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Illinois

State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State
Other U.S. States
Capital Springfield
Largest city Chicago
Governor Rod Blagojevich
Official languages English
Area 149,998 km▓ (25th)
 - Land 143,968 km▓
 - Water 6,030 km▓ (4.0%)
Population (2000)
 - Population 12,419,293 (5th)
 - Density 86.27 /km▓ (11th)
Admission into Union
 - Date December 3, 1818
 - Order 21st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Latitude 36░58'N to 42░30'N
Longitude 87░30'W to 91░30'W
Width 340 km
Length 629 km
Elevation
 - Highest 376 m
 - Mean 182 m
 - Lowest 85 m
Abbreviations
 - USPS IL
 - ISO 3166-2 US-IL
Web site www.illinois.gov

Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The U.S. postal abbreviation for the state is IL.

The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state.

History

Pre-Columbian

Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes.

European exploration

French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory.

The 1800s

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Early U.S. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago).

The Civil War

During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Government

The sample version of the current Illinois license plate introduced in 2001.

The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts.

Geography

See List of Illinois counties

It is in the north-central U.S. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan.

Illinois has three major geographical divisions. The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade.

Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago.

The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70.

McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Both figures are as of 2004.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state.

Economy

The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. The per capita income was $32,965.

Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal.

Demographics

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains.

Racially, the state is:

The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%).

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Religion

Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:

The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%).

Important cities and towns

Illinois, showing major cities and roads Chicago

See complete listing here...

Counties of Illinois

Education

Illinois State Board of Education

The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies.

There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate.

Primary and secondary schools

Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district.

See List of school districts in Illinois for a listing of all school districts, by county.
See List of high schools in Illinois for a partial list of high schools.

Colleges and universities

While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system.

List of colleges and universities

Professional sports teams

People

State symbols

The Cardinal is the state bird of Illinois
This page about Illinois includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Illinois
News stories about Illinois
External links for Illinois
Videos for Illinois
Wikis about Illinois
Discussion Groups about Illinois
Blogs about Illinois
Images of Illinois

Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system. Jacksonville is the home of:. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. The Sister Cities International in 2000 awarded Jacksonville's the Innovation Arts & Culture Award for the city's program with Nantes, France. While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. In 2000, Port Elizabeth, South Africa became the sixth. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. In 1990, Yingkou, China became the fifth.

District territories are often complex in structure. In 1984, Nantes, France became the fourth. Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. In 1983, Masan, South Korea became the third. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate. In 1975, Murmansk, Russia became the second. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Jacksonville has several sister cities.[1] (http://www.jsca.org/) In 1967, Bahia Blanca, Argentina became Jacksonville's first sister city.

However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction.
Famous Jacksonville Bands (chronological by year band was formed). In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE.
Famous Jacksonville Music Artists. There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. The Skyway, specifically, has been criticized in that it goes from "nowhere to nowhere" in its limited route. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies. Many of the current transportation issues revolved around this event, and many services, such as the Jacksonville monorail system known as the Skyway, have been underutilized for many years.

Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. Also, Super Bowl XXXIX in 2005 presented a host of problems and challenges for the Jacksonville area. The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. The city is struggling to keep a balance between traditionally lower taxes and accommodating its rising population. See complete listing here... Roads are increasingly clogged with more cars and public schools are crowded with more students. The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%). While the population increases, the city is forced to deal with maintaining an infrastructure that keeps up with this growth.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:. Some issues the city deals with today include how to fix the school system (including violence on school buses), controversies over a public high school named for Ku Klux Klan founder Nathan Bedford Forrest, and how to solve transportation problems (The Better Jacksonville Plan). Jacksonville also faces a double-edged sword of development. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population.
Monthly:. Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith.
Weekly:. Females made up approximately 51% of the population. Daily:.

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Other notable structures include the Modis Building (once the defining building in the Jacksonville skyline, owned by Independent Life) with its distinctive flared base and the Riverplace Tower, which is the tallest pre-cast, post-tension concrete structure in the world. The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%). Downtown Jacksonville has a memorable skyline with the tallest building being the Bank of America Building, constructed in 1990 with a height of 617ft (188m). Racially, the state is:. The city center includes the Jacksonville Landing shopping center and the Riverwalk. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains. Johns River and Atlantic Ocean.

