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Illinois

State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State
Other U.S. States
Capital Springfield
Largest city Chicago
Governor Rod Blagojevich
Official languages English
Area 149,998 km² (25th)
 - Land 143,968 km²
 - Water 6,030 km² (4.0%)
Population (2000)
 - Population 12,419,293 (5th)
 - Density 86.27 /km² (11th)
Admission into Union
 - Date December 3, 1818
 - Order 21st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Latitude 36°58'N to 42°30'N
Longitude 87°30'W to 91°30'W
Width 340 km
Length 629 km
Elevation
 - Highest 376 m
 - Mean 182 m
 - Lowest 85 m
Abbreviations
 - USPS IL
 - ISO 3166-2 US-IL
Web site www.illinois.gov

Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The U.S. postal abbreviation for the state is IL.

The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state.

History

Pre-Columbian

Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes.

European exploration

French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory.

The 1800s

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Early U.S. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago).

The Civil War

During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Government

The sample version of the current Illinois license plate introduced in 2001.

The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts.

Geography

See List of Illinois counties

It is in the north-central U.S. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan.

Illinois has three major geographical divisions. The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade.

Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago.

The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70.

McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Both figures are as of 2004.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state.

Economy

The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. The per capita income was $32,965.

Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal.

Demographics

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains.

Racially, the state is:

The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%).

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Religion

Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:

The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%).

Important cities and towns

Illinois, showing major cities and roads Chicago

See complete listing here...

Counties of Illinois

Education

Illinois State Board of Education

The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies.

There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate.

Primary and secondary schools

Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district.

See List of school districts in Illinois for a listing of all school districts, by county.
See List of high schools in Illinois for a partial list of high schools.

Colleges and universities

While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system.

List of colleges and universities

Professional sports teams

People

State symbols

The Cardinal is the state bird of Illinois
This page about Illinois includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Illinois
News stories about Illinois
External links for Illinois
Videos for Illinois
Wikis about Illinois
Discussion Groups about Illinois
Blogs about Illinois
Images of Illinois

Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system. Michigan has the most registered boats (over 1 million) of any state in the Union. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. See Lighthouses in the United States. While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. They were built to project light at night and to serve as a landmark during the day to safely guide the passenger ships and freighters traveling the Great Lakes. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. The first lighthouses in Michigan were built between 1818 and 1822.

District territories are often complex in structure. state. Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. Michigan has over 130 lighthouses, the most of any U.S. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate. Michigan is nicknamed the "Great Lakes State", and also the "Wolverine State", from a nickname earned during the Toledo War. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Navy's USS Michigan was named in honor of the state.

However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The U.S. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. postal abbreviation is "MI" (traditional: "Mich."). There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. Its U.S. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies. In turn, residents of the lower peninsula may be jokingly referred to as "trolls" -- because they "live below the Mackinac Bridge." As the Lower Peninsula is famously shaped like a mitten, residents often use their left hand or right palm as a shorthand "map" to illustrate which part of the state they hail from.

Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. An individual from Michigan is called a "Michigander" or "Michiganian." A resident of Michigan's Upper Peninsula ("the U.P.") is often called a "Yooper" (or U.P.'er). The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. The clang and clamor of metro Detroit's crowded thoroughfares and busy factories stand in vivid counterpoint to the tranquility found in virtually every corner of the state. See complete listing here... Michigan is simultaneously known for its cities, supported by heavy industry, and its pristine wilderness, home to more than 11,000 lakes. The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%). Benton Harbor is the poorest city in Michigan, with a per capita income of $8,965.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:. Detroit, with a per capita income of $14,717, ranks 517th on the list of Michigan locations by per capita income. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population. Only three of these cities are located outside of Metro Detroit. Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Of these 20 locations, half are located in Oakland County, just north of Detroit. Females made up approximately 51% of the population. census2 of 2000:.

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. As ranked by per capita income, as of the U.S. The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%). Other important cities include. Racially, the state is:. The largest cities in Michigan are (according to the 2000 census):. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains. See: List of cities, villages, and townships in Michigan.

