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Illinois

State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State
Other U.S. States
Capital Springfield
Largest city Chicago
Governor Rod Blagojevich
Official languages English
Area 149,998 km˛ (25th)
 - Land 143,968 km˛
 - Water 6,030 km˛ (4.0%)
Population (2000)
 - Population 12,419,293 (5th)
 - Density 86.27 /km˛ (11th)
Admission into Union
 - Date December 3, 1818
 - Order 21st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Latitude 36°58'N to 42°30'N
Longitude 87°30'W to 91°30'W
Width 340 km
Length 629 km
Elevation
 - Highest 376 m
 - Mean 182 m
 - Lowest 85 m
Abbreviations
 - USPS IL
 - ISO 3166-2 US-IL
Web site www.illinois.gov

Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The U.S. postal abbreviation for the state is IL.

The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state.

History

Pre-Columbian

Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes.

European exploration

French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory.

The 1800s

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Early U.S. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago).

The Civil War

During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Government

The sample version of the current Illinois license plate introduced in 2001.

The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts.

Geography

See List of Illinois counties

It is in the north-central U.S. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan.

Illinois has three major geographical divisions. The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade.

Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago.

The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70.

McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Both figures are as of 2004.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state.

Economy

The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. The per capita income was $32,965.

Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal.

Demographics

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains.

Racially, the state is:

The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%).

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Religion

Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:

The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%).

Important cities and towns

Illinois, showing major cities and roads Chicago

See complete listing here...

Counties of Illinois

Education

Illinois State Board of Education

The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies.

There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate.

Primary and secondary schools

Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district.

See List of school districts in Illinois for a listing of all school districts, by county.
See List of high schools in Illinois for a partial list of high schools.

Colleges and universities

While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system.

List of colleges and universities

Professional sports teams

People

State symbols

The Cardinal is the state bird of Illinois
This page about Illinois includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Illinois
News stories about Illinois
External links for Illinois
Videos for Illinois
Wikis about Illinois
Discussion Groups about Illinois
Blogs about Illinois
Images of Illinois

Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system.
. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois.
. While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. The Lake Alvord Bridge was designated a civil engineering landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers in the 1970's. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. Ironically, the city's few reinforced concrete structures, including the Lake Alvord Bridge, survived the 1906 earthquake and fire in remarkable shape, vindicating Ransome's faith in the method.

District territories are often complex in structure. Ransome left San Francisco a few year's later, frustrated and bitter at the building community's indifference to concrete construction. Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. E.L. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate. The face of the bridge was scored and hammered to resemble sandstone. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Ransome is believed to have used his patented cold-twisted square steel bar for reinforcement, placed longitudinally in the arch and curved in the same arc.

However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The bridge was constructed as a single arch 64-feet wide with a 20-foot span. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. Ransome, the great 19th century innovator in reinforced concrete design, mixing equipment, and construction systems. There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. Known as the Lake Alvord Bridge, it was built in 1889 by Ernest L. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies. Moore.

Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. Other famous San Franciscans include philanthropist Gordon Getty, publisher William Randolph Hearst, and co-founder of Intel Corporation and the author of Moore's law, Gordon E. The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. US Supreme Court Associate Justice Stephen Breyer, former Governors of California Jerry Brown and Pat Brown, US Senator Dianne Feinstein, former US Secretaries of Defense Robert McNamara and Caspar Weinberger, and gay rights activists Harvey Milk and Jose Sarria were or are San Franciscans who made names for themselves in politics. See complete listing here... Simpson, and baseball legend Joe DiMaggio are all sportspeople with San Francisco connections. The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%). Baseball player Barry Bonds, American football legend O.J.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:. Photographer Ansel Adams, writer Anne Rice, comedian Gracie Allen, actor and director Clint Eastwood, "mother" of Modern Dance Isadora Duncan, Jerry Garcia of the Grateful Dead, author Jack London, musician Carlos Santana, Metallica guitarist Kirk Hammett, personality Courtney Love, and actor/comic Robin Williams are examples of notable arts and entertainment figures who have lived in the city. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population. Many notable people have grown up in or have lived as adults in San Francisco. Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. There are now plans in the works to build a major cruise ship terminal/mall similar to Pier 39. Females made up approximately 51% of the population. Most of the port's activities are now mostly for commuter ferries that leave from the Ferry Building, cruise ship docking, and tourism.

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Many of the piers remained derelict for years until recently, when the port converted many of the piers to office space and sold them. The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%). The advent of container shipping made San Francisco's pier based port obsolete, as much of the city's container traffic is now limited to a small port in the south-east corner of the city, or sent across the bay to the Port of Oakland. Racially, the state is:. The Port of San Francisco was once the largest and busiest seaport on the west coast. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains. Other large airports in the region include Oakland International Airport, 32.2 km (20 miles) from San Francisco and San Jose International Airport, 70.8 km (44 miles) from San Francisco.

More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. Rail extensions there include BART. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. It is the only major international hub airport in California other than LAX in Los Angeles. During the late 1990s economic boom, SFO was the sixth busiest international airport in the world, but has since fallen off of the top ten during the economic depression of 2000-2001. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. San Francisco International Airport dubbed SFO, is located 12.9 km (8 miles) south of the city in San Mateo County on a landfill extension into the San Francisco Bay. According to the U.S. The Phoenix symbolizes the city's emergence from the ashes of several devastating fires in the early 1850's.

Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal. Above is a rising phoenix and behind is the bay with sailing ships. Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. The seal, which was adopted in the 1850's, depicts two working men, on one side a miner and on the other a sailor with a sextant. The per capita income was $32,965. Underneath the phoenix it has a motto written in Spanish: "Oro en Paz, Fierro en Guerra," which translates into: "Gold in Peace, Iron in War.". The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. The flag depicts an arising Phoenix, symbolic of the City's recovery from the 1906 fire.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. Other fictional works set in San Francisco include The Joy Luck Club, The Maltese Falcon, and Tales of the City. Both figures are as of 2004. Landmarks from the city in that game include the Golden Gate and Bay Bridges, City Hall, the Transamerica Pyramid, cable cars, and Chinatown. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. The city is featured in the popular video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas as the fictional city San Fierro. McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. Doubtfire, The Game, Guess Who's Coming to Dinner, Pacific Heights, Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, The Presidio, Dirty Harry, Bullitt, Twisted, and Vertigo.

This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70. Movies set in the city include Basic Instinct, The Conversation Edtv, Mrs. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. San Francisco has been the setting for numerous television programs, such as Dharma & Greg, Full House, The Streets of San Francisco, Charmed, The Midnight Caller and, more recently, Monk. The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. It is the world's most popular destination for Gay Tourists and hosts the world's largest Gay pride parade and festival in June. This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago. Due to the high number of Gay people in the Castro District and Noe Valley and the city's history with Gay Rights, San Francisco is known as the "Gay Mecca".

Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). The Bohemian Grove an exculsive retreat for the rich and powerful, is located north of the city in Sonoma County while it maintains a club within city limits. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. The Sierra Club is headquarted in the city. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Ironically, the Republican Party have also held 2 conventions in the city while San Francisco's liberalism was budding in the late 1950s and the early 1960s. Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. This started with the beat generation or beatniks in the North Beach area and the San Francisco Renaissance in the 1950s to the hippie culture and the Summer of Love in the Haight Ashbury in the 1960s and early 1970s, to rave culture in the 1990s.

While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade. It is also the primary support base for the Green Party. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. It is the unofficial center and capitial of left-wing activity in the United States. It is a loyal stronghold for the Democratic Party as it held a convention here in 1920 and again in 1984. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. Following World War II, San Francisco became a nerve center of alternative culture and lifestyle in the United States that is still dominant in the city's culture today. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. The American Indian Film Institute which organizes the annual American Indian Film Festival is based in San Francisco.

The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. San Francisco's Ballet and Opera are the some of the oldest continuning performing arts companies in the United States. Illinois has three major geographical divisions. In terms of performing arts, San Francisco boasts the San Francisco Symphony, the San Francisco Opera and the San Francisco Ballet. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan. Between Portola and Glenview streets lies San Francisco's high school SOTA (School of the Arts), dedicated to the performing arts. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Museums include San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Palace of the Legion of Honor and the Cable Car Museum, along with offbeat museums such as Ripley's Believe it or Not Museum and the Tattoo Art Museum.

It is in the north-central U.S. Some of the most notable landmarks are the Transamerica Pyramid and Golden Gate Bridge. See List of Illinois counties. A large fresh-water lake, Lake Merced, is located in the south west corner of the city near San Francisco State University and Fort Funston. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts. Buena Vista Park located in the Haight-Ashbury, is the city's oldest, established in 1867. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. Another notable park is The Presidio, which is just one part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, which also includes Alcatraz.

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. The best-known, as well as biggest, park is Golden Gate Park which is 174 acres larger than New York's Central Park. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. Related topics: Maps of San Francisco, California. The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. The cornerstone of this development is the new SBC Park baseball stadium and an extension of the University of California, San Francisco medical school. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments. A new neighborhood is being developed at the far eastern end of South of Market that is being called Mission Bay.

Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. The South of Market neighborhood was one of the epicenters of the dot-com boom of the 1990s thus being a showcase of contemporary urban development. During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Arguably, the point of gravity in terms of demographic and land use change is moving east & south. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago). The Castro neigborhood has the world's highest concentration of Gays. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. Haight-Ashbury gained prominence during the 1960s as one of the prominent concentrations of hippies.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Russian Hill is probably most noted for the top end of that portion of Lombard Street that is sometimes referred to as "the crookedest (most winding) street in the world". With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois. The predominantly latino Mission District is one of the oldest neighborhoods, as it was the site of one of the twenty one missions in California. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. It also boasts a budding Vietnamese community in the Tenderloin neighborhood, an Italian community in North Beach, a French Quarter and a Russian community in the Richmond district. Early U.S. Like many large cities in the US, San Francisco has a Japantown and Chinatown; both are among the largest and oldest in the US.

state. There are also a number of private art schools that operate across the city. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. Private schools include:. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. Public Universities include:. The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. Despite its limited geographical space, San Francisco is home to a multitude of Universities and Colleges.