More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. Jacksonville also has significant natural beauty from the St. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. The Jacksonville Symphony Orchestra makes regular performances at the Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts near downtown. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. The city's biggest cultural event is the Jacksonville Jazz Festival, an annual event featuring many of the biggest names in jazz. Jacksonville also features two art museums, the Cummer Gallery of Art and the Jacksonville Museum of Modern Art. According to the U.S. Both the University of North Florida and Jacksonville University also field athletic teams in a number of sports.

Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal. Other sports events include the annual Kingfish Tournament held in July, the Florida-Georgia football game, commonly known as "The World's Largest Outdoor Cocktail Party" held every October, and the Gator Bowl held in early January. Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Professional tennis is in town each year when the WTA holds the Bausch & Lomb Championships at Amelia Island Plantation near Fernandina Beach, just north of Jacksonville. The per capita income was $32,965. Jacksonville also features dozens of other golf courses and country clubs. The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. Augustine is home to the World Golf Village and World Golf Hall of Fame.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. Nearby St. Both figures are as of 2004. In Ponte Vedra lies the Tournament Players Club at Sawgrass, one of the most famous golf courses in the world and home to the annual PGA TPC (The Player's Championship) tournament. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Jacksonville is also a hub for the world famous golf opportunities of North Florida. McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. The game itself was played under ideal football weather (about 55 degrees Fahrenheit), and the New England Patriots defeated the Philadelphia Eagles, 24-21.

This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70. Due to the milder climate and lesser amount of hotel space, many media critics decried Jacksonville as a sub-standard host for a Super Bowl, although local leaders felt the criticism was unwarranted. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. The game was held on February 6, 2005 and featured halftime entertainment by former Beatle Sir Paul McCartney. The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. Jacksonville was named as the site for Super Bowl XXXIX, becoming the third city in the state of Florida (Miami and Tampa being the others) to host the event. This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago. Jacksonville is home to a number of professional sports teams:.

Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). In 2003, the JAXPORT Cruise Terminal opened, providing cruise service to Key West, Florida, The Bahamas, and Mexico. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Amtrak passenger railroad serves Jacksonville from a station on Clifford Lane in the Northwest section of the city. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. The city also operates an airfield at Cecil Commerce Center that is intended for aerospace manufacturing companies. Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. Smaller planes can fly to Craig Airport on the southside and Herlong Airport on the westside.

While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade. Major commercial air service in Jacksonville operates out of Jacksonville International Airport. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. Hart Bridge, the Main Street Bridge, the Acosta Bridge, the Fuller Warren Bridge (which carries I-95 traffic) and the Buckman Bridge (which carries I-295 traffic). This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. They include (starting from furthest downstream) the Dames Point Bridge, the Mathews Bridge, the Isaiah D. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. Johns River at Jacksonville.

The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. There are also numerous bridges over the St. Illinois has three major geographical divisions. Jacksonville is also home to the world headquarters of CSX Transportation. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan. Interstate 95 has a bypass route, I-295, which currently bypasses the city to the west. I-295 will eventually become a loop when State Road 9A is completed in the southeastern portion of the county. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. However, there are very few Skyway stations and as such, traffic is quite light.

It is in the north-central U.S. The city has the Jacksonville Skyway Monorail, which loops around the central business district and is fairly cheap to use. See List of Illinois counties. Public transportation is provided by the Jacksonville Transportation Authority. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts. Turner Butler Boulevard (SR 202) also connect Jacksonville to the beaches. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. Additionaly, several other roads as well a major local expressway, J.

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. The eastern terminus of US-90 is in nearby Jacksonville Beach near the Atlantic Ocean. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. Interstate Highway 10 ends at this intersection (the other end being in California). The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. Interstate Highways 10 and 95 intersect in Jacksonville. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments. Former mayor John Delaney has been president of the University of North Florida since July 2003, parlaying his widespread popularity in the city into a highly coveted spot of leadership in the state university system.

Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Jacksonville is home to Edward Waters College, Jacksonville University, and the University of North Florida, as well as the Florida Community College at Jacksonville, Trinity Baptist College, Jones College, Florida Technical College, Logos Christian College, and Florida Coastal School of Law. During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rainfall averages around 52 inches a year, with the wetter months being June through September. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago). While not directly impacted, this area did receive major wind damage from Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne in 2004. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. This area receives a brush with a Tropical Storm or better every 3.05 years.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. The only major hurricane to hit the city has been Hurricane Dora, in 1964 with winds that had just barely diminished to 110mph, making it a strong Category 2, borderline Category 3. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois. Jacksonville is one of the few cities on the Eastern seaboard that have been spared from the wrath of numerous hurricanes. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. In some years, the area sees snow, though this is uncommon. Early U.S. Conversely, the area can experience many freezes and hard freezes during the night in the winter months.

state. High Temperatures can reach mid to high 90s with heat index ranges of 105-115F. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. High heat indices are not uncommon for the summer months in the Jacksonville area. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. High temperatures average between 50 and 90 degrees (10-32 degrees Celsius) throughout the year. The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. Traditionally, Jacksonville enjoys mild weather in the winter and hot weather in the summer.

The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory. Out of the total population, 16.7% of those under the age of 18 and 12.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. 12.2% of the population and 9.4% of families are below the poverty line. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. The per capita income for the city is $20,337. French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. Males have a median income of $32,547 versus $25,886 for females.

The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes. The median income for a household in the city is $40,316, and the median income for a family is $47,243. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 90.6 males. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. For every 100 females there are 93.9 males. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The median age is 34 years.

That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. In the city, the population is spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who are 65 years of age or older. Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. The average household size is 2.53 and the average family size is 3.07. The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state. 26.2% of all households are made up of individuals and 7.7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. postal abbreviation for the state is IL. There are 284,499 households out of which 33.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% are married couples living together, 16.0% have a female householder with no husband present, and 33.0% are non-families.

The U.S. 4.16% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The racial makeup of the city is 64.48% White, 29.03% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 2.78% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.33% from other races, and 1.99% from two or more races. The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. There are 308,826 housing units at an average density of 157.4/km▓ (407.6/mi▓). The word Illiniwek means simply "the people". The population density is 374.9/km▓ (970.9/mi▓).

Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. As of the census2 of 2000, there are 735,617 people, 284,499 households, and 190,614 families residing in the city. Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Under the new government structure, anyone living in Duval County is eligible to run for Mayor of the City of Jacksonville, even those living in the four separate municipalities. State tree: White oak (Quercus alba). The four separate communities provide their own services, while maintaining the right to contract the consolidated government to provide services for them. State snack: Popcorn. Fire, police, health and welfare, recreation, public works, and housing and urban development were all combined under the new government.

State song: "Illinois". Several authorities remain independent of the combined city-county government, including the school board, electric authority, port authority, and airport authority. State slogan: "Land of Lincoln". Not all city services were merged, making for a less-than-full consolidation of the city-county. State prairie grass: Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). The municipalities are Baldwin, Neptune Beach, Atlantic Beach and Jacksonville Beach. State motto: "State sovereignty, national union". These communities consist of only 6% of the total population within the county.

State mineral: Fluorite. Four municipalities within Duval County voted not to join the consolidated government. State insect: Monarch butterfly. The city council has nineteen members, fourteen of whom are elected from districts, and five who are elected at-large. State fossil: Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium). He also has the power to hire and fire the head of various city departments. State flower: Purple violet (Viola sororia). He holds veto power over all resolutions and ordinances made by the city council.

State fish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). The mayor is the Chief Executive and Administrative officer, called the Strong-Mayor form. State dance: Square dance. Jacksonville uses the Mayor-Council form of city government. State capital: Springfield. On October 1, 1968, the governments merged to create the Consolidated City of Jacksonville. State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). A consolidation referendum was held in 1967, and voters approved the plan.

State animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Lower taxes, increased economic development, unification of the community, better public spending and effective administration by a more central authority were all cited as reasons for a new consolidated government. Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President, is buried in Springfield, Illinois. Consolidation began to win more support during this period, from both inner city blacks (who wanted more involvement in government) and whites in the suburbs (who wanted more services and more control over the center city). Ronald Reagan, the 40th President, was born in Tampico, Illinois. After a grand jury was convened to investigate, several officials were indicted and more were forced to resign. Non-Religious – 8%. In the mid 1960s, corruption scandals began to arise among many of the city's officials, who were mainly elected through the traditional good ol' boy network.

Other Religions – 3%. Voters outside the city limits rejected annexation plans in six referendums between 1960 and 1965. Other Christian – 1%. In 1958, a study recommended that the City of Jacksonville begin annexing outlying communities in order to create the needed tax base to improve services throughout the county. Roman Catholic – 33%. In addition, residents in unincorporated suburbs had difficulty obtaining municipal services such as sewage and building code enforcement. Protestant – 51%. Much of the city's tax base dissipated, leading to problems with funding education, sanitation, and traffic control within the city limits.

1.9% mixed race. However, the development of suburbs and a subsequent wave of "white flight" left Jacksonville with a much poorer population than before. 0.2% American Indian. Mayor Haydon Burns' "Jacksonville Story" resulted in the construction of a new city hall, civic auditorium, public library and other projects that created a dynamic sense of civic pride. 3.4% Asian. After World War II, the government of the City of Jacksonville began to increase spending to fund new building projects in the boom that occurred after the war. 12.3% Hispanic. Before he joined the police force, he was one of the youths who were involved in the axe handle riots.

15.1% Black. It should be noted that Nat Glover was the first (and only) African-American sheriff in the state of Florida since Reconstruction, winning two elections before running for mayor. 67.8% White Non-Hispanic. The only witness to the crime said he saw two black males running from the scene. The Junior United States Senator is Barack Obama (Democrat). Afterwards, Carlucci's business was vandalized with the words "NIGGER LOVER", and Glover's campaign headquarters was vandalized with "NO NIGGER MAYOR". Durbin (Democrat). Matt Carlucci, a white Republican endorsed Glover (a Democrat) after being defeated in the open primary.

The Senior United States Senator is Richard J. On June 1, 2003, John Peyton became Mayor of Jacksonville after defeating African-American Sheriff Nat Glover. The Treasurer of Illinois is Judy Baar Topinka (Republican). The black students attending integrated schools endured racial epithets, being spit on and, in some extreme cases, being stoned by their white classmates. The Secretary of State of Illinois is Jesse White (Democrat). Despite the progress, racial tension was very evident when the public schools in Jacksonville were integrated in 1967. The Lieutenant Governor of Illinois is Pat Quinn (Democrat). In the aftermath of the Civil Rights Act and Ax Handle Saturday, the previously segregated African-American and European-American communities worked together in open dialog, integration, and participatory government.

The Governor of Illinois is Rod Blagojevich (Democrat). Before the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, African-Americans in Jacksonville were denied healthcare services at every hospital except the all-black Brewster Hospital, even when their condition was critical or life-threatening. Rumors were rampant on both sides that the unrest was spreading around the county (in reality, the violence stayed in relatively the same location, and did not spill over into the mostly-white, upper-class Cedar Hills neighborhood, for example). The police did not make an attempt to stop the violence until the "blacks started holding their own.". The violence spread, and the white mob started attacking all African-Americans in sight. A group of white men (allegedly some were also members of the Ku Klux Klan) armed with baseball bats and ax handles attacked civil rights protesters conducting sit-ins at segregated downtown restaurants.

This came to a head on "Ax Handle Saturday", August 27, 1960. Jacksonville has a history of racial segregation and violence. While the city is more independent from the Navy today, it is still a strong influence in the community. More than half of the residents in Jacksonville had some tie to the naval base, whether it be a relative stationed there, or due to employment opportunities, by 1970.

