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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary. states are named after Grant: Grant County, Arkansas; Grant County, Kansas; Grant County, Minnesota; Grant County, Nebraska; Grant County, New Mexico; Grant County, North Dakota; Grant County, Oklahoma; Grant County, Washington; and Grant County, West Virginia. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. Counties in nine U.S. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. S." Grant suggesting "Uncle Sam"), The Great Captain and, in his youth, Ulys, Lyss and Useless. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. Grant's nicknames included: The Hero of Appomattox, "Unconditional Surrender" Grant, Sam Grant (originating at West Point, from "U.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. Grant Bridge over the Ohio River at Portsmouth, Ohio. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. There is a U.S. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. Grant Memorial, located on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., honors Grant. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. The Ulysses S.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. $50 bill. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. Grant's portrait appears on the U.S. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. In World War II, the British Army produced an armored vehicle known as the Grant tank (a version of the American M3 model, which was ironically nicknamed the "Lee"). She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. His body lies in New York City, beside that of his wife, in Grant's Tomb, the largest mausoleum in North America.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. on Thursday July 23, 1885, at Mount McGregor, Saratoga County, New York. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. Grant died at 8:06 a.m. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. Ulysses S. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. Twain called the memoirs "the most remarkable work of its kind since the Commentaries of Julius Caesar," and they are widely regarded as among the finest memoirs ever written.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. The memoirs succeeded, selling over 300,000 copies and earning the Grant family over $450,000 ($9,500,000 in 2005 dollars). She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. Although wracked with pain and unable to speak at the end, he triumphed, finishing them just a few days before his death. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. Now, terminally ill and in what many historian's believe was his greatest struggle, Grant fought to finish his memoirs. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. Grant accepted Twain's offer.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. He rightly realized that Grant was, at that time, the most significant American alive, and he offered Grant a generous contract, including 75% of the book's sales as royalties. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. Twain, who was suspicious of publishers, was appalled by the magazine's offer. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. Independently of the magazine publishers, the famous author, Mark Twain, approached Grant. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. It was a standard contract, one which they issued to most any new writer.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Afterwards, the publishers made Grant an offer to write his memoirs. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". He first wrote a couple of articles for The Century magazine, which were warmly received. And the social evil contributed its share. Only upon his family's future financial independence becoming in doubt, did he agree to write anything at all. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. Grant's Memoirs are considered a masterpiece, both for their writing style and their historical content, and until Grant bankrupted, he steadfastly refused to write them.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. In one of the most ironic twists in all history, Ward's treachery led directly to a great gift to posterity. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. Presidents were given pensions). Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. Grant and his family were left destitute (this was before the era in which retired U.S. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". And to make matters worse, Grant found out at the same time that he was suffering from throat cancer.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. In this case, Ward swindled Grant in 1884, bankrupted the company, Grant and Ward, and fled. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. McClellan, failure was in the wings. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. Ward was known as the "Young Napoleon of Finance." Perhaps Grant should have taken that name seriously; as with the other Young Napoleon, George B. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. In 1881, Grant placed almost all of his financial assets into an investment banking partnership with Ferdinand Ward, as suggested by Grant's son Buck (Ulysses, Jr.), who was having success on Wall Street.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". In 1883, Grant was elected the eighth president of the National Rifle Association. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. He decided that Japan's claim to the islands was stronger and ruled in Japan's favor. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. China objected, and Grant was asked to arbitrate the matter. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. In 1879, the Meiji government of Japan announced the annexation of the Ryukyu Islands.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. In the Shibakoen section of Tokyo, a tree still stands that Grant planted during his stay. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. Grant also visited Japan. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. He visited Sunderland, where he opened the first free municipal public library in England. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. After the end of his second term, Grant spent two years traveling around the world.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Grant appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people.
. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. He referred to the people who approached him in the lobby as "those damn lobbyists," possibly giving rise to the modern term lobbyist. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. Grant was known to visit the Willard Hotel to escape the stress of the White House.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. In 1876 Grant helped to calm the nation over the Hayes-Tilden election controversy by appointing a federal commission that helped to settle the election. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. In foreign affairs the greatest achievement of the Grant administration was the Treaty of Washington negotiated by Grant's best appointment, Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, in 1871. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1876, Colorado was admitted into the Union. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. A number of government agencies were instituted during the Grant administration:.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, establishing voting rights, was ratified in (1870). She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. In 1869 and 1871, Grant signed bills promoting voting rights and prosecuting Klan leaders. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. He favored a limited number of troops to be stationed in the South—sufficient numbers to protect rights of southern blacks and suppress the violent tactics of the Ku Klux Klan; not so many that would harbor resentment in the general population. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). The most tumultuous was the continuing process of Reconstruction.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. history. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Despite all the scandals, Grant's administration presided over significant events in U.S. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. His failure to establish adequate political allies was a factor in the scandals getting out of control. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. He alienated party leaders by giving many posts to his friends and political contributors, rather than listen to their recommendations.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. He was weak in his selection of subordinates. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Although there is no evidence that Grant himself profited from corruption among his subordinates, he did not take a firm stance against malefactors and failed to react strongly even after their guilt was established. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. Belknap, was involved in an investigation that revealed that he had taken bribes in exchange for the sale of Native American trading posts. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family. After the Whiskey Ring, Grant's Secretary of War, William W.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. Babcock, the private secretary to the President, was indicted as a member of the ring and escaped conviction only because of a presidential pardon. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. Orville E. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. The most famous scandal was the Whiskey Ring fraud in which over $3 million in taxes were taken from the federal government. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. Scofield.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Attorney Cyrus I. . Grant's presidency was plagued with scandals, such as the Sanborn Incident at the Treasury and problems with U.S. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. In the general election that year, he won with a majority of 3,012,833 out of a total of 5,716,082 votes cast. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. He was chosen as the Republican presidential candidate at the Republican National Convention in Chicago, Illinois on May 20, 1868, with no real opposition.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Grant was the 18th President of the United States and served two terms from March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1877. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. He was appointed as such by President Andrew Johnson on July 25, 1866. After the war, Congress authorized Grant the newly created rank of General of the Army (the equivalent of a four-star, "full" general rank in the modern Army). Grant.

