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Illinois

State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State
Other U.S. States
Capital Springfield
Largest city Chicago
Governor Rod Blagojevich
Official languages English
Area 149,998 km (25th)
 - Land 143,968 km
 - Water 6,030 km (4.0%)
Population (2000)
 - Population 12,419,293 (5th)
 - Density 86.27 /km (11th)
Admission into Union
 - Date December 3, 1818
 - Order 21st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Latitude 3658'N to 4230'N
Longitude 8730'W to 9130'W
Width 340 km
Length 629 km
Elevation
 - Highest 376 m
 - Mean 182 m
 - Lowest 85 m
Abbreviations
 - USPS IL
 - ISO 3166-2 US-IL
Web site www.illinois.gov

Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The U.S. postal abbreviation for the state is IL.

The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state.

History

Pre-Columbian

Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes.

European exploration

French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory.

The 1800s

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Early U.S. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago).

The Civil War

During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Government

The sample version of the current Illinois license plate introduced in 2001.

The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts.

Geography

See List of Illinois counties

It is in the north-central U.S. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan.

Illinois has three major geographical divisions. The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade.

Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago.

The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70.

McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Both figures are as of 2004.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state.

Economy

The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. The per capita income was $32,965.

Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal.

Demographics

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains.

Racially, the state is:

The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%).

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Religion

Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:

The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%).

Important cities and towns

Illinois, showing major cities and roads Chicago

See complete listing here...

Counties of Illinois

Education

Illinois State Board of Education

The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies.

There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate.

Primary and secondary schools

Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district.

See List of school districts in Illinois for a listing of all school districts, by county.
See List of high schools in Illinois for a partial list of high schools.

Colleges and universities

While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system.

List of colleges and universities

Professional sports teams

People

State symbols

The Cardinal is the state bird of Illinois
This page about Illinois includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Illinois
News stories about Illinois
External links for Illinois
Videos for Illinois
Wikis about Illinois
Discussion Groups about Illinois
Blogs about Illinois
Images of Illinois

Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system. Slavery and Louisiana. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. There is now a Six Flags in New Orleans East. While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. For almost 20 years there was only one amusement park in Louisiana, called Hamel's Amusement Park near Bossier City. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. They still maintain contacts with the Canary Islands, and have an annual "Caldo" festival named for a native dish.

District territories are often complex in structure. Many of their descendants remained insulated from the city, and continued to speak an archaic version of Spanish well into the 20th Century. Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. Bernard Parish, in the river passes east of the city, along an old mouth of the Mississippi River which they named Terre Aux Bouefs (literally "Land of the Cows" for the cattle living there). Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate. They settled in what is modern-day St. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. There were intended to help guard the eastern approaches to New Orleans from invasion by the British.

However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The Islenos are dirrect descendants of Canary Islanders forced to migrate by the Spanish King beginning in the mid-1770s. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. There is also a distinct Spanish-descended group in Louisiana. There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. Two separate historically Francophone communities exist in Louisiana. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies. For schools see List of school districts in Louisiana.

Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. Ranked by per capita income. The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. See also: List of famous people from Louisiana; List of Louisiana musicians; Music of Louisiana. See complete listing here... Its industrial outputs include chemical products, petroleum and coal products, food processing, transportation equipment, paper products, and tourism. The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%). The state's principal agricultural outputs include seafood, cotton, soybeans, cattle, sugarcane, poultry and eggs, dairy products, and rice.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:. Its Per Capita Personal Income was $26,312, 43rd in the nation. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population. The total gross state product in 2003 for Louisiana was $140 billion. Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Highway 90. Females made up approximately 51% of the population. Also, Interstate 49 is slated to be expanded north into Arkansas and east along Interstate 10 to New Orleans, replacing part of U.S.

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. There are proposed plans to extend Interstate 69 to the Texas/Mexico border, which will go through north-eastern Louisiana. The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%). State and Federal government efforts to halt or reverse this phenomenon are under way; others are being sought. Racially, the state is:. Owing to the extensive flood control measures along the Mississippi river and to natural subsidence, Louisiana is now suffering the loss of coastal land area. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains. Near the coast, there are many salt domes, where salt is mined and oil is often found.

More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. It was originally covered by an arm of the sea, and has been built up by the silt carried down the valley by the great river. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. A large part of Louisiana is the creation and product of the Mississippi River. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. The underlying strata of the state are of Cretaceous age and are covered by alluvial deposits of Tertiary and post-Tertiary origin. According to the U.S. The state also has 1,060 square miles of land-locked bays, 1,700 square miles of inland lakes, and a river surface of over 500 square miles.

Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal. Besides the navigable rivers already named (some of which are called bayous), there are the Sabine, forming the western boundary, and the Pearl, the eastern boundary, the Calcasieu, the Mermentau, the Vermilion, the Teche, the Atchafalaya, the Boeuf, the Lafourche, the Courtableau, the D'Arbonne, the Macon, the Tensas, the Amite, the Tchefuncta, the Tickfaw, the Matalbany, and a number of other streams of lesser note, constituting a natural system of navigable waterways, aggregating over 4,000 miles in length, which is unequalled in the United States and probably in the world. Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. The elevations above sea-level range from 10 feet at the coast and swamp lands to 50 and 60 feet at the prairie and alluvial lands. In the uplands and hills the elevations rise to Mount Driskoll, the highest point in the state at only 535 feet above sea level, located in northwest Louisiana. The per capita income was $32,965. The uplands and contiguous hill lands have an area of more than 25,000 square miles, and they consist of prairie and woodlands. The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. With the maintenances of strong levees these alluvial lands would enjoy perpetual immunity from inundation.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. These floods, however, do not occur annually, and they may be said to be exceptional. Both figures are as of 2004. These alluvial lands are never inundated save when breaks occur in the levees by which they are protected against the floods of the Mississippi and its tributaries. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. The lands along other streams present very similar features. McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. The Mississippi flows upon a ridge formed by its own deposits, from which the lands incline toward the low swamps beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile.

This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, and along the other streams it averages about 10 miles. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. The surface of the state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands, and the alluvial and coast and swamp regions. The alluvial regions, including the low swamps and coast lands, cover an area of about 20,000 square miles; they lie principally along the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 miles and ultimately emptying into the Gulf of Mexico, the Red River, the Ouachita River and its branches, and other minor streams. The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. See: List of Louisiana parishes. This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago. See: List of Louisiana Governors, Napoleon Bonaparte.

Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). All other states use the First Past the Post electoral system to elect Senators, Representatives, and statewide officials. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Therefore it is common for a Democrat to be in a runoff with a fellow Democrat or a Republican to be in a runoff with a fellow Republican. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. This runoff does not take into account party identification. Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. If no candidate has more than 50% of the vote, the two candidates with the highest vote total compete in a runoff election approximately one month later.

While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade. All candidates run in an open primary on Election Day, in which multiple candidates from the same party may be on the ballot. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. states in using a runoff in state, local, and congressional elections. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. Louisiana is unique among U.S. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. Property, contractual, and family law are still mostly based on traditional Roman legal thinking and have little in common with English law.

The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. While most of the differences are now found in verbiage, it is important to note that the "Civilian" tradition is still deeply rooted in all aspects of Louisiana law. Illinois has three major geographical divisions. Great differences still exist between Louisiana Civil Law and the Common Law found in her 49 sister states. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan. Louisiana was never governed by the Napoleonic Code. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. It is important to note that the Louisiana Civil Code and the French Civil Code, often referred to as the Napoleonic Code, came into existence at roughly the same time.

It is in the north-central U.S. Technically, it is known as "Civil Law," or the "Civilian System." It is often incorrectly referred to as the "Code Napoleon" or The Napoleonic Code. See List of Illinois counties. Louisiana is the only state whose legal system is based on Roman, Spanish, and French civil law as opposed to English common law. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts. Louisiana has seven U.S. Congressmen, five of which are Republicans, two of which are Democrats. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. senators are Mary Landrieu (Democrat) and David Vitter (Republican).

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Its governor is Kathleen Babineaux Blanco (Democrat) and its two U.S. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The capital of Louisiana is Baton Rouge. The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. throughout the rest of the war. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments. New Orleans was captured by Federal troops on April 25, 1862. As significant portions of the population had Union sympathies, the Federal government took the unusual step of recognizing the areas of Louisiana under Federal control as a state within the Union with elected representatives who were sent to the congress in Washington, D.C.

Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. In the American Civil War Louisiana seceded from the Union on January 26, 1861. During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Donaldsonville, Opelousas, and Shreveport have also briefly served as the seat of governments of Louisiana. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago). In 1849 the capital moved from New Orleans to Baton Rouge. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. There are still remnants of its former status as a possession of France, including: the use of a civil law legal system, based on the Louisiana Civil Code, which is similar to (and often confused with) the Napoleonic Code (like France, and unlike the rest of the United States, which uses a common law legal system derived from England), the term "parishes" being used to describe the state's sub-divisions as opposed to "counties", etc.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. The western boundary of Louisiana with Spanish Texas remained in dispute until the Adams-Ons Treaty in 1819, with the Sabine Free State serving as a neutral buffer zone as well as a haven for criminals. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois. The Florida Parishes were annexed from Spanish West Florida by proclamation of President James Madison in 1810. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. In 1803 the United States purchased the French province of Louisiana (see Louisiana Purchase) and divided it into two territories: the Orleans Territory (which became the state of Louisiana in 1812) and the District of Louisiana (which consisted of all the land not included in Orleans Territory). Early U.S. In 1800 France's Napoleon Bonaparte re-acquired Louisiana from Spain in the Treaty of San Ildefonso, although this was kept secret for some two years.

state. During the period of Spanish rule, several thousand French-speaking refugees from the region of Acadia made their way to Louisiana following British expulsion; settling largely in the southwestern bayous, they became known as the Cajuns. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. The rest of Louisiana became a colony of Spain by the Treaty of Fountainebleau of 1762. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. Most of the territory to the east of the Mississippi was lost to Great Britain in the French and Indian War, except for the area around New Orleans and the parishes around Lake Pontchartrain. The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. Initially Mobile, Alabama and Biloxi, Mississippi functioned as the capital of the colony; from 1722 on New Orleans fulfilled that role.

The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory. See also: French colonization of the Americas. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. Most of the settlement concentrated along the banks of the Mississippi and its major tributaries, with trading outposts and mission settlements in the Illinois Country, as far north as Peoria, Illinois and a number of settlements in the area around near present-day Saint Louis, Missouri. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. The French colony of Louisiana originally claimed a great region of land on both sides of the Mississippi River and north to Canada. French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. The first permanent settlement was founded by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville in 1699.

The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes. Louisiana was named by the French explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle in honour of Louis XIV in 1682. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. Thereafter the region was long neglected by the Spanish authorities, and the next explorers were French. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. Some 13 years later Hernando de Soto's expedition crossed through the region. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The first European explorers to visit what is now Louisiana was a Spanish expedition in 1528 led by Panfilo de Narvez which located the mouth of the Mississippi River.

That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. What follows is a partial list, using current parish boundaries as rough approximations of locations.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana#endnote_sturdevent-67). Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. The lasting mark of the Native Americans can be seen even today in the names used in Louisiana, such as Atchafalaya, Natchitouches (now spelled Natchitoches), Caddo, Houma, Tangipahoa, and Avoyel (Avoyelles Parish). The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state. Louisiana was long inhabited by Native American tribes before the arrival of Europeans. postal abbreviation for the state is IL. Today, English is by far the main language of everyday life, but traces of French survive in local dialects.

The U.S. While the state has no declared "official language", its law recognizes both English and French. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. Among the states, Louisiana has a unique culture, owing to its French colonial heritage. The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. The state is bordered to the west by the state of Texas, to the north by Arkansas, to the east by the state of Mississippi, and to the south by the Gulf of Mexico. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people". postal abbreviation LA.

Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. It uses the U.S. Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Louisiana (pronounced /luːˌiːzɪˈnə/ or /ˌluːzɪˈnə/) (French: Louisiane, pronounced /lwizjan/) is a Southern state of the United States of America. State tree: White oak (Quercus alba). ^ Sturdevent, William C. (1967): Early Indian Tribes, Cultures, and Linguistic Stocks (http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/united_states/early_indian_east.jpg), Smithsonian Institution Map (Eastern United States). State snack: Popcorn. Many of the freed slaves in Louisiana in turn purchased their own slaves, which led to the state having one of the largest numbers of slave owning blacks in America, if not the largest.

State song: "Illinois". While one would think that this would lead to a dramatic reduction in the amount of slavery in the state, this is not the case. State slogan: "Land of Lincoln". It did, however, have one of the largest free black populations in the United States. State prairie grass: Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). Louisiana was a slave state. State motto: "State sovereignty, national union". Most Acadians declined and emigrated from Canada, most of them fleeing to the South Western portion of Louisiana, centered in the region around Lafayette.

State mineral: Fluorite. When the British won the French and Indian War, the British forced all of the citizens to take a pledge of allegiance. State insect: Monarch butterfly. The ancestors of the Cajuns are the Acadians, a French-descended people of what are now New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. State fossil: Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium). The ancestors of Creoles generally came to Louisiana directly from France or from the French colonies in the Caribbean and settled in New Orleans or in South Eastern Louisiana. State flower: Purple violet (Viola sororia). State songs: You Are My Sunshine, Every Man a King, and Give Me Louisiana.

