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Hollister can refer to:. Here are some common software programs used for computer illustration:. Hollister Ranch Realty, Hollister Ranch sales. See, for example, the computer illustrations of Peter Welleman. Hollister Incorporated, a medical device company. Digital art is fast becoming one of the most popular means of illustration. Hollister Ranch, a ranch north of Santa Barbara, California, USA. Drawing may also be done on a computer.
Hollister Co., a clothing company. Great drawings in the 1900's have been created by Max Beckmann, Willem De Kooning, Jean Dubuffet, Arshile Gorky, Paul Klee, Oscar Kokoschka, Jules Pascin, Pablo Picasso, and Jackson Pollock. Hollister, California, a place in the United States. The masters of drawing during the 1800's included Paul Cézanne, Jacques Louis David, Edgar Degas, Theodore Gericault, Jean Ingres, Odilon Redon, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Vincent Van Gogh. In the 1700's, great drawings were produced by Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Francisco Goya, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, and Antoine Watteau. During the 1600's, Claude, Nicolas Poussin, Rembrandt, and Peter Paul Rubens created important drawings.
Masters of drawing in the 1400's and 1500's included Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Dürer, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Since that time, each century has produced artists who have created great drawings. This art form first gained widespread popularity among European artists during the 1400's, when paper became generally available. People have made drawings since prehistoric times.
However a well-crafted study can be a piece of art onto itself, and many hours of careful work can go into completing a study. Studies can be used to determine the appearance of specific parts of the completed image, or for experimenting with the best approach for accomplishing the end goal. A study is a draft drawing that is made in preparation for a planned final image. Objects placed in the background of the figure should appear properly placed wherever they can be viewed.
The exterior is termed the negative space, and can be as important in the representation as the figure. When drawing an object or figure, the skilled artist pays attention to both the area within the silhouette and what lies outside. In contrast, a single light source, such as harsh daylight, can serve to highlight any texture or interesting features. Multiple light sources can wash out any wrinkles in a person's face, for instance, and give a more youthful appearance.
The placement of the light sources can make a considerable difference in the type of message that is being presented. The illumination of the subject is also a key element in creating an artistic piece, and the interplay of light and shadow is a valuable method in the artist's toolbox. The composition can determine the focus of the art, and result in a harmonious whole that is aesthetically appealing and stimulating. The artist plans the placement of elements in the art in order to communicate ideas and feelings with the viewer.
The composition of the image is an important element in producing an interesting work of artistic merit. This will reproduce the effect of atmospheric haze, and cause the eye to focus primarily on objects drawn in the foreground. Depth can also be portrayed by reducing the amount of contrast of more distant objects, and also by making the colors more pale. As the texture of an object gets further away it becomes more compressed and busy, taking on an entirely different character than if it was close.
Depth can be portrayed through the use of texture. Thus the back wheel of a cart will appear slightly smaller than the front wheel. Objects of similar size should appear ever smaller the further they are from the viewer. Depth can also be portrayed by several techniques in addition to the perspective approach above.
Convering the vertical lines to a point in the sky then produces a "three-point perspective". When both the fronts and sides of a building are drawn, then the parallel lines forming a side converge at a second point along the horizon (which may be off the drawing paper.) This is a "two-point perspective". When multiple structures are aligned with each other, such as buildings along a street, the horizontal tops and bottoms of the structures will all typically convert at a vanishing point. Typically this point of convergence will be along the horizon, as buildings are built level with the flat surface.
The parallel, straight edges of any object, whether a building or a table, will follow lines that eventually converge at infinity. Linear perspective is a method of portraying objects on a flat surface so that the dimensions shrink with distance. The artist is also familiar with how the proportions vary depending on the age of the subject, particularly when drawing a portrait. This allows the artist to render more natural poses that do not appear artificially stiff.
A trained artist is familiar with the skeleton structure, joint location, muscle placement, tendon movement, and how the different parts work together during movement. A more refined art of figure drawing relies upon the artist possessing a deep understanding of anatomy and the human proportions. The lines of the primitive shapes are removed and replaced by the final likeness. Once these basic shapes have been assembled into a likeness, then the drawing can be refined into a more accurate and polished form.
Almost any form can be represented by some combination of the cube, sphere, cylinder, and cone. When attempting to draw a complicated shape such as a human figure, it is helpful at first to represent the form with a set of primitive shapes. The image on the paper is then scaled in reference to this frame. A similar approach when using an easel is to mount a small, heavy paper frame through which the artist can view the scene.
A scaled version of these lines is drawn lightly on the paper, and the outlines of the significant features are copied onto the drawing. The image is subdivided into equally spaced horizontal and vertical lines. A grid can be used to produce a more accurate portrayal of a photograph. A finger placed at a point along the drawing implement can be used to compare that dimension with other parts of the image.
Another form of measurement is to compare the relative sizes of different parts of the subject with each other. These angles can be reproduced on the drawing surface and then rechecked to make sure they are accurate. A straight drawing implement held horizontally or vertically can be used to measure the angles of different sides. Measuring the dimensions of a subject while blocking in the drawing is an important step in producing a realistic rendition of the actual subject.
Instead the shape of the structure is portrayed almost entirely through tones and shading, including contrast with the background. Otherwise the image may resemble a paint-by-numbers figure from a coloring book. In most drawing mediums, but especially in ink, realistic renditions of an object or structure avoid outlinining the form and features. A light edge next to a dark background will stand out to the eye, and almost appear to float above the surface.
A similar effect can be achieved by drawing different tones in close proximity. Thus a coarse texture placed next to a smoothly blended area will appear more notable. Texture can be made to appear more realistic when it is draw next to a contrasting texture. In addition to choosing a suitable paper, the type of drawing material and the drawing technique will result in different textures.