The naval base became a key training ground in the 1950s and 1960s and as such, the population of the city rose dramatically. Marys, Georgia, which is home to part of the US Navy's nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) fleet. Jacksonville is also not far from Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay in St. NS Mayport current employs about 14,000 personnel.

Kennedy. This port developed through World War II and today is the home port for many types of navy ships, most notably the aircraft carrier USS John F. Johns River. December 1942 saw the addition of a third naval installation to Jacksonville: Naval Station Mayport at the mouth of the St.

The land once occupied by this installation is now known as the "Cecil Commerce Center". In 1993 the Navy decided to close NAS Cecil Field and in 1999 this was completed. RF-8 Crusaders out of Cecil Field detected missiles in Cuba, precipitating the Cuban Missile Crisis. This became NAS Cecil Field, which during the Cold War was designated a Master Jet Base, the only one in the South.

In June 1941, land in the westernmost side of Duval County was earmarked for a second naval air facility. Today NAS Jax is the third largest navy installation in the country and employs over 23,000 civilian and active-duty personnel. After the war, the Navy's elite Blue Angels were established at NAS Jax. This base was a major training center during World War II, with over 20,000 pilots and aircrewmen being trained there.

October 15, 1940, Naval Air Station Jacksonville ("NAS Jax") on the westside became the first navy installation in the city. A significant part of Jacksonville's growth in the 20th century came from the presence of navy bases in the region. An important entry point to the state since the 1870s, Jacksonville now justifiably billed itself as the "Gateway to Florida.". Highway 1) in the 1920s began to draw significant automobile traffic as well.

Completion of the Dixie Highway (portions of which became U.S. Hordes of train passengers passed through Jacksonville on their way south to the new tourist destinations of South Florida, as most of the passenger trains arriving from the population centers of the North were routed through Jacksonville. The 1920s brought significant real estate development and speculation to the city during the great Florida land boom (and bust). In 1917, a conservative mayor was elected on the platform of taming the city's movie industry. Subsequently the film studios opted to move to a more hospitable political climate in California.

However, some residents objected to the hallmarks of the early movie industry, such as car chases in the streets, simulated bank robberies and fire alarms in public places, and even the occasional riot scene. By the early 1910s, Jacksonville hosted over 30 studios employing over 1000 actors. The city's warm climate, excellent rail access, and low costs all helped to make Jacksonville the "Winter Film Capital of the World". In the early 1900s, Jacksonville was a center of the fledgling motion picture industry.

Despite the losses of the last several decades, Jacksonville still has one of the largest collections of Prairie Style buildings (particularly residences) outside the Midwest. The Klutho Apartments, in Springfield, were recently restored and converted into office space by local charity Fresh Ministries. While many of Klutho's buildings were demolished by the 1980s, a number of his creations remain, including the St. James Building from 1911 (a former department store that is now Jacksonville's City Hall) and the Morocco Temple from 1910. Klutho and other architects, enamored of the "Prairie Style" of architecture then being popularized by architect Frank Lloyd Wright in Chicago and other Midwestern cities, designed exuberant local buildings with a Florida flair.

Famed New York architect Henry Klutho helped rebuild the city. Jennings declared a state of martial law in Jacksonville and dispatched several state militia units to Jacksonville. Reconstruction started immediately, and the city was returned to civil authority on May 17. Florida Governor William S. The fire destroyed the business district and rendered 10,000 residents homeless in the course of eight hours.

At half past noon most of the Cleaveland workers were at lunch, but by the time they returned the entire city block was engulfed in flames. On May 3, 1901 hot ash from a shantyhouse's chimney landed on the drying moss at Cleaveland's Fiber Factory. Author Stephen Crane travelled to Jacksonville to cover the war. Duval county sheriff, and future state governor, Napoleon Bonaparte Broward was one of many gunrunners operating out of the city.

