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Hollister can refer to:. However, since the handover in 1997, they were no longer allowed to join the PLA. Hollister Ranch Realty, Hollister Ranch sales. Under British rule, ethnic Chinese Hongkongers were allowed to join the British defence forces. Hollister Incorporated, a medical device company. The garrison subsequently opened the barracks on Stonecutters Island and Chek Chu to the public to promote understanding and trust between the troops and residents. Hollister Ranch, a ranch north of Santa Barbara, California, USA. The Hong Kong Garrison, composed of ground, naval, and air forces, is under the command of the Chinese Central Military Commission.
Hollister Co., a clothing company. According the Basic Law, military forces stationed in Hong Kong shall not interfere with local affairs; Hong Kong government shall remain responsible for the maintenance of public order. Hollister, California, a place in the United States. Although the garrison has no military significance, the stationing of the PLA troops in the region is a significant symbol of the PRC government's resumption of sovereignty over Hong Kong. The PRC Central People's Government (CPG) assumed sovereignty over Hong Kong on 1 July 1997 and stationed a garrison of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) to manage its defence affairs. Recent opening of Sunny Bay Station of the MTR allows easy access to the Disneyland Resort.
The Airport Express zooms passengers to Central on Hong Kong Island in just 23 minutes. Access to the airport includes 'Airport Express', 'CityFlyers' and 'Airbuses', These services connect the airport to the rest of Hong Kong. Hong Kong International Airport serves more than 36 million passengers in the year 2004. Additionally, both Hong Kong International Airport and Cathay Pacific Airways have been voted best in the world, in the airport and airline criteria respectively, by Skytrax from 2001 to 2005.
After dreadful delays in the cargo systems in the first few months, the airport now serves as a transport hub for Southeast Asia, and as the hub for Cathay Pacific Airways, Dragonair, Air Hong Kong and Hong Kong Express. This replaced the famous airport of the same name at Kai Tak in 1998. Hong Kong has one active international airport, known as Hong Kong International Airport located at Chek Lap Kok. Additionally, 78 "kai-to" ferries are licensed to serve remote coastal settlements.
The two routes operated by the Star Ferry, operating for over 100 years, are franchised. Most ferry services are provided by licensed ferry operators, which serve outlying islands, new towns, and inner-Victoria Harbour. 99% of taxis in Hong Kong run on liquefied petroleum gas, the rest are still diesel operated. Taxis are also widely used throughout Hong Kong.
Public light buses run the length and breadth of Hong Kong, through areas where standard bus lines cannot reach or do not reach as frequently, quickly, or directly. Most normal franchised bus routes in Hong Kong operate until 1am in the morning. However, single-decker buses remain in use for routes with lower demand or roads with lower carrying capacity and are used exclusively in South Lantau. They are now used almost exclusively in Hong Kong just as in Dublin, London and Singapore.
Double-decker buses were introduced to Hong Kong in 1949. Five separate companies operate franchised public bus services in Hong Kong. The tramway system covers the northern parts of Hong Kong Island and is the only tram system in the world run exclusively with double deckers. The two metro systems for the city are the MTR and KCR (KCR also operates a light rail system in northwest New Territories), which are operated by the MTR Corporation Limited and the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation respectively.
Hong Kong has several different modes of public rail transport. In Central and Western district there is an extensive system of escalators and moving sidewalks, including the longest outdoor covered elevator system in the world, the Mid-levels Escalator. Hong Kong Island is dominated by steep, hilly terrain, which required the development of unusual methods of transport up and down the slopes. All parking meters in Hong Kong only accept payment by Octopus card, and Octopus card payment can be made at various carparks.
The Octopus card stored value smart card payment system can be used to pay for fares on almost all railways, buses and ferries in Hong Kong. Hong Kong has a highly developed and sophisticated transport network, encompassing both public and private transport. One of the largest construction projects in Hong Kong and the world was the new Hong Kong International Airport on Chek Lap Kok near Lantau, a huge land reclamation project linked to the centre of Hong Kong by the Lantau Link, which features three new major bridges: the world's sixth largest suspension bridge, Tsing Ma, the world's longest cable-stayed bridge carrying both road and railway traffic, Kap Shui Mun, and the world's first major 4-span cable-stayed bridge, Ting Kau. It was built on the site of Hong Kong's first skyscraper, which was finished in 1935 and was the subject of a bitter heritage conservation struggle in the late 1970s.
