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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary. Interment was in the Andrew Johnson National Cemetery, Greeneville, Tennessee. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. He was elected as a Democrat to the Senate and served from March 4, 1875, until his death near Elizabethton, Tennessee, on July 31, 1875. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. Johnson was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the United States Senate in 1868 and to the House of Representatives in 1872. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. Johnson was the first President to be impeached, and the only one until the impeachment of Bill Clinton on December 19, 1998.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. There were two votes in the Senate: one on May 16, 1868 for the 11th article, and another on May 26 for the other 10. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. He had avoided removal from office by a single vote. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. Johnson was acquitted by a vote of thirty-five for conviction to nineteen for acquittal. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. Since Lincoln had appointed Stanton, it was claimed, the applicability of the Act had already run its course.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. Johnson's defense was based on a clause in the Tenure-of-Office Act stating that the then-current Secretaries would hold their posts throughout the term of the President who appointed them. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. Eleven articles were set out in the resolution and the trial before the Senate lasted three months. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. Evarts served as his counsel. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. William M.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. On March 5, 1868 a court of impeachment was organized in the Senate to hear charges against the President. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. Three days after Stanton's removal, the House passed a resolution to impeach Johnson for "high crimes and misdemeanors", specifically, for intentionally violating the Tenure-of-Office Act and thus violating the law of the land, which he had sworn an oath to enforce. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. Thomas attempted to move into the War office, for which Stanton had Thomas arrested. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. The Senate and House entered into hot debate.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. United States (1926), the Supreme Court ruled that such laws were indeed unconstitutional.). She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. (Years later in Myers v. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. Johnson had previously vetoed the Act, claiming it was unconstitutional, and subsequently Congress had passed the Act again by the required two-thirds majority to make it law, over the objection of the President. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. shall be entitled to hold such office until a successor shall have been in like manner appointed and duly qualified," thus removing the President's previous unlimited power to fire any of his Cabinet members at will.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. The Act said, "...every person holding any civil office, to which he has been appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate .. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. This was an apparent violation of the Tenure-of-Office Act, made law in March of 1867, which was a law that Congress had specifically designed to protect Stanton. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. On February 21, 1868, Johnson notified Congress that he had removed Edwin Stanton as Secretary of War, and was replacing him in the interim with Adjutant-General Lorenzo Thomas. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. Johnson's public criticisms of Congress provoked much talk of impeachment over the months.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). However, "Congressional Reconstruction", enforced by repeated acts passed over Johnson's veto, provided for provisional state governments run by the military and ensuring the local passage of civil rights laws and otherwise imposing the will of the United States Congress — which, of course, was run by the North. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Johnson favored a very quick restoration of all rights and privileges of other states. And the social evil contributed its share. Congress and Johnson argued in an increasingly public way about Reconstruction: the manner in which the Southern secessionist states would be readmitted to the Union. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers.
.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. Presidency upon the assassination of a President and the third to succeed upon the death of a President. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. He was the first Vice President to succeed to the U.S. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. He became President of the United States on April 15, 1865, upon the death of Lincoln. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". He was elected Vice President of the United States on the National Union ticket headed by Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1864 and was inaugurated March 4, 1865.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. Johnson was then appointed by President Abraham Lincoln as Military Governor of Tennessee in 1862. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. At the time of secession of the Confederacy, Johnson was the only Senator from the seceded states to continue participation in Congress. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. He was chairman of the Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent Expense (Thirty-sixth Congress). Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. He was Governor of Tennessee from 1853 to 1857, and was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate and served from October 8, 1857 to March 4, 1862, when he resigned.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". Johnson did not seek renomination, having become a candidate for the governorship of Tennessee. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. He was chairman of the Committee on Public Expenditures (Thirty-first and Thirty-second Congresses). Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. He was elected to the State Senate in 1841, and elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-eighth and to the four succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1843 to March 3, 1853). Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. He was a member of the State House of Representatives from 1835 to 1837 and 1839 to 1841.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Johnson served as an alderman in Greeneville from 1828 to 1830 and mayor of Greeneville from 1834 to 1838. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. He never attended any type of school; his wife has historically been credited with teaching him to read and write. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. At the age of 13 he was apprenticed to a tailor, but ran away to Greeneville, Tennessee in 1826, where he continued his employment as a tailor. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. At the age of 4 his father died.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Johnson was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, to Jacob Johnson and Mary McDonough on December 29, 1808. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. . In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. He was subsequently acquitted by a single vote in the Senate. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. Johnson presided over the Reconstruction of the United States following the American Civil War, and his conciliatory policies towards the defeated rebels and his vetoes of civil rights bills embroiled him in a bitter dispute with the Congressional Republicans, leading the House of Representatives to impeach him in 1868; he was the first President to be impeached.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the sixteenth Vice President (1865) and the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. Nebraska – March 1, 1867. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. Keller and Kate Adams Keller.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. . Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

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