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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.
. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. The Lou Henry and Herbert Hoover House, built in 1919 in Palo Alto, is now the official residence of the President of Stanford University, and a National Historic Landmark. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. Hoover and his wife are buried at his presidential library in West Branch, Iowa. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. (Gerald Ford is now a close contender, and as of 2005, he has been out of office for 28 years).

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. His was the longest retirement of any President. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. By the time of his death, he had rehabilitated his image and died praised as a beloved statesman. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. Over the years, Hoover wrote many articles and books, one of which he was working on when he died at the age of 90 in New York City on October 20, 1964 at 11:35 AM, 31 years and seven months after leaving office. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. Many economies resulted from both commissions' recommendations.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. Eisenhower in 1953. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. He was appointed chairman of a similar commission by President Dwight D. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. This became known as the Hoover Commission. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Truman appointed Hoover to a commission, which elected him chairman, to reorganize the executive departments.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. In 1947, President Harry S. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. His misgivings are in the book The Challenge to Liberty where he talks of fascism, communism, and socialism as enemies of traditional American liberties. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. After Roosevelt assumed the presidency, Hoover became a critic of the New Deal, warning against tendencies toward statism. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. Hoover was badly defeated in the 1932 presidential election.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. His opponents in Congress, whom he felt were sabotaging his program for their own political gain, painted him as a callous and cruel president. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. Hoover appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. He and Secretary of State Henry Stimson outlined the Hoover-Stimson Doctrine that said that the United States would not recognize territories gained by force. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy" by withdrawing American troops from Nicaragua and Haiti, he also proposed an arms embargo on Latin America and a one-third reduction in the world's naval forces - the Hoover Plan.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. In the foreign arena he helped to pave the way for Franklin D. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. He also signed the Norris-La Guardia Act that paved the way for the New Deal's labor policy. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. Lawrence Seaway (which failed in the Senate), signed an act that made The Star-Spangled Banner the national anthem, wrote a Children's Charter that advocated protection of every child regardless of race and gender, built the San Francisco Bay Bridge, created an antitrust division in the Justice Department, required air mail carriers to improve service, proposed federal loans for urban slum clearances, organized the Federal Bureau of Prisons, reorganized the Bureau of Indian Affairs, proposed a federal Department of Education, advocated fifty-dollar-a-month pensions for Americans over 65, chaired White House conferences on child health, protection, homebuilding and homeownership. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. He appointed a commission which set aside 3 million acres (12,000 km²) of national parks and 2.3 million of national forests; he appointed a Federal Farm Board that tried to fix farm prices, advocated tax reduction for low-income Americans, doubled the numbers of veteran hospital facilities, negotiated a treaty on St.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). The President expanded civil service protection, cancelled private oil leases on government lands and led the way for the prosecution of gangster Al Capone. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Even if the Hoover presidency has a negative imprint on it, it must be noted that there were some important reforms under the Hoover administration. And the social evil contributed its share.
. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. This possible violation of the Posse Comitatus Act of 1878, and the fact that only a token payment was given to the veterans to pay for their trip home, added to Hoover's image as a cold-hearted president with little sympathy for the suffering created by the Great Depression.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. Patton Jr., to remove the "Bonus army" from the capitol. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. Eisenhower and George S. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. Army forces, led by General Douglas MacArthur and aided by junior officers Dwight D. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". Hoover sent U.S.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. Thousands of World War I veterans and their families demonstrated in Washington, D.C., during June 1932, calling for immediate payment of a bonus that had been promised by the Bonus Law of 1924 for payment in 1945. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. (Unemployment did not drop below 9.9% until 1942). The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. It was not until the war in the 1940s that the economy recovered fully. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. Even with massive intervention by his successor Roosevelt, the economy underwent only limited improvement, with unemployment falling to 14.3% in 1937, and then rising to 19% under a severe recession in 1937-1938 (a contraction labeled a depression by some economists).