The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory. San Francisco also boasts of legendary venues such as The Fillmore and The Warfield. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. Major areas of nightlife in San Francisco are: in North Beach, the Mission District, and South of Market. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. San Francisco also has great nightlife ranging from bars to lounges to clubs. French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. Records aside, the race is best known for its colorful costumes and celebratory community spirit (it was initiated after the disastrous 1906 earthquake as a way to boost the city's spirits).

The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes. The city is also the home of the annual Bay to Breakers footrace, which holds the world records for greatest number of participants in a footrace (110K in 1986) as well as longest consecutively running footrace (annually since 1912). The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. College sports include the University of San Francisco Dons. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The basketball and ice hockey teams were once based out of San Francisco and played out of the Cow Palace located at the southern border with Daly City. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The regional National Hockey League team, the San Jose Sharks play in San Jose.

That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The regional National Basketball Association team, the Golden State Warriors play across the bay in Oakland. Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. San Francisco is the home of the San Francisco 49ers National Football League team and the San Francisco Giants Major League Baseball team. The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state. A small fleet of commuter ferries operate from the Embarcadero to points in Marin County, Oakland, and north to Vallejo in Solano County. postal abbreviation for the state is IL. In addition, a commuter rail service, Caltrain, operates between San Francisco, San Jose, California and Gilroy, California.

The U.S. BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) is the regional transit system, which connects San Francisco with the East Bay through an underwater tunnel, and the San Mateo County, California communities on the San Francisco Peninsula. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. Muni is the city-owned public transit system which operates the Muni Metro light rail system, the F Market heritage streetcar line and the famous San Francisco cable car system (see above), together with buses and electric trolleybuses. The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. San Francisco has the most extensive and best connected public transit system on the west coast and one of the most diverse in the country. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people". Going northbound, 101 uses arterial streets, Van Ness Avenue and Lombard Street to the Golden Gate Bridge across to Marin County. Interstate 280 which also begins and ends in the city and goes southbound towards Silicon Valley and Highway 1 which bisects the westside of the city as a arterial thoroughfare.

Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The major highways in San Francisco are Interstate 80 which begins at the Bay Bridge and goes eastbound; US 101 which begins where 80 ends/begins off and goes southbound towards the Silicon Valley. Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Similarly, the Golden Gate Bridge is the only direct road access to Marin County from San Francisco. State tree: White oak (Quercus alba). The Bay Bridge is the only link that provides road direct access to the east bay from San Francisco. State snack: Popcorn. Because of its unique geography, and the "Freeway Revolt", San Francisco is one of the few major cities in the US next to Boston and New York City that has opted for European style arterial thoroughfares instead of a large network of major highways.

State song: "Illinois". Related topics: Maps of San Francisco, California. State slogan: "Land of Lincoln". Out of the total population, 13.5% of those under the age of 18 and 10.5% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. State prairie grass: Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). 11.3% of the population and 7.8% of families are below the poverty line. State motto: "State sovereignty, national union". The per capita income for the city is $34,556.

State mineral: Fluorite. Males have a median income of $46,260 versus $40,049 for females. State insect: Monarch butterfly. The median income for a household in the city is $55,221, and the median income for a family is $63,545. State fossil: Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium). For every 100 females there are 103.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 103.1 males. State flower: Purple violet (Viola sororia). The median age is 36 years.

State fish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). In the city the population is spread out with 14.5% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 40.5% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 13.7% who are 65 years of age or older. State dance: Square dance. The average household size is 2.30 and the average family size is 3.22. State capital: Springfield. 38.6% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.8% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). There are 329,700 households out of which 16.6% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.6% are married couples living together, 8.9% have a female householder with no husband present, and 56.0% are non-families.

State animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The ethnic makeup is 19.6% Chinese, 8.8% Irish, 7.7% German, and 6.1% English. Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President, is buried in Springfield, Illinois. 14.10% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. Ronald Reagan, the 40th President, was born in Tampico, Illinois. The racial makeup of the city is 49.66% White, 7.79% African American, 0.45% Native American, 30.84% Asian, 0.49% Pacific Islander, 6.48% from other races, and 4.28% from two or more races. Non-Religious – 8%. There are 346,527 housing units at an average density of 2,865.6/km˛ (7,421.2/mi˛).

Other Religions – 3%. The population density is 6,423.2/km˛ (16,634.4/mi˛), making it the second densest city (and fifth densest county) in the country [3] (http://gislounge.com/features/aa041101c.shtml). Other Christian – 1%. As of the census2 of 2000, there are 776,733 people, 329,700 households, and 145,068 families residing in the city. Roman Catholic – 33%. See also: List of Mayors of San Francisco, California. Protestant – 51%. The headquarters of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, the Supreme Court of California, and the First Appelate District of the California Courts of Appeal are in San Francisco.

1.9% mixed race. The current President of the Board of Supervisors is Aaron Peskin. 0.2% American Indian. The current mayor is Gavin Newsom. 3.4% Asian. One good place to read about San Francisco politics is at The Usual Suspects, at [2] (http://www.SFUsualSuspects.com). 12.3% Hispanic. Due to its implementation, there was no December runoff election. (Although the city offices are, by state law, non-partisan, there are still considerable political differences among candidates that may generally be identified as being aligned with various parties.).