He fights." It was a two-word description that completely caught the essence of Ulysses S. Lincoln had been quoted after the massive losses at Shiloh, "I can't spare this general. Immediately after Lee's surrender, Grant had the sad honor of serving as a pallbearer at the funeral of his greatest champion, Abraham Lincoln. Within a few weeks, the American Civil War was effectively over, although minor actions would continue until Kirby Smith surrendered his forces in the Trans-Mississippi Department on June 2, 1865.

There, Grant offered generous terms that did much to ease the tensions between the armies and preserve some semblance of Southern pride, which would be needed to reconcile the warring sides. At the beginning of April of 1865, Grant's relentless pressure finally forced Lee to evacuate Richmond and after a nine-day retreat, Lee surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. Sheridan and Sherman both followed Grant's strategy of total war by destroying the economic infrastructures of the Valley and a large swath of Georgia and the Carolinas. Later in November, Sherman began his March to the Sea.

It became clear the North was winning the war, and Lincoln was reelected by a wide margin. Then, Grant dispatched Philip Sheridan to the Shenandoah Valley to deal with Early. First, Sherman took Atlanta. In early September the efforts of Grant's coordinated strategy finally bore fruit.

Abraham Lincoln's reelection prospects looked bleak. Early reached the outskirts of Washington, D.C., and, threatening the city's inhabitants, embarrassed the Administration. Early to invade north through the Shenandoah Valley, hoping that Grant would disengage some of his forces to pursue him. To make matters worse for Abraham Lincoln, Lee detached a small army under the command of Major General Jubal A.