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". Unemployment rose to 24.9% by the end of Hoover's presidency in 1933, a year that is considered to be the depth of the Great Depression. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. Even so, New Dealer Rexford Tugwell later remarked that although no one would say so at the time, "practically the whole New Deal was extrapolated from programs that Hoover started.". Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. Even as he legislated for changes, he reiterated his view that while people must not suffer from hunger and cold, caring for them must be primarily a local and voluntary responsibility. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. These policies pale beside the more drastic steps taken as part of the New Deal, however, and Hoover's opponents charge that they came too little, and too late.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. He attacked Herbert Hoover for "reckless and extravagant" spending, of thinking "that we ought to center control of everything in Washington as rapidly as possible," and of leading "the greatest spending administration in peacetime in all of history." Roosevelt's running mate, John Nance Garner, accused the Republican of "leading the country down the path of socialism". Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. Roosevelt blasted the Republican incumbent for spending and taxing too much, increasing national debt, raising tariffs and blocking trade, as well as placing millions on the dole of the government. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. During the 1932 elections, Franklin D. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. For this reason, some hold that Hoover's economics was in fact left-wing in character.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Hoover also encouraged Congress to investigate the New York Stock Exchange and this pressure resulted in various reforms. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. The estate tax was doubled and corporate taxes were raised by almost 15%. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. The Revenue Act of 1932 raised taxes on the highest incomes from 25% to 63%. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In order to pay for these and other government programs, Hoover agreed to one of the largest tax increases in American history.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. The following is an outline of other actions Hoover took to try to help end the depression through government taxing and spending:. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. It was his vocal stance on non-intervention that led to public perception that he was a laissez-faire, 'do nothing' president, which his supporters deny. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. Hoover's economy was put to the test with the onset of the Great Depression in 1929. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In June 1932, a conference was held in Switzerland that cancelled all reparations payments by Germany.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. The Hoover Moratorium had the effect of temporarily stopping the banking collapse in Europe. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. In June 1931, to deal with a very serious banking collapse in Central Europe that threatened to cause a world-wide financial melt-down, Hoover issued the so-called Hoover Moratorium that called for a one-year halt in reparations payments by Germany to France and in the payment of Allied war debts to the United States. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. Though he was not averse to taking action which he considered was in the public good - such as regulating radio broadcasting and aviation, he preferred a voluntary, non-government approach. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). Hoover feared that too much intervention or coercion on behalf of the government would destroy individuality and self-reliance, which he considered to be important American values.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. From before his entry to the presidency, he was among the greatest proponents of the concept that public-private cooperation was the way to achieve high long-term growth. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Hoover's stance on the economy was based on volunteerism. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. The trend continues to this day, with a majority of African Americans voting for the Democratic Party. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. This was the first election in which the Republican party did not receive a majority of the African American vote since Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1860.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. Hoover was nominated for a second term but was defeated by Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the 1932 election. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Hoover's Secretary of the Treasury was Andrew Mellon, a hold over from the Coolidge administration. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. Moreover, the Federal Reserve System's tightening of the money supply (for fear of inflation) is also regarded by most modern economists as a mistaken tactic given the situation. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family. These acts are often blamed for deepening the depression, and being Hoover's biggest political blunders.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. However, he signed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, which raised tariffs on over 20,000 dutiable items and later, the 1932 Revenue Act, which hiked taxes and fees (including postage rates) across the board. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. After the crash Hoover announced that while he would keep the Federal budget balanced, he would cut taxes and expand public-works spending. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. He said then: "We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land." Within months the stock market crashed, and the nation's economy spiraled downward into what became known as the Great Depression. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. Harding and Calvin Coolidge, and leading relief efforts in the wake of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, Hoover became the Republican Presidential nominee in 1928.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. After capably serving as Secretary of Commerce under Presidents Warren G. . Whatever their politics, they shall be fed!". Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. When a critic inquired if he was not thus helping Bolshevism, Hoover retorted, "Twenty million people are starving. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. He extended aid to famine-stricken Bolshevist Russia in 1921.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. To this end he employed a new formed Quaker organization, the American Friends Service Committee to carry out much of the logistical work in Europe. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. After the end of the war, Hoover, a member of the Supreme Economic Council and head of the American Relief Administration, organized shipments of food for starving millions in Central Europe. The Armistice did not end Hoover's involvement with relief. He succeeded in cutting consumption of foods needed overseas and avoided rationing at home, yet kept the Allies fed.

After the United States entered the war, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover head of the Food Administration. Long before the Armistice of 1918 he was an international hero, in the words of Ambassador Page, "a simple, modest, energetic little man who began his career in California and will end it in heaven.". Despite the obstacles put before him Hoover persisted, purchasing rice in Burma, Argentine corn, Chinese beans and American wheat, meat and fats. Theodore Roosevelt promised to hold Lodge at bay, informing Hoover that "the courage of any political official is stronger in his office than in the newspapers.".

