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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary. One of the Enterprise-D shuttlecraft in Star Trek: The Next Generation was also named for him. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. Clarke's novel 2010: Odyssey Two. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. Sakharov and the "Sakharov Drive" were featured in Arthur C. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, established in 1985 and awarded annually by the European Parliament for people and organizations dedicated to human rights and freedoms, was named in his honor.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. Sakharov died of a heart attack in 1989 and was interred in the Vostryakovskoye Cemetery in Moscow. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. In April 1989, Sakharov was elected to the new parliament, the All-Union Congress of Peoples' Deputies and co-led the democratic opposition. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. He helped to initiate the first independent legal political organizations and became prominent in the Soviet Union's growing political opposition. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. He remained isolated but unrepentant until December 1986 when he was allowed to return to Moscow as Mikhail Gorbachev initiated the policies of perestroika and glasnost.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. In his memoirs he mentions that their apartment in Gorky was repeatedly subjected to searches and heists. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. Between 1980 to 1986, Sakharov was kept under tight Soviet police surveillance. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. He was arrested on January 22, 1980 following his public protests against the invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and was sent to internal exile to a city of Gorki, a closed city that was out of reach for foreigners. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. In his works he declared that "the principle "what is not prohibited is allowed" should be understood literally", denying the importance and validity of all moral or cultural norms not codified in the laws.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. Sakharov's ideas on social development led him to put forward the principle of human rights as a new basis of all politics. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. He won the prize in 1975, although he was not allowed to leave the USSR to collect it. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. In 1973 he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. He married a fellow human rights activist Yelena Bonner in 1972.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. In 1970 he was one of the founders of the Moscow Human Rights Committee and came under increasing pressure from the regime. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. After this essay was circulated in samizdat and then published outside the Soviet Union, Sakharov was banned from all military-related research and Sakharov returned to FIAN to study fundamental theoretical physics. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. In May 1968 he completed an essay, Reflections on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom, where the anti-ballistic missile defense is featured as a major threat of world nuclear war. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. The government ignored his letter and refused to let him initiate a public discussion of ABM in the Soviet press.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. He also asked a permission to publish his article manuscript (accompanied the letter) in a newspaper to explain the tricky danger of this kind of defense. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. In a secret detailed letter to the Soviet leadership of July 21, 1967, Sakharov explains the need to “take the Americans at their word” and accept their proposal “for a bilateral rejection by the USA and the USSR of the development of antiballistic missile defense”, because otherwise an arms race in this new technology would increase the likelihood of nuclear war. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. The major turn in Sakharov’s political evolution started in 1967, when anti-ballistic missile defense became a key issue in U.S.-Soviet relations. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. In 1965 he returned to fundamental science and began working on cosmology but continued to oppose political discrimination.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Pushing for the end of atmospheric tests he played a role in the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty, signed in Moscow. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Politically active during the 1960s, Sakharov was against nuclear proliferation. And the social evil contributed its share. From the late-1950s Sakharov had become concerned about the moral and political implications of his work. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. This led to the development of the tokamak device.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. Tamm, proposed confining extremely hot ionized plasma by torus shaped magnetic fields for controlling thermonuclear fusion. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. Sakharov, in association with Igor E. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. He also proposed an idea for a controlled fusion reactor, the tokamak, that is still the basis for the majority of work in the area. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". Sakharov continued to work at Sarov, helping on the first genuine Soviet H-bombs, tested in 1955, and the 50MT 'Tsar Bomba' of October 1961, the most powerful device ever exploded.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. degree, was elected a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and was awarded the first of his three Hero of Socialist Labor titles. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. In 1953 he received D.Sc. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. The first Soviet device was tested on August 12, 1953. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. After moving to Sarov in 1950, Sakharov played a key role in the next stage, the development of the hydrogen bomb.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". The first Soviet atomic device was tested on August 29, 1949. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. In mid-1948 he participated in the Soviet atomic bomb project under Igor Kurchatov. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. On World War II's end, Sakharov researched cosmic rays. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. in 1947.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. He received his Ph.D. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. He returned to Moscow in 1945 to study at the Theoretical Department of FIAN (the Physical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences). Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. He was then assigned laboratory work in Ulyanovsk. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Following evacuation in 1941 during the "Great Patriotic War", he graduated in Ashkhabad, in today's Turkmenistan.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Born in Moscow, in 1938 he entered Moscow State University. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Sakharov was an advocate of civil liberties and reforms in the Soviet Union. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов, May 21, 1921 – December 14, 1989), was an eminent Soviet-Russian nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. Oxford University Press, 2005.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. Bouis, "The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom". In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. Gorelik,Gennady, with Antonina W. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. 1991. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. Kapitsa, "Sahkarov Remembered".

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. Drell, Sidney D., and Sergei P. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. 1985. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. Lozansky, Edward D., "Andrei Sakharov and Peace". Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). Russia, 1981.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Babenyshev, Alexander, "On Sakharov". Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. 1991. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. Sakharov, Andrei, "Facets of a Life". The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. Keller and Kate Adams Keller.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. . Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

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