This building is featured on many of Hong Kong's banknotes. Predating the Bank of China Tower, another well-known structure is the HSBC Headquarters Building, finished in 1985. The building attracted heated controversy from the start, as its sharp angles were said to cast negative feng shui energy into the heart of Hong Kong. Hong Kong's best-known building is arguably Ieoh Ming Pei's Bank of China Tower, completed in 1990 and now Hong Kong's third tallest skyscraper.
In Kowloon, which once included the anarchistic settlement called the Kowloon Walled City, strict height restrictions were in force until Kai Tak Airport closed in 1998, but these restrictions have now been lifted, and several new skyscrapers in Kowloon are being planned. The tall business buildings of Central comprise the skyline along the coast of the Victoria Harbour, which is one of Hong Kong's famous tourist attractions. Instead the city has become a centre for modern architecture, especially in and around Central. Due to the creative destruction so endemic to Hong Kong over the past 50 years, few historical buildings remain in Hong Kong.
Although freedom of religion remains true in Hong Kong, it remains a volatile issue for many, as any threat will have lasting implications for the perceived freedoms in Hong Kong. A significant issue in the normalisation of ties between the PRC and the Vatican is Beijing's insistence that the Vatican drops its diplomatic ties with the ROC. Similarly, the Catholic Church is free to appoint its own bishops in Hong Kong, unlike on mainland China, where the only approved 'Catholic' institution is the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association, which bishops and priests are appointed by Beijing (though there is also an unofficial and illegal part of the Catholic church that maintains contact with the Vatican). So far, this has proved mostly unfounded - despite the banning of the Falun Gong movement by Beijing in 1999, adherents are still free to practice in Hong Kong.
With the transfer of Hong Kong to the PRC, there was significant concerns over religious freedom in Hong Kong. Gifts of food, and in particular fruit, are presented, and incense and paper offerings are burnt in respect. Hong Kongers, especially elder generations, go to Taoist or Buddhist temples to appease the deities and, usually, to ask for compassion or good fortune. Hung Shing, another protector of seafarers, has also been honoured for centuries.
Tin Hau, the protector of seafarers, has been honoured with several temples throughout Hong Kong for at least 300 years. Hong Kong's religious beliefs are tied to the region's early role as a fishing community. Apart from offering religious instructions, many major religious bodies have established schools and provided social welfare facilities. There are also estimated 70,000 Muslims, between 2,000 and 3,000 Jews, and a few Hindus; Sikhs and Bahá'ís are also represented.
There are also followers of Buddism or Taoism. A sizable Christian community of around 500,000 exists, forming about 10% of the total population; roughly equally divided between Catholics and Protestants. The majority of Hong Kong's population practices ancestor worship due to the strong Confucian influence. Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of religious freedom, a right enshrined and protected through its constitutional document, the Basic Law.
The world famous Hong Kong International Dragonboat Festival, now known as the Circus Capital Stanley Dragon Boat Championships, is a celebration of community that is televised globally. The people of Hong Kong take their food seriously and many top chefs make their way to the city to show off their talents to these discriminating diners. Ethnic dishes served in cha chaan teng and dai pai dong are also popular. While different varieties of Chinese selections, especially seafood, are most popular, there also many European, American, Japanese, Korean, and other restaurants.
The city's cosmopolitan flavour can also be seen in the wide variety of cuisines available. Shopping, a form of entertainment for the people of Hong Kong, is even done at nightime as evident in the Temple Street Night Market. There is also a promenade along the Tsim Sha Tsui waterfront, which is popular among young Chinese couples. For a more quiet evening, a trip to Victoria Peak offers a spectacular view of the city.