More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. See also Highway map of Michigan. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city.
. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. The three largest Protestant denominations in Michigan are: Baptist (16% of the total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (7%). According to the U.S. The religious affiliations of the people of Michigan are:.

Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal. The five largest ancestries in Michigan are: German (20.4%), African American (14.2%), Irish (10.7%), English (9.9%), Polish (8.6%). Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. The racial makeup of the state is:. The per capita income was $32,965. Census Bureau estimate): 10,079,985. The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. Michigan's total population (2003 U.S.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. See also: List of companies based in Michigan. Both figures are as of 2004. Michigan is primarily known as the birthplace of the automobile industry. However, it is also home to a thriving tourist industry, with destinations such as Traverse City, Mackinac Island, Saugatuck and the entire Upper Peninsula drawing vacationers, hunters and nature enthusiasts from across the United States and Canada. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. See also Protected areas of Michigan, List of Michigan state parks. McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. Detroit, Michigan is the only major city in the contiguous United States that is actually due north of Canada.

This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70. No point in Michigan is more than 6 miles (10 km) from an inland lake or more than 85 miles (137 km) from one of the Great Lakes, and the state has more than 11,000 inland lakes and more than 36,000 miles (58,000 km) of rivers and streams. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. The Great Lakes which touch the two peninsulas of Michigan are Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. This equals the length of the Atlantic Coast, from Maine to Florida. This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago. An additional 879 miles (1415 km) can be added if islands are included.

Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). Other than Alaska, Michigan has the longest shoreline of any state -- 2,242 miles (3,607 km). Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. The two peninsulas are surrounded by an extensive Great Lakes shoreline. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. These two sections are connected only by the five-mile-long Mackinac Bridge -- the third longest suspension bridge in the world. Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. The heavily forested Upper Peninsula (often called simply "The U.P.") is as large as Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island combined, but has less than 330,000 inhabitants, who are sometimes called "Yoopers" (from "U.P.'ers") and whose speech has been heavily influenced by the large number of Scandinavian and Canadian immigrants who settled the area during the mining boom of the late 1800's.

While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade. The Lower Peninsula is shaped like a mitten and is 277 miles (446 km) long from north to south and 195 miles (314 km)from east to west. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. Michigan consists of two peninsulas:. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The highest point in the Lower Peninsula is not definitely established but is either Briar Hill at 1,705 feet (520 meters), or one of several points closely nearby. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. The highest point is Mount Arvon in the Upper Peninsula at 1,979 feet (603 m).

The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. Michigan also borders Minnesota, Illinois, the Canadian province of Ontario, and the Canadian First Nation (Indian) reserve of Walpole Island, but only on water boundaries in the Great Lakes system. Illinois has three major geographical divisions. Michigan borders Indiana and Ohio to the south, and Wisconsin to the southwest of the Upper Peninsula. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan. Georgia has a slightly larger land area, however. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Michigan encompasses 96,810 square miles (250,630 square kilometers), making it the largest state east of the Mississippi River if territorial water is included.

It is in the north-central U.S. See: List of Michigan Governors, List of United States Senators from Michigan, List of United States Representatives from Michigan. See List of Illinois counties. As of April 2001, there were 127 charter townships in Michigan. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts. There are two types of townships in Michigan: general law and charter. Charter township status was created by the state legislature in 1947 and grants additional powers and stream-lined administration in order to provide greater protection against annexation by a city. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. Cities and villages are vested with home rule powers, meaning that they can do almost anything not prohibited by law.

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Michigan counties and townships are statutory units of government, meaning that they have only those powers expressly provided or fairly implied by state law. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. Still, with 10 million residents, Michigan remains a large and influential state and ranks 8th in population among the 50 states. The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. Since World War II, Detroit's industrial base has eroded as auto companies abandoned some of the area's industrial parks in favor of less expensive labor found overseas and in southern U.S. states. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments. Since 1838, the city has also been noted for its thriving furniture industry.

Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Grand Rapids, the second-largest city in Michigan, is also a center of automotive manufacturing. During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. It was a development that not only transformed Detroit and Michigan, but permanently altered the socio-economic climate of the United States and much of the world, for that matter. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago). The birth of the automotive industry, with Henry Ford's first plant in the Highland Park suburb of Detroit, marked the beginning of a new era in personal transportation. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. Michigan's economy underwent a massive shift at the turn of the 20th century.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Thought to be useless at the time of its addition to Michigan, it was soon discovered that the Upper Peninsula was a rich and important source of lumber, iron, and copper, which would become the state's most sought-after natural resources. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois. Ultimately, Congress awarded the "Toledo Strip" to Ohio, and Michigan, having received the western part of the Upper Peninsula as a concession, formally entered the Union on January 26, 1837. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. The dispute eventually culminated into what would be known as the Toledo War when Michigan and Ohio militia maneuvered in the area. Early U.S. A state government was formed in 1835, although Congressional recognition of the state languished due to a boundary dispute with Ohio, with both sides claiming a 468 square mile (1,210 km²) strip of land that included the important port city of Toledo on Lake Erie and an area to the west then known as the "Great Black Swamp".

state. By the 1830s, Michigan had some 80,000 residents, more than enough to apply for statehood. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. The population grew slowly until the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which brought large numbers of settlers. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. Michigan passed to Great Britain in 1763 and then to the new United States two decades later. The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. Most of the rest of the region remained unsettled by whites, however.

The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory. The town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. Clair and Erie. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. In 1701, explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Detroit on the straits between Lakes St. French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. Michigan was explored and settled by French voyageurs in the 17th century.

The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes. The name is derived from Lake Michigan, which in turn is believed to come from the Chippewa Indian word meicigama, meaning "great water." Bounded by four of the Great Lakes, Michigan has the longest state shoreline in the continental United States, and more recreational boats than any other state in the union. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. Michigan is a state in the United States. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. List of people from Michigan. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. List of Michigan counties.

That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. List of highways in Michigan. Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. List of Michigan-related topics. The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state. List of Governors of Michigan. postal abbreviation for the state is IL. Michigan is the only state composed of two separate peninsulas.

The U.S. The state soil, Kalkaska Sand, ranges in color from black to yellowish brown, covers nearly a million acres (4,000 km²) in 29 counties. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The state wildflower, the Dwarf Lake Iris (Iris lacustris), is a federal-listed threatened species. The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. The state gem chlorastrolite, literally the green star stone, also known as the Isle Royale greenstone is found on Isle Royale and the Keweenaw. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people". The state stone, the Petoskey stone (Hexagonaria pericarnata), is composed of fossilized diatoms from long ago when the middle of the continent was covered with a shallow sea.

Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The state motto, Si Quaeris Peninsulam Amoenam Circumspice is Latin for "If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you", a paraphrase of a statement made by British architect Sir Christopher Wren about his influence on London. Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. State nicknames include the Wolverine State, Great Lakes State, Mitten State, and Winter Water Wonderland. State tree: White oak (Quercus alba). State soil: Kalkaska Sand. State snack: Popcorn. State gem: Isle Royale greenstone (also called chlorastrolite).

State song: "Illinois". State stone: Petoskey stone. State slogan: "Land of Lincoln". State tree: White Pine. State prairie grass: Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). State wildflower: Dwarf Lake Iris. State motto: "State sovereignty, national union". State flower: Apple Blossom.

State mineral: Fluorite. State fossil: Mastodon. State insect: Monarch butterfly. State reptile: Painted Turtle. State fossil: Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium). State fish: Brook Trout. State flower: Purple violet (Viola sororia). State mammal: White-tailed Deer.

State fish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). State bird: American Robin. State dance: Square dance. State song: My Michigan (official, but disputed amongst Michiganders). State capital: Springfield. State motto: Si Quaeris Peninsulam Amoenam Circumspice. State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Alpena IceDiggers, North American Hockey League.

State animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Traverse City North Stars, North American Hockey League. Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President, is buried in Springfield, Illinois. Saginaw Spirit, Ontario Hockey League. Ronald Reagan, the 40th President, was born in Tampico, Illinois. Plymouth Whalers, Ontario Hockey League. Non-Religious – 8%. Flint Generals, United Hockey League.

Other Religions – 3%. Port Huron Beacons, United Hockey League. Other Christian – 1%. Kalamazoo K-Wings, International Hockey League. Roman Catholic – 33%. Muskegon Fury, United Hockey League. Protestant – 51%. Grand Rapids Griffins, American Hockey League.

1.9% mixed race. Grand Rapids Rampage, Arena Football League. 0.2% American Indian. Detroit Demolition, National Women's Football Association. 3.4% Asian. Detroit Fury, Arena Football League. 12.3% Hispanic. Grosse Ile, $42,150.

15.1% Black. Beverly Hills, $43,452. 67.8% White Non-Hispanic. Northville, $43,454. The Junior United States Senator is Barack Obama (Democrat). West Bloomfield Township, $44,885. Durbin (Democrat). South Gull Lake, $45,175.

The Senior United States Senator is Richard J. Huntington Woods, $45,264. The Treasurer of Illinois is Judy Baar Topinka (Republican). Sylvan Lake, $48,744. The Secretary of State of Illinois is Jesse White (Democrat). Grand Beach, $51,788. The Lieutenant Governor of Illinois is Pat Quinn (Democrat). Grosse Pointe, $53,942.

The Governor of Illinois is Rod Blagojevich (Democrat). Grosse Pointe Farms, $54,846. Birmingham, $59,314. Bloomfield Township, $62,716. Michiana, $63,558.

Orchard Lake Village, $67,881. Grosse Pointe Shores, $69,639. Franklin, $71,033. Bingham Farms, $74,588.

Lake Angelus, $83,792. Bloomfield Hills, $104,920. Barton Hills, $110,683. East Lansing (Home of Michigan State University).

Holland (Home of the Michigan Dutch). Frankenmuth (Michigan's Little Bavaria). Midland (headquarters for the Dow Chemical Company). Traverse City (the Cherry Capital of the World).

Marquette (Largest city in the Upper Peninsula with 19,661 people). Battle Creek (Cereal City U.S.A.). Livonia, population 100,545. Ann Arbor population 114,024 (the home of the University of Michigan).

Lansing population 119,128 (the state capital). Sterling Heights population 124,471. Flint population 124,943. Warren population 138,247.

Grand Rapids population 197,800 (The Furniture City). Detroit population 951,270 (also known as "Motor City" and Motown). Non-Religious – 9%. Other Religions – 4% (mostly Muslim and Jewish).

Other Christian – 1%. Roman Catholic – 29%. Protestant – 54%. 3.3% of the population is of Hispanic origin, a category that may include members of any race.

1.9% Mixed race. 0.6% American Indian. 1.8% Asian. 14.2% Black.

80.2% White. state taxes. Automobiles (General Motors, Ford, Daimler-Chrysler), Amway, Cereal (Kellogg's), Copper, Furniture (Steelcase, Herman Miller, Haworth), Iron. Major industries/products

    .

    The Bureau of Economic Analysis (http://www.bea.gov/) estimates that Michigan's total state product in 2003 was $365 billion. Per capital personal income in 2003 was $31,178, 20th in the nation. State income

      . Father Marquette National Memorial. Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore.

      Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. Keweenaw National Historical Park. Isle Royale National Park. the Upper Peninsula.

      the Lower Peninsula and. The power of initiative extends only to laws which the legislature may enact under this constitution.". Referendum and Voter Initiative: Michigan's constitution provides for voter initiative and referendum (Article II, § 9 [ [1] (http://www.michiganlegislature.org/mileg.asp?page=getObject&objName=mcl-Constitution-II-9&queryid=3791545&highlight=referendum)]), defined as "the power to propose laws and to enact and reject laws, called the initiative, and the power to approve or reject laws enacted by the legislature, called the referendum. state constitution.

