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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary. The record labels and OutKast did not have to admit any wrongdoing. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. In the settlement agreement, OutKast and their producers and record labels agreed to work with the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development in creating educational programs on the life of Rosa Parks. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. The lawsuit was settled on April 15, 2005. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. Parks' attorneys and caretaker refiled and named BMG, Arista Records and LaFace Records as the defendants, asking for $5 billion in damages.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. OutKast was dismissed from the suit once and for all that August. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. "As a family, our fear is that during her last days Auntie Rosa will be surrounded by strangers trying to make money off of her name.". Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. "My auntie would never, ever go to this length to hurt some young artists trying to make it in the world," Parks' niece, Rhea McCauley, said in an Associated Press interview. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. In 2004, the judge in the case appointed an impartial representative for Parks after her family expressed concerns that her caretakers and her lawyers were pursuing the case based on their own financial interest.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. In 2003, the Supreme Court allowed Parks' lawyers to proceed with her lawsuit against OutKast. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. Parks' caretakers hired lawyer Johnnie Cochran to appeal the decision in 2001, but this too was denied, on First Amendment grounds. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. The initial lawsuit was dismissed. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. In 1999, Parks's lawyer sued hip hop band OutKast for using her name in the song "Rosa Parks" from the album Aquemini.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. The incident created outrage throughout America after Parks admitted she had asked Skipper "Do you know who I am?" Before beating her, Skipper (an African American, himself) was reported to have stated he did know who Rosa Parks was but didn't care. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. She had a total of $53 stolen from her. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. In 1994, Rosa Parks was attacked and mugged in her Detroit home by Joseph Skipper. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. She is also considered a living symbol of courage and determination and inspiration to freedom-loving people everywhere.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Rosa Parks is often and has been called the "mother of the civil rights movement" and one of the most important citizens of the 20th century. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. It tells the story of the events leading up to her historic act of civil disobedience, and how her simple act connects to the larger tapestry of the civil rights movement. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. The Rosa Parks Library and Museum in Montgomery, Alabama, was dedicated to her in November 2001. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. After a lifetime of activity fighting racism, Parks was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 1999.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. Rosa Parks was inducted into the Michigan Women's Hall of Fame for her achievements in civil rights in 1983. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. A scene in the 2002 film Barbershop, where characters discuss earlier instances of African-Americans refusing to give up their bus seats, caused activists Jesse Jackson and Al Sharpton to launch a boycott against the film. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. The selection of Parks for a test case supported by the NAACP has been speculated to be in part because she was employed by the NAACP. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. The NAACP had additionally considered but rejected some earlier protesters deemed unable or unsuitable to withstand the pressure of a legal challenge to segregation laws (see Claudette Colvin and Mary Louise Smith).

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). He was brought before a court martial, which acquitted him.[1]. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Jackie Robinson took a similar, but less-well-known, stand while an Army officer in 1944 in Fort Hood, Texas, refusing to move to the back of a bus. And the social evil contributed its share. The Rosa Parks case is considered the landmark because it applied to all segregationist laws, not just those affecting interstate commerce. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. That victory only overturned state segregation laws as applied to actual travel in interstate commerce, such as interstate bus travel.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. The NAACP accepted and litigated other cases before, such as that of Irene Morgan, ten years earlier, which resulted in a victory in the Supreme Court on Commerce Clause grounds. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. Parks was not the first African American to refuse to give up her seat to a white person. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. That is, it was not a matter of protest on any level when she sat down; the protest was in her refusal to give up a seat in the "colored" section. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". With the "white" section full, a white man wanted her to give up her seat.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. Many accounts fail to clarify: she was sitting in the "colored" section of the bus. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. Also, some accounts downplay her prior involvement with the NAACP and the Highlander Folk School in an attempt to portray her as an average, middle-aged woman and not a political activist. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. Standard accounts of Parks' act of civil disobedience in 1955 refer to her simply as a "tired seamstress." Parks stated in her autobiography, My Life, that it was not true that she was physically tired but was "tired of giving in.". Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. While few historians doubt Parks' contribution to the civil rights movement or the bravery of her refusal, some have questioned some of the more mythic elements of her story.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". She continues to reside in Detroit. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. Representative John Conyers (D-Michigan) from 1965 until 1988. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. S. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. She moved to Detroit in the early 1960s and served on the staff of U.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Afterwards, Parks became an icon of the civil rights movement. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. In 1956 Parks's case ultimately resulted in United States Supreme Court's ruling that segregated bus service was unconstitutional. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. In helping in this boycott, Rosa Parks helped make her fellow Americans aware of the history of the civil rights struggle. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. This event helped spark many other protests against segregation.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Dozens of public buses stood idle for months until the law legalizing segregation in public buses was lifted. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. The entire black community boycotted public buses for 381 days. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. What ensued next was the Montgomery Bus Boycott. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. Parks' arrest.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. The very next night, 50 leaders of the African-American community, headed by a relatively unknown minister (Martin Luther King, Jr.) gathered to discuss the proper actions to be taken after Mrs. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. She was arrested, tried, and convicted for disorderly conduct and for violating a local ordinance. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. Rosa was tired of being treated as a second-class citizen and stood firmly. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Parks refused to obey a public bus driver's orders to move to the back of the bus to make extra seats for whites.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. Just six months before her arrest, she had attended the Highlander Folk School, an education center for workers' rights and racial equality. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. In the early 1950s, Parks became active in the American Civil Rights Movement and worked as a secretary for the Montgomery, Alabama branch of the NAACP. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She grew up on a farm with her grandparents, mother, and brother; for most of her adult life she worked as a seamstress. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). Rosa Parks was born in Tuskegee, Alabama, daughter of James and Loeona McCauley.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. . Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Rosa Louise Parks (born February 4, 1913 as Rosa Louise McCauley) is a retired African-American seamstress and figure in the American Civil Rights Movement, most famous for her refusal in 1955 to give up a bus seat to a white man who was getting on the bus. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. ("Within a year of Brown, Rosa Parks, a tired seamstress in Montgomery, Alabama, was, like Homer Plessy sixty years earlier, arrested for her refusal to move to the back of the bus."). The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. "Two decades later." New York Times (May 17): 38.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. 1974. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Editorial. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. Keller and Kate Adams Keller.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. . Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

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