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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.
. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.
. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.
. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. Garner State Park, located 30 miles north of Uvalde, was named in his honor.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. He vowed to support Kennedy's bid as long as he himself was alive; ironically, Kennedy was assassinated later that day. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. Kennedy over the telephone in regards to the upcoming 1964 Presidential campaign. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. On Garner's 95th birthday (November 22, 1963), he spoke to President John F. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. At the time of his death he was the longest lived Vice President of the United States, a record that still stands as of 2005.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. Truman. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. Throughout his retirement, he was consulted by active Democratic politicians, and was especially close to Harry S. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. He retired to Uvalde for the last 26 years of his life, where he managed his extensive real estate holdings, spent time with his great-grandchildren, and fished. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Garner stepped down as Vice President in January 1941, ending a 46-year career in public life.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. Roosevelt beat Garner soundly in the Democratic primaries, and won re-nomination at the Democratic National Convention on the first ballot. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. Even though this decision made it highly unlikely that Garner would win the nomination, he stayed in the race anyway, because he opposed much of what the President stood for, and opposed the idea of anyone having a third term as President. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. Though he never declared his candidacy, Roosevelt quietly made it known that he would seek a third term. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. Gallup polls showed that Garner was the favorite among Democratic voters, presuming that Roosevelt would not run for a third term.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. During 1938 and 1939, numerous Democratic party leaders urged Garner to run for President in 1940. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. After Roosevelt sought to defeat in the 1938 primaries Democrats who opposed him, Garner began to see himself as the champion of the regular Democratic Party, as opposed to the New Deal party which supported Roosevelt. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. Garner supported federal intervention to break up the first sit-down strike, supported a balanced federal budget, opposed packing the Supreme Court with additional judges, and opposed executive interference with the internal business of the Congress. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. During Roosevelt's second term, the previously warm relationship between Garner and Roosevelt quickly soured, as Garner disagreed sharply with Roosevelt on a wide range of important issues.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. Garner, always the character, once described the office of the vice presidency as being "not worth a bucket of warm piss" (at the time reported with the bowdlerization "spit") and that his decision to take it in the first place was "the worst damn fool mistake I ever made.". In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. He was reelected Vice President in 1936 and served in that office from March 4, 1933 to January 20, 1941. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. He was re-elected to the Seventy-third Congress on November 8, 1932, and on the same day was elected Vice President of the United States. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. When it became evident that Roosevelt would win the nomination, Garner cut a deal with the front-runner, becoming Roosevelt's Vice Presidential candidate.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). In 1932, Garner ran for the Democratic Presidential nomination, becoming one of New York Governor Franklin Roosevelt's most serious opponents for the nomination. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Garner's hard work and integrity made him a respected leader in the House, and he was chosen to serve as minority floor leader for the Democrats in 1929, and then as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives in 1931. And the social evil contributed its share. He was elected from the district fourteen subsequent times, serving until 1933. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. Garner was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives in 1902 from a newly created congressional district covering tens of thousands of square miles of rural South Texas.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. He was a judge of Uvalde County from 1893 to 1896 and a member of the state House of Representatives from 1898 to 1902. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1890, and began practice in Uvalde, Uvalde County, Texas. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. Garner was born near Detroit, Red River County, Texas, and was a Cherokee Indian on his father's side. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". John Nance "Cactus Jack" Garner (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. New York : Harper & Brothers, 1948. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. Garner of Texas : A Personal History. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. Timmons, Bascom N. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress: GARNER, John Nance.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". Garner felt that keeping one's mouth shut, whiskey drinking, poker playing, and understanding the legislative process were useful skills. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. Garner felt that the way to get ahead was to get elected, stay there, and gain influence through seniority. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. President from Grover Cleveland to John F.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. Keller and Kate Adams Keller.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. . Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

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