Both areas are frequented by expats and locals alike. Hong Kong has an active nightlife centred around two major entertainment districts, Lan Kwai Fong (Central) and Wanchai. The largest concentration of these shops is along Bonham Strand and Bonham Strand West in Sheung Wan, where all types of pills, plants, and dried animals are for sale. Every district in Hong Kong has old-fashioned stores that sell Chinese herbal medicine.
Malls, department stores, and designer boutiques offer an amazing contrast to the bustling open-air Stanley Market and Jade Market shopping areas. A popular destination for shoppers from around the world, Hong Kong has everything to offer from the latest European fashion to traditional Chinese wares. This is reflected in all aspects of the culture, but especially in its shopping, nightlife, and dining. Hong Kong is often described as a city where East meets West.
Outside this system are the schools under the Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) and private international schools, which provide an alternative to the high-pressured mainstream education in exchange for much higher tuition fees. Most private schools are run by Christian organisations as well; admissions are based more on academic merit than on financial resources. There are government schools, which are relatively rare, and subsidised schools (government-aided schools, grant schools), run by charitable (often Christian, but Buddhist, Taoist, Islamic and Confucian as well) organisations with government funding, to which most students go. In general, three types of comprehensive schools exist in Hong Kong.
There are also tertiary institutions offering various bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees, other higher diplomas, and associate degree courses. In Hong Kong, there is a non-compulsory three-year kindergarten, which is followed by a compulsory six-year primary education, three-year junior secondary education, and a non-compulsory two-year senior secondary education leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examinations and a two-year matriculation course leading to the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examinations. . Hong Kong's public schools are operated by the Education and Manpower Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
A former British colony, Hong Kong's education system is based upon that of the United Kingdom, and in particular, the system used in England. Estimates are that 70-80% of the city's air pollution comes from other parts of the Pearl River Delta. Environmental concern and awareness is growing, however, as Hong Kong also ranks as one of the most (air-)polluted cities in the world. The irregular and long coastline of Hong Kong also provides many bays and fine beaches for its inhabitants.
Hiking and camping are popular outdoor activities in Hong Kong's hilly country parks. About 60 % of the land  is designated as Country Parks and Nature Reserves. The rest of the open spaces are often covered with parks, woods and shrubs. The majority of people live in flats in high-rise buildings (same as Singapore).
Despite the population density, Hong Kong was reported  to be one of the greenest cities in Asia. However, population is continuously growing due to immigration of about 45,000 people per year from mainland China. Hong Kong has a fertility rate of .94 children per woman , one of the lowest in the world, and far below the 2.1 children per woman required to maintain an even population level. Considered as a dependency, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated countries/dependencies in the world, with an overall density of more than 6,200 people per km².
Hong Kong is the fifth largest metropolitan area of the PRC by population. The top three sources of migration to Hong Kong are the Philippines (132,770), Indonesia (95,460), and the United States (31,330). There are also a number of Europeans, North Americans, Japanese, and Koreans, largely working in Hong Kong's financial sector. On Sundays and public holidays, thousands of these workers, the majority of whom are women, gather in Central to socialise.
Around 140,000 Filipinos work in Hong Kong as domestic helpers and housekeepers, often known locally as amahs, or feiyungs, with other such workers coming from Thailand and Indonesia. More than 15,000 Vietnamese, who came to Hong Kong as refugees, have become permanent residents, with the majority of whom surviving on casual work. Some Nepalis residing in Hong Kong are Gurkhas, who chose to stay after their service to Britain, and their descendants. Among these is a significant South Asian population, which includes some of Hong Kong's wealthiest families.
The remaining 4 % of the population is composed of non-Chinese, who form a highly visible group, despite their small numbers. Since the Handover, a new group of immigrants from mainland China have increased the ethnic diversity of the Chinese population and enhanced the development of Mandarin in the territory. Used in government matters, Cantonese is spoken by most of the local Chinese population at home and in the office, although English is also widely understood and spoken by more than one-third of the population. Groups such as the Hakka and Teochew are also substantial.
