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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary. He has written the following:. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. Jimmy Carter has been a relatively prolific author. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. He is also an accomplished amateur woodworker and has occasionally been featured in the pages of Fine Wood Working magazine, which is published by Taunton Press. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. Carter also teaches a Sunday School class at Maranatha Baptist Church in Plains, Georgia.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. Every September he goes to the Plains Peanut Festival and reportedly frequents the Pink Pig Barbecue Restaurant in Cherry Log, Georgia when he and the former First Lady are visiting their log cabin near Ellijay, Georgia. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. Bush, and Bill Clinton) as honorary members of the board rebuilding the World Trade Center. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. W. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. On November 22, 2004, New York Republican Governor George Pataki named Carter and the other living former presidents (Gerald Ford, George H.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. In June 2005, Carter urged the closing of the Guantanamo Bay Prison in Cuba, which has been the centerpoint for recent reports of prisoner and Muslim holy book Quran abuse. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. Bush (his father) had started. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. W. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. He claimed that Blair had allowed his better judgement to be swayed by Bush's desire to finish a war that George H.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. Bush and Tony Blair for waging an unnecessary war "based upon lies and misinterpretations" in order to oust Saddam Hussein. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. In March 2004, Carter roundly condemned George W. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. Critics of Carter's diplomatic efforts (during and after his presidency) generally concede that Carter is honest and well intentioned, but consider him to be naive about less scrupulous foreign leaders. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. Bush were said to have been less than pleased with Carter's "freelance" diplomacy in Iraq and elsewhere.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. and George W. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. Not all Carter's efforts have gained him favor in Washington; President Clinton and both Presidents George H.W. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. Carter visited Cuba in May 2002, meeting with Fidel Castro and becoming the first President of the United States, in or out of office, to visit the island since Castro's 1959 revolution. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. He and his wife Rosalynn are also well-known for their work with Habitat for Humanity.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. president, after Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, to receive the Nobel Peace Prize award. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. Carter was the third U.S. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. This includes acting as election observers, particularly in Latin America and Africa. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. He and members of the center are sometimes involved in the monitoring of the electoral process in support of free and fair elections.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). The center also focuses on world-wide health care including the campaign to eliminate guinea worm disease. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". His work in international public policy and conflict resolution is largely through the Carter Center. And the social evil contributed its share. Since his unsuccessful bid for re-election, Carter has been involved in a variety of public policy, human rights, and charitable causes. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. In February 2005, Jimmy and Rosalyn Carter both spoke at the commissioning ceremony for this submarine.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. Navy vessels to be named for a person still alive at the time of the naming. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. The USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23) was named on April 27, 1998, making it one of the very few U.S. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. Because he had served as a submariner (the only president to have done so), a submarine was named for him. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.".
.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. He has also been criticized for not doing enough to promote his stated human rights foreign policy stance in his administration, such as continuing to support the Indonesian government even while it was implicated in the commission of acts of genocide in the occupation of East Timor. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. Some have accused Carter of ordering a cover-up of the events at Three Mile Island following the near meltdown of that nuclear plant. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. In response, Congress passed the Taiwan Relations Act. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. During Carter's administration, diplomatic recognition was switched from the Republic of China to the People's Republic of China, a policy continued into the 21st century.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". In 1977, Carter stated that there was no need to apologize to the Vietnamese people for the damage and suffering caused by the Vietnam war as "the destruction was mutual.". In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. [3] Such a scenario was termed "The October Surprise" by the Reagan team. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. With the November election approaching, the Reagan team had reason to believe a second rescue attempt was being prepared or, absent that, a diplomatic deal to gain an election-eve release of the 52 American officials held in Tehran. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Bush) was responsible for destroying a deal between the Carter administration and the hostage takers that may have lead to their release a month before the election.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. W. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. Members of the Reagan-Bush campaign and administration (most notably Barbara Honegger, in her book October Surprise), and the president of Iran in 1980 (Abu Al-Hasan Bani-Sadr, My Turn to Speak: Iran, the Revolution and Secret Deals With the U.S.) have alleged that a secret agreement between the Reagan campaign and the Iranians (orchestrated by George H. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. This record represents our hope and our determination and our goodwill in a vast and awesome universe."[2] See also Voyager Golden Record. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. We hope some day, having solved the problems we face, to join a community of Galactic Civilizations.