During the Spanish American War, gunrunners helping the Cuban rebels used Jacksonville as the center for smuggling illegal arms and supplies to Cuba. Not surprisingly, Jacksonville's reputation as a healthful tourist destination suffered. In the absence of scientific knowledge concerning the cause of yellow fever, nearly half of the city's panicked residents fled, despite the imposition of quarantines and the (ineffectual) fumigation of inbound and outbound mail. Jacksonville's prominence as a winter resort was dealt another blow by major yellow fever outbreaks in 1886 and 1888, during the latter of which nearly ten percent of the more than 4,000 victims, including the city's mayor, died.

Not even hosting the Subtropical Exposition, a Florida-style world's fair attended by President Grover Cleveland in 1888, served to provide a lasting boost for tourism in Jacksonville. The area declined in importance as a resort destination when Henry Flagler extended the Florida East Coast Railroad to the south, arriving in Palm Beach in 1894 and in the Miami area in 1896. Visitors arrived by steamboat and (beginning in the 1880s) by railroad, and wintered at dozens of hotels and boarding houses. Augustine became popular winter resorts for the rich and famous of the Gilded Age.

Following the Civil War, during Reconstruction and afterward, Jacksonville and nearby St. By the end of the war in 1865, a Union commander commented that Jacksonville had become "pathetically dilapidated, a mere skeleton of its former self, a victim of war.". On February 20, 1864 Union soldiers from Jacksonville marched inland and confronted the Confederate Army at the Battle of Olustee which resulted in a Confederate victory. Throughout the war Jacksonville would change hands several times, though never with a battle.

Johns Bluff and occupied Jacksonville. In October 1862 Union forces captured a Confederate battery at St. Throughout most of the war, the US Navy maintained a blockade around Florida's ports, including Jacksonville. During the Civil War, Jacksonville was a key supply point for hogs and cattle leaving Florida and aiding the Confederate cause.

The charter for a town government was approved by the Florida Legislative Council on February 9, 1832. Secretary of State asking that Jacksonville be named a port of entry; this is the first recorded use of the name. On June 15th, 1822 settlers sent a petition to the U.S. The first permanent settlement was founded at Cow Ford in 1791 and Florida became a United States territory in 1821.

Spain ceded Florida to the British in 1763, who then gave control back to Spain in 1783. Augustine attacked the fort and drove off the French in 1565. Spanish troops, led by Pedro MenÚndez de AvilÚs, from nearby St. Johns River area and in 1564 the French established Fort Caroline.

In 1562, the French Huguenot explorer Jean Ribault explored the St. In 1513, Spanish explorers landed in Florida and claimed their discovery for Spain. Its name is the earliest recorded name for the area. The largest Timucua town in the region was Ossachite, which stood approximately where the courthouse stands today.

The Timucua Indians were the predominate local tribe when European explorers arrived. Archaeological evidence indicates 6,000 years of human habitation in the area. The total area is 13.34% water. 1,962.4 km▓ (757.7 mi▓) of it is land and 302.1 km▓ (116.7 mi▓) of it is water.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2,264.5 km▓ (874.3 mi▓). Jacksonville is located at 30░19'10" North, 81░39'36" West (30.319406, -81.659999)1.
Location of the city proper in the state of Florida.
.

President, Andrew Jackson. The city was renamed in 1822 for the first territorial governor of Florida and the future 7th U.S. Johns River is narrow there, allowing cattlemen to ford (herd) cows across the river. Jacksonville was originally named Cowford because the St.

The area of Jacksonville is 874.3 square miles (2,264.5 km▓). All areas of Duval County are considered to be part of Jacksonville, but the communities of Baldwin, Neptune Beach, Atlantic Beach and Jacksonville Beach have their own municipal governments as well. Jacksonville and Duval County are consolidated. Jacksonville also has the distinction of being the largest city in the South outside of Texas.

The Jacksonville metropolitan area reached over one million residents in 1996. It is also the largest city in Florida in terms of population in the city proper (ultimately ranking 14th in the country). Geographically, it is the largest city in the contiguous 48 states of the United States in terms of land area. It is the county seat of Duval County 6.

Jacksonville is a city located in Duval County, Florida, USA. Husk Jennings. Regency Centers. Sally Corporation.

Florida Rock Industries. Gate Petroleum Company. Landstar. Stein Mart.

