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Illinois

State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State
Other U.S. States
Capital Springfield
Largest city Chicago
Governor Rod Blagojevich
Official languages English
Area 149,998 kmē (25th)
 - Land 143,968 kmē
 - Water 6,030 kmē (4.0%)
Population (2000)
 - Population 12,419,293 (5th)
 - Density 86.27 /kmē (11th)
Admission into Union
 - Date December 3, 1818
 - Order 21st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Latitude 36°58'N to 42°30'N
Longitude 87°30'W to 91°30'W
Width 340 km
Length 629 km
Elevation
 - Highest 376 m
 - Mean 182 m
 - Lowest 85 m
Abbreviations
 - USPS IL
 - ISO 3166-2 US-IL
Web site www.illinois.gov

Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The U.S. postal abbreviation for the state is IL.

The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state.

History

Pre-Columbian

Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes.

European exploration

French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory.

The 1800s

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Early U.S. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago).

The Civil War

During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Government

The sample version of the current Illinois license plate introduced in 2001.

The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts.

Geography

See List of Illinois counties

It is in the north-central U.S. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan.

Illinois has three major geographical divisions. The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade.

Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago.

The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70.

McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Both figures are as of 2004.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state.

Economy

The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. The per capita income was $32,965.

Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal.

Demographics

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains.

Racially, the state is:

The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%).

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Religion

Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:

The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%).

Important cities and towns

Illinois, showing major cities and roads Chicago

See complete listing here...

Counties of Illinois

Education

Illinois State Board of Education

The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies.

There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate.

Primary and secondary schools

Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district.

See List of school districts in Illinois for a listing of all school districts, by county.
See List of high schools in Illinois for a partial list of high schools.

Colleges and universities

While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system.

List of colleges and universities

Professional sports teams

People

State symbols

The Cardinal is the state bird of Illinois
This page about Illinois includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Illinois
News stories about Illinois
External links for Illinois
Videos for Illinois
Wikis about Illinois
Discussion Groups about Illinois
Blogs about Illinois
Images of Illinois

Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system. USS Wyoming was named in honor of this state. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois.
. While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. The Wyoming municipalities with populations over 10,000 are, in descending order:. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. The religious affiliations of the people of Wyoming are:.

District territories are often complex in structure. Females made up approximately 49.7% of the population. Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. 6.3% of Wyoming's population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 11.7% were 65 or older. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate. The 5 largest ancestry groups in Wyoming are: German (25.9%), English (15.9%), Irish (13.3%), American (6.5%), Norwegian (4.3%). The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. The racial makeup of the state is:.

However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. According to the Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Wyoming was estimated at 501,242. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. Wyoming sports the lowest population of any state and the lowest population density of the continental 48 states; however, non-contiguous Alaska's population density is lower, although its total population is higher. There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. Instead, due to the overall aridity of Wyoming, they simply sink into the soil or evaporate. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies. The waters that flow or precipitate into this area, known as the Great Divide Basin, do not flow to any ocean.

Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The Continental Divide, which runs through most of North America forks in the south central part of the state. The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Several rivers begin or flow through the state, including the Yellowstone River, Powder River, and the Snake River. See complete listing here... Finally, the Teton Range in the northwest extends for 50 miles and represents the most impressive section of mountains in the state, home to the second highest peak Grand Teton and Grand Teton National Park which preserves the most scenic section of the Teton range. The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%). The Big Horn Mountains in the north central portion are somewhat isolated from the bulk of the rest of the Rocky Mountains.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:. The Wind River Range in the west central part of the state is remote and also has the highest peak Gannett Peak, in the state. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population. The Snowy Range in the south central part of the state is an extension of the [Colorado] Rockies in both geology and appearance. Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. There are several major mountain ranges in the state, all part of the Rocky Mountains. Females made up approximately 51% of the population. Ranching, however, is widespread, especially in areas near the numerous mountain chains.

