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Illinois

State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State
Other U.S. States
Capital Springfield
Largest city Chicago
Governor Rod Blagojevich
Official languages English
Area 149,998 km (25th)
 - Land 143,968 km
 - Water 6,030 km (4.0%)
Population (2000)
 - Population 12,419,293 (5th)
 - Density 86.27 /km (11th)
Admission into Union
 - Date December 3, 1818
 - Order 21st
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Latitude 3658'N to 4230'N
Longitude 8730'W to 9130'W
Width 340 km
Length 629 km
Elevation
 - Highest 376 m
 - Mean 182 m
 - Lowest 85 m
Abbreviations
 - USPS IL
 - ISO 3166-2 US-IL
Web site www.illinois.gov

Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people".

The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. The U.S. postal abbreviation for the state is IL.

The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state.

History

Pre-Columbian

Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes.

European exploration

French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory.

The 1800s

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Early U.S. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago).

The Civil War

During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Government

The sample version of the current Illinois license plate introduced in 2001.

The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts.

Geography

See List of Illinois counties

It is in the north-central U.S. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan.

Illinois has three major geographical divisions. The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade.

Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago.

The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70.

McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Both figures are as of 2004.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state.

Economy

The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. The per capita income was $32,965.

Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal.

Demographics

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains.

Racially, the state is:

The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%).

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Religion

Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:

The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%).

Important cities and towns

Illinois, showing major cities and roads Chicago

See complete listing here...

Counties of Illinois

Education

Illinois State Board of Education

The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies.

There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate.

Primary and secondary schools

Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district.

See List of school districts in Illinois for a listing of all school districts, by county.
See List of high schools in Illinois for a partial list of high schools.

Colleges and universities

While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system.

List of colleges and universities

Professional sports teams

People

State symbols

The Cardinal is the state bird of Illinois
This page about Illinois includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Illinois
News stories about Illinois
External links for Illinois
Videos for Illinois
Wikis about Illinois
Discussion Groups about Illinois
Blogs about Illinois
Images of Illinois

Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois community college system. The 1982 event, also known as Cold Sunday, featured temperatures as low as -40F (-40C) in some of the suburbs as little as 10 miles (16km) to the north of Milwaukee, although the city itself did not approach such cold temperatures. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, University of Chicago and the several branches of the University of Illinois. The coldest temperature ever experienced by the city was -26F (-32C) on both January 17, 1982 and February 4, 1996. While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Milwaukee's all-time record high temperature is 105F (41C) set on July 17, 1995. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. Also, the relative humidity in the summer is far higher than that of comparable cities at the same latitude, meaning that it feels hotter than it really is.

District territories are often complex in structure. Milwaukee's proximity to Lake Michigan causes a convection current to form mid-afternoon, resulting in the so-called lake effect, causing the temperatures to be warmer in the winter, and cooler in the summer ("cooler by the lake" is practically boilerplate language for local meteorologists during the summer). Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. Out of the total population, 31.6% of those under the age of 18 and 11.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Opponents to the proposal argue that local communities would lose control over what their children would learn in public schools and the means by which those public schools operate. 21.3% of the population and 17.4% of families are below the poverty line. The structure would mimic the system employed by the Hawaii State Department of Education, which has no local school districts. The per capita income for the city is $16,181.

However, direct control of the new department would fall under the state governor's jurisdiction. Males have a median income of $32,244 versus $26,013 for females. In 2002, the Office of the Governor proposed the creation of a monolithic statewide department of education to replace the ISBE. The median income for a household in the city is $32,216, and the median income for a family is $37,879. There is current debate as to the role of the ISBE and whether or not its autonomous relationship with the governor and the state legislature is appropriate. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.2 males. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies. For every 100 females there are 91.6 males.

Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with an annual school report card. The median age is 31 years. The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. In the city the population is spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who are 65 years of age or older. See complete listing here... The average household size is 2.50 and the average family size is 3.25. The three largest Protestant denominations in Illinois are: Baptist (15% of total state population), Lutheran (8%), Methodist (8%). 33.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older.

The religious affiliations of the people of Illinois are:. There are 232,188 households out of which 30.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% are married couples living together, 21.1% have a female householder with no husband present, and 41.8% are non-families. Roman Catholics (who are predominant in and around Chicago) account for one-third of the population. 12.00% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. Unlike the other Midwestern states, Illinois is not overwhelmingly Protestant--only about half of the people profess that faith. The racial makeup of the city is 49.98% White, 37.34% African American, 0.87% Native American, 2.94% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.10% from other races, and 2.71% from two or more races. Females made up approximately 51% of the population. There are 249,225 housing units at an average density of 1,001.7/km (2,594.4 per square mile).