15.1% Black. In the Board of Supervisors race in November 2004, Instant Runoff Voting worked well, with many winners known on election night and all winners within a couple of days. 67.8% White Non-Hispanic. A recent electoral innovation that was to be implemented for the November 2003 elections, but was not prepared in time, is the use of ranked preference voting, also known as instant runoff voting. The Junior United States Senator is Barack Obama (Democrat). While most cities in California are General Law Cities, San Francisco is one of a few Charter Cities, theoretically giving the city's voters additional control over governmental structures and allowing the city to exercise considerable control over some lands not located in the city such as those associated with San Francisco International Airport and the Hetch Hetchy water and power system. Durbin (Democrat). The eleven members of the Board are elected to represent eleven districts in the city; current elected members are listed in the table on the right.

The Senior United States Senator is Richard J. It is governed by a mayor, who runs the executive branch of the city, and a Board of Supervisors, which comprises the legislative branch. The Treasurer of Illinois is Judy Baar Topinka (Republican). San Francisco is both a city and a county, and is the only one of California's 58 counties to possess that distinction. The Secretary of State of Illinois is Jesse White (Democrat). LucasArts is located in Marin County, though the company plans to relocate to the Presidio in the next few years. The Lieutenant Governor of Illinois is Pat Quinn (Democrat). ChevronTexaco (fomerly of San Francisco) and IPIX are based in San Ramon, Safeway is based in Pleasanton, and C & H Sugar Company is based in Crockett.

The Governor of Illinois is Rod Blagojevich (Democrat). Outside of Silicon Valley, in the East Bay, Pixar Animation is located in Emeryville. Hewlett Packard is in Palo Alto near Stanford University. Yahoo! is headquartered in Sunnyvale. Google is headquartered (at the "Googleplex") in Mountain View. Cisco Systems and Adobe Systems are headquartered in San Jose. Sun Microsystems, Intel, Applied Materials, and McAfee are headquartered in Santa Clara.

Electronic Arts and Oracle Corporation are based in Redwood City. Apple Computer and Symantec are based in Cupertino. Some 65 km (~ 40 miles) south of San Francisco is the Silicon Valley, which holds much of the computing business in the world. Many major American and international banks and venture capital firms have all set up their regional headquarters in the city.

The Pacific Exchange, a regional stock exchange, is located in the financial district. Mint. Federal Reserve as well as major production facilities for the U.S. It is the home of the twelfth district of the U.S.

West Coast. Because of the California gold rush, San Francisco became and remains the banking and financial center of the U.S. The geographical center of the city is on the east side of Grandview Avenue between Alvarado and Twenty-third Streets. The city itself is often reputed to be roughly a seven mile by seven mile square, but in fact it is slightly smaller, 46.7 mi˛, of which .33 mi˛ are the Farallon Islands.

The total area is 79.86% water. 120.9 km˛ (46.7 mi˛) of it is land and 479.7 km˛ (185.2 mi˛) of it is water. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city and county has a total area of 600.7 km˛ (231.9 mi˛). The fog is less pronounced during the month of September, which is generally the warmest, most summer-like month of the year.

Thus, the summer temperatures are significantly lower in San Francisco than in other parts of inland California. The combination of cold ocean water and the high heat of the California mainland mean that San Francisco's western half is often shrouded in fog during the months of July and August. The Pacific Ocean off the west coast of the city is particularly cold year round. Snow is virtually unheard of.

Rain in the summer is extremely rare, but winters can often be very rainy. The weather is remarkably mild all year round, with a so-called Mediterranean climate characterized by cool, foggy summers and relatively warm winters; average daily high temperatures in the summer typically range from 15 -20 degrees Celsius (the upper 60s to low 70s Fahrenheit), while in the winter it virtually never reaches freezing. Surrounded on three sides by water, San Francisco's climate is strongly influenced by the cool currents of the Pacific Ocean. Coit Tower, a notable landmark dedicated to San Francisco's firefighters, is located at the top of Telegraph Hill.

Along with New Orleans' streetcars, San Francisco's cable cars are one of only two mobile United States National Monuments. It is still possible to take a cable car ride up and down Nob and Russian Hills. San Francisco is also famous for its Cable cars (narrow gauge, 1067 mm (3'6")), which were designed to carry residents up those steep hills. Not to be missed are the beautiful homes and area of the city known as Pacific Heights as well as victorians in the Haight-Ashbury and the "painted ladies" of Alamo Square and the Castro.

On top of Mount Davidson is a 31.4 meter (103 foot) tall cross built in 1934. About 1.2km (1 mile) south of Mount Sutro is San Francisco's highest mountain, Mount Davidson, which is over 282 meters (over 925 feet) high. Nearby are the equally well known Twin Peaks, which are a pair of hills resting at one of the city's highest points. Dominating this area is Mount Sutro, which is the site of Sutro Tower, a large red and white radio transmission tower, that is a well known landmark to city residents.

Near the geographic center of the city and away from the downtown area are a series of less populated hills. Three of San Francisco's notable hill neighborhoods are Nob Hill, Russian Hill, and Telegraph Hill, all located near Downtown. San Francisco is famous for its hills and the streets which run straight up and down them. Such land is extremely unstable during earthquakes; the resultant liquefaction during earthquakes causes extensive damage to property built upon it, as was evidenced in the Marina district during the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake.