About 96 % of Hong Kong's population is Chinese, the majority of which are Cantonese. The population of Hong Kong increased markedly during the 1990s, reaching 6.86 million in 2005. Along with Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, ROC, Hong Kong's fast-paced industrialisation earned it a place as one of the four original East Asian Tigers. In addition, Hong Kong's 68-month-long deflationary spiral, the longest and highest deflation  according to Guinness World Records, ended in mid-2004, with consumer price inflation hovering at near zero levels.
The domestic sector completely shrugged off its earlier sluggishness, and the general weakness of the Hong Kong dollar, when included with the still modest cost and price pressures in Hong Kong, has resulted in a strengthening in Hong Kong's external price competitiveness. A revival in both external and domestic demand led to a strong upswing in growth in 2004, surging to 8.2 % for the year. The upsurge is also boosted by the recent opening of Hong Kong Disneyland Resort. As a result, the tourism industry in Hong Kong is booming due to an exponential increase in the number of visitors from mainland China.
To further increase economic co-operation between Hong Kong and the mainland, the Individual Visit Scheme was started on 28 July 2003, which allows travellers from some cities in mainland China to visit Hong Kong without an accompanying tour group. Thereafter, a boom in tourism from the mainland because of China's easing of travel restrictions, a return of consumer confidence, and a solid rise in exports resulted in the resumption of strong growth in late 2003 and 2004, with growth averaging 6.5% in the first half of 2005. A world-wide global downturn and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak reduced economic growth to 2.3 % in 2002. The economy rebounded rapidly, growing by 10 % in 2000.
amid strong deflation. Growth since 2000 has averaged 5.2% p.a. in the 1990s, including a 5.3% decline in 1998, due to the Asian financial crisis' impact on demand in the region. As the economy shifted to services (manufacturing currently accounts for just 4% of GDP), growth slowed to 2.7% p.a.
in the 1980s. Growth averaged a strong 8.9% per annum in real terms in the 1970s and 7.2% p.a. However, it would be ranked 11th in terms of per capita GDP (PPP) in the world (USD 32,292), which is even higher than Japan (USD 31,384), making Hong Kong one of the richest territorial regions in Asia. At USD 24,080  in 2004, the nominal per capita GDP of Hong Kong is somewhat lower than that of the four big economies of western Europe.
The territory, with a highly sophisticated banking sector and good communication links, hosts the Asian headquarters of many multinational corporations. The service sector represented 86.5 %  of the GDP in 2001. Flights, investment, and trade from Taiwan go through Hong Kong to get to the mainland. These ties and its autonomous status enable it to be the middleman between the Republic of China on Taiwan and the mainland.
Hong Kong has extensive trade and investment ties with the People's Republic of China which existed even before the handover on 1 July 1997. In fact, imports and exports (including re-exports) exceed the GDP of Hong Kong. Hong Kong has limited natural resources, and most food and raw materials must be imported. Given the highly externally oriented nature of the economy, this objective was further defined as a stable external value for the Hong Kong dollar in terms of a linked exchange rate against the US dollar at the rate of HK$7.80 to one United States dollar until 2005, when it was allowed to trade within a band of HK$7.75-$7.85.
The objective of Hong Kong's monetary policy is to maintain currency stability. Even New York City, host of the United Nations, only has 93 consulates. The dominant presence of international trade is reflected in the number of consulates located in the territory: As of June 2005, Hong Kong had 107 consulates and consulates-general, more than any other city in the world. It is the world's 10th largest  trading entity and 11th largest  banking centre.
Hong Kong has one of the least restricted economies in world and is basically duty-free. Tsuen Wan New Town and Kowloon). Sha Tin New Town) or divided up amongst districts (e.g. These entities, however, are not granted any formal administrative status and are either administered as parts of districts (e.g.
There are several cities and towns within Hong Kong, the largest of which include Kowloon, Victoria (Hong Kong Island), Tseun Wan New Town, and Sha Tin New Town. Hong Kong consists of 18 administrative districts:
The territory is situated south of the Tropic of Cancer which is equatable to Hawaii in latitude. Hong Kong's climate is subtropical but half of the year is temperate. The average temperature in the coldest month, February, is 16°C (61°F) while the average temperature in the hottest month, July, is 28°C (82°F). The highest recorded temperature in Hong Kong is 40 degrees Celsius (104°F) while the lowest recorded temperature is 0°C (32°F).
