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Illinois

State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State
Other U.S. States
Capital Springfield
Largest city Chicago
Governor Rod Blagojevich
Official languages English
Area 149,998 kmē (25th)
 - Land 143,968 kmē
 - Water 6,030 kmē (4.0%)
Population (2000)
 - Population 12,419,293 (5th)
 - Density 86.27 /kmē (11th)
Admission into Union
 - Date December 3, 1818
 - Order 21st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Latitude 36°58'N to 42°30'N
Longitude 87°30'W to 91°30'W
Width 340 km
Length 629 km
Elevation
 - Highest 376 m
 - Mean 182 m
 - Lowest 85 m
Abbreviations
 - USPS IL
 - ISO 3166-2 US-IL
Web site www.illinois.gov

Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The U.S. postal abbreviation for the state is IL.

The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state.

History

Pre-Columbian

Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes.

European exploration

French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory.

The 1800s

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Early U.S. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago).

The Civil War

During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Government

The sample version of the current Illinois license plate introduced in 2001.

The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts.

Geography

See List of Illinois counties

It is in the north-central U.S. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan.

Illinois has three major geographical divisions. The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade.

Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago.

The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70.

McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Both figures are as of 2004.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state.

Economy

The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. The per capita income was $32,965.

Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal.

Demographics

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains.

Racially, the state is:

The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%).

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Religion

Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:

The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%).

Important cities and towns

Illinois, showing major cities and roads Chicago

See complete listing here...

Counties of Illinois

Education

Illinois State Board of Education

The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies.

There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate.

Primary and secondary schools

Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district.

See List of school districts in Illinois for a listing of all school districts, by county.
See List of high schools in Illinois for a partial list of high schools.

Colleges and universities

While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system.

List of colleges and universities

Professional sports teams

People

State symbols

The Cardinal is the state bird of Illinois
This page about Illinois includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Illinois
News stories about Illinois
External links for Illinois
Videos for Illinois
Wikis about Illinois
Discussion Groups about Illinois
Blogs about Illinois
Images of Illinois

Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system. Additionally, Missouri has several regional public universities in different parts of the state, the largest being Missouri State University (after heated political debate in Jefferson City, the name was changed from Southwest Missouri State University in spring 2005) having the second largest student enrollment after University of Missouri-Columbia. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. The University of Missouri is Missouri's statewide public university system, having campuses in Saint Louis, Kansas City, Columbia and Rolla. While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Missouri's public school system includes kindergarten to 12th grade and requires all children between the ages of 7-16 inclusive to be enrolled in a school. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. (see [1] (http://www.virtualtourist.com/m/6d7ce/515/) and [2] (http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/history/slogan.asp)).

District territories are often complex in structure. People from Missouri have a reputation for being skeptical. Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. There is an idiom "being from Missouri" which relates to the state's unofficial slogan: "show me" (which even appears on their license plates). Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate. Springfield is the headquarters of the Assemblies of God. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Independence, outside of Kansas City, is the headquarters for the Community of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), and the Latter Day Saints group Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. Kansas City is the headquarters for the Church of the Nazarene. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. Louis. There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. A number of religious organizations have their headquearters in Missouri, including the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, which has its headquarters in Kirkwood, outside St. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies. Louis.

Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. Approximately 1 out of 5 Missourians are Roman Catholics; many of those live in central Missouri as well as around Kansas City and St. The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Baptists, Methodists, and Lutherans account for most of those belonging to the Protestant faiths. See complete listing here... Two-thirds of Missourians are Protestants. The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%). The religious affiliaitions of the people of Missouri are:.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:. There were 11.7% (637,891) Missourians living below the poverty line in 1999. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population. The median household money income for 1999 was $37,934 with the 1999 Per Capita Money Income of $19,936. Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. There were 2,194,594 househoulds with 2.48 people per household. Females made up approximately 51% of the population. The homeownership rate in 2000 was 70.3% with the mean value of the owner occupied dwelling being $89,900.

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. The mean commute time to work was 23.8 minutes. The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%). 81.3% were high school graduates (higher than the national average) while 21.6% had a bachelor's degree or higher. Racially, the state is:. The 1997 birth and death rates were:. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains. 2.7% of Missourians are foreign-born, and 5.1% speak a language other than English at home.

More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. Females made up approximately 51.4% of the population. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. 6.6% of its population were reported as under 5, 25.5% under 18, and 13.5% were 65 or older. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. The five largest ancestry groups in Missouri are: German (23.5%), Irish (12.7%), American (10.5%), English (9.5%), French (3.5%). According to the U.S. The racial makeup of the state is:.

Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal. Major cities include Saint Louis and Kansas City. Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. As of 2003, the population of Missouri was 5,704,484. The per capita income was $32,965. Tourism, services and wholesale/retail trade follow manufacturing in importance. The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. Missouri produces the most lead of all of the states in the Union with most of these mines in the central eastern portion of the state. Missouri also ranks first or near first among the production of lime.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. Other minerals mined are lead, coal, portland cement and crushed stone. Both figures are as of 2004. Missouri has vast quantities of limestone. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. As of 2001, there were 108,000 farms, the second largest number in any state after Texas. McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. Missouri is ranked 6th in the nation for the production of hogs and 7th for cattle.