There was a presidential election in the fall, and the citizens of the North had difficulty seeing any progress in the war effort. With Grant's and Sherman's armies, respectively stalled in Virginia and Georgia, politics took center stage. Faced with fully manned trenches in front of him, Grant was left with no alternative but to settle down to a siege. “Baldy” Smith.

Arriving at Petersburg, Virginia, first, Grant should have captured the rail junction city, but he failed because of an overly cautious subordinate, William F. He stole a march on Lee, slipping his troops across the James River. Even after suffering horrific casualties at the Battle of Cold Harbor, Grant kept up the pressure. Grant wrested the initiative from Lee, and it became clear that Lee would never have the ability to invade the North again.

Now, he was forced to continually fight on the defensive and his army was prevented from reinforcing and reprovisioning. Most of Lee's great victories had been won on the offensive, employing surprise movements and fierce assaults. In spite of mounting Union casualties, the contest's dynamics changed in Grant's favor. These words summed up his attitude about the fighting, and the very next day, May 12, he ordered a massive assault that nearly broke Lee's lines.

On May 11, Grant wrote a famous dispatch containing the line "I propose to fight it out along this line if it takes all summer". The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House lasted 14 days. The campaign continued and Lee, anticipating Grant's move, beat him to Spotsylvania, Virginia, where, on May 8, the fighting resumed. Grant, ignoring the setback, declined the offer and ordered an advance around Lee's flank to the southeast.

Lee backed off, permitting Grant to do what all of Grant's predecessors, as commanders of the Army of the Potomac, had done in this situation and that was retreat. With the pause in the fighting, there came one of those rare moments when the course of history fell upon the decision of a single man. Grant was leading a campaign that, in order to win the war, had to destroy the Confederacy's ability to make war. In spite of there being no clear winner, it was an inauspicious start for the Union.

The Battle of the Wilderness was a stubborn, bloody two-day fight. It was a terrible place to fight, but Lee sent in his Army of Northern Virginia anyway because he wanted to catch Grant off guard. It began early in May of 1864 when the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River, marching into an area of scrubby undergrowth and second growth trees known as the Wilderness. Lee in an epic contest.

It pitted Grant against the great commander Robert E. The Overland Campaign was the thrust needed by the Union to defeat the Confederacy. Grant was the first general to attempt such a coordinated strategy in the war and the first to understand the concepts of total war, in which the destruction of an enemy's economic infrastructure that supplied its armies was as important as tactical victories on the battlefield. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia; Nathaniel Banks to capture Mobile, Alabama.

Johnston, and capture Atlanta; George Crook and William W. Meade, and Benjamin Franklin Butler against Lee near Richmond; Franz Sigel in the Shenandoah Valley; Sherman to invade Georgia, defeat Joseph E. He devised a coordinated strategy that would strike at the heart of the Confederacy from multiple directions: Grant, George G. Sherman in immediate command of all forces in the West and moved his headquarters to Virginia where he turned his attention to the long-frustrated Union effort to destroy the army of Lee; his secondary objective was to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, but Grant knew that the latter would happen automatically once the former was accomplished.

In March 1864, Grant put Major General William T. Grant has been described as a "butcher" for his strategy, particularly in 1864, but he was able to achieve objectives that his predecessor generals had not, even though they suffered similar casualties over time. Such tactics often resulted in heavy casualties for Grant's men, but they wore down the Confederate forces proportionately even more and inflicted irreplaceable losses. Once an offensive or a siege began, Grant refused to stop the attack until the enemy surrendered or was driven from the field.

Lee), Grant was not afraid to order direct assaults or tight sieges against Confederate forces, often when the Confederates were themselves launching offensives against him. Although a master of combat by out-maneuvering his opponent (such as at Vicksburg and in the Overland Campaign against Robert E. Grant's fighting style was what one fellow general called "that of a bulldog". On March 12, Grant became general-in-chief of all the armies of the United States.