There are a number of methods for producing texture in the picture. The chamois cloth in particular is useful for creating smooth textures, and for removing material to lighten the tone. When shading and blending is needed, the artist can employ a combination of a tortillon blending stump, chamois or soft tissue, and a specialized putty-rubber eraser. This can only be done when drawing with a material such as graphite or charcoal that is not permanently attached once applied.
Blending uses an implement to move the drawing material on the paper so as to hide the original drawing strokes. Careful attention to reflected light, shadows, and highlights can result in a very realistic rendition of the image. Shading is the technique of varying the tonal values on the paper to represent the shade of the material as well as the placement of the shadows. However the fixative spray typically uses chemicals that can negatively affect the respiratory system, so it should be employed in a well-ventilated area such as outdoors.
This will hold loose material more firmly to the sheet and prevent it from smearing. Another method to preserve a section of the image is to apply a spray-on fixative to the surface. This will protect the surface from receiving any stray marks before it is ready to be filled in. The shape of the area to be preserved is cut out of the frisket, and the resulting shape is then applied to the drawing surface.
A frisket can be used for this purpose. Sometimes the artist will want to leave a section of the image blank while filling in the remainder of the picture. A right-handed artist will want to draw from left to right in order to avoid smearing the image. Typically a drawing will be filled in based on which hand the artist favors.
When drawing hair, the lines of the sketch follow the direction of the hair growth. For best results the lines in a sketch are typically drawn to follow the contour curves of the surface, thus producing a depth effect. Sketch drawings use similar techniques, although with pencils and drawing sticks continuous variations in tone can be achieved. Finally stippling, or random placement of dots on a page, can also be used to produce a texture or shade.
Broken hatching, or lines with intermittent breaks, is used to form lighter tones, and by controlling the density of the breaks a graduation of tone can be achieved. Cross-hatching uses hatching in two or more different directions to create a darker tone. Ink drawings typically use hatching, which consists of groups of parallel lines. The stroke of the drawing implement can be used to control the appearance of the image.
The different drawing implements can be tried on practice sheets to see what type of pattern they create, and how to apply the implement in order to produce varying tones. Prior to working on an image, the artist will likely want to gain an understanding of how the various media will work. The use of an easel or slanted table reduces the distorting effects of perspective. Other tools that sometimes prove useful are tracing paper, a circle compass, ruler, frisket film, fixative, and drafting tape.
These include a pencil sharpener, sandpaper, kneaded eraser, blending stubs, and chamois. Various tools are routinely used in the process of drawing. Tracing vellum is often used for experimenting on top of a pencil drawing, prior to committing a technique to the final page. Coldpressed watercolor paper is sometimes favored for ink drawing due to its texture.
Bristol board makes a hard surface that is especially good for ink or fine detailed graphite drawing. For pen and ink work, typing paper is often used for practice drawings, but heavier paper holds up better. Thus a more coarse material is useful for producing deeper contrast. Smooth paper is good for rendering fine detail, but a more "toothy" paper will hold the drawing material better.
Papers can vary in texture, hue, acidity, and strength when wet. Paper comes in a variety of different sizes and qualities, ranging from newspaper grade for practice up to high quality and relatively expensive paper sometimes sold as individual sheets. Very rarely, artists have drawn with (usually decoded) invisible ink. Watercolor pencils can be used dry like ordinary pencil, then moistened with a wet brush to get various painterly effects.
graphite, charcoal, pastel, Conté, silverpoint), or water-based (marker, pen and ink). Most drawing media are either dry (e.g. The medium is the means by which ink, pigment, or color are delivered onto the drawing surface. automatic drawing, entoptic graphomania).
cartoons, caricatures), or abstract (e.g. sketches), highly stylized (e.g. traditional portraits), looser approximations of reality (e.g. They may be realistic to the point of lifelike resemblence (e.g.
All drawings are representational, depicting objects or scenes which the artist views, remembers, or imagines. In digital media, "drawing" often refers to the use of vector-based graphics programs, as distinguished from bitmap-based "painting" software, but this distinction is not universal. These distinctions are somewhat arbitrary and subject to change; some artists refer to fully-rendered pastel and colored-pencil compositions as "paintings", and in nineteenth century usage "drawing" also encompassed the use of watercolors. One standard for differentiating drawing from painting is that it does not permit the artist to mix colors before applying them; colors can only be blended on the drawing surface, usually by overlaying one upon the other or by putting them close enough together that the eye "mixes" them.
Etching is similar to drawing but differs in that the tool digs into the surface, which is then used to make prints on a separate surface. Drawing is generally considered distinct from painting, in which colored pigments are suspended in a liquid medium and usually applied with a brush. . An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draftsman or draughtsman.
The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, and blending. Digital tools which simulate the effects of these are also used. Common tools are graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, pastels, and markers. It generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface.
Drawing is a means of making an image, using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques. The World Book Encyclopedia Volume 5, 1988, ISBN 0-7166-0089-7. World Book, Inc. Frank Lohan, Pen & Ink Techniques, Contemporary Books, 1978, ISBN 0-8092-7438-8.
Hillberry, Drawing Realistic Textures in Pencil, North Light Books, 1999, ISBN 0-89134-868-9. D. J. Leonardo da Vinci.
Eugeen Van Mieghem. Rembrandt. Andrew Loomis. Albrecht Dürer.
Maurits Cornelis Escher. Michelangelo Buonarroti. Open Canvas. The GIMP.
Microsoft Paint. Pixia. Corel Painter. Paint Shop Pro.
Adobe Illustrator. Adobe Photoshop.