However, flora and fauna in Hong Kong are altered by climatic change, sea level alternation and human impact. Hong Kong has been geologically stable for millions of years. Hong Kong's climate is seasonal due to alternating wind direction between winter and summer. The ecology of Hong Kong is mostly affected by the results of climatic changes.
Hong Kong occasionally has typhoons. It is warm, sunny, and dry in autumn. It is cool and dry in the wintertime which lasts from around January to March, and is hot, humid and rainy from spring through summer. Hong Kong's climate is subtropical and prone to monsoons.
This is because most live and work in high-rise buildings in the city and surrounding new towns. Of the territory's 1,102 square kilometres (425 mi²) and nearly 7 million residents, less than 25% is developed; the remaining land is remarkably green and significant portions are reserved as country parks and nature reserves. Hong Kong is 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of Macau, on the opposite side of the Pearl River Delta and borders the city of Shenzhen in Guangdong Province. Lowlands exist in the northwestern part of the New Territories.
The highest point in the territory is Tai Mo Shan, at a height of 958 metres (3,142 ft). The landscape of Hong Kong is fairly hilly to mountainous with steep slopes. The body of water between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula is Victoria Harbour, one of the deepest natural maritime ports in the world. The name "Hong Kong", literally meaning "fragrant harbour", is derived from the area around present-day Aberdeen and Wong Chuk Hang on Hong Kong Island, where fragrant trees were once abundant and exported from.
Ap Lei Chau is the most densely populated island in the world. Hong Kong Island itself is the second largest and also the most populated. In total, Hong Kong has 236 islands in the South China Sea, of which Lantau is the largest. The Kowloon Peninsula is attached to the New Territories in the north, and the New Territories are in turn connected to mainland China across the Sham Chun River (Shenzhen River).
Hong Kong consists of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, and the New Territories. Just as the common law system is maintained, so are British courtroom customs such as the wearing of robes and wigs by both judges and lawyers. Only barristers are allowed to appear in the Court of Final Appeal and the High Court. Barristers, on the other hand, are licensed and regulated by the Hong Kong Bar Association.
The vast majority of lawyers are solicitors who are licensed and regulated by the Law Society of Hong Kong. As in England, lawyers in Hong Kong are classified as barristers and solicitors, where one can choose to practice as either one but not both (but it is possible to switch from one to the other). The Basic Law of Hong Kong is subject to interpretation by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and this power has been invoked three times: the right of abode issue, an interpretation regarding post-2008 election procedures, and an interpretation regarding the length of the term of the Chief Executive. Justices of the Court of Final Appeal are appointed by Hong Kong's Chief Executive.
Other adjudicative bodies include the Lands Tribunal, the Magistrates' Courts, the Juvenile Court, the Coroner's Court, the Labour Tribunal, the Small Claims Tribunal, and the Obscene Articles Tribunal, which is responsible for classifying non-video pornography to be circulated in Hong Kong. Structurally, Hong Kong's court system consists of the Court of Final Appeal which replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, the High Court, which is made up of the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance, and the District Court, which includes the Family Court. Article 84 of the Basic Law of Hong Kong allows Hong Kong's courts to refer to decisions (precedents) rendered by courts of foreign jurisdictions and to invite foreign judges to participate in proceedings of Hong Kong's Court of Final Appeal. In contrast to mainland China's civil law system, Hong Kong continues to follow the common law tradition established by British colonial rule.
The electoral reform of members of the Legislative Council and the Chief Executive in the future were voted down by the pro-democracy camp. On 22 December 2005, the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, Donald Tsang, faced a political challenge. The turnout was reported to be 63,000 by the police, and at least 250,000 by the organisers. On 4 December 2005, a demonstration was organised by the Civil Human Rights Front and pro-democracy lawmakers to express concerns about the lack of a working timetable that will allow for universal suffrage in the 2007 and 2008 elections for the Chief Executive and the Legistlative Council respectively.