Entire neighborhoods of the city such as the Marina and Hunters Point were created and sit on man made landfill (made up of mud, sand, and rubble from past earthquakes) and other reclaimation projects over the San Francisco Bay when flatland became scarce. New buildings must be built to very high structural standards, while many dollars must be spent to retrofit the city's older buildings and bridges. The threat of another major earthquake like the 1906 one plays a major role in the city's infrastructure development. The Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989, which also did significant damage to parts of the city, is also famous for having interrupted a World Series baseball game between the Bay Area's two Major League Baseball teams, the San Francisco Giants and the Oakland Athletics.

The Daly City Earthquake of 1957 caused some damage. Earlier significant quakes rocked the city in 1851, 1858, 1865, and 1868. The most serious earthquake, in 1906, is mentioned above. San Francisco lies near the San Andreas Fault; a major source of earthquake activity in California.

On June 5th, the mayors of 100 cities, including the mayor of San Francisco, signed an accord that made their cities more compliant with the Kyoto Protocol. In 2005, San Francisco hosted the United Nations annual World Enivronment Day, the first time it has been held in the US. While somewhat controversial, the law will go into effect on July 1, 2005. Other California cities have enacted similar outdoor smoking bans (though not as far-reaching), but San Francisco's new anti-smoking policy is significant considering the city's size and cultural influence on the rest of the state and the nation.

California's statewide smoking bans already being some of the toughest in the nation, the new policy in San Francisco represents an even stricter stance on public smoking. San Francisco's history of innovative ordinances was seen again with the 2004 decision to ban outdoor smoking in all city-owned parks, plazas and public sports venues, amongst other outdoor areas. Newsom also helped enact a strong new homeless policy, "Care Not Cash," in which the checks that homeless people previously received were replaced with vouchers for housing. The California Supreme Court later invalidated these licenses.

to issue same-sex marriage licenses in February, 2004. The newly elected Mayor Newsom, who won by a close margin, burst onto the national political scene when, in defiance of state law, he led San Francisco to become the first city in the U.S. The 2003 mayoral election of Matt Gonzalez versus Gavin Newsom was notable in that it was between a candidate of the progressive left and a moderate liberal, conservative candidates having had a hard time in the city. Though top officials were formally indicted, they were soon exonerated, but with considerable damage to their reputations, and having brought the city nationwide ridicule.

The resulting scandal was dubbed "Fajitagate" after it was alleged that high-ranking officers within the Police Department had tried to cover up the incident. In November of 2002, three off-duty police officers (one the son of the assistant chief) allegedly assaulted two civilians over a bag of steak fajitas. The success of Craigslist stands as a testament to the over-production of the dot-com era. Craig Newmark founded the website Craigslist based in his San Francisco home.

South of Market, where many dot com companies were located, had been bustling and crowded with few vacancies, but by 2002 was a virtual wasteland of empty offices and for-rent signs. By 2001, the boom was over, and many people left San Francisco. The resulting backlash resulted in a progressive majority winning control of the Board of Supervisors in the 2000 election. The rising rents forced many people and businesses to leave, and this caused considerable tension in the city's politics.

During the dot-com boom of the 1990s, large numbers of entrepreneurs and computer software professionals moved into the city, followed by marketing and sales professionals, and changed the social landscape as once poorer neighborhoods became gentrified. Known in most of the United States as the "World Series Quake," but in California and by seismologists as the Loma Prieta earthquake, it caused significant destruction and loss of life throughout the greater bay area. The quake also caused extensive damage in the Marina District and the South of Market. The damage to these freeways was so extensive, that they were eventually demolished.

The quake severely damaged many of the city's freeway's including the Embarcadero Freeway and the Central Freeway. On October 17, 1989, an earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter magnitude scale struck on the San Andreas Fault near Loma Prieta Peak in the Santa Cruz mountains, approximately 70 miles south of San Francisco, during game 3 of the 1989 World Series. Present mayor Gavin Newsom's policy on the homeless is the controversial "Care Not Cash" program where he plans to end the city's generous welfare policies towards the homeless and instead wants the homeless to be put in affordable housing and attend city funded drug rehabilitation and job training programs. His successor, Willie Brown, was able to largely ignore the problem, riding on the strong economy into a second term.

And it did displace them - to the rest of the city. Jordan launched the "MATRIX" program the next year, which aimed to displace the homeless through aggressive police action. Mayor Art Agnos (1988-92) was the first to attack the problem, and not the last; it is a top issue for San Franciscans even today. Agnos allowed the homeless to camp in the Civic Center park, which led to its title of "Camp Agnos." The failure of this lenient policy led to his being replaced by Frank Jordan in 1992. During the 1980s, homeless people began appearing in large numbers in the city, the result of factors that were affecting the country at large, combined with San Francisco's attractive environment and generous welfare policies, economic and social changes, and the availability of addictive drugs are often cited as reasons for the growth of the problem.

This law has become a standard in many of the world's cities today, and pushed skyscraper construction to the South of Market district where it is still ongoing. Similar to the freeway revolt in the city decades earlier, a "skyscraper revolt" forced the city to enact height restriction limits on tall buildings. This was met with widespread opposition with the city's residents who felt that the skyscrapers ruined views and destroyed San Francisco's unique character. Under former Mayor, and now US senator, Diane Feinstein, San Francisco underwent "Manhattanization" when many of the large skyscrapers present in the Financial District and residential condominiums were built across the city in the late 1970s through the 1980s.

