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Illinois

State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State
Other U.S. States
Capital Springfield
Largest city Chicago
Governor Rod Blagojevich
Official languages English
Area 149,998 km² (25th)
 - Land 143,968 km²
 - Water 6,030 km² (4.0%)
Population (2000)
 - Population 12,419,293 (5th)
 - Density 86.27 /km² (11th)
Admission into Union
 - Date December 3, 1818
 - Order 21st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Latitude 36°58'N to 42°30'N
Longitude 87°30'W to 91°30'W
Width 340 km
Length 629 km
Elevation
 - Highest 376 m
 - Mean 182 m
 - Lowest 85 m
Abbreviations
 - USPS IL
 - ISO 3166-2 US-IL
Web site www.illinois.gov

Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The U.S. postal abbreviation for the state is IL.

The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state.

History

Pre-Columbian

Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes.

European exploration

French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory.

The 1800s

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Early U.S. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago).

The Civil War

During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Government

The sample version of the current Illinois license plate introduced in 2001.

The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts.

Geography

See List of Illinois counties

It is in the north-central U.S. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan.

Illinois has three major geographical divisions. The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade.

Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago.

The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70.

McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Both figures are as of 2004.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state.

Economy

The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. The per capita income was $32,965.

Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal.

Demographics

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains.

Racially, the state is:

The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%).

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Religion

Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:

The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%).

Important cities and towns

Illinois, showing major cities and roads Chicago

See complete listing here...

Counties of Illinois

Education

Illinois State Board of Education

The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies.

There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate.

Primary and secondary schools

Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district.

See List of school districts in Illinois for a listing of all school districts, by county.
See List of high schools in Illinois for a partial list of high schools.

Colleges and universities

While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system.

List of colleges and universities

Professional sports teams

People

State symbols

The Cardinal is the state bird of Illinois
This page about Illinois includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Illinois
News stories about Illinois
External links for Illinois
Videos for Illinois
Wikis about Illinois
Discussion Groups about Illinois
Blogs about Illinois
Images of Illinois

Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system. So Harrison directed his Secretary of State James Blaine to shuffle the papers and obscure from him which he was signing first, and the priority went unrecorded. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. However, the rivalry between the northern and southern territories presented a dilemma: only one, upon the President's signature on the proclamation, could gain the distinction of being admitted before the other. While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. It was left to his successor Benjamin Harrison to sign proclamations formally admitting North and South Dakota to the Union on November 2, 1889. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. A bill for statehood for North and South Dakota (and Montana, and Washington) was passed on February 22, 1889 during the Administration of Grover Cleveland.

District territories are often complex in structure. The higher education system consists of the following institutions:. Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. The largest and oldest institution is the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate. There are 11 public colleges and universities, 5 tribal community colleges, and 4 private schools in the state. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. North Dakota boasts one of the healthiest higher education scenes in the nation.

However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. However, because the economic situation is no match for it, many skilled graduates leave the state. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. North Dakota's leaders frequently boast that the educational scene in the state is excellent. There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. It is the only state (along with Washington DC) whose population declined (by 1.3%) between April 1, 2000 and July 1, 2003; this decline has become a major political issue. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies. Between 1990 and 2000, the USA as a whole grew by 13.1%, yet North Dakota grew a mere 0.5%.

Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. Most of North Dakota's largest communities grew between 1990 and 2000. The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. The population trends in the state are noting a distinct shift from the rural areas to the larger cities. See complete listing here... By population, the ten largest urban centres in the state are:. The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%). See also: List of cities in North Dakota.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:. The religious affiliations of the people of North Dakota are:. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population. Many North Dakota politicians believe that better economic development programs will eventually resolve the issue, but opinions are mixed as to what exactly that would entail. Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Some federal politicians, including Byron Dorgan, have proposed a new "Homestead Act" to incentivize living in areas losing population through tax breaks and other considerations, but these have also made little headway. Females made up approximately 51% of the population. Student loan forgiveness programs for health and education professionals have been initiated with some degree of success, but a larger program to forgive the loans of all college graduates residing in the state for a given period of time failed to pass a referendum.

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. State leaders have been at a loss to address the issue. The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%). North Dakota has experienced a decline in population over the last 20 years, primarily among skilled college graduates for whom there are few jobs in the state. Racially, the state is:. Of the 50 US states, North Dakota currently ranks 47th in population, ahead of only Vermont, Alaska, and Wyoming. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains. Females made up approximately 50.1% of the population.

More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. 6.1% of North Dakota's population were reported as under 5, 25% under 18, and 14.7% were 65 or older. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. The 5 largest ancestry groups in North Dakota are: German (43.9%), Norwegian (30.1%), Irish (7.7%), American Indian (5%), Swedish (5%). Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. The racial makeup of the state is:. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2003, North Dakota's population was estimated at 633,837 people.

Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal. According to the U.S. Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Its deposits are not guaranteed by the FDIC, but by the State of North Dakota itself. The per capita income was $32,965. The bank, by law, holds all funds of all state and local government agencies in North Dakota. The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. North Dakota has the only state-owned bank in the United States, the Bank of North Dakota.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. Its small industrial output includes electric power, food processing, machinery, coal mining, and tourism. Both figures are as of 2004. The state's agricultural outputs include wheat, cattle, barley, flax, milk, soybeans, sunflowers, and sugar beets. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Per capital personal income in 2003 was $28,922, 32nd in the nation. McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that North Dakota's total state product in 2003 was $21 billion.