Winn-Dixie. CSX Transportation. Palm and Cycad Arboretum at Florida Community College at Jacksonville. Shinedown (2001) Rock.

Yellowcard (1997) Pop Punk. Cold (1997) Hard Rock/Metal. Inspection 12 (1994) Pop Punk. Limpbizkit (1994) Rapcore.

69 Boyz (1993) Hip Hop. Rein Sanction (1989) Indie Rock. .38 Special (1975) Rock. Molly Hatchet (1975) Southern Rock.

Blackfoot (1972) Rock/Southern Rock. Classics IV (1965) Pop Rock. Lynyrd Skynyrd (1964) Southern Rock. Mase (1977- ) hip hop star, preacher.

Greg Eklund (1970- ) drummer of Everclear. Claude "Butch" Trucks (1947- ) drummer of Allman Brothers Band. Jackie Moore (1946- ) R&B singer. Bonds (1939- ) R&B singer.

Gary U.S. Johnny Tillotson (1939- ) pop singer, songwriter, actor. Jo Ann Campbell (1938- ) country/pop singer & actress. Nick Todd (1935- ) pop singer.

Pat Boone (1934- ) pop singer. Billy Daniels (1915-1988) big band singer, actor. Arthur "Blind" Blake (1893-1933) influential blues guitarist. Yoanna House (1980- ) fashion model.

Laveranues Coles (1977- ) professional football athlete. Leanza Cornett (1971- ) Miss America 1993, television actress. Vince Coleman (1961- ) Major League Baseball player. Ray Mercer (1961- ) professional boxer.

Mark McCumber (1951- ) professional golfer. Patrika Darbo (1948- ) television actress. Thagard (1943- ) NASA astronaut. Norman E.

Bob Hayes (1942-2002) track & field/pro football athlete. LeeRoy Yarbrough (1938-1984) NASCAR auto racer. Philip Don Estridge (1937-1985) led development of original IBM personal computer. John Chaney (1932- ) college basketball coach.

Wanda Hendrix (1928-1981) Hollywood actress. Cooper (1893-1973) Hollywood director, producer & writer. Merion C. Philip Randolph (1889-1979) African American civil rights activist.

A. John Rosamond Johnson (1873-1954) musical composer, brother of James Weldon. James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938) leading African American activist. WJEB Channel 59, carries religious programing from TBN.

It later changed its call letters to WTEV (then became a UPN affiliate), the channel has broadcasted CBS programming since July 2002. WTEV Channel 47, originally an independent station with mainly Christian programming under the call letters of WXAO and later WNFT. WAWS Channel 30, the FOX affiliate. WJXX Channel 25, the ABC affiliate for the area since 1997.

WPXC Channel 21, PAX used to be WBSG and simulcated the ABC network with WJXX from 1997 until 2000. WJWB Channel 17, the WB Formerly WJKS and the original ABC affiliate until 1980 when it became an NBC affiliate, only to change back to an ABC affliate in 1988, lost the ABC affiliation to start up WJXX in 1997, changed its call letters to WJWB and switched to WB network, and is the highest rated WB affliate in the nation. Formerly WFGA from 1957 to 1975, and an ABC affiliate from 1980 to 1988. WTLV Channel 12, an NBC affiliate since 1988.

A radio station (89.9 FM) with the same callsign commenced broadcasts in 1972. WJCT Channel 7, a PBS affiliate broadcasting since 1958. WUFT Channel 5, the PBS affiliate for the University of Florida in Gainesville, but has higher ratings in the metro area than local PBS affiliate WJCT (see below). WJXT Channel 4, a longtime CBS affiliate before turning independent in 2002.

Jacksonville Magazine. The Florida Star. The Jacksonville Advocate. Business Journal of Jacksonville.

Jacksonville Free Press. Folio Weekly. The Daily Record. The Florida Times-Union.

(now defunct). Jacksonville Lizard Kings of the ECHL ice hockey league. Jacksonville Barracudas of the SPHL ice hockey league. Jacksonville Suns, a Southern League minor league baseball team.

Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League.

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