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Illinois

State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State
Other U.S. States
Capital Springfield
Largest city Chicago
Governor Rod Blagojevich
Official languages English
Area 149,998 km˛ (25th)
 - Land 143,968 km˛
 - Water 6,030 km˛ (4.0%)
Population (2000)
 - Population 12,419,293 (5th)
 - Density 86.27 /km˛ (11th)
Admission into Union
 - Date December 3, 1818
 - Order 21st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Latitude 36°58'N to 42°30'N
Longitude 87°30'W to 91°30'W
Width 340 km
Length 629 km
Elevation
 - Highest 376 m
 - Mean 182 m
 - Lowest 85 m
Abbreviations
 - USPS IL
 - ISO 3166-2 US-IL
Web site www.illinois.gov

Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The U.S. postal abbreviation for the state is IL.

The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state.

History

Pre-Columbian

Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes.

European exploration

French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory.

The 1800s

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Early U.S. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago).

The Civil War

During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Government

The sample version of the current Illinois license plate introduced in 2001.

The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts.

Geography

See List of Illinois counties

It is in the north-central U.S. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan.

Illinois has three major geographical divisions. The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade.

Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago.

The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70.

McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Both figures are as of 2004.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state.

Economy

The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. The per capita income was $32,965.

Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal.

Demographics

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains.

Racially, the state is:

The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%).

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Religion

Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:

The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%).

Important cities and towns

Illinois, showing major cities and roads Chicago

See complete listing here...

Counties of Illinois

Education

Illinois State Board of Education

The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies.

There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate.

Primary and secondary schools

Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district.

See List of school districts in Illinois for a listing of all school districts, by county.
See List of high schools in Illinois for a partial list of high schools.

Colleges and universities

While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system.

List of colleges and universities

Professional sports teams

People

State symbols

The Cardinal is the state bird of Illinois
This page about Illinois includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Illinois
News stories about Illinois
External links for Illinois
Videos for Illinois
Wikis about Illinois
Discussion Groups about Illinois
Blogs about Illinois
Images of Illinois

Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system. The Round Rock Express of the Pacific Coast League play Triple-A baseball in nearby Round Rock, Texas. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. Among the professional sports teams in Austin are the Austin Ice Bats of the Central Hockey League and the Austin Wranglers of the Arena Football League. While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Although the Libertarians remain a third party, the party is very active in the Austin area, and two past Libertarian presidential candidates, Ron Paul and Michael Badnarik have come from the vicinity of Austin. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. The combination of economic conservatism with political liberalism has also made Austin an active area for the Libertarian Party.

District territories are often complex in structure. However, two of its three congressional districts are presently held by Republicans; this is largely due to the 2003 redistricting, which left Austin with no congressional seat of its own. Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. Of Austin's six state legislative districts, three are strongly Democratic, one strongly Republican, and two are swing districts (one presently held by a Republican and the other by a Democrat). Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate. Overall, the city leans to the Democrats; in the 2004 presidential election, John Kerry defeated George W Bush by a wide margin in Austin. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Congressional districts to dilute its influence vis a vis the suburbs. To a limited degree the division between Democratic and Republican precincts coincides with the aforementioned divisions between supporters of environmental regulations and supporters of unfettered urban growth.

However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. One consequence of this is that the central city has been gerrymandered by the Republican-controlled state legislature into several U.S. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. As a result of the major party realignment that began in the 1970's, central Austin became a stronghold of the Democratic Party while the suburbs tend to vote Republican. There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. Austin is well known as a center for liberal politics in a generally conservative state, leading some conservatives to deride the city as the "People's Republic of Austin." Austin's suburbs, especially to the west and north, and several satellite municipalities, however, tend towards political conservativism. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies. The city council has in the past tried to mitigate the controversy by advocating smart growth, but growth and environmental protection are still the main hot-button issues in city politics.

Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The political controversy that dominated the 1990s was the conflict between environmentalists, strong in the city center, and advocates of urban growth, who tend to live in the outlying areas. The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. The main political actors within Austin city politics are interest groups such as the pro-environmental Save Our Springs Alliance, the Austin Police Association, Austin Toll Party and the Austin Business Council. See complete listing here... Austin remains an anomaly among large Texas cities in that the council is not elected by districts, and there has been a strong effort to change the election system to one of single districts. The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%). Council and mayoral elections are non-partisan, with a runoff in case there is no 50% majority winner.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:. Austin is administered by a city council of seven members, each of them elected by the entire city, and by an elected mayor. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population. The Zilker Tree is lit in early December along with the "Trail of Lights," an Austin Christmas tradition. Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. The "Zilker Tree" is a Christmas "tree" made of large lights strung from the top of the Moonlight Tower that stands in Zilker Park. Females made up approximately 51% of the population. The towers were prominently featured in the film Dazed and Confused.