This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70. The U.S. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. The geographic center of the North American continent is located near Rugby. The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. Farms and ranches stretch across the rolling plains from the Red River Valley in the east to the rugged Badlands in the west. This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago. The Missouri River flows through the western part of the state, forming Lake Sakakawea behind the Garrison Dam.

Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). North Dakota is bordered on the north by the Canadian Provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, on the west by Montana, on the south by South Dakota, and on the east, across the Red River of the North, by Minnesota. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. See: List of North Dakota counties. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. See: List of North Dakota Governors, List of United States Senators from North Dakota. Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. The Supreme Court Justice is selected every 5 years by vote of the District and Supreme Court Judges.

While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade. Supreme Court Judges are elected to ten-year terms. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. District Judges are elected to six-year terms. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. Because of the expense of having each county hire a judge, and the fairly low workload, the state is divided into seven judicial districts which collectively elect judges to travel to the various courthouses and hear cases. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. Each of the 53 counties has a court, from which appeals are sent directly to the North Dakota Supreme Court.

The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. The structure of North Dakota's judiciary is not terribly complex. Illinois has three major geographical divisions. However, North Dakota does have some active third political parties. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan. The major political parties in North Dakota are the Republican Party and the Democratic-NPL Party. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. See also: North Dakota Legislative Assembly, North Dakota Senate, North Dakota House of Representatives.

It is in the north-central U.S. The legislature meets in an 80-day regular session in odd-numbered years, and in special session if summoned by the governor. See List of Illinois counties. The state elects two House Representatives and one Senator from each of 47 districts apportioned by population. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts. North Dakota has a bicameral legislature. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. Its congressman is Earl Pomeroy (Dem-NPL).

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. senators are Kent Conrad (Dem-NPL) and Byron Dorgan (Dem-NPL). As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. Its two current U.S. The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. The capital of North Dakota is Bismarck and its current governor is John Hoeven (Republican). Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments. Since then the state has been experiencing a period of economic and demographic decline, and population is down to around 640,000, about as many as lived in the state in 1920s.

Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. The 1980s saw an oil boom in the Williston basin, as skyrocketing petroleum prices made development profitable, driving state population to a peak near 800,000. During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. The 1950s brought a wave of federal construction projects, including Garrison Dam and the Minot and Grand Forks Air Force bases. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago). The original state capitol burned to the ground in the 1930s and was replaced by a concrete art deco skyscraper that still stands today. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. The Great Depression was rough on the state and came several years early with the 1920s farm crisis.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Early in the 20th century, a wave of populism led by the Non Partisan League brought social reforms. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois. The territorial and early state governments were largely corrupt. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. On 2 November 1889, North Dakota was admitted to the Union with South Dakota (see Trivia below). Early U.S. The state was settled sparsely until the late 1800s, when the railroads pushed through the state, and aggressively marketed the land.

state. However, the native tribes were in sufficient contact that by the time of Lewis and Clark, they were at least somewhat aware of the French, then Spanish claims to their territory. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. The trading arrangement between tribes was such that North Dakota tribes rarely dealt directly with Europeans. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. The French-Canadian trader La Vérendrye was the first documented non-Native American explorer of the area, leading a party to the Mandan villages about 1738. The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Dakotas made up the last arable region in the United States to be explored and settled.

The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory. full article: History of North Dakota. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The United States Navy vessels USS North Dakota and Flickertail State were named in honor of North Dakota. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. The entire state is covered by area code 701. French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. postal abbreviation is ND.

The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes. Its U.S. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. North Dakota is a state of the United States, named after the Dakota segment of the Sioux Native American Indians. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. Non-Religious – 3%. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. Non-Christian Religions – 1%.

That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. Other Christian – 1%. Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. Roman Catholic – 30%. The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state. Other Protestant — 10%. postal abbreviation for the state is IL. Baptist — 7%.

The U.S. Methodist — 8%. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. Lutheran — 39%. The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Protestant — 64%

    . The word Illiniwek means simply "the people". Christian — 96%
      .

      Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. 1.2% Mixed race. Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. 4.9% American Indian. State tree: White oak (Quercus alba). 0.6% Asian. State snack: Popcorn. 1.2% Hispanic.

      State song: "Illinois". 0.6% Black. State slogan: "Land of Lincoln". 91.7% White. State prairie grass: Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). State motto: "State sovereignty, national union".

      State mineral: Fluorite. State insect: Monarch butterfly. State fossil: Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium). State flower: Purple violet (Viola sororia).

      State fish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). State dance: Square dance. State capital: Springfield. State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis).

      State animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President, is buried in Springfield, Illinois. Ronald Reagan, the 40th President, was born in Tampico, Illinois. Non-Religious – 8%.

      Other Religions – 3%. Other Christian – 1%. Roman Catholic – 33%. Protestant – 51%.

      1.9% mixed race. 0.2% American Indian. 3.4% Asian. 12.3% Hispanic.

      15.1% Black. 67.8% White Non-Hispanic. The Junior United States Senator is Barack Obama (Democrat). Durbin (Democrat).

      The Senior United States Senator is Richard J. The Treasurer of Illinois is Judy Baar Topinka (Republican). The Secretary of State of Illinois is Jesse White (Democrat). The Lieutenant Governor of Illinois is Pat Quinn (Democrat).

      The Governor of Illinois is Rod Blagojevich (Democrat).

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