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Illinois

State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State
Other U.S. States
Capital Springfield
Largest city Chicago
Governor Rod Blagojevich
Official languages English
Area 149,998 km² (25th)
 - Land 143,968 km²
 - Water 6,030 km² (4.0%)
Population (2000)
 - Population 12,419,293 (5th)
 - Density 86.27 /km² (11th)
Admission into Union
 - Date December 3, 1818
 - Order 21st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Latitude 36°58'N to 42°30'N
Longitude 87°30'W to 91°30'W
Width 340 km
Length 629 km
Elevation
 - Highest 376 m
 - Mean 182 m
 - Lowest 85 m
Abbreviations
 - USPS IL
 - ISO 3166-2 US-IL
Web site www.illinois.gov

Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The U.S. postal abbreviation for the state is IL.

The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state.

History

Pre-Columbian

Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes.

European exploration

French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory.

The 1800s

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Early U.S. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago).

The Civil War

During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Government

The sample version of the current Illinois license plate introduced in 2001.

The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts.

Geography

See List of Illinois counties

It is in the north-central U.S. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan.

Illinois has three major geographical divisions. The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade.

Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago.

The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70.

McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Both figures are as of 2004.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state.

Economy

The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. The per capita income was $32,965.

Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal.

Demographics

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains.

Racially, the state is:

The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%).

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Religion

Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:

The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%).

Important cities and towns

Illinois, showing major cities and roads Chicago

See complete listing here...

Counties of Illinois

Education

Illinois State Board of Education

The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies.

There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate.

Primary and secondary schools

Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district.

See List of school districts in Illinois for a listing of all school districts, by county.
See List of high schools in Illinois for a partial list of high schools.

Colleges and universities

While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system.

List of colleges and universities

Professional sports teams

People

State symbols

The Cardinal is the state bird of Illinois
This page about Illinois includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Illinois
News stories about Illinois
External links for Illinois
Videos for Illinois
Wikis about Illinois
Discussion Groups about Illinois
Blogs about Illinois
Images of Illinois

Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system. When adjusted for inflation (1999 dollars; comparable to Census data above), the median household income was $50,543. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. According to estimates by the San Diego Association of Governments, the median household income of San Diego in 2004 was $56,438 (not adjusted for inflation). While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Out of the total population, 20.0% of those under the age of 18 and 7.6% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. 14.6% of the population and 10.6% of families are below the poverty line.

District territories are often complex in structure. The per capita income for the city is $23,609. Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. Males have a median income of $36,984 versus $31,076 for females. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate. The median income for a household in the city is $45,733, and the median income for a family is $53,060. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. For every 100 females there are 101.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 100.4 males.

However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The median age is 32 years. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. In the city the population is spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who are 65 years of age or older. There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. The average household size is 2.61 and the average family size is 3.30. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies. 28.0% of all households are made up of individuals and 7.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older.

Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. There are 450,691 households out of which 30.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% are married couples living together, 11.4% have a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% are non-families. The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. 25.40% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. See complete listing here... The racial makeup of the city is 60.18% White, 7.86% African American, 0.62% Native American, 13.65% Asian, 0.48% Pacific Islander, 12.39% from other races, and 4.83% from two or more races. The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%). There are 469,689 housing units at an average density of 559.1/km² (1,448.1/mi²).

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:. The population density is 1,456.4/km² (3,771.9/mi²). Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population. As of the census2 of 2000, there are 1,223,400 people, 450,691 households, and 271,315 families residing in the city. Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Additionally, the numerous canyons that run through the city create natural boundaries and obstacles to development. Females made up approximately 51% of the population. The city's borders are very irregularly shaped because of the absorption of many suburbs into the city limits.

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. 840.0 km² (324.3 mi²) of it is land and 123.5 km² (47.7 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 12.82% water. The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 963.6 km² (372.0 mi²). Racially, the state is:. San Diego is located at 32°46'46" North, 117°8'47" West (32.779541, -117.146344)1. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains. Almost every major freeway in the county crosses through the city, but all are important to the flow of goods and people into and out of the city.

More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. San Diego includes a comprehensive collection of freeways, highways, major arterial roads, and streets that forms circles around the interior and outlying areas in the county. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. However, these systems serve limited routes and schedules; the vast majority of transportation in San Diego is by private automobile. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. San Diego has trolley (LRT), bus [1] (http://www.sdcommute.com/Rider_Information/bus/), Coaster [2] (http://www.gonctd.com/), and Amtrak service. According to the U.S. San Diego is about two and a half hours south of Los Angeles and about half an hour north of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal. Noted San Diego tourist attractions include:
. Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Among the many attractions are its beaches, and climate, and deserts. The per capita income was $32,965. San Diego is a major tourist destination, attracting visitors from all over the world. The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. Largely because of their city's strong military presence, San Diegans have a reputation for being more politically conservative than residents of California's other coastal cities.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. San Diego has since become a center of the emerging biotech industry and is home to telecommunications giant Qualcomm. Both figures are as of 2004. Following the end of the Cold War the military presence has diminished considerably. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Since World War II, the military has played a leading role in the local economy. McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. San Diego hosted two World's Fairs, the Panama-California Exposition in 1915 and the California Pacific International Exposition in 1935.