At home, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge wanted to prosecute Hoover for dealing with the enemy. Germans deported youthful CRB workers, including a major of The Salvation Army, on similar charges. The British investigated charges that he was a German spy. Every day brought new crises.

In all, the CRB saved ten million people from starvation. He also taught the Belgians, who regarded cornmeal as cattle feed, to eat cornbread. In an early form of shuttle diplomacy he crossed the North Sea 40 times seeking to persuade the enemies in London and Berlin to allow food to reach the war's victims. More than once Hoover made personal pledges far in excess of his total worth.

Its $12-million-a-month budget was supplied by voluntary donations and government grants. The CRB became, in effect, an independent republic of relief, with its own flag, navy, factories, mills and railroads. For several days he pondered the request, finally telling a friend, "Let the fortune go to hell." He would assume the immense task on two conditions--that he receive no salary, and that he be given a free hand in organizing and administering what became known as the Commission for the Relief of Belgium (CRB). This would mean abandoning his successful career as the world's foremost mining engineer.

Hoover was asked to undertake an unprecedented relief effort for the tiny kingdom dependent on imports for 80 percent of its food. Trapped between German bayonets and a British blockade, Belgium in the fall of 1914 faced imminent starvation. The difference between dictatorship and democracy, Hoover liked to say, was simple: dictators organize from the top down, democracies from the bottom up. All but $400 of this was returned, confirming the Great Engineer's faith in the American character.

Furthermore, Hoover, together with nine engineer friends, loaned desperate travelers a total of $1.5 million. When one woman angrily insisted on a written pledge that no German submarine would attack her vessel in mid-ocean, Hoover readily complied. I was on the slippery road of public life." During the next few weeks Hoover assisted Chief White Feather of Pawhuska, Oklahoma, and dowagers in jewels to get home. "I did not realize it at the moment, but on August 3, 1914 my engineering career was over forever.

Within twenty-four hours, five hundred volunteers were assembled and the grand ballroom of the Savoy Hotel was turned into a vast canteen and distribution center for food, clothing, steamer tickets and cash. Ambassador to Britain, Walter Hines Page, sent an urgent request for assistance to Hoover on August 3rd. The U.S. An estimated 120,000 of Hoover's countrymen, penniless and confused, were trapped on the wrong side of the Atlantic and needed help.

World War I was at hand, and few Americans were prepared. In August of 1914 he got his chance, when the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand touched off long-simmering rivalries among the jealous nations of Europe. Bored with making money, the Quaker side of Hoover yearned to be of service to others. At 670 pages with 289 woodcuts, the Hoover translation remains the definitive English language translation of Agricola's work.

Between 1907 and 1912, Lou and Hoover combined their talents to create a translation of one of the earliest printed technical treatises: Georg Agricola's De re metallica, originally published in 1556. While his wife worked in the hospitals, Hoover directed the building of barricades, and once risked his life rescuing Chinese children. For almost a month the settlement was under heavy fire. In June 1900 the Boxer Rebellion caught the Hoovers in Tianjin.

They went to China, where he worked for a private corporation as China's leading engineer. In 1899 he married his Stanford sweetheart, Lou Henry. Most of all, Stanford became for the orphan from West Branch a surrogate family--a place to belong. Stanford gave Hoover an identity, a profession, and a future bride.

But from this college in a hayfield he had derived much more than a degree in geology. He left Stanford with $40 in his pocket and no prospects for employment. Hoover graduated in May 1895, three months before his 21st birthday. "It isn't so important what others think of you as what you feel inside yourself," she told college friends.

Lou shared her fellow Iowan's love of the outdoors and self-reliant nature. It was in Branner's geology lab that he met Lou Henry, a banker's daughter born in Waterloo, Iowa, in 1874. Hoover earned his way through school by doing typing chores for Professor John Casper Branner, who also got him a summer job mapping the terrain in Arkansas' Ozark Mountains. Teaming up with other poor boys against campus swells, the reluctant candidate was elected student body treasurer on the "Barbarian" slate, then wiped out a student-government debt of $2,000.

