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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary. Dixon wherein the hero was closely modeled after Lindbergh. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. Shortly after Lindbergh made his famous flight, the Stratemeyer Syndicate began publishing the Ted Scott Flying Stories by Franklin W. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. The film begins with events leading up to the flight before giving a gripping and intense view of the flight itself. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. Louis, directed by Billy Wilder.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. James Stewart played Lindbergh in the biographical The Spirit of St. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. The Agatha Christie book and movie Murder on the Orient Express begin with a fictionalized depiction of the Lindbergh baby kidnapping. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. A fictional version of Lindbergh is a major character in Philip Roth's 2004 counterfactual alternative history novel, The Plot Against America; this portrayal engendered some controversy. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. He also lent his name to San Diego's Lindbergh Field, which is also known now as San Diego International Airport.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. Louis hangs there. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. The Lindbergh Terminal at Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport was named after him and a replica of The Spirit of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. — CAL. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. Died: Maui, 1974. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. Lindbergh Born: Michigan, 1902. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. His epitaph, which quotes Psalms 139:9, reads: Charles A. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. He was buried on the grounds of the Palapala Ho'omau Church.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Lindbergh spent his final years on the Hawaiian island of Maui, where he died of cancer on August 26, 1974. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. Many believe that the tragic kidnapping and death of his son Charles Augustus psychologically influenced him to foster these children in secret so as to compensate for his terrible loss. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. DNA tests have confirmed the truth of these assertions. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She disclosed the affair in 2003, two years after both Brigitte Hesshaimer and Anne Morrow Lindbergh had died.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. Astrid later read a magazine article about Lindbergh and found snapshots and more than a hundred letters written from him to her mother. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. The two managed to keep the affair completely secret; even the children did not know the true identity of their father, whom they met sporadically when he came to visit. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. They had three children together: Dyrk (born 1958), Astrid (born 1960), and David (born 1967). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. From 1957 until his death in 1974, Lindbergh had an affair with a woman 24 years his junior, the German hat maker Brigitte Hesshaimer.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). In the 1960s, he became a spokesman for the conservation of the natural world, speaking in favor of the protection of whales, against super-sonic transport planes and was instrumental in establishing protections for the primitive Filipino group the Tasaday. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Eisenhower restored his assignment with the Army Air Corps and making him Brigadier General in 1954. And the social evil contributed its share. Dwight D. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. Louis, recounting his non-stop transatlantic flight, won the Pulitzer Prize in 1954.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. His 1953 book The Spirit of St. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. Air Force and to Pan American World Airways. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. After World War II he lived quietly in Connecticut as a consultant both to the chief of staff of the U.S. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". He also showed Marine F4U pilots how to take off with twice the bomb load that the aircraft was rated for.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. This improved fuel usage in cruise, and enabled aircraft to fly longer range missions such as the one that killed Admiral Yamamoto. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. His contributions include engine-leaning techniques that Lindbergh showed P-38 Lightning pilots. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. He went on to assist with the war effort by serving as a civilian consultant to aviation companies and the government, as well as flying about 50 combat missions (again as a civilian) in 1944 in the Pacific. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. However, after the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, he attempted to return to the Army Air Corps, but was denied when several of Roosevelt's cabinet secretaries registered objections.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". Roosevelt openly questioned his loyalty. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. Army Air Corps when President Franklin D. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. We cannot allow the natural passions and prejudices of other people to lead our country to destruction." Lindbergh resigned his commission in the U.S. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. We cannot blame them for looking out for what they believe to be their own interests, but we also must look out for ours.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. In the same speech, Lindbergh clearly communicated that he considered Jewish-Americans to not be patriotic when he said; "But I am saying that the leaders of both the British and Jewish races, for reasons which are understandable from their viewpoint as they are inadvisable from ours, for reasons which are not American, wish to involve us in the war. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. In it, he pointed out that Americans had solidly opposed entering the war when it began, and that three groups had been "pressing this country toward war" -- the Roosevelt Administration, the British, and the Jews. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. At an America First rally in Des Moines, Iowa, on September 11, 1941, he made a speech titled: "Who Are the War Agitators?". President from Grover Cleveland to John F. As American entry into the war began to seem inevitable, Lindbergh stated he would publicly name "the groups that were most powerful and effective in pushing the United States towards involvement in the war".

