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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary. Hoy, Linda (1985), Profiles: Emmeline Pankhurst. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.
She died ten years after seeing her most ardently pursued goal come to fruition: the right to vote for women in the United Kingdom. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. Her supporters handed the white feather to every young man they encountered wearing civilian dress, and bobbed up at Hyde Park meetings with placards: “Intern Them All.” (593)". The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. Pankhurst toured the country, making recruiting speeches.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. On September 8th 1914, Christabel re-appeared at the London Opera House, after her long exile, to utter a declaration, not on women’s enfranchisement, but on “The German Peril.” Mrs. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. As Sylvia Pankhurst points out in her chronicle, The Suffragette Movement, her mother and sister rallied their followers in an effort to reroute the militant momentum which they had so successfully orchestrated in the struggle for suffrage:. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. Enlistment of the unenlisted was of the highest priority. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. “Giving its energies wholly to the prosecution of the War, it rushed to a furious extreme, its Chauvinism unexampled amongst all the other women’s societies” (Pankhurst, Sylvia 593).

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. Pankhurst’s influence swayed many to follow her lead. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. Although, not all of the members of the suffrage movement backed the war, Mrs. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. Pankhurst threw all her energies and all her influence into the effort, which now, designated itself pro-war and pro-conscription. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. "Characteristically, Mrs.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. This practice was later outlawed and the resulting slaughter that took place left 1,000,000 men from the UK alone dead and many more injured. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. Many Suffragetes were involved in the shaming of men in the UK to fight in the First World War. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. In 1916, this allowed the government to draft all able-bodied men into the armed services which they did by advocating the White Feather Campaign. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. With back up from Lloyd George, she organised a parade of 30,000 women, costing £2,000, to encourge employers to let women take over men's jobs in industry.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. All attempts to gain votes for women were put on hold, and her efforts were instead directed to urging women to take over men's jobs, so that the men could go and fight in the war. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. In 1914, the First World War broke out, and she felt that nothing should interfere with her country's efforts to win. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. Her autobiography, My Own Story, was published in 1914. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. Her approach to the campaign did not endear her to everyone, and there were splits within the movement as a result.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. Mrs Pankhurst's tactics for drawing attention to the movement succeeded in getting her imprisoned several times, but, because of her high profile, she did not endure the same privations as many of the imprisoned working-class suffragettes; however, she did experience force-feeding after going on hunger strike. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. She was joined in the movement by her daughters, Christabel and Sylvia, both of whom would make a substantial contribution to the campaign in different ways. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. Its members included the notorious Annie Kenney, the suffragette "martyr", Emily Davison and the composer, Dame Ethel Smyth. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. In 1903 she founded the better-known Women's Social and Political Union, an organization most famous for its militancy which began in 1905.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). In 1889, Mrs Pankhurst founded the Women's Franchise League, but her campaign was interrupted by her husband's death in 1898. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Dr Pankhurst was already a supporter of the women's suffrage movement, and had been the author of the Married Women's Property Acts of 1870 and 1882. And the social evil contributed its share. She was born Emmeline Goulden in Manchester, England to abolitionist parents, and married Richard Marsden Pankhurst, a barrister, in 1879. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. It is the name of "Mrs Pankhurst", more than any other, which is associated with the struggle for votes for women in the period immediately preceding World War I.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. Emmeline Pankhurst (July 14, 1858 - June 14, 1928) was one of the founders of the British suffragette movement. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.".

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. President from Grover Cleveland to John F.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. Keller and Kate Adams Keller.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. . Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

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