State fish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). State food: Gumbo. State dance: Square dance. State amphibian: Green Tree Frog. State capital: Springfield. State crustacean : Crawfish. State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). State insect: Honeybee.

State animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). State reptile : American Alligator. Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President, is buried in Springfield, Illinois. State wildflower : Louisiana Iris. Ronald Reagan, the 40th President, was born in Tampico, Illinois. State mammal : Louisiana Black Bear. Non-Religious – 8%. State tree : Bald Cypress.

Other Religions – 3%. State fossil : Petrified palmwood. Other Christian – 1%. State flower : Magnolia. Roman Catholic – 33%. State bird : Eastern Brown Pelican. Protestant – 51%. State dog : Catahoula Leopard Dog.

1.9% mixed race. Bossier-Shreveport Mudbugs - CHL. 0.2% American Indian. Louisiana IceGators - ECHL. 3.4% Asian. New Orleans Brass (1997 - 2003) - ECHL. 12.3% Hispanic. Minor League Hockey

    .

    15.1% Black. The Charlotte Hornets moved to New Orleans in 2002 - Now known as The New Orleans Hornets. 67.8% White Non-Hispanic. New Orleans Jazz (1974) team moved to Salt Lake City and became the Utah Jazz in 1979. The Junior United States Senator is Barack Obama (Democrat). National Basketball Association:

      . Durbin (Democrat). New Orleans Creoles (Negro League) (dates?).

      The Senior United States Senator is Richard J. New Orleans Pelicans (1887-1959). The Treasurer of Illinois is Judy Baar Topinka (Republican). Houma Hawks. The Secretary of State of Illinois is Jesse White (Democrat). Baton Rouge River Bats. The Lieutenant Governor of Illinois is Pat Quinn (Democrat). Alexandria Aces.

      The Governor of Illinois is Rod Blagojevich (Democrat). Shreveport Sports. New Orleans Zephyrs. Minor League baseball teams

        . Slidell Steelsharks - SAFL.

        Central Louisiana Warriors - SAFL. Louisiana (Houma) Blazing Bulldogs - SAFL. Hammond Headhunters - SAFL. Greater New Orleans Gladiators - SAFL.

        Shreveport Steamers - SAFL. Ruston Rage - SAFL. Lafayette Bayou Bulls - SAFL. Minden RoughRiders - SAFL.

        Lake Charles RiverKats - SAFL. Baton Rouge Riverboat Bandits - SAFL. Semi-Pro football Teams

          . Bossier City Battle Wings - AF2.

          Southwest Louisiana (Lake Charles) Swashbucklers - IPFL. Louisiana Bayou Beast - IPFL. Shreveport Bombers - IPFL. New Orleans Spice - NWFL.

          Other football leagues

            . New Orleans VooDoo. Arena Football League
              . New Orleans Saints.

              National Football League

                . Mandeville: $26,420. Prien: $26,537. River Ridge: $27,088.

                Westminster: $28,087. Shenandoah: $29,722. Gilliam: $30,264. Eden Isle: $31,798.

                Elmwood: $34,329. Oak Hills Place: $34,944. Mound: $92,200 (population 12, as of the 2000 census). Interstate 59.

                Interstate 55. Interstate 49. Interstate 20. Interstate 12.

                Interstate 10. The remainder of current day central and north Louisiana was home to a substantial portion of the Caddo nation. The northeastern parishes of Tensas, Madison, and East and West Carroll were occupied by the Tunica tribe. Portions of Avoyelles and Concordia parishes along the Mississippi River were home to the Avoyel, part of the Natchez nation.

                The Houma tribe, was found in East and West Feliciana, and Pointe Coupee parishes; Ironically about 100 miles north of current location of the town named after them. Tammany. Helena, Tangipahoa, Washington, East and West Baton Rouge, Livingston, and St. The Bayougoula, part of the Choctaw nation, were found in points directly north of the Chitimachas, in the parishes of St.

                Bernard, and Plaquemines. Charles, Jefferson, Orleans, St. John the Baptist, St.Bo St. James, St.

                Martin, Terrebone, LaFourche, St. The Chitimachas occupied the southeastern parishes of Iberia, Assumption, St Mary, Lower St. The Atakapa were found in southwestern Louisiana in the parishes of Vermilion, Cameron, Lafayette, Acadia, Jefferson Davis, and Calcasieu.

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