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Illinois

State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State
Other U.S. States
Capital Springfield
Largest city Chicago
Governor Rod Blagojevich
Official languages English
Area 149,998 km² (25th)
 - Land 143,968 km²
 - Water 6,030 km² (4.0%)
Population (2000)
 - Population 12,419,293 (5th)
 - Density 86.27 /km² (11th)
Admission into Union
 - Date December 3, 1818
 - Order 21st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Latitude 36°58'N to 42°30'N
Longitude 87°30'W to 91°30'W
Width 340 km
Length 629 km
Elevation
 - Highest 376 m
 - Mean 182 m
 - Lowest 85 m
Abbreviations
 - USPS IL
 - ISO 3166-2 US-IL
Web site www.illinois.gov

Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The U.S. postal abbreviation for the state is IL.

The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state.

History

Pre-Columbian

Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes.

European exploration

French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory.

The 1800s

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Early U.S. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago).

The Civil War

During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Government

The sample version of the current Illinois license plate introduced in 2001.

The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts.

Geography

See List of Illinois counties

It is in the north-central U.S. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan.

Illinois has three major geographical divisions. The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade.

Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago.

The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70.

McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Both figures are as of 2004.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state.

Economy

The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. The per capita income was $32,965.

Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal.

Demographics

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains.

Racially, the state is:

The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%).

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Religion

Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:

The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%).

Important cities and towns

Illinois, showing major cities and roads Chicago

See complete listing here...

Counties of Illinois

Education

Illinois State Board of Education

The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies.

There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate.

Primary and secondary schools

Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district.

See List of school districts in Illinois for a listing of all school districts, by county.
See List of high schools in Illinois for a partial list of high schools.

Colleges and universities

While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system.

List of colleges and universities

Professional sports teams

People

State symbols

The Cardinal is the state bird of Illinois
This page about Illinois includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Illinois
News stories about Illinois
External links for Illinois
Videos for Illinois
Wikis about Illinois
Discussion Groups about Illinois
Blogs about Illinois
Images of Illinois

Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system. For some, to use the word "Catholic" at all is to appear to give credence to papal claims. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. The Orthodox Churches share some of the concerns about Roman Catholic claims, but disagree with Protestants about the nature of the Church as one body. While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Some Protestant Christian Churches avoid using the term completely. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. Texts in Latin generally follow this usage, not the English practice.

District territories are often complex in structure. For instance, since French normally capitalizes only the first word of the title of an entity, the adjective "catholique", following the noun "Église", has a lower-case initial. Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. Translations even of modern texts into English often follow the usage of the original language. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate. It would be anachronistic to attribute significance to capitalization or lack of capitalization in printings of texts dating from before the last few centuries or in translations of those texts, since the originals were written in unmixed majuscule or minuscule letters. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Capitalization may merely indicate a wish to stress the holy and solemn nature of the spiritual body of believers and a desire for all Christians to be one.

However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. It may indicate formal affiliation with the Roman Catholic Church or it may not. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. Capitalization is no sure guide to denominational affiliation. There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. The epistles in question are James (http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/index.htm#james); First (http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/index.htm#1peter) and Second Peter (http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/index.htm#2peter); First (http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/index.htm#1john), Second (http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/2john/2john.htm), and Third Johnand (http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/3john/3john.htm) Jude (http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/jude/jude.htm). The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies. It is thus, strictly speaking, not an ecclesiastical term, being employed in the original broad sense of the Greek word from which "catholic" is derived.

Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. "Catholic Epistles" is another term for the General Epistles of the Christian New Testament in the Bible, which were addressed not to a particular city but to all in general. The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Reformed Churches also consider themselves to be part of the Holy Catholic Church. See complete listing here... These include "High Church" Anglicans, known also as "Anglo-Catholics". The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%). Others too who do not recognize the primacy of the Bishop of Rome use the term Catholic, but not in an exclusive sense, to describe their position, so as to distinguish it from a Calvinist or Puritan form of Protestantism.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:. As well as the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, and the Oriental Orthodox Churches all see themselves as the "one holy catholic and apostolic Church" of the Nicene Creed. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population. However, there was a span of time exceeding a millennium between the "early Church" and the Reformation during which both Scripture and Christian teaching were maintained. Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Since the time of the Reformation in the 16th century, Protestants (those who protest) have sought to restore a more primitive expression of the Church, whose goals and beliefs they believe to be more consonant with the early Church, based primarily on Scriptural texts. Females made up approximately 51% of the population. The Catholic Church holds that there can be no such thing as the Church as an "invisible entity" ONLY.

