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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.
. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. William Howard Taft IV is a high official in the United States Department of State. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. ambassador to Ireland. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. William Howard Taft III was U.S.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. Taft II, is the current Governor of Ohio. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. The President's grandson, Robert Taft Jr., served a term as a Senator from Ohio from 1971-1977; the President's great-grandson, Robert A. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. Two more generations of the Taft family later entered politics. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. His other son, Charles Phelps Taft II served as mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio from 1955 to 1957.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. A vociferous critic of the New Deal, Robert Taft was a Republican leader in the Senate from 1939-1953. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. Taft I, was elected to the United States Senate. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. The former president's oldest son, Robert A. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. A third generation of the Taft family entered the national political stage in 1938.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. Kennedy) and one of four chief justices buried at Arlington (the others being Earl Warren, Warren Burger, and William Rehnquist). Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. He is one of two presidents (the other being John F. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. His wife, Helen, was reported to have said that his service as Secretary of War was what qualified him for burial there while, in fact, anyone who serves as president and thus Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces is entitled to burial at Arlington. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. Three days later, on March 11, he became the first American president to be buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. During the last summer of his life, Taft weighed about 244 pounds, one pound more than his average weight in college. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. He died 33 days later on Saturday March 8. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. Taft retired as chief justice on February 3, 1930, due to ill health. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. In an effort to make the Court work more efficiently, he advocated passage of the 1925 Judges Act enabling the Supreme Court to give precedence to cases of national importance.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. He was also the first chief justice without any prior high court experience. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. He gave the oath of office to both Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. He was the only President to do so, and thus the only former president to swear in future presidents. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. From 1921 until 1930, Taft served on the Supreme Court as Chief Justice of the United States.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Perhaps as a result, 4 of Taft's appointments were men of relative youth and vigor at 48, 51, 53 and 54. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Taft's unusual opportunity to make 5 appointments in the single Court term of 1910-1911 came largely from the sickly composition of the Court in 1909; the youngest justice Moody was so ill as to leave the bench in the middle of the 1909 term and never return, and the four justices over 70 were in various stages of decline with three dying before the 1910 term. And the social evil contributed its share. Notably, Taft's 6 appointments to the Court rank third only to those of Washington and FDR, with his appointment of 5 new justices tied with Jackson and Lincoln. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. Taft appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. Undoubtedly, this weight loss saved his life. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. His hypersomnolence resolved and, less obviously, his systolic blood pressure dropped 40 to 50 mmHg (from 210 mmHg). Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. Within a year of leaving the Presidency Taft lost approximately 70 pounds (32 kg), dropping his weight from 335 pounds to 264 pounds. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". His legendary tendency to fall asleep in almost any circumstance, an open secret and source of embarassment for his intimates, is now understood to have been the most obvious manifestation of the disease.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. Evidence from eyewitnesses and from Taft himself strongly suggests he had severe obstructive sleep apnea during his Presidential term of office, a consequence of his 300 to 340 pound (136 to 159 kg) weight. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. Roosevelt's Bull Moose candidacy split the Republican vote and helped elect Democrat Woodrow Wilson. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. "Bull Moose") and selected Theodore Roosevelt to run against Taft in the general election. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. When Taft won the Republican nomination, the Progressives organized a rival party (the United States Progressive Party, a.k.a.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". Progressive Republicans openly challenged Taft in the Congressional elections of 1910 and in the Republican presidential primaries of 1912. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. By 1910 Taft's party was divided. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. Yet balanced against these achievements was Taft's acceptance of a tariff with protective schedules that outraged liberal opinion; his opposition to the entry of the state of Arizona into the Union because of its liberal constitution; and his growing reliance on the conservative wing of his party. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. He also signed legislation that created the United States Department of Labor.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. The 16th Amendment authorized a federal income tax; the 17th Amendment, ratified in 1913, mandated the direct election of senators by the people, replacing the system whereby they were selected by state legislatures. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. Taft fought for prosecution of trusts, further strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission, established a postal savings bank and a parcel post system, expanded the civil service and sponsored the enactment of two amendments to the Constitution. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. Throughout his presidency, Taft contended with dissent from more liberal members of the Republican Party, many of whom continued to follow the lead of former President Roosevelt. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. With Roosevelt's help, Taft handily defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Instead, he promoted Taft as the next Republican president. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. After serving nearly two full terms, the popular Theodore Roosevelt refused to run in the election of 1908. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. In 1903, Theodore Roosevelt named Taft as Secretary of War, and he returned to the United States. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. From 1901 to 1903, Taft served as the first civilian Governor-General of the Philippines.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. In 1900, President William McKinley appointed Taft as the chairman of a commission to organize a civilian government in the Philippines, which had been ceded to the United States by Spain following the Spanish-American War and the 1898 Treaty of Paris. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. Circuit Court of Appeals, a post which he held until 1900. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1892, Taft was appointed by President Benjamin Harrison as an associate judge for the newly created Sixth U.S. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. After college, he attended Cincinnati Law School and began his political career in Ohio shortly after joining the bar in 1880.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. He was also a member of the Beta chapter of the Psi Upsilon fraternal organization. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. Like his father, the younger Taft went to college at Yale University, where he was a member of Skull and Bones, the secret society co-founded by his father. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. Grant. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). His mother was Mount Holyoke graduate Louisa Torrey; his father was Alphonso Taft, a prominent Republican, who served as Secretary of War under President Ulysses S.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Taft was born on September 15, 1857, in Cincinnati, Ohio. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. . It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. Supreme Court. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. Taft later became Chief Justice, becoming the only president to serve on the U.S.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. In the 1912 election, Taft lost his bid for a second term; Roosevelt ran on his newly formed Progressive Party ("Bull Moose") ticket, splitting the Republican vote and resulting in the election of Woodrow Wilson. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Taft later broke off contact with Roosevelt in one of the most well-publicized political feuds of the 20th century. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. Taft was the first president to occupy the Oval Office when it was opened in October 1909. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family. Two constitutional amendments were passed during his term: the 16th Amendment, authorizing a federal income tax, and the 17th Amendment, mandating the direct election of senators by the people instead of by the state legislatures (see below).