      Michigan Constitutions of 1835, 1850, 1908, and 1963 (http://www.michigan.gov/som/0,1607,7-192-29938_30243-96757--,00.html). structure of state judicary. Michigan Senate. Michigan State House of Representatives.

      Michigan Legislature -- bicameral

        . Current: Jennifer Granholm. governor -- current, previous governors
          . Law/Government of state
            .

            Capital: Lansing. 1987 Michigan celebrated 150 years of statehood. Ford of Grand Rapids became the 38th President of the United States. 1974 Gerald R.

            The riot had lasting effects on the entire metro region and is usually cited as one of the reasons the Detroit area is among the most segregated areas in the United States. After 5 days of rioting, 43 people lay dead, 1189 injured and over 7000 people had been arrested. 1967 Race riots struck the city of Detroit. 1957 Five-mile long Mackinac Bridge opened November 1.

            1943 Riot broke out pitting whites against blacks during wartime. 1937 Flint Sit-Down Strike ended with official recognition of the United Auto Workers by General Motors. 1890s and 1900s Ford, Chrysler and General Motors were founded in southeastern Michigan. The structure cost $1,510,130.

            1879 New State Capitol dedicated in Lansing. 1847 A law was passed by the State Legislature to re-locate from Detroit the State Capital to a site "in the township of Lansing, in the county of Ingham.". 1846 Marji-Gesick, an Ojibwa Indian, pointed out a large deposit of iron ore to prospector Philo Everett near the present-day city of Negaunee. 1840 Douglass Houghton reported finding copper deposits on the Keweenaw Peninsula.

            1838 Patriot War. 1837 The Panic of 1837 was a severe setback to the nascent state bank and to several ambitious programs of public improvements, including the Clinton-Kalamazoo Canal. January 26, 1837 Michigan became the 26th US State. 1817, The University of Michigan is established in Detroit, the first public university in the state.

            1837 Admitted as a free state into the union (the 26th state), it was admitted concurrently with the slave state of Arkansas. As a resolution, Ohio received Toledo and the Toledo Strip but Michigan gained the western two-thirds of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. A minor conflict with Ohio over the city of Toledo, Ohio, known as the Toledo War, contributed to delaying Michigan's statehood. Mason inaugurated as the first Governor.

            Stevens T. 1835 First Constitutional Convention. 1828 Territorial Capitol built in Detroit at a cost of $24,500. The Council was expanded to thirteen members in 1825 and made an elected body in 1827.

            President who selected them from eighteen persons chosen by the people. 1823 Congress transferred legislative powers previously exercised by the Territorial Governor and Judges to a nine-member Legislative Council, appointed by the U.S. 1821 With the Treaty of Chicago, the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi ceded all the lands south of the Grand River to the United States. 1819 In the Treaty of Saginaw, the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi ceded more than six million acres, or 24,000 km² in the central portion of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan to the United States.

            1813 Lewis Cass became Territorial Governor. Detroit was destroyed by fire. 1805 Michigan Territory was created, with Detroit designated as the seat of government. William Hull appointed as governor. Wayne County was established as an administrative division of the Northwest Territory.

            1796 Detroit and other posts in Michigan were turned over to the United States under terms of the Jay Treaty. did not take control of the territory until 1796. The U.S. 1783 The area that is now Michigan is included with the territory ceded by Great Britain to the United States by the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War.

            1760s Chief Pontiac led a major revolt of the Ottawa tribe against the British. 1760 Detroit was captured by the British. 1701 Antoine de Lamothe Cadillac, with his lieutenant Alphonse de Tonty, established a trading post on the Detroit River which they name Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit; now the present site of Detroit. Marie, Michigan, the first European settlement in Michigan.

            1668 Père (Father) Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. 1622 Étienne Brûlé and his fellow explorers from Grenoble, France, were probably the first white men to see Lake Superior.

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