Helen Keller met every U.S. If one such civilization intercepts Voyager and can understand these recorded contents, here is our message: We are trying to survive our time so we may live into yours. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Of the 200 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy, some - - perhaps many - - may have inhabited planets and space faring civilizations. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. President Carter, official statement placed on the Voyager spacecraft for its trip outside our solar system, June 16, 1977: "We cast this message into the cosmos . She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. This took place during the period from May 1977 until the fall of 1977.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. Alfred Webre was Principal Investigator for a proposed civilian scientific study of extraterrestrial communication presented to and developed with interested Carter White House staff. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. Through Stanford Research Institute, Mr. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. [1] During his presidential campaign, Carter promised to release the truth about any alleged UFO cover-up. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. He filed a report with the International UFO Bureau in Oklahoma City after a request from that organization.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. President Carter claims to have witnessed a UFO in 1969. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. Bush presidencies, Islamic fundamentalism as a political force was not well understood. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. At the time, and continuing into the Reagan and G.H.W. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). Some even tie the program to the 1996 coup that established the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and to the creation of violent Islamic terrorist groups.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. In retrospect, this contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union, but is also often tied to the resulting instability of post-Soviet Afghani governments, which led to the rise of Islamic theocracy in the region. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. In order to oppose the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, Carter and Zbigniew Brzezinski started a $40 billion program of training Islamic fundamentalists in Pakistan and Afghanistan. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. Also in response to the events in Afghanistan, Carter prohibited Americans from participating in the 1980 Summer Olympics, which were held in Moscow, and he reinstated registration for the draft for young males. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. would not allow any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. (The pro-Moscow government in Afghanistan—placed by a coup in 1978—was unable to suppress the Muslim insurgency.) After the invasion, Carter announced the Carter Doctrine, which stated that the U.S. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. In December 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, evidently fearful that the Muslim uprising that had swept Iran would spread to the millions of Muslims in the Soviet Union. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. However, Reagan asked Carter to head to Germany to greet the hostages. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family. The hostages had been held captive for 444 days, and their release happened just minutes after Carter left office.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. Although the Carter team had negotiated with the hostage takers for release of the hostages, an agreement trusting the hostages takers to abide by their word was not signed until January 19, 1981, after the election of Ronald Reagan. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. Carter managed to win just six states, 49 electoral votes and 41% of the popular vote, barely beating the dismal record of Senator Barry Goldwater in 1964, who managed to win six states, 52 electoral votes and 38.5% of the popular vote against an incumbent president. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. Nevertheless, the 1980 election results were not even close. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. The subsequent responses to the crisis, from a "Rose Garden strategy" of staying inside the White House, to the unsuccessful attempt to rescue the hostages, were largely seen as contributing to defeat in the 1980 election.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. and die in Egypt, the Iran hostage crisis continued, and dominated the last year of Carter's presidency, even though almost half of the hostages were released. . Though later that year the Shah would leave the U.S. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. The Iranians demanded 1.) the return of the Shah to Iran for trial, 2.) the return of the Shah's wealth to the Iranian people, 3.) an admission of guilt by the United States for its past actions in Iran, plus an apology, and 4.) a promise from the United States not to interfere in Iran's affairs in the future. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. In response to the Shah's entry into the U.S., Iranian militants seized the American embassy in Tehran taking some 100 Americans hostage.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. In 1979, Carter reluctantly allowed the deposed Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi into the United States for political asylum and medical treatment. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. Carter was initially prepared to recognize the revolutionary government of the monarch's successor, but his efforts proved futile. support as a leading cause of his quick overthrow. Many have since connected the Shah's dwindling U.S.

The Shah was deposed and exiled. Though Carter praised the Shah as a wise and valuable leader, when a popular uprising against the monarchy broke out in Iran, the Carter administration did not intervene. However, his rule was strongly autocratic. strategic policy in Middle East was built.

