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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary. Edward Norton also played a young Nelson Rockefeller in 2002 film Frida. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. Rockefeller's command to destroy Diego Rivera's controversial mural Man at the Crossroads is one of the films major climactic events. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. A young Nelson Rockefeller was depicted in the 1999 period film Cradle Will Rock (played by John Cusack). The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. Nelson Rockefeller was worth approximately $1 billion at the time of his death.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. As of 2004, Forbes estimates that the family fortune could be as much as $9 billion. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. The Rockefeller family is one of the most famous blue-blooded clans in America. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. However there is a good deal of rumour and speculation about all the details of what happened; see the Megan Marshak article for a full discussion of this. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. It is officially recorded that this occurred during sexual intercourse with his mistress and staff member Megan Marshak.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. On January 26, 1979 Rockefeller suffered a heart attack and died. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. His 1933 decision to purchase and then destroy Diego Rivera's mural at Rockefeller Center, which included a portrait of Lenin, is still controversial. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. The Neuberger Museum, designed by Philip Johnson, hosted several paintings collected by Neuberger and helped popularize several artists. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. While he was overseeing construction of the State University of New York system, he agreed with his lifelong friend Roy Neuberger to build a museum on the campus of SUNY Purchase College.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. He continued his mother's work at the Museum of Modern Art and turned the basement of his Kykuit mansion into a first-class museum. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. Rockefeller was a great collector of modern art. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. Received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. When questioned by an ABC reporter as to why he didn't join in with Rockefeller, Dole replied "I have trouble with my right arm," reminding them of his injury in World War II.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Senator Robert Dole, who would be the Republican nominee to succeed Rockefeller in the 1976 election, was on hand at the speech. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. A group of hippies started to heckle him, which obviously irritated him, causing him to retaliate by giving the group the finger, in a widely circulated photo. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. Perhaps the most memorable moment of Rockefeller's Vice Presidency occurred during a public speech at Broome County Airport in Binghamton, New York. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. Less than a year later however, (on November 3, 1975), he notified President Ford that he would not seek election to the Vice Presidency in 1976, saying that he "didn't come down (to Washington) to get caught up in party squabbles which only make it more difficult for the President in a very difficult time...".

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. He became the 2nd Vice President to be appointed to the position under the 25th Amendment — the first being Ford himself. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. Rockefeller underwent a lengthy series of Congressional hearings but ultimately was confirmed, beginning his service on December 19, 1974. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. Currently, Rockefeller is the last governor to have served as Vice President. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. Following the resignation of President Richard Nixon, successor Gerald Ford nominated Rockefeller to serve as the 41st Vice President of the United States.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Some analysts speculated that his appointment to the vice presidency by Gerald Ford was calculated to forestall a Rockefeller presidential campaign in 1976. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Rockefeller left office as governor in 1973 in what was rumored at the time to be a move toward a fourth bid for the presidency; however this never materialized. And the social evil contributed its share. Rockefeller lost again to Nixon in 1968. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. After polls predicted Rockefeller would win the California primary, he lost by a slim margin and dropped out of the race, endorsing Goldwater (but more hesitantly than he had previously supported Nixon).