The invitation was generally regarded as one of the greatest goodwill gestures from the PRC to the Hong Kong democrats since the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989. On 24 September 2005, twenty-five Hong Kong pro-democracy Legco members, some of whom were previously labelled as traitors by Beijing after the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown and barred from entering the mainland, crossed the border into the southern province of Guangdong, following an unprecedented invitation by the PRC . The focus of controversies  shifted  to the issue  of universal suffrage towards the end of 2003 and in 2004, which was the slogan of another peaceful mass demonstration on 1 July 2004. So it shelved  the drafted law  brought forth by Article 23.
Thus the government found that the bill could not be passed. But one of the major pro-government parties refused to vote for passing the bill. The Right of abode issue sparked debates in 1999, while the controversy over Hong Kong Basic Law Article 23 was the focus of politics in Hong Kong between 2002 and 2003, culminating in a peaceful mass demonstration (over 500,000 demonstrators) on 1 July 2003, after which the government still tried to pass the law to the Legislative Council. Many government and administrative operations are located in Central on Hong Kong Island near the historical location of Victoria City, the site of the original British settlements.
The civil service of Hong Kong maintains its quality and neutrality, operating without discernible direction from Beijing. The 1998, 2000 and 2004 Legislative Council elections were seen as free, open, and widely contested, despite discontent among mainly 'pro-democratic' politicians, who contended that the functional constituency elections and the Election Committee elections (for 1998 and 2000) were undemocratic, as they consider that the electorate for these seats is too narrow. According to the Basic Law, Hong Kong's "mini-constitution", the present third term of the Legislative Council has 30 seats directly elected from geographical constituencies, and 30 seats elected from functional constituencies. Legislative Council elections were held on 24 May 1998, 10 September 2000, and again on 12 September 2004, with the next election scheduled for 2008.
The PLC passed some of its own laws, such as the Public Order Ordinance , which required permission from police to hold a demonstration where the number of people who participates exceeds 30. It reverted some laws passed by the original Legislative Council, which was formed by means of universal suffrage. The PRC set up a Provisional Legislative Council (PLC) just before the handover, and moved to Hong Kong to have its meetings after the handover. For the second five-year term of the Chief Executive which began in July 2002, Tung was the only nominated candidate and therefore acclaimed.
Tung Chee Hwa, the first Chief Executive, assumed office on 1 July 1997, following his election by a 400-member electoral college. On 16 June 2005, Donald Tsang was acclaimed the winner, as the only candidate securing the required 100 nominations from members of the election committee. The election of a new Chief Executive by the 800-member Election Committee was expected to be held on 10 July 2005. Donald Tsang assumed his post on 24 June 2005 in Beijing, China; he will finish the remaining portion of Tung Chee Hwa's last term which ends on 30 June 2007, according to the interpretation of Annex I and Article 46 by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
Tsang had held the post of Chief Secretary for Administration prior. This office is currently held by Donald Tsang, who was elected  on 16 June 2005. The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is headed by its Chief Executive, the head of government. Following an interim government headed by Henry Tang, Tsang was eventually elected as Chief Executive.
Donald Tsang, the Chief Secretary for Administration of Hong Kong, served as Acting Chief Executive until 25 May, when he, too, resigned from his post to take part in the campaign for the new Chief Executive election. On 10 March 2005, Tung Chee Hwa submitted his resignation as chief executive of Hong Kong. Regina Ip, then Secretary for Security, and Antony Leung, then Financial Secretary, were forced to leave office in 2003 under public pressure. On 1 July the same year, half a million people marched in the largest protest rally ever aimed at the government of Hong Kong, voicing concerns about a proposed anti-subversion bill that would have eroded freedom of the press, of religion and of association arising from Article 23 of the Hong Kong Basic Law, as well as dissatisfaction with the poor state of the economy.