7.1% of Illinois' population were reported as under 5, 26.1% under 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. The population density is 2,399.5/km (6,214.3 per square mile). The top 5 ancestry groups in Illinois are German (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish (12.2%), Mexican (9.2%), Polish (7.5%). As of the census2 of 2000, there are 596,974 people, 232,188 households, and 135,133 families residing in the city. Racially, the state is:. Other large population groups include Polish (12.7%), Irish (10%), English (5.1%), Italian (4.4%), French (3.9%), and Hispanic origin totaled 6.3%. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and on the farms that dot the state's gently rolling plains. In the 2000 census, over a third (38 percent) of Milwaukeeans reported that they were of German descent.

More than half of the population of Illinois lives in and around Chicago, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region. The total area is 0.88% water. At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. 248.8 km (96.1 square miles) of it is land and 2.2 km (0.9 mi) of it is water. Census Bureau, as of 2003, the population of Illinois was 12,653,544. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 251.0 km (96.9 square miles). According to the U.S. It is crossed by Interstate 43 and Interstate 94, which come together downtown at the Marquette Interchange.

Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal. Milwaukee lies along the shores of Lake Michigan near the meeting points of three rivers: the Menomonee, the Kinnickinnic and the Milwaukee. Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products and wheat. Milwaukee's downtown area is about 90 miles north of the Chicago Loop. The per capita income was $32,965. Smaller festivals througout the year celebrate the city's German, Native American, African-American, Italian, Irish, Asian, French and Polish heritage. The 2003 total gross state product for Illinois was $499 billion, placing it 5th in the nation. Listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest music festival in the world, Summerfest attracts around 900,000 visitors a year to its twelve stages.

In extreme northwestern Illinois the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore comparatively higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. Milwaukee has advertised itself as the "City of Festivals," especially emphasizing an annual fair along the lakefront called Summerfest. Both figures are as of 2004. It is also home to a number of professional sports teams including:. while Cook County is the largest county in terms of population, at 5,327,777. Milwaukee is home to the Florentine Opera, the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, the Milwaukee Ballet, Milwaukee Repertory Theatre, Skylight Opera Theatre, and a number of other arts organizations. McLean County, is the largest county in terms of land area, at 1,184 sq mi. The Milwaukee Public Museum and Milwaukee County Zoo are also notable public attractions.

This division comprises the area generally along and south of Interstate 70. The museum includes a "brise soleil," a moving sunscreen that quite literally unfolds like the wing of a bird. The combination of coal mining and industrialization, especially in the region around Saint Louis, Missouri, has caused the region to lean Democratic politically. Milwaukee's most visually prominent cultural attraction is the Milwaukee Art Museum, and especially its new $100 million wing designed by Santiago Calatrava in his first American commission. The third division is Southern Illinois, or Little Egypt, distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged unglaciated topography, coal mining, and proximity to the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. Milwaukee also has a large number of financial service firms, particularly those specializing in mutual funds, and a disproportionate number of publishing and printing companies. This region's largely rural character helps to sustain a heavily Republican voting pattern and widespread antipathy toward Chicago. Among these are Briggs & Stratton, Harley-Davidson, Johnson Controls, Manpower Inc., Marshall & Ilsley, Northwestern Mutual, Rockwell Automation, Roundy's and Wisconsin Energy.

Major cities include famously average Peoria, Springfield (the state capital), and Champaign-Urbana (home of the University of Illinois). Milwaukee is headquarters to six Fortune 1000 manufacturers and six Fortune 1000 service companies. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, figures prominently. Milwaukee's reputation as a blue collar town is more accurate, however, with 22 percent of the workforce involved in manufacturing -- second only to San Jose, CA and far higher than the national average of 16.5%. Service and managerial jobs are the fastest growing segments of the Milwaukee economy, and healthcare makes up 27% of all service jobs in the city. Known as the Land of Lincoln, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Although most people associate Milwaukee's reputation with its breweries, today companies like Miller Brewing employ less than one percent of the city's workers. Southward and westward, the second major division is Central Illinois, an area of rolling hills and flat prairie. The liberal tradition of these peoples led to decades of socialist government in Milwaukee during the twentieth century.

While this tendency has historically been balanced by Republican voters in the suburbs, Democrats have significantly increased their suburban support in the past decade. A replica of his tiny log cabin is in the same park.) German immigrants helped increase the city's population during the 1840s and the following decades. Milwaukee still today has a large German-American population. The city of Chicago is heavily Democratic. Juneau's statue gazes upon the buildings of downtown Milwaukee, with its back to Lake Michigan. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. (His statue is part of the montage at the right - the frontiersman with the rifle, in the center of the montage. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and streches across much of the Northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along and north of Interstate 80. Juneau was Milwaukee's first mayor.