The Shah had been a strong ally of America since World War II, and was one of the "twin pillars" upon which U.S. interests came in Carter's dealings with the Shah of Iran. The main conflict between human rights and U.S. unofficially recognized Taiwan through the Taiwan Relations Act).

Carter continued the policy of Richard Nixon to "normalize" relations with People's Republic of China granting full diplomatic and trade relations, thus ending official relations with the Republic of China (though the two nations continued to trade and the U.S. Carter was also known for his criticism of Alfredo Stroessner, Augusto Pinochet, the apartheid government of South Africa, and other traditional allies. Strong pressure from the United States and the United Kingdom prompted new elections in what was then called Zimbabwe Rhodesia. Carter continued his predecessors' policies of imposing sanctions on Rhodesia, and, after Bishop Abel Muzorewa was elected Prime Minister, protested that the Marxists Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo were excluded from the elections.

The Carter administration ended support to the historically U.S.-backed Somoza government in Nicaragua, and gave millions of dollars in aid to the nation's new regime, following a Sandinista coup. This was intended to be a break from the policies of several predecessors, in which human rights abuses were often overlooked if they were committed by a nation that was allied to the United States. In its place Carter promoted his foreign policy as being one that would place human rights at the forefront. President Carter initially departed from the long-held policy of containment toward the Soviet Union, as first articulated in the Truman Doctrine and held to by all subsequent American presidents, both Republican and Democrat.

The stagnant growth of the economy (causing unemployment), in combination with a high rate of inflation, has often been called stagflation, an unprecedented situation in American economics. He succeeded, but only by first going through a very unpleasant phase where the economy slowed down, causing a rise in unemployment, prior to any relief from the inflation. Volcker took actions (raising interest rates even further) to slow down the economy and bring down inflation, which he considered his mandate. William Miller who left to become the Secretary of the Treasury.

government debt coming under pressure, Carter appointed Paul Volcker as Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board; Volcker replaced G. With the markets for U.S. Investments in fixed income were becoming less valuable (both bonds, and pensions being paid to retired people). The rapid change in rates led to disintermediation of bank deposits, which contributed to the beginning of the Savings and Loan crisis.

The inflation caused interest rates to rise to unprecedented levels (above 12 percent per year). Carter's government reorganization efforts also separated the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services. He also installed solar power panels on the roof of the White House, and a wood stove in the living quarters; his successor, Ronald Reagan, later removed the solar panels and the wood stove. To encourage Americans to conserve energy during the 1979 energy crisis, Carter once appeared in a sweater and urged citizens to turn down their thermostats.

Schlesinger. The first head of the department was James R. Carter added the United States Department of Energy as a new cabinet-level department. A major issue for President Carter was inflation, caused especially by the rising price of imported oil, which was the major source of energy for many industries.

Amongst Presidents who served at least one full term, Carter is the only one who never made an appointment to the Supreme Court. The RDF was the forerunner of CENTCOM. On 1 October 1979, President Carter announced before a television audience the existence of the Rapid Deployment Forces (RDF), a mobile fighting force capable of responding to worldwide trouble spots, without drawing on forces committed to NATO. With no visible efforts towards a way out of the malaise, Carter's poll numbers dropped even further.

Two days after the speech, Carter asked for the resignations of all of his Cabinet officers, and ultimately accepted five. But many who had hoped for more inspired leadership after the Ford Administration, found themselves disappointed. The country was in the worst recession since the 1930s, with inflation and unemployment at record levels. Carter's speech, though viewed by some as too much like a sermon, was well-received.

This has come to be known as his "malaise" speech, even though he never actually used the word "malaise" anywhere in the text:. On July 15, 1979, Carter gave a nationally-televised address in which he identified what he believed to be a "crisis of confidence" among the American people. The story broke months after the attack, during the slow news month of August, when White House Press Secretary Jody Powell described the incident to reporter Brooks Jackson over tea; shortly thereafter, it was on the front page of The Washington Post with a cartoon take-off, "Paws", of the poster from the movie "Jaws". A White House photographer captured the scene on film.