This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70. Naval presence began in 1907 with the establishment of the Navy Coaling Station. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. Significant U.S. The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. San Diego was reincorporated as a city in 1886. This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago. In 1885, San Diego was linked to the rest of the nation by railroad.

Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). The village was designated the seat of the newly designated "San Diego County" and incorporated as a city. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. However the population of the town shrank to little over a hundred persons, and by the late 1830s it lost its township until the province of Alta California became part of the United States of America in 1850 following the Mexican-American War. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Juan Maria Osuna was elected the first alcalde (or mayor), winning over Pio Pico in the 13 ballots cast. Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. The mission was secularized in 1834 and 432 persons petitioned Governor José Figueroa to form a town, and Commandant Santiago Arguello endorsed it.

While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade. The governor of Alta California and Baja California moved the capital to San Diego from Monterey. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. In 1821, Spain recognized Mexico's independence. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. By 1797 the mission had become the largest in California, with over 1,400 natives associated with it. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. Father Serra organized the rebuilding and two years later a more fire-proof adobe structure was started.

The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. They killed the priest and two others, and burned the mission. Illinois has three major geographical divisions. Colonists began arriving in 1774, and the following year, 1775 the native people rebelled. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan. In 1769, Gaspar de Portolá and his expedition founded a presidio (or military post) and on Sunday July 16, Franciscan Fathers Junípero Serra, Juan Viscaino and Fernando Parron raised and blessed a cross, establishing the first mission in Upper California, Mission San Diego de Alcala. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. California was then part of the colony of New Spain.

It is in the north-central U.S. The explorers camped near a Native American village called "Nipaguay" and celebrated Mass in honor of San (or Saint) Diego de Alcala (Saint Didacus of Alcalá). See List of Illinois counties. The San Diego Bay and the area of present day San Diego were given their present names by Sebastian Vizcaino when he was mapping the coastline of Alta California for Spain in 1602. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts. He named it San Miguel. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The first European to visit the region was Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, sailing for Spain, in 1542.

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. The area has long been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. North Island is also known as the birthplace of Naval Aviation, (though Pensacola Naval Station makes a rival claim to being the "Cradle of Naval Aviation."). The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. N.S. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments. Several Navy vessels have been named USS San Diego in honor of the city.

Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. One of the United States Marine Corps' two Recruit Depots is located here. During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. It is the home port of the largest naval fleet in the world, including two Navy supercarriers, the USS Nimitz and the USS Ronald Reagan, five amphibs, several nuclear submarines, and numerous smaller ships. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago). San Diego is the home of various military facilities including Navy ports, Marine bases, and Coast Guard stations. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. The city is the second largest in California and the seventh largest in the United States.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. As of 2005 the California Department of Finance estimates the city to have 1,305,736 residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 1,223,400. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. It is the county seat of San Diego County, California. The city is noted for its temperate climate and numerous beaches. Early U.S. San Diego is a city located in the southwestern corner of the state of California and the southwestern corner of the continental United States.

state. San Diego City Schools. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. University of San Diego, USD (Roman Catholic). The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. University of California, San Diego, UCSD (University of California). The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. Thomas Jefferson School of Law.

The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory. San Diego Community College District, (San Diego City College, San Diego Mesa College, San Diego Miramar College). As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. San Diego State University, SDSU (California State University). and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. National University. French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. Point Loma Nazarene University, PLNU (Nazarene).

The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes. California Western School of Law. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. Alliant International University, AIU (Formerly United States International University-USIU). The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. Soledad Veteran's Memorial, future National Historic Landmark. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. Mt.

That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. USS Midway (CV-41), aircraft carrier museum. Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. Seaport Village. The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state. Berkeley, ferry boat. postal abbreviation for the state is IL. Star of India, barque sailing ship.

The U.S. San Diego Presidio. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. Old Mission Dam in Mission Trails Regional Park. The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Mission San Diego de Alcala. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people". Mission Beach Roller Coaster at Belmont Park.

Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. Little Italy (see also Little Italy). Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. La Casa de Estudillo. State tree: White oak (Quercus alba). Balboa Park. State snack: Popcorn. Qualcomm Stadium.

State song: "Illinois". Petco Park. State slogan: "Land of Lincoln". Gaslamp Quarter. State prairie grass: Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). Torrey Pines State Reserve. State motto: "State sovereignty, national union". Torrey Pines Golf Course.

State mineral: Fluorite. SeaWorld. State insect: Monarch butterfly. Old Town. State fossil: Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium). Mission Bay Park. State flower: Purple violet (Viola sororia). San Diego Wild Animal Park.

State fish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). San Diego Zoo. State dance: Square dance. State capital: Springfield. State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis).

State animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President, is buried in Springfield, Illinois. Ronald Reagan, the 40th President, was born in Tampico, Illinois. Non-Religious – 8%.

Other Religions – 3%. Other Christian – 1%. Roman Catholic – 33%. Protestant – 51%.

1.9% mixed race. 0.2% American Indian. 3.4% Asian. 12.3% Hispanic.

15.1% Black. 67.8% White Non-Hispanic. The Junior United States Senator is Barack Obama (Democrat). Durbin (Democrat).

The Senior United States Senator is Richard J. The Treasurer of Illinois is Judy Baar Topinka (Republican). The Secretary of State of Illinois is Jesse White (Democrat). The Lieutenant Governor of Illinois is Pat Quinn (Democrat).

The Governor of Illinois is Rod Blagojevich (Democrat).

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