The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. In 1846, Juneau's town combined with neighboring rival towns (Kilbourn Town and Walker's Point) to incorporate the city of Milwaukee. Illinois has three major geographical divisions. In 1818, Frenchman Solomon Juneau settled in the area. Juneau bought out his father-in-law's trading business, and in 1833 he founded a town on the east side of the Milwaukee River. Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan. French missionaries and traders passed through the area in the late 1600s and 1700s. and borders on Lake Michigan. Surrounding states are Wisconsin to the north, Iowa and Missouri to the west, Kentucky to the south, and Indiana to the east. Milwaukee received its name from the Indian word Millioke which is thought to have meant "The Good Land", or "gathering place by the water".

It is in the north-central U.S. The Milwaukee area was originally inhabited by the Fox, Mascouten, Potawatomi, and Winnebago Indian tribes. See List of Illinois counties. The city is located in the southeastern portion of the state on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The judiciary is comprised of the state supreme court, which oversees the lower appelate courts and circuit courts. The city of Milwaukee is the 19th largest city in the United States. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, comprised of the 118-member Illinois State House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois State Senate. The city's population is 596,974 with an estimated total of 1,709,926 in the Milwaukee metropolitan area (2004).

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin, United States and the county of Milwaukee. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. Leroy Chiao — astronaut, Commander and Science Officer for International Space Station Expedition 10 in orbit as of October 16, 2004 for a 6-month mission. The state government of Illinois is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. [2] (http://www.jsonline.com/news/Metro/nov03/184367.asp). Seventeen cavalry regiments were also mustered, as well as two light artillery regiments. Lloyd and Jane Pettit —Well known philanthropists of Bradley family fortune, who gifted the Bradley Center and Pettit National Ice Center.

Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments (see Illinois in the Civil War), which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Golda Meir—prime minister of Israel. During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Jack Kilby—Nobel laureate, co-inventor of the integrated circuit. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city (see History of Chicago). Herbert Simon—Nobel laureate for advances in artificial intelligence (AI): the influence of Milwaukee even showed up in his professional work; as the inventor of bounded rationality, Simon showed that people work only as much as needed, and then adjust their priorities to other, perhaps more enjoyable things, an attitude which is very common in a city dedicated to gemuetlich pursuits and beer. Chicago gained prominence as a canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. West Town.

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent his formative years. West End. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois. Still poor and black, but more stable. settlement began in the south part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. Washington Park: Area bordering the dangerous and poverty-striken Metcalfe Park. Early U.S. Washington Heights.

state. Almost all black. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. Mixture of extreme poverty to stately homes from block to block. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809. Walnut Hill: Another inner-city neighborhood on the north side, near center street and Teutonia. The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. Famous mexican restaurants such La Perla, Conjahitos, and La Fuenta line S 5th street, a vibrant hub for college kids and mexican locals alike.

The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory. This is the beginning, geographically, of Milwaukee's vast southside hispanic community. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British. Further south, along national and mineral streets, the neighborhood becomes an ecclectic mix of art galleries, mexican restaurants and nightclubs. and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. The underbelly of Milwaukee's gay scene, seedy gay bars and strip joints line South 1st street and Florida street south of the river. French explorers Jacques Marquette,S.J. Just south of this area, is a somewhat abandoned area that is the heart of Milwaukee's gay community outside of the east side.

The Ilini were replaced in Illinois by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes. This area of the city has incredible potential to be the next third ward. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The northern part of the neighborhood, near 2nd and the river, is a desolate wasteland of old warehouses with charming old-style ads painted on the buildings. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. It lies just south of the third ward, and is less expensive than its northern counterpart. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, a political alliance among several tribes. Walker's Point: A vibrant mix of yuppie, gay, artist and Mexican immigrants.

That civilization vanished circa 1400-1500 for unknown reasons. 5-6 story brick buildings are the average height in this neighborhood on all streets, giving it a very cosmpolitain and "big city" feel. Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. As Milwaukee's warehouse district, it often is said to resemble SoHo in New York in some areas. The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state. Third Ward: A haven for yuppies, the third ward has become increasingly high rent. postal abbreviation for the state is IL. Story Hill.

The U.S. Now, it is a stable, middle class area with beautiful, lavishly built homes. Most of the state's population resides in Chicago and its suburbs. Sherman Park: A middle class black area that used to be the heart of Milwaukee's Jewish population on the north side. The capital of Illinois is Springfield while its largest city is Chicago, along the waterfront of Lake Michigan. As the name implies, it lies just west of the river from the east side, it's more expensive and exclusive "cool" counterpart. The word Illiniwek means simply "the people". In a city known for it's segregation, Riverwest defies that logic by having a demographic make up of 1/3 white, 1/3 black and 1/3 other, mostly hispanic, asian and Iranian.