Carter flailed at the rabbit with his paddle, splashing water at it, and the rabbit turned and swam away. The swimming rabbit, perhaps ill or fleeing from a predator, attempted to board the presidential yacht. A small blow to his reelection campaign came on April 20, 1979, when he was attacked by a "killer rabbit" while fishing in a pond from a small boat. He was much less successful on the domestic front, having alienated both his own party and his opponents, through what was perceived as a lack of willingness to work with Congress — much as he had in his term as Governor.

The Carter Administration's foreign policy is most remembered for the Iran hostage crisis, for the peace treaty he brokered between the states of Israel and Egypt with the Camp David Accord, for the SALT II treaty brokered with the Soviet Union, for the Panama Canal treaty which turned the canal over to Panama, and for an energy crisis. Carter was the first candidate from the Deep South to be elected president since Reconstruction. The centerpiece of his campaign platform was government reorganization. He ran an effective campaign, did well in debates, and won his party's nomination and then the election, receiving 50.1% of the popular vote, making him one of only two Democratic Party Presidential Candidates to win a majority of the popular vote since Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1944.

However, the Watergate scandal was still fresh in the voters' minds, and so his position as an outsider, distant from Washington, DC, became an asset. When Carter entered the Democratic Party Presidential primaries in 1976, he at first was considered to have little chance against nationally better-known politicians. Carter served as governor of the state of Georgia from 1971 to 1975. He was the first state-wide office holder in the Deep South to say this in public (such sentiments would have signaled the end of the political career of politicians in the region less than 15 years earlier, as was the case with Atlanta mayor Ivan Allen Jr., who testified before Congress in favor of the Voting Rights Act).

But, following his election, Carter said in speeches that the time of racial segregation was over, and that racial discrimination had no place in the future of the state. On the stump, he promised to re-appoint an avowed segregationist to the state Board of Regents. Carl Sanders, showing Sanders associating with black basketball players. Carter's campaign aides handed out photographs of his opponent, former Gov.

In his 1970 campaign, Carter was elected governor on a pro-George Wallaceplatform. In the 1960's, he served two terms in the Georgia State Senate. Carter started his career by serving on the Plains school board. She bore him three sons (John William, born in 1947; James Earl III, born in 1950; and Donnel Jeffrey, born in 1952), and gave birth to his daughter (Amy Lynn, late in life, in 1967).

After World War II, he and Rosalynn started a family. Carter had been greatly influenced by a sermon he had heard as a young man, called, "If you were arrested for being a Christian, would there be enough evidence to convict you?". Even as President, Carter prayed several times a day, and professed that Jesus Christ was the driving force in his life. From a young age, Carter showed a deep commitment to Christianity, serving as a Sunday School teacher throughout his political career.

Upon the death of his father in 1953, however, Carter resigned from the Navy, and established a peanut farming business in Plains, where he was involved in a farming accident which left him with a permanently bent finger. His ultimate goal was to become Chief of Naval Operations. Carter loved the Navy, and had planned to make it his career. Carter later used this as the theme of his presidential campaign, and as the title of his first book, "Why Not The Best?" He even mentioned Admiral Rickover in his inaugural address.

Rickover only asked "Did you always do your best?" Carter was forced to admit he had not, and the Admiral asked why. Carter said "Sir, I graduated 59th out of a class of 820". He was asked about his rank in his class at the Naval Academy. There was a story he often told of being interviewed by the Admiral.

Carter later said that next to his parents, Admiral Rickover had had the greatest influence on him. Rickover was a demanding officer, and Carter was greatly influenced by him. Navy's nuclear submarine program, where he became a qualified nuclear engineer. Rickover for the U.S.

He was later selected by Admiral Hyman G. Carter served on submarines in the Atlantic and Pacific fleets. They are considered members of the class of 1947, as their class would have graduated in 1947, except that the program had been temporarily compressed. Vietnam POW and war hero, Jeremiah Denton, was one of Carter's classmates.

Carter was a very gifted student, and finished 59th out of his Academy class of 820. degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1946, the same year he married Rosalynn Smith. He attended Georgia Southwestern College, Georgia Institute of Technology, and he studied nuclear physics at Union College, and received a B.S. He grew up in nearby Archery.