Cutting a wider swath outside the classroom than in, Hoover managed the baseball and football teams, started a laundry, and ran a lecture agency. In the fall of 1891 Hoover attended the new Leland Stanford Junior University at Palo Alto, California. David Copperfield, the story of another orphan cast into the world to live by his wits, would remain a lifelong favorite. Thanks to a local schoolteacher, Miss Jane Gray, the boy's eyes were opened to the novels of Charles Dickens and Sir Walter Scott.

As an office boy in his uncle's Oregon Land Company he mastered bookkeeping and typing, while also attending business school in the evening. "My boyhood ambition was to be able to earn my own living, without the help of anybody, anywhere," he once reported. Hoover's six years in Oregon taught him self-reliance. Waiting for him on the other end of the continent was his Uncle John Minthorn, a doctor and school superintendent whom Hoover recalled as "a severe man on the surface, but like all Quakers kindly at the bottom." The future president lived with his uncle in Newberg, Oregon for several years following his parents' deaths.

Sewn into his clothes were two dimes; he also carried a hamper of his Aunt Hannah's homemade delicacies. In the summer of 1885 eleven-year-old "Bert" Hoover boarded a Union Pacific train headed west to Oregon. His father died in 1880, and his mother in 1884. Both of his parents, Jesse Hoover and Hulda Minthorn, died when Hoover was young.

He was the first President to be born west of the Mississippi River. Hoover was born into a Quaker family in West Branch, Iowa. . President and died 31 years after leaving office, during the administration of Lyndon Johnson — his fifth successor.

He had the longest retirement of any U.S. However, prior to that, he was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) is best known as being the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933). Herbert Hoover National Historical Site - also in West Branch, Iowa.

Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum - located near Iowa City in West Branch, Iowa. Hoover Institution. Hoover-Minthorn House. presidential election, 1932.

U.S. presidential election, 1928. U.S. The Problems of Lasting Peace, with Hugh Gibson, Doubleday Doran, Garden City NY, 1942.

Addresses Upon The American Road, 1933-1938, Charles Scribner's Sons, NY, 1938. The Challenge to Liberty, 1934. by Herbert Clark Hoover and Lou Henry Hoover, The Mining magazine, London, 1912. Agricola, G., De Re Metallica, tr.

"I outlived the bastards" - answer to a question of how he managed to survive the long ostracism under the Roosevelt administration. "A chicken in every pot and a car in every garage" - Presidential Campaign Slogan 1928. "True American Liberalism utterly denies the whole creed of socialism." The Challenge to Liberty, pg 57. Benjamin Nathan Cardozo - 1932.

Owen Josephus Roberts - 1930. Charles Evans Hughes - Chief Justice - 1930. Instead of protecting American jobs, the Smoot-Hawley tariff is widely blamed for setting off a worldwide trade war which only worsened the country's economic ills. After hearings held by the House Ways and Means Committee generated over 20,000 pages of testimony regarding tariff protection, Congress responded with legislation that Hoover signed despite some misgivings.

Raised tariffs to protect American jobs. In addition, the RFC made loans to banks, railroads and agriculture credit organizations. This act established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which made loans to the states for public works and unemployment relief. Signed the Reconstruction Finance Act.

Many businessmen, most notably Henry Ford, raised or maintained their worker's wages early in the Depression in the hope that more money into the pockets of consumers would end the economic downturn. Actively encouraged businesses to maintain high wages during the depression. Urged bankers to form the National Credit Corporation to assist banks in financial trouble and protect depositor's money. Established the President's Emergency Relief Organization to coordinate local, private relief efforts resulting in over 3,000 relief committees across the U.S.

Increased subsidies to the nation's struggling farmers with the Agricultural Marketing Act, but with only limited impact. Signed the Federal Home Loan Bank Act establishing the Federal Home Loan Bank system to assist citizens in obtaining financing to purchase a home. Urged the state governors to also increase their public works spending, though many failed to take any action. Increased subsidies for ship construction through the Federal Shipping Board.

Directed the Department of Commerce to establish a Division of Public Construction in December 1929. Asked Congress for a $400 million increase in the Federal Building Program. Some of Hoover's efforts to stimulate the economy through public works are as follows:

    . Increased public works spending.

    Signed the Emergency Relief and Construction Act, the nation's first Federal unemployment assistance.

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