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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary. In 2003, Ford's death was incorrectly announced by CNN when his pre-written obituary (along with those of several other famous figures) was inadvertently published on CNN's web site due to a lapse in password protection. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. When New York Republican Governor George Pataki named the living former presidents as honorary members of the board rebuilding the World Trade Center, he was unaware of Ford's health decline in the recent months. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. Bush in 2005. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. He was the only living former president not to attend the second inauguration of President George W.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. Former president Bill Clinton told Larry King in an interview that Ford had confided that he now feels uncomfortable when flying in aircraft. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. In addition, Ford was the only living former president not to attend ceremonies for the opening of the Bill Clinton Presidential Library in Little Rock, Arkansas. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. He was, for the first time in his political life, unable to attend a Republican National Convention when he didn't attend the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. Though he gave an interview to Larry King in June 2004, attended the funeral of former President Reagan, and spoke at ceremonies commemorating the 30th anniversary of his swearing-in in August 2004, Ford has appeared increasingly frail – and this may have caused him to cut back on his formerly busy schedule.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. Recently, there has been ongoing speculation regarding Ford's health. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. Ford has also endorsed civil unions for gay couples, and urged Republicans not support the impeachment of President Bill Clinton in the late 1990s. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. Although he had taken a more centrist-to-conservative stance on the matter while campaigning for president in 1976, Ford has emerged as a leading pro-choice Republican on abortion rights; he has been an advisor to Republicans for Choice, and told Larry King in an interview that he shared in his wife's outspoken support of reproductive rights. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Ford has been outspoken on a variety of political issues confronting the nation since leaving office.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. Ford has remained popular as a caricature in his retirement, with such icons as Saturday Night Live and the Simpsons continuing to lampoon him, but despite his taking these in good humor has chosen to continue to respect the office by not appearing on those shows as himself. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. Ford School of Public Policy in honor of Ford's lifetime of public service. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. In 1999, the School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan was renamed the Gerald R. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. Ford has remained an avid fan of Michigan football and delivered a videotaped message before Michigan and Ohio State played their 100th game in 2003.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Ford Library in Ann Arbor, Michigan. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. Ford Museum in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and the Gerald R. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. In 1981 he opened the Gerald R. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. Ford has remained relatively active as a former President, and during his post-presidential years he continued to make appearances at events of historical and ceremonial significance to the nation, such as presidential inaugurals and memorial services.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. Bush, and Bill Clinton) as honorary members of the board rebuilding the World Trade Center. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. W. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. On November 22, 2004, New York Republican Governor George Pataki named Ford and the other living former presidents (Jimmy Carter, George H. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. Nixon," and leading the country through the tumultuous times of the late 1970s.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Ford was cited for his "controversial decision of conscience to pardon former President Richard M. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Kennedy Library Foundation for political courage. And the social evil contributed its share. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award, a presigious award given by the John F. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. In 2001 Ford was awarded the John F.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. Ford International Airport in Grand Rapids, Michigan was named after him in December 1999. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. The Gerald R. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. Ford was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Bill Clinton in 1999 for his efforts to heal the nation after the Watergate scandal. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". He was hospitalized twice for dizziness in 2003.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. While attending the 2000 Republican National Convention, Ford suffered two mild strokes, but has subsequently recovered. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. Bush, who had rivaled him for the presidential nomination. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. W. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. On the day a Vice President was to be nominated, however, Reagan could not convince Ford to join him on the ticket and instead chose George H.