, Mos Def, Erykah Badu, Jill Scott and others.

Sound samples

  • Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/d2/LaurynHillRedemptionSong.ogg) of Hill covering Bob Marley's "Redemption Song"

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They headlined a bill that included a star-studded cast of who's who in hip hop, including Kanye West, Common, Mos Def, Erykah Badu, Jill Scott and others. The murders of Sam Hose and Emmett Till, more than fifty years apart, serve as examples. The three Fugees were reunited on September 18, 2004 at Dave Chappelle's Block Party in Brooklyn, New York. Informally enforced by the good ol' boy network and the Ku Klux Klan, breaking this code could result in lynchings (1878-1898 saw 10,000 lynchings) or other forms of sadistic murder. Hill's nickname is "L-boogie.". One dimension of this involved applying pressure on Úlite white women not to engage in liaisons with black men on pain of losing their upper-class status and community support. A fourth child was born in 2003. In conjunction with the laws there was also Jim Crow etiquette: a set of unwritten rules governing how blacks and whites should interact.

Hill has four children by her husband, retired (American) football player Rohan Marley, son of the late reggae artist, Bob Marley: Zion David Marley, born 1997, Selah Louise Marley, born 1998, and second son Joshua, born 2002. By 1837, Jim Crow was being used to refer to racial segregation. Two days later Pope John Paul II told a group of Bishops from Sudan that, "Scandalous behavior must at all times be investigated, confronted and corrected" in the Catholic Church. "Jim Crow" became a standard character in Minstrel shows, being a caricature of a shabbily dressed rural black; "Jim Crow" was often paired with the character "Zip Coon", a flamboyantly dressed urban black. Among those in attendance were Edmund Cardinal Szoka, American-born President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City, and President of the Governatorate of Vatican City. The song and blackface itself were an immediate hit. On December 13, 2003, Hill shocked officials at the Vatican by denouncing them for "corruption, exploitation, and abuses," apparently in reference to allegations of the child molestation of boys by Catholic officials in the United States of America and the cover-up of offenses by Catholic Church officials. Rice, a white English migrant to the U.S., the originator of blackface performance.

Hill released an MTV Unplugged album laced with verbal interludes in 2002 to mixed reviews. The term Jim Crow comes from the minstrel show song "Jump Jim Crow" written in 1828 by Thomas D. Though a Fugees reunion was discussed by all of the members of the group, it has not yet happened, reportedly due to conflicts between the three Fugees, including a much-rumored feud between Hill and Wyclef Jean. Leroy Irvis of Pittsburgh's Urban League led a demonstration against employment discrimination by Pittsburgh's department stores in 1947, and later became the first 20th Century African American to serve as a state Speaker of the House. [1] (http://www.snopes.com/quotes/lauryn.htm). For instance, K. This is considered unlikely, however, as no recording could be found of the supposed incident. These early demonstrations achieved positive results and helped spark political activism.

In 1996, a call to the Howard Stern radio show stated that the caller heard Hill say "I would rather die than have a white person buy one of my albums" during an MTV interview. Numerous boycotts and demonstrations against segregation had occurred throughout the 1930's and 1940's. In 1999 Ebony magazine named her one of "100+ Most Influential Black Americans.". However, the Montgomery Bus Boycott led by Martin Luther King, Jr., which followed Rosa Parks' long planned decision not to give up her seat, did not come in a vacuum. and others among the "10 For Tomorrow," in the EBONY 2000: Special Millennium Issue. This led to a series of legislation and court decisions in which Jim Crow laws were repealed or annulled. She was named with Congressman Jesse Jackson, Jr. The modern civil rights movement is often considered to have been sparked by an act of civil disobedience against Jim Crow laws when Rosa Parks, an African-American woman, refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man.

In 1999 Hill received three awards at the 30th Annual NAACP Image Awards held at the Pasadena Civic Auditorium in California. As attitudes turned against segregation in the Federal courts after World War II, the segregationist white governments of many of the states of the South East countered with even more numerous and strict segregation laws on the local level until the start of the 1960s. Hill is noted as a humanitarian, and in 1996 she received an Essence Award for work which has included the 1996 founding of the Refugee Project, an outreach organization that supports a two-week overnight camp for at-risk youth, and for supporting well-building projects in Kenya and Uganda, as well as for staging a rap concert in Harlem to promote voter registration. United States 379 US 241 (1964). They received an undisclosed amount of money and were given credit for drum programming and a small amount of lyrical, instrumental and production work. This use of the Commerce clause was upheld in Heart of Atlanta Motel v. Soon after, Hill and her recording company were sued by Vada Nobles, Rasheem Pugh, Johari Newton and Tejumold Newton, known as "New Ark Entertainment," who claimed to have been denied full credit and compensation for their assistance on the album. Congress invoked the commerce clause to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed discrimination in public accommodations, i.e., privately owned restaurants, hotels and stores, and in private schools and workplaces, that Congress attacked the parallel system of private Jim Crow practices.