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. However, the Roman Catholic Church, which normally refers to itself simply as the Catholic Church, and which published a "Catechism of the Catholic Church" in 1992, can be traced historically to be, basically, the continuation of the original Catholic or universal Church, from which other groups broke away at various times in history. The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%). Those who apply the term "Catholic Church" to all Christians indiscriminately find it objectionable that a term designating the whole Church (as an invisible entity) should be used to refer to one communion only. Racially, the state is:. Augustine wrote:. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains. A millennium before the Protestant Reformation, St.

More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. Mark's Catholic Church" makes it clear that it is not an Episcopal or Lutheran church. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. For example, the name "St. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. In countries that have been traditionally Protestant, Catholic will often be included in the official name of a particular parish church, school, hospice or other institution belonging to the Roman Catholic Church, in order to distinguish it from those of other denominations. According to the U.S. Whilst the term is usually associated with the Roman Catholic Church, most Christians also lay claim to the term "catholic", including Eastern Orthodox and those Protestant churches possessing an episcopate (bishops).

Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal. When divisions arose within the Catholic Church, the Church fathers and the historic creeds used it to distinguish the mainstream body of orthodox Christian believers from those adhering to sects or heretical groups. Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Early Christians used the term to describe the whole undivided Church, the word's literal meaning is universal or whole. The per capita income was $32,965. Some Anglicans do not consider themselves as part of a broader Catholic Church. The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. Methodism and Presbyterianism, though Christians who believe themselves as owing their origins to the Apostles and the early Church, do not claim a descent from ancient church structures such as the episcopate.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. Not all Christian denominations view themselves as part of a broad Catholic Church. Both figures are as of 2004. Catholic (literally meaning: according to (kata-) the whole (holos) or more generally "universal") is a religious term with a number of meanings:. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. The Nicene Creed is also used by the Roman Catholic Church. McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. The various churches that regard themselves as part of a broad Catholic Church are distinguished by their use of the Nicene Creed which prays for the "one holy catholic and apostolic Church".

This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70. Among those members who regard themselves as Catholic but not Roman Catholic are the various Orthodox churches (Eastern Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox),Anglo-Catholics (also known as High Anglicans) and the Old Catholic churches. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. It can be used to refer to those Christian churches who maintain a belief that their episcopate can be traced directly back to the Apostles, and that they are therefore part of a broad catholic (or universal) body of believers. The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. Most people think of Latin Rite when thinking of the Roman Catholic Church but there are other rites in union with Rome in addition to the Latin Rite. This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago. It can refer to the members, beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church in all of its more than twenty rites.

Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). This "universal" interpretation is often used to understand the phrase "One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church" in the Nicene Creed, the phrase "the catholic faith" in the Athanasian Creed, and the phrase "holy catholic church" in the Apostles Creed. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. The term can refer to the notion that all Christians are part of one Church, regardless of denominational divisions. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie.

While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80.

The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. Illinois has three major geographical divisions. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east.

It is in the north-central U.S. See List of Illinois counties. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate.

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago). Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. Early U.S.

state. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois.

The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J.

The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes.

That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state. postal abbreviation for the state is IL.

The U.S. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. State tree: White oak (Quercus alba). State snack: Popcorn.

State song: "Illinois". State slogan: "Land of Lincoln". State prairie grass: Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). State motto: "State sovereignty, national union".

State mineral: Fluorite. State insect: Monarch butterfly. State fossil: Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium). State flower: Purple violet (Viola sororia).

State fish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). State dance: Square dance. State capital: Springfield. State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis).

State animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President, is buried in Springfield, Illinois. Ronald Reagan, the 40th President, was born in Tampico, Illinois. Non-Religious – 8%.

Other Religions – 3%. Other Christian – 1%. Roman Catholic – 33%. Protestant – 51%.

1.9% mixed race. 0.2% American Indian. 3.4% Asian. 12.3% Hispanic.

15.1% Black. 67.8% White Non-Hispanic. The Junior United States Senator is Barack Obama (Democrat). Durbin (Democrat).

The Senior United States Senator is Richard J. The Treasurer of Illinois is Judy Baar Topinka (Republican). The Secretary of State of Illinois is Jesse White (Democrat). The Lieutenant Governor of Illinois is Pat Quinn (Democrat).

The Governor of Illinois is Rod Blagojevich (Democrat).

07-30-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.