Its name was given by the state's French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquin tribes that thrived in the area. Riverwest Hyperlinked Neighborhood Map (http://riverwest.iqee.com): The punk-rock/artist neighborhood in Milwaukee, it is also easily the most racially diverse. Illinois (pronounced [ˌɪləˈnɔɪ] or occasionally [ˌɪləˈnɔɪz]) constitutes the 21st state of the United States, located in the former Northwest Territory. Piggsville. State tree: White oak (Quercus alba). It is the heart of the Milwaukee ghetto, and a very dangerous area. State snack: Popcorn. Now, an eight block area remains desolate, with no buildings or trees, and weeds growing in the streets. The area surrouding this area is extremely dangerous, and is often nicknamed "Little Beruit." Many people have been "mob-beaten" in this area, and some killed, sometimes by children.

State song: "Illinois". Much of the interior section of the neighborhood has been completely wiped out, buildings that were demoished for a freeway that was to be built in the area but never was. State slogan: "Land of Lincoln". it is small, only covering about a 40 block area, bounded by North Aveneue on the north and Walnut on the south, 18th street on the east and 25th on the west. State prairie grass: Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). Metcalfe Park: Usually the considered the most dangerous area of Milwaukee. State motto: "State sovereignty, national union". Martin Drive.

State mineral: Fluorite. Layton Park. State insect: Monarch butterfly. Town of Lake. State fossil: Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium). Jacobus Park. State flower: Purple violet (Viola sororia). The mexican population is increasing in this neighborhood from the neighborhoods to the east.

State fish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Mostly two-story wood frame houses, constructed in the early 20th century, line the streets. Jackson park is lower-middle class, mostly white and known for it's larger population of aging blue collar workers. State dance: Square dance. Jackson Park is located the neighborhood is located around the park itself. State capital: Springfield. Jackson Park: Neighborhood on the south side about 6 miles south of downtown. State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Hillside/Lapham Park.

State animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Havenswoods. Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President, is buried in Springfield, Illinois. Granville: Far Northwest neighborhood, well away from urban life but becoming very poor and dangerous. Ronald Reagan, the 40th President, was born in Tampico, Illinois. East Village. Non-Religious – 8%. Eastown.

Other Religions – 3%. The mix of people is almost as impressive: hipsters, old-money, blacks, white-trash, average-joes, Italians and Jews all inhabit this area. Other Christian – 1%. The streets and buildings in this neighborhood range from towering, expensive high rises along the lake to brownstones and walkups a few blocks inland to cheap duplexes near the river. Roman Catholic – 33%. This would include brady street, the UWM campus, the lakefront, the marina. Protestant – 51%. East Side: One of the most diverse and interesting neighborhood in Milwaukee, the east side is a broad area that basically refers to anything east of the river, north of downtown and south of shorewood.

1.9% mixed race. Concordia. 0.2% American Indian. Capitol West. 3.4% Asian. Brewers Hill Neighborhood Group (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/brewershill/): Quiet, tree-lined upper middle class area near Miller Park, next to a poor, high-crime black area. 12.3% Hispanic. Filled with coffee houses, clubs, trendy restaurants, vintage clothing and thrift stores and of course, a Walgreens, this 1/2 mile street provides enough entertainment to keep even a Chicago scenester happy.

15.1% Black. Brady Street: The original hipster neighborhood in Milwaukee. 67.8% White Non-Hispanic. Located about 3 miles south of downtown on the lake. The Junior United States Senator is Barack Obama (Democrat). Bay View [1] (http://www.gobayview.com)Known for it's cheap rent, stunning views of the skyline and lake and heavy concentration of hipsters and music. Durbin (Democrat). Shepherd Express.

The Senior United States Senator is Richard J. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. The Treasurer of Illinois is Judy Baar Topinka (Republican). Wisconsin Lutheran College. The Secretary of State of Illinois is Jesse White (Democrat). University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. The Lieutenant Governor of Illinois is Pat Quinn (Democrat). Mount Mary College.

The Governor of Illinois is Rod Blagojevich (Democrat). Milwaukee School of Engineering. Milwaukee Institute of Art and Design. Milwaukee Area Technical College. Medical College of Wisconsin.

Marquette University. Cardinal Stritch University. Alverno College. Timmerman Airport.

Lawrence J. General Mitchell International Airport. Average July high/low temperatures: 79F/62F (26C/17C). Average January high/low temperatures: 26F/11F (-3C/-12C).

Milwaukee Wave United (Outdoor Soccer) (Note: the Wave United will not play in 2005, might play in 2006). Cellular Arena. Milwaukee Wave (Indoor Soccer) playing at the U.S. Milwaukee Admirals (Ice hockey) playing at the Bradley Center.

Milwaukee Bucks (Basketball—NBA) playing at the Bradley Center. Milwaukee Brewers (Baseball—MLB) playing at the new Miller Park.

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