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. At night, parts of Austin are lit with "artificial moonlight." Several "Moonlight Towers", built in the late 19th century and recognized as historic landmarks, illuminate the central part of the city. The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%). The iconic Pennybacker Bridge, also known as the "360 Bridge," crosses Lake Austin to connect north and south Loop 360. Racially, the state is:. In the summer, the colony has up to 1.5 million Mexican Free-tailed Bats; in the winter they migrate to Mexico. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains. The Congress Avenue Bridge houses the world's largest urban bat population.

More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. In 2004 the city was named #1 in Moviemaker Magazine's Annual Top 10 Cities to live and make movies. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. Austin hosts the annual Austin Film Festival, as well as the South by Southwest Festival, which draw films of many different types from all over the world. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. It is also home to several other entertainers including Sandra Bullock and Willie Nelson. According to the U.S. Austin is home to several well-known directors, including Robert Rodriguez, Richard Linklater, and Tim McCanlies.

Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal. The University of Texas has an outstanding Radio, Television, and Film (RTF) department [1] (http://rtf.utexas.edu/) and, partly because of this, Austin has been the location of a number of movies, including Man of the House, Secondhand Lions, Waking Life, Spy Kids, Dazed and Confused, Office Space, The Life of David Gale, "Miss Congeniality", and Slacker. Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. The proliferation of technology companies has led to the region's nickname, "the Silicon Hills," (Austin was originally "Silicon Gulch", but it seems that San Jose, Ca. already has that distinction) and has spurred rapid development that has greatly expanded the city to the north and south. The per capita income was $32,965. Other high-tech companies in Austin include Apple Computer, Vignette, AMD, Intel, Cirrus Logic,Samsung and National Instruments. The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. Austin's biggest employers include the State of Texas, the University of Texas, Dell, IBM, and Freescale Semiconductor (spun off from Motorola in 2004).

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. As a result of the relatively high concentration of high tech companies in the region, Austin was strongly affected by the dot-com boom in the late 1990s and subsequent bust, although recovery is proceeding rapidly. Both figures are as of 2004. The metro Austin area also has much lower housing costs than, for example, Silicon Valley. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Thousands of graduates each year from the Computer Science and Engineering programs at UT provide a steady source of young, talented, and driven employees. McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. Austin is the center of a high-technology region known as Silicon Hills.

This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70. Austin was also the longtime home of the late blues guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughn. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. Bush. The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. Johnson and George W. This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago. Former residents include Lyndon B.

Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). Famous Austin residents include cyclist Lance Armstrong, businessman Michael Dell, tennis player Andy Roddick, actors Sandra Bullock and Matthew McConaughey, musician Willie Nelson, and directors Richard Linklater and Robert Rodriguez. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Out of the total population, 16.5% of those under the age of 18 and 8.7% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. 14.4% of the population and 9.1% of families are below the poverty line. Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. The per capita income for the city is $24,163.

While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade. $30,046 for females. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. Males have a median income of $35,545 vs. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The median income for a household in the city is $42,689, and the median income for a family is $54,091. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 105.7 males.

The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. For every 100 females there are 105.8 males. Illinois has three major geographical divisions. The median age is 30 years. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan. In the city the population is spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 16.6% from 18 to 24, 37.1% from 25 to 44, 17.1% from 45 to 64, and 6.7% who are 65 years of age or older. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. The average household size is 2.40 and the average family size is 3.14.

It is in the north-central U.S. 32.8% of all households are made up of individuals and 4.6% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. See List of Illinois counties. There are 265,649 households out of which 26.8% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.1% are married couples living together, 10.8% have a female householder with no husband present, and 46.7% are non-families. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts. 30.55% of the population are Hispanic American or Latino of any race. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The racial makeup of the city is 65.36% White, 10.05% Black or African American, 0.59% Native American, 4.72% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 16.23% from other races, and 2.99% from two or more races.

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. The population density is 1,007.9/km˛ (2,610.4/mi˛). There are 276,842 housing units at an average density of 425.0/km˛ (1,100.7/mi˛). As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. As of the census2 of 2000, there are 656,562 people, 265,649 households, and 141,590 families residing in the city. The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. At about 780 feet above sea level, it is a natural limestone formation overlooking Lake Austin on the Colorado River approximately 200 feet below its summit. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments. A popular point of prominence in Austin is Mount Bonnell.

Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. The total area is 2.67% water. During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. 651.4 km˛ (251.5 mi˛) of it is land and 17.9 km˛ (6.9 mi˛) of it is water. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago). Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 669.3 km˛ (258.4 mi˛). Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. According to the U.S.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. According to the 2000 United States Census Bureau, Austin is located at 30°18'01" North, 97°44'50" West (30.300474, -97.747247)1. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois. Ironically, the headquarters of his main opponent, Al Gore, were in Nashville, thus re-creating the old Country Music rivalry between the two cities. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. Bush. Early U.S. In 2000, Austin became the center of an intense media focus as the headquarters of presidential candidate and Texas Governor George W.

state. Initially the technology industry was centered around larger, established companies such as IBM, but in the late 1990s, Austin gained the additional reputation of being a center of the dot-com boom and subsequent dot-com bust. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. In the 1990s, the boom resumed with the influx and growth of a large technology industry. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In particular the preservation of Barton Springs, and by extension the Edwards Aquifer, became an issue which defined the themes of the larger battles. The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The growth led to an ongoing series of fierce political battles that pitted preservationists against developers.

The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory. During the 1970s and 1980s, the city experienced a tremendous boom in development that temporarily halted with the Savings and Loan collapse in the late 1980s. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. This ultimately led to the present situation where the city touts itself as the "live music capital of the world.". and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. The best-known artist in this group was Willie Nelson, who became an icon for the local "alternate music industry." In the following years, Austin gained a reputation as a place where struggling musicians could come and launch their careers in informal live venues in front of receptive audiences. French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. In the 1970s, Austin became a refuge for a group of Country and Western musicians and songwriters seeking to escape the corporate industry domination of Nashville.

The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes. The event is considered the most traumatic event in the city's history. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. On August 1, 1966, Austin was terrorized by Charles Whitman, who shot and killed 16 people with a high-powered rifle from the clocktower of the Main Building on the University of Texas campus. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. Lyndon Baines Johnson, then a member of the House of Representatives, was instrumental in getting the funding authorized for these dams. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. In the 1930s, the original dam was replaced by a series of seven dams built by the federal government which created the string of reservoirs that now define the river's course through Austin.

That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. In 1911, a streetcar line was extended into South Austin, allowing for the development of Travis Heights in 1913. Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. The Littlefield Building at 6th and Congress also opened in 1910. The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state. In 1910, the concrete Congress Avenue Bridge across the Colorado River opened, fostering development along South Congress. postal abbreviation for the state is IL. In 1893, the Great Granite Dam on the Colorado River was constructed, stabilizing the river's flow and providing hydroelectric power.

The U.S. In 1891, the Hyde Park neighborhood was developed north of the University as a streetcar suburb. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. At the time it was billed as the "Seventh largest building in the world.". The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. The Texas State Capitol was completed in 1888 on the site specified in the 1839 plan. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people". That same year, the first institution of higher learning, the forerunner of Huston-Tillotson College, opened as the Tillotson Collegiate and Normal Institute.

Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. In September 1881, the city schools admitted their first classes. Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. After Texas was admitted to the Union in 1845, two statewide elections were held that attempted to move the capital elsewhere, but Austin remained the capital. State tree: White oak (Quercus alba). Angelina Eberly fired a cannon at the men, who made their escape, only to be caught by another group of men who returned the archives back to Austin. State snack: Popcorn. Mrs.

State song: "Illinois". In the dead of night on December 29, 1842, a group of men was sent to take the archives of Texas from Austin to Washington-on-the-Brazos. State slogan: "Land of Lincoln". President Sam Houston had tried to relocate the seat of government from Austin to Houston, and then to Washington-on-the-Brazos. State prairie grass: Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). In 1842, Austin almost lost its status as capital city during the event known as the Texas Archive War. State motto: "State sovereignty, national union". By the next January, the population of the town was 839 people.

State mineral: Fluorite. In October 1839, the entire government of the Republic of Texas arrived by oxcart from Houston. State insect: Monarch butterfly. The original tree-named streets survive in nostalgic names, including Pecan Street, which is the name of a locally-produced beer. State fossil: Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium). The east-west streets were later renamed in a numbered progression, with Pecan Street becoming Sixth Street. State flower: Purple violet (Viola sororia). The east-west streets of the grid followed a progression uphill from the river and were named after trees native to the region, with Pecan Street as the main east-west thoroughfare.