Exacerbating the region's economic problems, Hong Kong was hit badly by the SARS virus in the summer of 2003, especially in the effect that it had on travel to and from Hong Kong. The land values fell in some areas by over half, and the Hang Seng Index fell by over 1,500 points on 28 October, losing 22.8 % of its value in a week. The handover coincided with the large scale collapse of land values in Hong Kong, greatly damaging the bubble economy, as part of the Asian financial crisis. Hong Kong was transferred to the PRC at the stroke of midnight on 1 July 1997, with the last governor, Chris Patten leaving on the royal yacht.
Hong Kong would enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except diplomatic affairs and national defence. In the Joint Declaration, the PRC promised that under the "One Country, Two Systems" policy proposed by Deng Xiaoping, the socialist economic system in mainland China would not be practised in Hong Kong, and Hong Kong's previous capitalist system and life-style would remain unchanged for 50 years, or until 2047. Pursuant to an agreement known as the Sino-British Joint Declaration, signed by the People's Republic of China and the United Kingdom on 19 December 1984, the whole territory of Hong Kong under British colonial rule became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the PRC on 1 July 1997. Although the British would have been legally required to transfer only the New Territories to the PRC, Whitehall decided that maintaining a rump colony would not be worthwhile - the majority of Hong Kong's land was in the New Territories, and failure to return the entire colony would doubtless have generated political friction between the UK and PRC.
In the 1980s, with the lease on the New Territories running out, the British government of Margaret Thatcher decided to negotiate the question of the sovereignty of Hong Kong. Its position as an entrepot was restrengthened since the Open Door Policy was adopted in the PRC in the late 1970s under Deng Xiaoping. This led to even greater growth, and Hong Kong quickly became one of the wealthiest territories in the world. Towards the 1970s, Hong Kong began to move away from the textile industry and develop its financial and banking economy.
During this period, the economy grew extremely rapidly. In response, a textile industry was established, taking advantage of the new pool of workers from China who were willing to work for almost any wage. Hong Kong had been a trade port ever since the British occupation, but its position as an entrepot declined greatly after the United Nations ordered a trade embargo against the People's Republic of China as a result of the Korean War. The port was quickly re-opened and welcomed a mass migration of Chinese refugees in 1949 from the civil war and the new Communist government in China.
The Japanese subsequently surrendered on 15 August 1945. Many Hong Kong people were executed by the Japanese army during the war. Hong Kong entered a dark age during the Japanese Occupation of World War II, which lasted for three years and eight months. During the war, Hong Kong Island was first occupied by the British, and was formally ceded by the Qing Dynasty of China in 1842 under the Treaty of Nanking.
The British, challenging China's near monopoly on the tea industry, invaded China, winning the First Opium War in 1841. Tea, silk, and other Asian luxury goods were introduced in Europe by the Portuguese, and by the mid-18th century, these items were in high demand, particularly tea. The first specially recruited Hong Kong civil servants to be taught Cantonese were recruited in 1862, markedly improving relations. For the first twenty years there was little contact between the European and Chinese communities.
Hong Kong became a crown colony in 1843. Various adjacent lands, known as the New Territories (including New Kowloon and Lantau Island), were then leased by Britain for 99 years, beginning on 1 July 1898 and ending on 30 June 1997. Kowloon Peninsula south of Boundary Street and Stonecutter's Island were ceded to the British in 1860 under the Convention of Peking after the Second Opium War. Álvares began trading with the Chinese, and the Portuguese continued to make periodic trade stops at various locations up and down the coast.
Hong Kong was first visited by a European in 1513, the Portuguese mariner Jorge Álvares. After that, the prominence of Hong Kong fell, and only began to attract the attention of China again and the rest of the world in the 19th century when it was ceded to Britain after the Opium Wars. Though Hong Kong has been inhabited since the Neolithic Age, the area now known as Hong Kong was an important trading region, and also a significant strategic location for the Chinese mainland during the Tang and Song dynasties and the subsequent Mongol invasion. .