San Francisco has more gays and lesbians than any other US city. Today, the gay population of the city is estimated to be at about 15%, and gays remain an important force in the city's politics. In the 1980s, the AIDS virus wreaked havoc on the gay community there. Because of the rise of this new population, as well as the overall change in ethnic and cultural demographics, tensions arose in the city, and these tensions led to tragedy in 1978 when a conservative member of the Board of Supervisors and a former cop, Dan White, murdered San Francisco's first openly gay elected official, Supervisor Harvey Milk and the city's mayor George Moscone on November 27 (see "Twinkie Defense").

In the 1970s, large numbers of gay people moved to San Francisco's Castro district, which previous to their arrival, had been abandoned by Irish-Americans who moved en masse to the more affluent and culturally homogenous suburbs. When drugs and violence began to become a serious problem in the Haight, many lesbians and gays simply moved "over the hill", to the Castro. These lesbians and gays were the prime movers of Gay Liberation and often lived communally, buying (like their straight counterparts) decrepit Victorians in the Haight and fixing them up. The late 1960s also brought in a new wave of lesbians and gays who were more radical and less mainstream and who had flocked to San Francisco not only for its gay-friendly reputation, but for its reputation as a radical, left-wing epicenter.

On the rave scene, the city was the first to host the Love Parade outside its birthplace of Berlin, Germany in 2004. During the 1980s and 1990s San Francisco became a major focal point in the North American--and international-- punk and rave scene. Another peculiar development is that the Church Of Satan was founded and made its headquarters in San Francisco in 1966. At this time, the "San Francisco sound" emerged as an influential force in rock music, with such acts as the Jefferson Airplane and the Grateful Dead achieving international prominence, blurring the boundaries between folk, rock and jazz traditions and further developing the lyrical content of rock.

Thousands of young people poured into the Haight-Ashbury district of the city during 1967, which was known as the Summer of Love. During the latter half of the following decade, the 1960s, San Francisco was the center of hippie culture. Some of the story of the evolving arts scene of the 1950s is told in the article San Francisco Renaissance. San Francisco has often been a magnet for America's counterculture. During the 1950s, City Lights Bookstore in the North Beach neighborhood was an important publisher of Beat Generation literature.

His planning led to the creation of Embarcadero Center, the Embarcadero Freeway, Japantown, the Geary Street superblocks, and Yerba Buena Gardens. He began levelling entire areas in San Francisco's Western Addition and Japantown neighborhoods. Enacting eminent domain whenever necessary, he set upon a plan to tear down huge areas of the city and replace them with modern construction. Critics accused Herman of racism for what was perceived as attempts to create segregation and displacement of African-Americans. Many African-Americans were forced to move from their homes near the Fillmore jazz district to newly constructed projects such as the near the naval base Hunter's Point or even to cities such as Oakland. Justin Herman began an aggressive campaign to renew blighted areas of the city.

In the 1950s San Francisco hired Harvard graduate Justin Herman to head the redevelopment agency for the city and county. The neighborhoods once covered by these freeways have been rebuilt, and the restoration of the Embarcadero, San Francisco's historic bay waterfront, as a public space has been especially successful. Over the course of several referenda, San Francisco's residents elected not to rebuild either structure. In 1989, the Loma Prieta earthquake destroyed the Embarcadero Freeway and portions of the so-called Central Freeway.

Although some minor modifications have been allowed to the ends of existing freeways, the city's anti-freeway policy has remained in place ever since. In 1959, the Board of Supervisors voted to halt construction of any more freeways in the city, an event known as the Freeway Revolt. Caltrans tried to minimize displacement (and its land acquisition costs) by building double-decker freeways, but the crude state of civil engineering at that time resulted in construction of some embarrassingly ugly freeways which ultimately turned out to be seismically unsafe. However, Caltrans soon encountered strong resistance in San Francisco, for the city's high population density meant that virtually any right-of-way would displace a large number of people.

During the early 1950s, Caltrans commenced an aggressive freeway construction program in the Bay Area. The Treaty of San Francisco which established peaceful relations with Japan, was drafted and signed there six years later in 1951. The United Nations Charter was also drafted in San Francisco in 1945. During World War II, San Francisco was the major mainland supply point and port of embarkation for the war in the Pacific.

The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge was opened in 1936 and the Golden Gate Bridge in 1937. On July 22, 1916 a bomb exploded on Market Street during a Preparedness Day parade, killing 10 and injuring 40. In 1915, the city hosted the Panama-Pacific Exposition, officially to celebrate the opening of the Panama Canal, but also as a showcase of the vibrant completely rebuilt city less than a decade after the Earthquake. Unwilling to evict the remains of San Francisco's most prominent founding citizens, however, the above-ground Columbarium of San Francisco was allowed to remain, whose 30,000 deceased residents are the only permitted within the city to this day.