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". At the 1980 Republican National Convention, Ford was nearly nominated to return to service as Vice President under nominee Ronald Reagan. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. Had Ford won the election, he would have been disqualified by the 22nd amendment from running in 1980 because he served more than two years of Nixon's term. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. On 30 October 1975, his refusal to sanction federal aid for the city of New York led The New York Daily News to paraphrase their perception of Ford's attitude in the headline "Ford to City: Drop Dead". Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Carter replied that he would like to see Ford convince Czech-Americans and Polish-Americans that their countries did not live under Soviet domination.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Additionally, Ford made a major gaffe during the second presidential election debate when he insisted that Eastern Europe was not dominated by the Soviet Union. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. His campaign may also have been hampered by a strong challenge that year for the nomination in the Republican party by Ronald Reagan. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. It is believed that Ford's pardoning of Nixon, along with the continuing economic problems, cost him the election of 1976. President from Grover Cleveland to John F.
.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Ford appointed the following Justice to the Supreme Court of the United States:. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people.
. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Seventeen days later, another woman – Sara Jane Moore – also tried to kill Ford in San Francisco; but her shooting attempt was thwarted by a bystander, Oliver Sipple.
. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. No shots were fired, though, and nobody was injured.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. While in Sacramento, California on September 5, 1975, a follower of incarcerated cult leader Charles Manson named Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme pointed a Colt .45-caliber handgun at Ford's stomach as he was shaking hands with well-wishers. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. [2]
. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. On 29 April and the morning of 30 April 1975 the American embassy in Saigon was evacuated, amidst chaotic scenes. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. Ford's presidency also saw the final withdrawal of American personnel from Vietnam, in 'Operation Frequent Wind'.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. It is believed that approximately sixty Khmer Rouge soldiers were killed out of a land and sea force of about 300. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. In all phases of the operation, fifty service men were wounded and forty-one killed, including three men believed to have been left behind alive and subsequently executed and twenty-three Air Force personnel killed earlier while en route to the staging area at Utapao, Thailand. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. Ford dispatched Marines to rescue the crew, but the Marines landed on the wrong island and met unexpectedly stiff resistance just as, unknown to the US, the Mayaguez sailors were being released. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). In May 1975, shortly after the Khmer Rouge took power in Cambodia, Cambodians seized an American merchant ship, the Mayaguez, in international waters.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Ford also faced a foreign policy crisis with the Mayaguez Incident. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Ford and Congress battled over legislation, with Ford vetoing scores of Democratic bills.
. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. In the aftermath of Watergate, the Democrats scored major gains in both the House and the Senate in the 1974 elections. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. The economic focus began to change as the country sank into a mild recession, and in March 1975, Ford and Congress signed into law income tax rebates to help boost the economy.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. At the time inflation was around 7%, a relatively modest number in retrospect, but still enough to discourage investment and push capital overseas and into government bonds. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. However, most people recognized this as simply a public relations gimmick without offering any effective means of solving the underlying problem. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. In response to rising inflation, Ford went before the American public on television in October 1974 and asked them to "whip inflation now" (WIN); as part of this program, he urged people to wear "WIN" buttons. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family. The economy was a great concern during the Ford administration.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. Ford explained that he felt the pardon was in the best interests of the country; many historians believe it cost him the election in 1976. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. On September 8, 1974 Ford gave Nixon a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes he may have committed while President or, indeed, for anything else he might have done. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. On August 20 Ford nominated former New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller to fill the Vice Presidency he had vacated, again under the 25th Amendment. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. When Nixon then resigned in the wake of the Watergate scandal on August 9, 1974, Ford assumed the presidency, proclaiming that "our long national nightmare is over".