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. However, Rockefeller's divorce and quick remarriage to a woman (who had until then been married to someone else) twenty years his junior turned many people off. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. Rockefeller was considered the front-runner for the 1964 campaign against the more conservative Barry Goldwater of Arizona (Nixon had declined to run after losing to Pat Brown in the 1962 California gubernatorial election). Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. His bid in 1960 was ended early when then-Vice President Richard Nixon surged ahead in the polls; after quitting the campaign Rockefeller backed Nixon enthusiastically, and concentrated his efforts on introducing more moderate stances into Nixon's platform. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". Rockefeller's dream was the presidency; he spent millions in attempts in 1960, 1964, and 1968.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. Under the New York MTA, toll revenue collected from the bridges and tunnels, which had previously been used to build more bridges, tunnels, and highways, were shifted to support public transport operations. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. In taking over control of the Triborough authority, Rockefeller overcame Robert Moses, who controlled several of New York state's public infrastructure authorities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. He created the New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority in 1965, which merged the New York City subway system with the publicly-owned Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority and the Long Island Rail Road and Metro North Railroad, which were purchased by the state from private owners. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. Rockefeller also reformed the governance of New York City's transportation system.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". This occurred on top of a state economy that was in significant decline. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. The state budget went from US$2.04 billion in 1959-60 (Rockefeller's first year in office) to US$8.8 billion in 1973-74 (at the end of Rockefeller's time in office). Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. Public-benefit authorities (some 230 of them, like UDC, were brought into existence by Rockefeller) were often used to issue bonds in order to avoid the requirement of a vote of the people for the issuance of a bond; such authority-issued bonds bore higher interest than if they had been issued directly by the state. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza) project—the most expensive project that had ever been undertaken by any US state government), his generous pension programs for many public workers in the state (firefighers, many police officers, sanitation workers, and corrections officers), and highest-in-the-nation minimum wage that he was able to push through the legislature (or carry out through some existing public-benefit authority such as the UDC) greatly drove up costs and debt in the state.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Rockefeller's massive construction programs (not just the aforementioned, but others such as the US$2 billion Albany South Mall (later renamed the Nelson A. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. (UDC is now called the Empire State Development Corporation, which forms a unit, along with the formerly independent Job Development Authority, of Empire State Development.). Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. To create more low-income housing, Rockefeller created the unprecedented-in-its-power New York State Urban Development Corporation (UDC), which could override local zoning, condemn property, and create creative financing schemes to carry out desired development. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. He also created many major highways (such as the Long Island, the Southern Tier, the Adirondack, and Interstate 81) which vastly improved road transportation in New York State.

Helen Keller met every U.S. He was the driving force in turning the State University of New York into the largest system of public higher education in the United States. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Rockefeller engaged in massive building endeavors that left a profound mark on New York State. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Compared to other Republicans, Rockefeller was a liberal, and Republicans who hold views similar to his are often referred to as "Rockefeller Republicans". She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. Despite this, he was still considered one of the leaders of the moderate wing of the Republican Party of the United States, and is hailed as an example of one of the chief figures of the "1960s and 1970s Republican" movement.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. As governor of New York, he successfully secured the passage of extremely strict laws against the possession and/or sale of drugs; these laws — which became known as the "Rockefeller drug laws" — took effect in 1973 and are still on the books, and rank among the toughest in the United States: The mere possession of four ounces or more of such drugs as heroin and cocaine — or the sale of two ounces or more of the same substances — carries the same penalties as those imposed for second-degree murder. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. He served as governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 (elected to four terms, he served three and a half). In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. Rockefeller left federal service in 1956 to concentrate on New York state politics, where he served in various capacities before being elected governor (winning with a plurality of over 600,000 in a year mostly dominated by state Democrats). In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. The election of fellow-Republican Dwight Eisenhower to the presidency saw Rockefeller appointed first as chair of the President's Advisory Committee on Government Organization and later as an undersecretary in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. After the war he headed the International Development Advisory Board, part of Truman's Point Four Program. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. He became an Assistant Secretary of State during World War II, where he ran the propaganda operation for Central and South America. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. Rockefeller worked for a time in several family-run businesses and philanthropies before entering public service. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). He graduated from Dartmouth College in 1930, where he was a member of the Psi Upsilon fraternity and the Casque & Gauntlet Society.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Nelson Rockefeller was born on the same day of the year as his paternal grandfather, and from childhood was the leader of the five Rockefeller brothers, John, Nelson, Laurance, Winthrop, and David. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. He was also the brother of Governor Winthrop Rockefeller of Arkansas and the uncle of Governor and Senator John Davison Rockefeller, IV of West Virginia. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. Aldrich of Rhode Island, for whom he was named. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. Rockefeller and Senator Nelson W.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. and the grandson of oil tycoon John D. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Rockefeller, Jr. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. A member of the prominent Rockefeller family, he was the son of John D. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family. "Rocky," as he was called, was born in Bar Harbor, Maine.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. . It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was a Governor of New York and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. Keller and Kate Adams Keller.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. . Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

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