State fish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). The original north-south grid was bookended by West Street and East Street (now I-35). State dance: Square dance. The exception was the central thoroughfare Congress Avenue, which leads from the far south side of town over the river to the foot of the hill where the new Texas State Capitol was to be constructed. State capital: Springfield. The grid survives nearly intact as the streets of present-day downtown Austin. The north-south streets of the grid were named for the rivers of Texas, following an east-west progression from Sabine Street to Rio Grande Street (Red River Street being "out of order" to the west of Sabine Street). State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). A grid plan for the city streets was surveyed by Judge Edwin Waller (after whom Waller Creek was named).

State animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). In 1839, Waterloo was chosen to become the capital of the new Republic of Texas, and the town was renamed Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin. Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President, is buried in Springfield, Illinois. Austin, the "father of Texas", negotiated a peace treaty with the local Indians at the site of the present day Treaty Oak after several settlers were killed in raids. Ronald Reagan, the 40th President, was born in Tampico, Illinois. They founded the village of Waterloo along the banks of the Colorado River. According to local folklore, Stephen F. Non-Religious – 8%. The first Anglo settlers arrived in the area in the 1830s when Texas was still part of Mexico.

Other Religions – 3%. In the late 1700s the Spanish set up temporary missions in the area, later moving to San Antonio. Other Christian – 1%. Before the arrival of European settlers, the area around present-day Austin was inhabited for several hundred years by a mixture of Tonkawa, Comanche, and Lipan Apache Indians, who fished and hunted along the creeks, including present-day Barton Springs. Roman Catholic – 33%. Austin is served by the Austin-Bergstrom International Airport. Protestant – 51%. Edward's University.

1.9% mixed race. Other institutions of higher learning include Austin Community College, Concordia University, Huston-Tillotson University and St. 0.2% American Indian. Austin is home to The University of Texas at Austin, the flagship institution of The University of Texas System. 3.4% Asian. It is also the self-proclaimed "live music capital of the world," with a vibrant live music scene revolving around many nightclubs on 6th Street and a yearly film/music/multimedia festival known as "South by Southwest." Austin City Limits, the longest-running concert music program on American television, is videotaped on the University of Texas campus. 12.3% Hispanic. Residents of Austin are called "Austinites" and include a heady mix of educators and their students, politicians and lobbyists.

15.1% Black. The lakes also provide venues for boating, swimming, and other forms of recreation within several parks located on the lake shores. 67.8% White Non-Hispanic. To help control this runoff and to generate hydroelectric power, the Lower Colorado River Authority operates a series of dams that form the Texas Highland Lakes. The Junior United States Senator is Barack Obama (Democrat). Because the hills to the west are primarily limestone rock with a thin covering of topsoil, the city is subjected to frequent flash flooding from the excessive runoff caused by thunderstorms. Durbin (Democrat). The eastern part of the city is flat, whereas the western part and western suburbs consist of scenic rolling hills on the edge of the Texas Hill Country.

The Senior United States Senator is Richard J. The city is also situated on the Balcones Fault, which, in much of Austin, runs roughly the same route as the MoPac expressway. The Treasurer of Illinois is Judy Baar Topinka (Republican). Town Lake, Lake Austin, and Lake Travis are all on the Colorado River. The Secretary of State of Illinois is Jesse White (Democrat). Additionally, the foot of Lake Travis, including Mansfield Dam, is located within the city's limits. The Lieutenant Governor of Illinois is Pat Quinn (Democrat). Long.

The Governor of Illinois is Rod Blagojevich (Democrat). Austin is situated on the Colorado River, with three lakes within the city limits: Town Lake, Lake Austin, and Lake Walter E. Its original name is honored by local business establishments such as Waterloo Ice House and Waterloo Records. Austin. Lamar renamed the city in honor of Stephen F.

In 1838, Mirabeau B. Austin was founded in 1835 and was first named Waterloo. The Austin metropolitan area is one of the fastest-growing in the United States and is home to more than 1.2 million people. Austin is the county seat of Travis County and is situated in Central Texas.

Census 2000, Austin has a population of 656,562 people, making it the fourth-largest city in Texas (behind Houston, Dallas, and San Antonio), and the 16th largest in the United States. As of the U.S. The City of Austin is the capital of the state of Texas, within the United States of America. Kwangmyong, Korea.

Old Orlu, Nigeria
. Edmonton, Canada
. Xishuangbanna, China
. Taichung, Taiwan
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Saltillo, Mexico
. Oita, Japan
. Maseru, Lesotho
. Lima, Peru
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Koblenz, Germany
. Adelaide, Australia - 1983
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