In 1912, this time with no excuse other than the rising value of real estate, all remaining cemeteries in the city were evicted to south of the city limit, where in the modern-day town of Colma the dead now outnumber the living more than ten-thousand to one. [1] (http://www.montereyherald.com/mld/montereyherald/news/10737701.htm) See also: 1906 San Francisco earthquake. With the centennial of the disaster approaching, a city supervisor sponsored a resolution to amend the death toll, noting "there is evidence to show the number was suppressed for political reasons" (namely that the city's reputation would have suffered). Many residents were trapped between the water on three sides and the approaching fire, and a mass evacuation similar to that of the later Battle of Dunkirk to safety across the Bay saved thousands.

The official reported death toll was 478, but most historians agree the true tally was much higher, probably over 3,000. Water mains ruptured throughout San Francisco, and the fires that followed burned out of control for days, destroying the vast majority of buildings in the city. The quake is estimated by modern scientists to have reached 8.25 on the Richter scale. On April 18, 1906, a devastating earthquake resulted from the rupture of over 270 miles of the San Andreas Fault, from San Juan Bautista to Eureka, centered immediately offshore of San Francisco.

A fifteen-block section of Chinatown was quarantined while city leaders squabbled over the proper course to take, but the outbreak was finally eradicated by 1905. Burials moved to the undeveloped area just south of the city limit, now the town of Colma, California. Mistakenly believing that interred corpses contributed to the transmission of plague, and possibly also motivated by the opportunity for profitable land speculation, city leaders banned all cemeteries within the city. In 1900, a ship from China brought with it rats infected with bubonic plague.

Norton. One of most colorful figures of late 19th century San Francisco was "Emperor" Joshua A. The Sisters of Mercy were contracted to run San Francisco's first county hospital at the height of the cholera epidemic, and in 1857, the order opened its own charity hospital, Mercy Hospital of San Francisco, which is still in operation today at its original location on Stanyan Street. The responsibility for caring for the indigent sick had previously rested on the state, but faced with the San Francisco cholera epidemic, the state legislature devolved this responsibility to the counties, setting the precedent for California's system of county hospitals for the poor still in effect today.

As the city's rapid gold-rush area population growth had significantly outstripped the development of infrastructure, including sanitation, a serious cholera epidemic quickly broke out. Carolina) docked in San Francisco. Sam or the S.S. In autumn of 1855, a ship bearing refugees from an ongoing cholera epidemic in the far east (authorities disagree as to whether this was the S.S.

San Francisco became the USA's largest city west of the Mississippi River. All of the county not in the city limits was split off to form San Mateo County in 1856. San Francisco County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. The Committee of Vigilance relinquished power both times after it decided the city had been 'cleaned up'.

This military government exiled many citizens, executed a few, and forced several elected officials to resign. Disgusted by increasing corruption and crime, a group of San Franciscans formed a Committee of Vigilance in 1851, and again in 1856. This was exacerbated by squabbling in the United States Senate, where the Compromise of 1850 was igniting a fierce fight over slavery. Like many mining towns, the political situation in early San Francisco was chaotic.

clothing, Ghirardelli chocolate, and Wells Fargo bank. Many businesses started at that time to service the growing population are still present today, notably Levi Strauss & Co. The Chinatown district of the city is still one of the largest in the country; the city as a whole is rougly one-third Chinese, one of the largest concentrations outside of China. Between January 1848 and December 1849, the population of San Francisco increased from 1,000 to 25,000.

The California gold rush starting in 1848 led to a large growth in population, including considerable immigration. Much of the present downtown is built over the former Yerba Buena Cove, granted to the city by military governor Stephen Watts Kearny in 1847. The first of many environmental transformations was the city's reliance on filled marshlands for real estate. These natural disadvantages forced the town's residents to bring water, fuel and food to the site.

Situated at the tip of a windswept peninsula without water or firewood, San Francisco lacked most of the basic facilities for a nineteenth century settlement. It was then renamed "San Francisco" on January 30, 1847. Sloat took it in 1846 in the name of the United States. Yerba Buena remained a small town until the Mexican-American War broke out and a naval force under Commodore John D.

The area first began to develop as a city under the name of Yerba Buena in 1822, when what is now the downtown area was first settled by William Richardson, an English whaler. A Spanish party led by Juan Bautista de Anza arrived on March 28, 1776 and established the sites for the Presidio of San Francisco and Mission San Francisco de Asis (named for Saint Francis of Assisi and now popularly known as "Mission Dolores"). European discovery and exploration of the San Francisco Bay Area began in 1542 and culminated with the mapping of the bay in 1775. When Europeans arrived, they found the area inhabited by the Yelamu tribe, belonging to a linguistic grouping later called the Ohlone (a Miwok Indian word meaning "western people") living in the coastal area between Point Sur and the San Francisco Bay.

European visitors to the Bay Area were preceded 10,000 to 20,000 years earlier by Native Americans. Widely recognized landmarks include the San Francisco cable car system, the Golden Gate Bridge and the Transamerica Pyramid. It was a center of the dot-com boom at the end of the century. Long enjoying a bohemian reputation, the city became a counterculture magnet in the second half of the 20th century.

The phoenix on the city's flag represents San Francisco's "rebirth" from the ashes of the fire that resulted from the quake. The city was devastated by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, but was rebuilt quickly. The city grew rapidly due to the California gold rush starting in 1848. The first Europeans to settle in San Francisco were the Spanish, in 1776.

city aside from New York City. census data show that San Francisco has the highest population density of any major U.S. U.S. The city is the focal point of the San Francisco Bay Area metropolitan area, whose total population is about 7 million.