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. He cited the many achievements of President Nixon and dismissed Watergate as a media event and a tragic sideshow. . Ford traveled widely as Vice President and made many speeches defending the embattled President. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. Ford had long been one of President Nixon's most outspoken supporters (someone joked once that "He is one of the few people who not only admires Nixon, but actually likes him!"). Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. The United States Senate voted 92 to 3 to confirm Ford on November 27, 1973 and on December 6, the House confirmed him 387 to 35.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. After Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned during Richard Nixon's presidency, on October 10, 1973, Nixon nominated Ford to take Agnew's place, under the 25th Amendment - the first time it was applied. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. Ford made a speech charging Douglas with criminal activities and with promoting rebellion in his writings. Douglas, who was a Justice on the United States Supreme Court. Ford also led an effort to impeach William O.

Many in the press jokingly called this "The Ev and Jerry Show". The two men proposed Republican alternatives to President Johnson's policies. Ford appeared on a televised series of press conferences with famed Illinois Senator Everett Dirksen that became very popular. Ford charged that the President was meddling in the war effort and not letting the military do its job.

He made a speech attacking Johnson's Vietnam war policies called "Why are we pulling our punches in Vietnam?". He often attacked the "Great Society" programs of President Lyndon Johnson as unneeded or wasteful. During the eight years (1965–1973) he served as Minority Leader, Ford won many friends in the House due to his fair leadership and inoffensive personality. Today Ford is the only surviving member of the Commission, and continues to stand behind its conclusions.

The Commission eventually concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald had acted alone in killing the President, a conclusion sometimes disparaged by conspiracy theorists as the "Lone Nut Theory". Kennedy. During his tenure, Ford was chosen to serve on the Warren Commission, a special task force set up to investigate the causes of, and quell rumors regarding the assassination of President John F. Ford won an award in 1961 as a "Congressman's Congressman" that praised his committee work on military budgets.

During his first campaign, he visited farmers and promised he would work on their farms and milk their cows if elected - a promise which he apparently fulfilled [1]. He always stayed in close touch with the people of Grand Rapids. Ford was very popular with the voters in his district and was always re-elected with 60% margins. Ford was a member of the House of Representatives for 24 years from 1949 to 1973, and became Minority Leader of the Republican Party in the House.

Ford spent the remainder of the war ashore and was discharged as a lieutenant commander in February 1946. The ship, which was severely damaged by the storm and a resulting fire, had to be taken out of service. He came within inches of being swept overboard while the storm raged. His closest call with death came not as a result of enemy fire, however, but during a vicious typhoon in the Philippine Sea in December 1944.

He was first assigned as athletic director and gunnery division officer, then as assistant navigator with the Monterey, which took part in most of the major operations in the South Pacific, including Truk, Saipan, and the Philippines. In the spring of 1943 he began service in the light aircraft carrier USS Monterey (CVL-26). After an orientation program at Annapolis, he became a physical fitness instructor at a pre- flight school in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Naval Reserve receiving a commission as an ensign.

In April 1942 Ford joined the U.S. He is quoted for saying, "I am the first Eagle Scout President!". He always regarded this as one of his proudest accomplishments even after attaining the White House. Ford joined the Boy Scouts as a child and attained the highest rank of Eagle Scout.

Ford graduated from law school in 1941, having coached football and boxing part time to pay for school. This petition was circulated nationally and was the inspiration for America First, a group determined to keep America out of World War II. as they signed a petition to enforce the 1939 Neutrality Act. Douglas Stuart, Jr.

While at the Yale Law School, Ford joined a group of students led by R. After graduating the following spring, he turned down contract offers from the Detroit Lions and Green Bay Packers of the National Football League. (His number 48 jersey has since been retired by the school.) At Michigan he joined Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and earned money for expenses by washing dishes at the fraternity house. A three-year letterman, Ford helped the Wolverines to undefeated seasons in 1932 and 1933 and was voted the team's most valuable player in 1934.

Ford grew up in Grand Rapids, Michigan and starred as a center playing American football for the University of Michigan. Presidents to have been adopted. He and Democrat Bill Clinton are the only two U.S. His parents divorced two years after he was born, and his mother remarried to Gerald Ford, after whom he was renamed despite never being formally adopted by his step-father.

Ford was born to Leslie Lynch King and Dorothy Ayer Gardner in Omaha, Nebraska. . He will surpass Hoover if he lives to or beyond September 7, 2008. He also has the second longest retirement among presidents at 28 years, behind Herbert Hoover.

president. Should Ford live to or beyond November 11, 2006, he will become the longest-lived U.S. history. At present, Ford is the second longest-lived president in U.S.

President (after Ronald Reagan) to reach his 92nd birthday. On July 14, 2005, he became the second former U.S. As of 2005, he is the oldest living former President. Along with his own vice president, Nelson Rockefeller, he is one of only two people to have been appointed Vice President rather than elected.