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. Taft defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in the presidential election, and during his presidency prosecuted the trusts, strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission, expanded the civil service, and established a better postal system. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. Circuit Court of Appeals, and Governor-General of the Philippines before being nominated for president in the 1908 Republican National Convention with the backing of his predecessor and close friend Theodore Roosevelt. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. A Republican, Taft served as Secretary of War, federal judge for the Sixth U.S. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, jurist, and the 27th President of the United States, serving a single term from 1909 to 1913.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Dollar Diplomacy. . History of the United States (1865-1918). Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. presidential election, 1912. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. U.S.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. presidential election, 1908. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. U.S. Taft family. Taft was listed as a university professor living in New Haven, Connecticut.

Federal Population Census, William H. In the 1920 U.S. It is one of the busiest streets in the city and one of 2 majors streets that the Light Rail Transit (LRT) passes through. In Manila, Philippines, an avenue was named after him, Taft Avenue.

This may have led to his disdain for the word "pudgy." In fact, it was said that an aide blacked out "pudgy" from his morning newspaper. There is some evidence that his mother started calling him "my pudgy-wudgy boy" before his fifth birthday. At 6 feet, and weighing over 350 pounds (159 kg) , Taft was the largest and heaviest President. Taft was overweight, to the point that he became stuck in the bathtub in the White House several times, prompting the installation of a new bathtub capable of holding all of the men who installed it.

Arizona – February 14, 1912. New Mexico – January 6, 1912. Mahlon Pitney - 1912. Joseph Rucker Lamar - 1911.

Willis Van Devanter - 1911. Taft himself would succeed White as Chief Justice.). Edward Douglass White - Chief Justice - 1910 (Already on the Court as Associate Justice since 1894, and the first Chief Justice to be elevated from Associate, although Chief Justice John Rutledge had previously served as an associate justice. Charles Evans Hughes - 1910.

Horace Harmon Lurton - 1910.

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