Despite Hong Kong's reversion from British to Chinese rule, the region's English name remains "Hong Kong" (which sounds closer to the pronunciation in the local Cantonese language), and not, as some sources suggest, Xiānggǎng (the Mandarin Chinese equivalent).. Only national defence and diplomatic relations are responsibilities of the central government in Beijing. Hong Kong even maintains its own road rules, with traffic continuing to drive on the left. A former British colony now administered by the PRC under the "one country, two systems" policy, Hong Kong is constitutionally entitled to a relatively high degree of autonomy; for example, it retains its own legal system, currency, customs, treaty negotiating rights, such as air traffic and aircraft landing rights, and immigration laws.
Hong Kong (香港, also known as Hongkong, which was common in older English-language texts, or Xiānggǎng, in Pinyin) has one of the world's most liberal economies and is a major international centre of finance and trade. The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區; Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国香港特别行政区 pronunciation), is located on the southeastern coast of China. ^ Hong Kong in a Nutshell. ^ The Fifth Group Training Course on Integrated Urban Policy 1998.
^ Chief Executive pledges a clean, green, world-class city. ^ Hong Kong Total Fertility Rate. ^ Guinness World Records: Lowest Inflation. ^ Sinomedia: Hong Kong Turnaround.
^ Nationmaster: Hong Kong. ^ Hong Kong Country Commercial Guide 2004: Economic Trends. ^ Century21: Learn About Hong Kong. ^ Hong Kong Information: About Hong Kong.
Retrieved September 25, 2005. ^ Hong Kong democrats visit China - ABC News Online. ^ Extreme temperatures. ^ Third annual report by the European Commission on the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
^ T-Salon: Hong Kong: Calls for Universal Suffrage Unabated. ^ Hong Kong Government may delay universal suffrage. ^ HKSAR Immigration Department: Right of Abode in HKSAR - Verification of Eligibility for Permanent Identity Card. ^ Presentation to Legislative Council on Right of Abode Issue.
^ Hong Kong Public Order Ordinance. ^ BBC News: Donald Tsang set to be HK leader. ISBN 9627489018. December 1990.
Hyperion Books. Hong Kong History Society. Forts and Pirates - A History of Hong Kong. ISBN 7119019465.
291 pages. Liu Shuyong. An Outline History of Hong Kong. ISBN 1860641849.
356 pages. 14 May 2004. Tauris. B.
I. Steve Tsang. A Modern History of Hong Kong. ISBN 0521776023.
346 pages. 25 March 2002. Cambridge University Press. Poshek Fu, David Deser.
The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. ISBN 0415208688. 205 pages. 1 August 1999.
Routledge. Tak-Wing Ngo. Hong Kong's History: State and Society Under Colonial Rule (Asia's Transformations). ISBN 1568360029.
624 pages. 1 October 1993. Kodansha America. Frank Welsh.
A Borrowed Place: The History of Hong Kong. World Economic Forum: Global Competitiveness Report 2004-2005 - Growth Competitiveness Index Ranking, ranked 21st out of 104 countries. United Nations Development Programme: Human Development Index 2004, ranked 23rd out of 177 countries. Transparency International: Corruption Perceptions Index 2004, ranked 16th out of 146 countries.
The Economist: The World in 2005 - Worldwide quality-of-life index, 2005, ranked 18th out of 111 countries. Skyline: , ranked 1st out of all cities of the world. Save the Children: State of the World's Mothers 2005, not ranked out of 110 countries. Reporters without borders: Third annual worldwide press freedom index (2004), ranked 34th out of 167 countries.
IMD International: World Competitiveness Yearbook 2005, ranked 2nd out of 60 economies (countries and regions). Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal: 2005 Index of Economic Freedom, ranked 1st out of 155 countries, for 11 years in a row. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine: Globalization Index 2005, not ranked out of 62 countries. A.T.
Wan Chai. Southern. Eastern. Central and Western.
Yau Tsim Mong (Yau Ma Tei, Tsim Sha Tsui and Mong Kok). Wong Tai Sin. Sham Shui Po. Kwun Tong.
Kowloon City. Yuen Long. Tuen Mun. Tsuen Wan.
Tai Po. Sha Tin. Sai Kung. North.
Kwai Tsing (Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi). Islands.