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Wyoming is generally considered an arid state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches of rainfall a year. Consequently, the land supports few opportunities for farming. The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%). Devil's Tower, made famous in the film Close Encounters Of The Third Kind, is located near Moorcroft in Crook County. Racially, the state is:. It is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, and on the west by Utah and Idaho. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains. See: List of Wyoming counties.

More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. Wyoming was the location of the Johnson County War of 1892. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. Wyoming was also the first state in the Union to elect a woman governor, Nellie Tayloe Ross in 1925 see List of Wyoming Governors. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. It had the first female court bailiff and the first female justice of the peace in the country. According to the U.S. women in politics.

Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal. state to extend suffrage to women, Wyoming was also the home of many other firsts for U.S. Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. In addition to being the U.S. The per capita income was $32,965. In 1869 Wyoming extended suffrage to women, at least partially in an attempt to garner enough voters to be admitted as a state. The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. Ashbey of Ohio.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. M. Both figures are as of 2004. The name was suggested by Representative J. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. It was named after the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania, made famous by the 1809 poem Gertrude of Wyoming by Thomas Campbell. McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. Wyoming was admitted to the Union on July 10, 1890.

This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70. Most of the territory that comprises Yellowstone National Park is located in Wyoming. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. Yellowstone National Park became the world's first National Park in 1872 and is located in the far northwestern portion of the state. The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. After the Union Pacific Railroad reached the town of Cheyenne, the capital, in 1867, the population began to grow steadily in the Wyoming Territory, established on July 25, 1868. This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago. state.

Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). It is the least populous U.S. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Wyoming is a state of the western United States of America. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Highway 191. Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. U.S.

While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade. Highway 89. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. U.S. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. Highway 26. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. U.S.

The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. Highway 20. Illinois has three major geographical divisions. U.S. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan. Highway 14. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. U.S.

It is in the north-central U.S. Interstate 90. See List of Illinois counties. Interstate 80. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts. Interstate 25. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. Casper Rockies, minor league baseball.

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Wyoming Technical Institute (WyoTech). As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. Western Wyoming Community College. The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. University of Wyoming. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments. Sheridan College - Gillette Campus.

Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Sheridan College. During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Northwest College. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago). Laramie County Community College. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. Eastern Wyoming College.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Central Wyoming College. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois. Casper College. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. No Religion – 21%. Early U.S. Non-Christian Religions – 1%.

state. Mormon – 7%. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. Roman Catholic – 18%. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. Other Protestants/general Protestants – 21%. The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. Episcopalian – 4%.

The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory. Presbyterian – 4%. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. Methodist – 6%. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. Baptist – 9%. French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. Lutheran – 9%.

The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes. Protestant – 53%

    . The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. Christian – 78%
      . The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. 1.8% Mixed race. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. 2.3% American Indian.

      That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. 0.6% Asian. Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. 6.4% Hispanic. The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state. 0.8% Black. postal abbreviation for the state is IL. 88.9% White.

      The U.S. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

      Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. State tree: White oak (Quercus alba). State snack: Popcorn.

      State song: "Illinois". State slogan: "Land of Lincoln". State prairie grass: Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). State motto: "State sovereignty, national union".

      State mineral: Fluorite. State insect: Monarch butterfly. State fossil: Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium). State flower: Purple violet (Viola sororia).

      State fish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). State dance: Square dance. State capital: Springfield. State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis).

      State animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President, is buried in Springfield, Illinois. Ronald Reagan, the 40th President, was born in Tampico, Illinois. Non-Religious – 8%.

      Other Religions – 3%. Other Christian – 1%. Roman Catholic – 33%. Protestant – 51%.

      1.9% mixed race. 0.2% American Indian. 3.4% Asian. 12.3% Hispanic.

      15.1% Black. 67.8% White Non-Hispanic. The Junior United States Senator is Barack Obama (Democrat). Durbin (Democrat).

      The Senior United States Senator is Richard J. The Treasurer of Illinois is Judy Baar Topinka (Republican). The Secretary of State of Illinois is Jesse White (Democrat). The Lieutenant Governor of Illinois is Pat Quinn (Democrat).

      The Governor of Illinois is Rod Blagojevich (Democrat).

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