This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70. The agriculture products of the state are beef, soybeans, pork, dairy products, hay, corn, poultry, and eggs. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. Major industries include aerospace, transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, printing/publishing, electrical equipment, light manufacturing. The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (http://www.bea.gov/) estimates that Missouri's total state product in 2003 was $195 billion. Per capital personal income in 2003 was $29,464, 27th in the nation. This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago. For example, Mark Twain, who grew up in Hannibal, Missouri, in Life on the Mississippi described his upbringing as in "the South".

Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). Although now generally considered part of the Midwest, Missouri was once thought of as Southern. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. The Bootheel area was the focus of the great New Madrid Earthquake of 1811 - 1812. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. It is here that one finds cotton and rice production. Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. It is also the most fertile.

While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade. This region is the lowest, flattest and wettest part of the state. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. The southeastern part of the state is home to the Bootheel, part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain or Mississippi embayment. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. Francois Mountains. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. Southern Missouri is the home of the Ozark mountains, a dissected plateau surrounding the Precambrian igneous St.

The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. Springfield, Missouri in southwestern Missouri lies on the Ozark plateau. Illinois has three major geographical divisions. Oklahoma. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan. E. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Kansas, and N.

It is in the north-central U.S. E. See List of Illinois counties. The Ozark plateau begins south of the river and extends into Arkansas, S. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts. Here, gentle rolling hills remain behind from a glacier that once had extended from the north to the Missouri River. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. North of the Missouri River lie the northern plains that stretch into Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas.

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa; on the east, across the Mississippi River, by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee; on the south by Arkansas; and on the west by Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska (the latter two across the Missouri River.). As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. Main Article: Geography of Missouri
. The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. The executive branch is headed by the Governor. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments. Superior and inferior courts are also provided.

Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. The Judicial department consists of a supreme court consisting of 7 judges. During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. The Senate consists of 34 members from districts divided such that the population of each district is approximately equal. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago). The House of Representatives has 163 members that are apportioned based on the last decennial census. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. These bodies comprise the General Assembly of the State of Missouri.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. The legislative branch consists of two bodies, the House of Representatives and the Senate. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois. The current constitution of Missouri, the fourth constitution for the state, was adopted in 1945 and provides for three branches of government, the legislative, judicial and executive branches. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. House of Representatives. Early U.S. Missouri has nine seats in the U.S.

state. Talent (Republican). In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. "Kit" Bond (Republican) and James M. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. senators are Christopher S. The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. Missouri's two U.S.

The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory. The capital of Missouri is Jefferson City and the current governor of the state is Matt Blunt (Republican). As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. Main Article: Law and Government of Missouri
See: List of Missouri Governors. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. Missouri was the starting point for the Lewis and Clark Expedition. French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. During the Civil War, Missouri, a slave state, was split with portions adhering to the Union, and others seceding with the southern states.

The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes. It earned the nickname "Gateway to the West" because it served as a departure point for settlers heading to the west. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. Originally part of the Louisiana Purchase, Missouri was admitted as a state in 1821 as part of the Missouri Compromise. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. Main Article: History of Missouri. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. USS Missouri was named in honor of this state.

That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The Mississippi and Missouri rivers are the two large rivers which flow through this state. Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. Post Office abbreviation for Missouri is MO and the state public university's main branch is located in Columbia. The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state. The state's nickname is the Show-Me (http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/history/slogan.asp) State; the U.S. postal abbreviation for the state is IL. Missouri, named after the Missouri Siouan Indian tribe meaning "canoe", is a Midwestern state of the United States with Jefferson City as its capital.

The U.S. Springfield Cardinals (Class AA, Texas League). Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. Baseball:

    . The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Soccer: Kansas City Wizards. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people". Hockey: Saint Louis Blues.

    Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. Football: Saint Louis Rams and Kansas City Chiefs. Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Baseball: Saint Louis Cardinals and Kansas City Royals. State tree: White oak (Quercus alba). Non-Religious – 7%. State snack: Popcorn. Other Religions – 1%.

    State song: "Illinois". Other Christian – 2%. State slogan: "Land of Lincoln". Roman Catholic – 20%. State prairie grass: Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). Protestant – 67%. State motto: "State sovereignty, national union". 1.5% mixed race.

    State mineral: Fluorite. 0.4% American Indian. State insect: Monarch butterfly. 1.1% Asian. State fossil: Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium). 2.1% Hispanic. State flower: Purple violet (Viola sororia). 11.2% Black.

    State fish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). 83.8% White. State dance: Square dance. List of Missouri counties. State capital: Springfield. Missouri National and State Parks. State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Climate of Missouri.

    State animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President, is buried in Springfield, Illinois. Ronald Reagan, the 40th President, was born in Tampico, Illinois. Non-Religious – 8%.

    Other Religions – 3%. Other Christian – 1%. Roman Catholic – 33%. Protestant – 51%.

    1.9% mixed race. 0.2% American Indian. 3.4% Asian. 12.3% Hispanic.

    15.1% Black. 67.8% White Non-Hispanic. The Junior United States Senator is Barack Obama (Democrat). Durbin (Democrat).

    The Senior United States Senator is Richard J. The Treasurer of Illinois is Judy Baar Topinka (Republican). The Secretary of State of Illinois is Jesse White (Democrat). The Lieutenant Governor of Illinois is Pat Quinn (Democrat).

    The Governor of Illinois is Rod Blagojevich (Democrat).

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