Woodson's book, The Miseducation of the Negro. However, in 1964 that U.S. The album's title was inspired by Carter G. The Supreme Court was unwilling, however, to attack other forms of private discrimination; it reasoned that private parties did not violate the Equal Protection clause of the Constitution when they discriminated because they were not "state actors" covered by that clause. Among the singles on the album was "Doo Wop (That Thing)." In 1999's Grammy Awards, Hill was nominated eleven times and won Album of the Year, Best New Artist, Best Female R&B Vocal Performance, Best R&B Song, Best R&B Album, setting a new record for a female performer. Kraemer 334 US 1 (1948), in which it held that "restrictive covenants" that barred sale of homes to blacks or Jews or Asians were unconstitutional, on the ground that they represented state-sponsored discrimination in that they were only effective if the courts enforced them. In 1998, Hill released The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill, a critical smash hit that ended up on numerous best-of lists for the year, decade and all time. The Supreme Court outlawed some forms of private discrimination in Shelley v.

She appeared as a singer in the soundtracks for Conspiracy Theory in 1997 on the track, "Can't take My Eyes Off of You," and Divine Secrets of the Ya-Ya Sisterhood in 2001 on the "Selah" track. Businesses, political parties, unions and other private parties created their own Jim Crow arrangements, barring blacks from buying homes in certain neighborhoods, from shopping or working in certain stores, from working at certain trades, etc. Hill's other acting work includes the television series "King of the Hill" (as "Arletta the Elevator Operator"), the play "Club 127," and the motion pictures Hav Plenty (1997) and Restaurant (1998). In addition to Jim Crow laws, in which the state compelled segregation of the races. This was followed by The Score, a multi-platinum selling album that established all three Fugees (Hill, Pras Michel and Wyclef Jean) as international successes. Virginia 364 US 454 (1960), slowly dismantled the state-sponsored segregation imposed by Jim Crow laws. The Fugees' first album, Blunted on Reality, was much-hyped but fell far short of expectations. Alabama 357 US 449 (1958), and Boynton v.

Though the Fugees had originally formed in 1988, Hill's membership was disrupted by her acting and her education at Columbia University. Oklahoma State Board of Regents 339 US 637 (1950), NAACP v. Her acting roles included the TV show As the World Turns (as "Kira Johnson" in 1991), and the film Sister Act II: Back in the Habit, the latter of which showcased her vocal abilities. These decisions, along with other cases such as McLaurin v. She was born in South Orange, New Jersey and began singing and acting at a very young age. Board of Education of Topeka 347 US 483 (1954) the Court held that separate facilities were inherently unequal in the area of public schools. Lauryn Hill (born May 26, 1975) is an American hip hop singer, initially establishing her reputation as the most visible and vocal member of The Fugees. Allwright 321 US 649 (1944), and in Brown v.

Download sample (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/d2/LaurynHillRedemptionSong.ogg) of Hill covering Bob Marley's "Redemption Song". The court outlawed the white primary in Smith v. Warley 245 US 60 (1917), the Court held that a Kentucky law could not require residential segregation. (Nonetheless, the majority of African Americans were unable to vote in most states in the Deep South of the USA until the 1950s or 1960s.) In Buchanan v. United States 238 US 347 (1915) that an Oklahoma law that denied the right to vote to some citizens was unconstitutional.

The Supreme Court held in Guinn v. The Supreme Court began to overturn Jim Crow laws on constitutional grounds in the 20th century. In 1902, Reverend Thomas Dixon published the novel The Leopard's Spots, which intentionally fanned racial animosity. It is estimated that of 181,471 African-American males of voting age in Alabama in 1900, only 3,000 were registered.

In the years that followed, the Court made this "separate but equal" requirement a hollow phrase by approving discrimination even in the face of evidence of profound inequalities in practice. The Supreme Court of the United States held in the Civil Rights Cases 109 US 3 (1883) that the Fourteenth Amendment did not give the federal government the power to outlaw private discrimination, then held in Plessy v. Ferguson 163 US 537 (1896) that Jim Crow laws were constitutional as long as they allowed for separate but equal facilities. One common "literacy test" was to require the black would-be voter to recite the entire U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence from memory. As an example, many state governments prevented blacks from voting by requiring poll taxes and literacy tests, both of which were not enforced on whites of British descent due to grandfather clauses.

By 1915 every Southern state had effectively destroyed any gains in civil liberties that blacks had enjoyed due to the Reconstructionist effort. Since Jim Crow law is a blanket term for any of this type of legislation following the end of Reconstruction, the exact date of inception for the laws is difficult to isolate; common consensus points to the 1890s and the adoption of segregational railroad legislation in New Orleans as the first genuine "Jim Crow" law. These became known as the Jim Crow laws, a reference to the character Jim Crow (popular in antebellum minstrel entertainment) that was a racist stage depiction of a poor and uneducated rural black. In its aftermath the resurgent white elites, who referred to themselves as Redeemers, reversed many of the civil rights gains that black Americans had made during Reconstruction, passing laws that mandated discrimination by both local governments and by private citizens.

This government-controlled Reconstruction ended by 1877. In almost-immediate response Southern legislatures passed Black Codes, which attempted to return freed slaves to bondage in legal fact, rather than official terminology. The conclusion of the American Civil War in 1865 led to the policy of Reconstruction, in which the federal government intervened to protect the rights conferred on black Americans by the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the United States Constitution, as well as (upon their introductions) the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Civil Rights Act of 1875. Similar laws passed immediately after the civil war were called the Black Codes.

The term is not applied to all racist laws, but only to those passed post-Reconstruction starting in about 1890, the start of a period of worsening race relations in the United States. Jim Crow laws varied among communities and states. For instance, Jim Crow laws regulated separate use of water fountains and separate seating sections on public transport. In the United States, the so-called Jim Crow laws were made to enforce racial segregation, and included laws that would prevent African Americans from doing things that a white person could do.

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