His youngest sister, Ruth Carter Stapleton (1929-1983), became a well- known Christian evangelist. Carter's sister, Gloria Carter Spann (1926-1990), was low-key and was famous for collecting and riding Harley Davidson motorcycles. His younger brother, Billy Carter (1937-1988), caused some political problems for him during his administration. Carter mentioned his beloved teacher in his inaugural address as an example of someone who beat overwhelming odds.

She had encouraged young Jimmy to read War and Peace; he was disappointed to find that there were no cowboys or Indians in the book. Coleman was handicapped by polio. Ms. He was greatly influenced by one of his high school teachers, Julia Coleman.

By the time he attended Plains High School,he was also a star in basketball and football. Young Carter was a gifted student from an early age, who always had a fondness for reading. Born the oldest of four children to James Earl Carter and Bessie Lillian Gordy in the Southwest Georgia town of Plains, he was the first president born in a hospital. .

In 2002, Carter won the Nobel Peace Prize for his "efforts to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development.". He has also traveled extensively to monitor elections, conduct peace negotiations, and establish relief efforts. In 1982, he founded the Carter Center as a forum for issues related to democracy and human rights. In the decades since he left office, Carter gained more respect for his role as an international mediator and peacemaker, and has used his position as a former president to further many charitable causes.

His administration oversaw the founding of the Departments of Energy and Education, and enacted strong legislation on environmental protection. The Carter administration failed to reform the tax system, and to reduce the size of the government bureaucracy, as promised during the 1976 campaign, or to pass the Martin Luther King holiday, despite Carter's own Democratic Party controlling both Houses of Congress, and the White House. Among his administration's accomplishments, were the Panama Canal treaties, the Camp David Accords, and the SALT II treaty with the Soviet Union. The Misery Index, Carter's own invention of economic well-being, rose 50% in four years.

Inflation and interest rates reached their highest levels since World War II, as the Carter administration froze domestic oil prices in response to rising prices from OPEC. With the international outrage of the Iranian hostage crisis in 1978, and the humiliating Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, Carter appeared impotent, as America saw its influence declining abroad. Carter's presidency was marked by retrenchment, after the disappointing agony that had been the Vietnam War, and economic stagflation churning at home. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. (born October 1, 1924), an American politician, was the 39th President of the United States (1977–1981), and 83rd (1971–1975) Governor of Georgia.

NY: Summit Books, 1991. The Truth of the Matter: My Life in and out of Politics. Lance, Bert. NY: Harper & Row, 1976.

The Man from Plains: The Mind and Spirit of Jimmy Carter. Kucharsky, David. of KS, 1993. The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr. Lawrence, KS: U.

Kaufman, Burton I. Austin: UT Press, 1984. Panama Odyssey. Jordan, William J.

NY: Putnam, 1982. Crisis: The Last Year of the Carter Presidency. Jordan, Hamilton. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 1988.

The Trusteeship Presidency: Jimmy Carter and the United States Congress. Jones, Charles O. Sharing Good Times (2004). President.

The Hornet's Nest (2003), a historical novel and the first work of fiction written by a U.S. The Nobel Peace Prize Lecture (2002). Christmas in Plains: Memories (2001). An Hour before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood (2001).

The Virtues of Aging (1998). Sources of Strength: Meditations on Scripture for a Living Faith (1997). Living Faith (1996). The Little Baby Snoogle-Fleejer (1995), a children's book, illustrated by his daughter.

Always a Reckoning (1995), a collection of poetry, illustrated by his granddaughter. Talking Peace: A Vision for the Next Generation (1993 and 1995). Turning Point: A Candidate, a State, and a Nation Come of Age (1992). An Outdoor Journal (1988 and 1994).

Everything to Gain: Making the Most of the Rest of Your Life (1987 and 1995), with Rosalynn Carter. The Blood of Abraham (1985 and 1993). Negotiation: The Alternative to Hostility (1984). Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President (1982 and 1995).

A Government as Good as Its People (1977 and 1996). Why Not the Best? (1975 and 1996). On October 14, 1978 President Carter signed into law a bill that legalized the homebrewing of beer and wine. Carter is 5 feet, 11 inches (180 cm) tall.

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