Helen Keller met every U.S. Lindbergh was also the major spokesman for America First providing many speeches during 1940-1941. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. As Nazi Germany began World War II, Lindbergh became a prominent speaker in favor of isolationism, going so far as to recommended that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Germany during his January 23, 1941 testimony before Congress. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. He would return to the United States as war broke out in Europe. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. The Lindberghs lived in England and Brittany, France during the late 1930's in order to find tranquility and avoid the celebrity that followed them everywhere in the United States after the kidnapping trial.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. Lindbergh declined to return the medal to the Germans because he claimed that to do so would be "an unnecessary insult" to the Nazi leadership. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. Lindbergh's decoration later caused an outcry in the United States. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. Göring decorated Lindbergh with German medal of honor (the Verdienstkreuz Deutcher Adler) for his services to aviation and particularly for his 1927 flight. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. Willy Messerschmitt.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. The dinner included diplomats and three of the greatest minds of German aviation, Ernst Heinkel, Adolf Baeumaker, and Dr. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. In 1938 the American ambassador to Germany, Hugh Wilson invited Lindbergh to a dinner with Hermann Göring at the American embassy in Berlin to improve American-German relations. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. Lindbergh also undertook a survey of aviation in the Soviet Union in 1938. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). Lindbergh was intrigued, and stated that Germany had taken a leading part in a number of aviation developments, including metal construction, low-wing designs, dirigibles, and Diesel engines.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. military, where he reported on German aviation and the Luftwaffe (air force). Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. In Europe during the rise of fascism, Lindbergh traveled to Germany several times at the behest of the U.S. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. Hauptmann, who maintained his innocence until the end, was found guilty and was executed on April 3, 1936. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. Tired of being in the spotlight and still mourning the loss of their son, the Lindberghs moved to Europe in December 1935.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. More than three years later, a media circus ensued when the man accused of the murder, Bruno Hauptmann, went on trial. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. The boy was found dead on May 12 in Hopewell, New Jersey just a few miles from the Lindbergh's home, after a nation-wide ten week search and ransom negotiations with the kidnappers. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. Their son Charles Augustus, 20 months old, was abducted on March 1, 1932 from their home. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family. Main article: Lindbergh kidnapping.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. The two had six children: Charles Augustus, Jr.(born 1930), Jon (1932), Land (1937), Anne (1940), Scott (1942) and Reeve (1945). It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. He taught her how to fly and did much of the exploring and charting of air-routes together with her. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. He married the author Anne Morrow Lindbergh in 1929. Keller and Kate Adams Keller.
.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. These innovations are the basis of modern intercontinental air travel. . Lindbergh is recognized in aviation for demonstrating and charting polar air-routes, high altitude flying techniques, and increasing aircraft flying range by decreasing fuel consumption. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. On March 21, 1929 he was presented the Medal of Honor for his historic trans-Atlantic flight. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. He served on a variety of national and international boards and committees, including the central committee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in the United States.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. A ticker-tape parade was held for him down 5th Avenue in New York City on June 13, 1927.[1] His public stature following this flight was such that he became an important voice on behalf of aviation activities until his death. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. Lindbergh's accomplishment won him the Orteig Prize of $25,000 on offer since 1919. That had been done first in stages by the crew of the NC-4 in May 1919, with the first non-stop flight made by Alcock and Brown in June 1919. (His grandson Erik Lindbergh repeated this trip 75 years later in 2002.) Although Lindbergh was the first to fly from New York to Paris nonstop, he was not the first to make a Transatlantic flight.

He needed 33.5 hours for the trip. Louis which had been designed by Donald Hall and custom built by Ryan Airlines of San Diego, California. Lindbergh gained sudden great international fame as the first pilot to fly solo and non-stop across the Atlantic Ocean, flying from Roosevelt Airfield (Nassau County, Long Island), New York to Paris on May 20-May 21, 1927 in his single-engine airplane The Spirit of St. In April 1923, while visiting friends in Lake Village, Arkansas, Lindbergh made his first ever night-time flight over Lake Village and Lake Chicot.

Louis in the 1920s. After finishing first in his class, he worked as a civilian airmail pilot on the line St. military aviator with the United States Army Air Corps. In 1924, he started training as a U.S.

In 1922 he quit a mechanical engineering program, joined a pilot and mechanist training with Nebraska Aircraft, bought his own airplane, a Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny", and became a stunt pilot. Early on he showed an interest in machines. into World War I; his mother was a chemistry teacher. congressman who opposed the entry of the U.S.

His father, Charles August Lindbergh, was a lawyer and later a U.S. He grew up in Little Falls, Minnesota. Lindbergh was born in Detroit, Michigan, the son of Swedish immigrants. .

Charles Augustus Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974) was a pioneering United States aviator famous for piloting the first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927.

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