The city-county also includes several islands in the bay and the Farallon Islands 27 miles offshore in the Pacific Ocean. It is a consolidated city-county (the only one in California) situated at the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula that forms San Francisco Bay. The City and County of San Francisco (estimated population 799,263) is the fourth-largest city in the state of California, United States, in terms of population. Image made by Rick Wyatt.

http://flagspot.net, http://fotw.vexillum.com/flags/us-ca-sf.html - Source of flag image. Tour and Vacation activities for visitors to San Francisco and the Bay Area - From Bay Cruises to Guided Walking tours Online reservations (http://www.buysanfranciscotours.com). MapWest.com includes detailed information for Visitors to San Francisco including maps, tour , neighborhood, travel information, web cams and tour reservations (http://www.mapwest.com). Videos of San Francisco from the Shaping San Francisco collection at archive.org (http://www.archive.org/movies/movieslisting-browse.php?collection=shaping_sf).

Videos of San Francisco from the Prelinger Collection at archive.org (http://www.archive.org/movies/movieslisting-browse.php?collection=prelinger&cat=San%20Francisco). Guide to San Francisco (http://www.hotelssf.com). Nearlocal.com (http://www.nearlocal.com/) High density San Francisco Bay Area local restaurant listings and reviews. Photographs of the Golden Gate Bridge (http://www.lodgephoto.com/galleries/US/goldengate).

Great color photographs of San Francisco (http://www.lodgephoto.com/galleries/usa/sanfrancisco/). SanFrancisco.com (http://www.sanfrancisco.com) City guide with free email and travel information. Bay Area Experiences.com (http://www.bayareaexperiences.com) Community-built site with fun, non-touristy things to do in San Francisco and surrounding areas. Old Palace Hotel (1875-1906) (http://CPRR.org/Museum/Palace_Hotel_SF/).

Historic Pictures of 19th Century San Francisco (http://sanfrancisco.cityviews.us/). Gay San Francisco Business Directory (http://www.gay-sf.org/). San Francisco Pride (http://www.sfpride.org/). Go San Francisco Card: 32 San Francisco Attractions and Tours (http://www.gosanfranciscocard.com/) One price includes museums, historic sites, excursions & more.

San Francisco Virtual Tour (http://www.virtuar.com/ysf2/) Walk around the city as if you are there. Orange Magazine (http://www.orange-mag.com) Orange Magazine covers San Francisco style and culture with an emphasis on local designers, artists, and businesses. Bay Area Public Transit Info, Schedules and Maps (http://transit.511.org/). Chinatown (http://www.sanfranciscochinatown.com/).

San Francisco History Index (http://www.zpub.com/sf/history/). Non-commercial site. A local's guide for people visiting or moving to San Francisco (http://www.dreamworld.org/sfguide) Neighborhood photo tours, maps, job-hunting, romantic walks, outdoor adventures, restaurant recommendations, advice on moving, finding romance, and more. Craigslist - http://www.craigslist.org/.

Museum of the City of San Francisco (http://www.sfmuseum.org/). Official website for the City and County of San Francisco (http://www.ci.sf.ca.us/). Travel guide to San Francisco from Wikitravel. Weather satellite image from NASA (http://wwwghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/get-goes?satellite=GOES-E%20CONUS&lat=37.759881&lon=-122.437392&zoom=1&info=ir&palette=spect.pal&width=600&height=500).

    . An aerial photo of the entire city (http://terraservice.net/image.aspx?T=4&S=14&Z=10&X=171&Y=1305&W=3). List of school districts in San Francisco County, California. But the 116-year-old prototype still arches strongly today over a pedestrian entrance to San Francisco's Golden Gate park, welcoming visitors to the Children's Quarters.

    The first reinforced concrete bridge in America, Lake Alvord Bridge, was constructed in 1889. Additionally, Star Fleet Headquarters and Academy are located on what is currently the Presidio of San Francisco. Enterprise was San Francisco–class but was later changed by script writers to a more appropriate (following United States Navy warship naming conventions) Constitution–class. In the Star Trek fictional universe, Captain Kirk's U.S.S.

    San Francisco is a location in CRPG Fallout 2. Some Dexter's Laboratory fans have identifed San Francisco as the city where the show takes place. California School of Culinary Arts located in the Tenderloin. New College of California located in the Mission district.

    Golden Gate University, a liberal arts school located downtown,. the Jesuit-run University of San Francisco, one of the first universities established west of the Mississippi, located in the center of the city. City College of San Francisco, one of the largest community colleges in the country is located in Vistication Valley. Hastings College of the Law located downtown at its Civic Center.

    San Francisco State University located in the southwest corner of the city near Lake Merced. University of California, San Francisco, located north of Forest Hill. Method. Craigslist.

    Japanese Weekend. Wired Magazine. Williams-Sonoma, Inc. Wells Fargo.

    VIZ Media. The Sharper Image. Sega of America. Pacific Gas & Electric (Frequently referred to as PG&E).

    McKesson Corporation. Macromedia. Levi Strauss & Co. The Gap.

    Dolby Laboratories. CNET. Charles Schwab. Bechtel Corporation.

    Anchor Brewing Company.

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