When Nixon resigned on noon of August 9, 1974, Ford assumed the presidency. Instead, following the resignation of Spiro Agnew in 1973, he was nominated as Vice President by Richard Nixon and approved by both houses of Congress (not just the Senate, as is the procedure for Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices, and most other federal officials), in keeping with provisions of the 25th Amendment. He remains the only individual to serve as President without ever having been elected to either the presidency or vice presidency. Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. (born July 14, 1913) (born Leslie Lynch King, Jr., renamed after his mother's remarriage) was the fortieth (1973–1974) Vice President and the thirty-eighth (1974–1977) President of the United States.

The focus is on Soviet-American relations, including the Vladivostok summit, Helsinki Conference, Angola, detente, and the role of Henry Kissinger.]. 76-201. [Memoir - Information on his Ford administration work in the State Department and on the National Security Council staff appears on pp. New York: Random House, 1987.

Mortal Rivals: Superpower Relations From Nixon to Reagan. Hyland, William. Reprinted in Hersey's book "Aspects of the Presidency: Truman and Ford in Office," New Haven, Ticknor and Fields, 1980.]. Originally appeared in the "New York Times Magazine," April 20, 1975.

[A writer examines President Ford's activities during one week in March 1975. New York: Knopf, 1975. The President: A Minute-by-Minute Account of a Week in the Life of Gerald Ford. Hersey, John.

Chapters 7–16 concern his work as a White House Counsellor and supervisor of the speechwriting unit.]. Several chapters concern his work as an assistant to Congressman and Vice President Ford. [Memoir. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980.

Palace Politics: An Insider's Account of the Ford Years. Hartmann, Robert T. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995. Ford.

The Presidency of Gerald R. Greene, John Robert. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992. The Limits of Power: The Nixon and Ford Administrations.

Greene, John Robert. Ford that took place at Hofstra University in April 1989.]. [Proceedings of a conference on the presidency of Gerald R. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Firestone and Alexej Ugrinsky. Ford and the Politics of Post-Watergate America, edited by Bernard J. Gerald R. Photographs selected by Audiovisual Archivist Ken Hafeli.].

Mackaman, Leesa Tobin, and David Horrocks of the Ford Library. [Sections written by Frank H. Washington, DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, 1994. Ford: Presidential Perspectives from the National Archives.

Gerald R. [Interviews with Ford administration officials.]. Lanham, MA: University Press of America, 1988. Portraits of American Presidents, VII.

Thompson. The Ford Presidency: Twenty-Two Intimate Perspectives of Gerald Ford, Edited by Kenneth W. [Memoir mainly concerning his presidency.]. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.

Ford. A Time to Heal: The Autobiography of Gerald R. Ford, Gerald R. [A collection of speeches Ford delivered between 1965 and 1972 concerning politics and domestic and foreign affairs.].

Beatty, 1973. Arlington, VA: R.W. Selected Speeches. Ford, Gerald R.

The book emphasizes personal and family experiences rather than political events.]. Ford's memoir - chapters 22- 37 concern her husband's presidency. [Mrs. New York: Harper & Row, 1978.

The Times of My Life. Ford, Betty. Chapter 7 concerns his service as a Ford speechwriter, August 1974–February 1975.]. [Memoir.

New York: Doubleday, 1979. Fall in and Cheer. Coyne, John R. [Annual volumes reviewing activities or issues.].

Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1974-1976. Presidency. Congressional Quarterly, Inc. [Background on Ford's political career and legislative record prior to becoming President, including his statements on major issues.].

Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1974. President Ford: The Man and His Record. Congressional Quarterly, Inc. It covers the period from November 1974 to January 1976.].

[Memoir by a speechwriter for President Ford. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press, 1977. The Ford White House: Diary of a Speechwriter. Casserly, John J.

[Chapters 1-3 concern Ford's early life and election to Congress; chapters 4–7 his congressional career; chapters 8–11 Watergate; chapters 12–19 concern Ford's appointment as Vice President, his vice presidency, the move to impeach Richard Nixon, and the transition to the presidency; chapter 20 concerns the Nixon pardon; and chapter 21 is a summary of the Ford presidency.]. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. Ford's Appointment with History. Time and Chance: Gerald R.

Cannon, James. John Paul Stevens: 1975.

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