Congress with Grant in mind—on March 2, 1864. Grant's willingness to fight and ability to win impressed President Abraham Lincoln, who appointed him lieutenant general—a new rank recently authorized by the U.S. The assaulting wave sent the Confederates into a head-long retreat, opening the way for the Union to invade Atlanta, Georgia, and the heart of the Confederacy. Instead, exceeding their orders, Thomas's men made a spectacular charge straight up Missionary Ridge and broke the fortified center of the Confederate line.

In response, Grant ordered Thomas to conduct a minor attack in the center as a diversion. Determined Confederate resistance stymied Union attacks on the right and left. The Battle of Chattanooga started out as a stalemate. In late November, they went on the offensive.

Upon reprovisioning and reinforcing, the morale of Union troops lifted. Greatly alarmed by what he saw, Grant quickly devised a plan and, with the help of reinforcements, successfully carried it out, opening a supply line. They were cut off from receiving supplies and on reduced rations. Upon his arrival in Chattanooga on October 23, Grant found the troops in a deplorable state.

Thomas. He immediately relieved Rosecrans and replaced him with George H. On October 17, Grant was placed in overall charge of the besieged forces. They took up positions on the hillsides, overlooking the city and surrounding the Federals.

The victorious Confederate forces, led by Braxton Bragg, followed closely behind. Afterwards, the defeated Union forces under William Rosecrans retreated to the city of Chattanooga, Tennessee. In September of 1863, the Confederates won the Battle of Chickamauga. It was the second time Grant captured a Confederate army in its entirety.

It was a devastating defeat for the Southern cause, effectively splitting the Confederacy in two, and, in conjunction with the Union victory at Gettysburg the previous day, is widely considered the turning point of the war. Cut off and with no possibility of relief, Pemberton surrendered to Grant on July 4, 1863. Finding that assaults against the impregnable breastworks were futile, he settled in for a six-week siege. The defeated Confederates retreated inside their fortifications at Vicksburg, and Grant promptly surrounded the city.

Knowing that the Confederates could no longer send reinforcements to the Vicksburg garrison, Grant turned west and won at Champion Hill. Living off the land, Grant's army went eastward, captured the city of Jackson, Mississippi and severed the rail line to Vicksburg. Pemberton, an opportunity to concentrate their forces against him. Operating in enemy territory, Grant moved swiftly, never giving the Confederates, under the command of John C.

(This was the largest amphibious operation in American military history and would hold that record until the Battle of Normandy in World War II.) Grant moved inland and, in a daring move, defying conventional military principles, cut loose from most of his supply lines. Navy ships that had run the guns at Vicksburg. Grant marched his troops down the west bank of the Mississippi and crossed the river by using the U.S. The resulting operation is considered one of the most masterful in military history.

Then in the spring of 1863, Grant launched his real plan for taking the city. Never really expecting any of them to succeed, because of the geographic and logistical obstacles, he carried them out anyway because they kept the soldiers busy. In the campaign to capture the Mississippi River fortress of Vicksburg, Mississippi, Grant spent the winter of 1862–63 conducting a series of operations, attempting to gain access to the city, through the region's bayous. When Halleck was promoted to general-in-chief of the Union Army, Grant resumed his position as commander of the Army of the Tennessee.

Sherman, did Grant remain. Only by the intervention of his subordinate and good friend, William T. Removed from planning strategy, Grant decided to resign. In response, Halleck took command of the Army in the field himself and put Grant on the shelf.

As a military theoritician, Halleck considered the battle as nothing more than a fight between two armed mobs. Halleck, Grant's theater commander, was upset by Grant being surprised and the disorganised nature of the fighting. Henry W. Despite Shiloh being a Union victory, it came at a high price; it was the bloodiest battle in United States history up until then, with over 23,000 casualties.

Then, on the second day, with the help of timely reinforcements, Grant counterattacked, turning a serious reverse into a victory. With grim determination, he stabilized his line. Nevertheless, Grant refused to retreat. The sheer violence of the Confederate attack sent the Union forces reeling.

Albert Sidney Johnston at the Battle of Shiloh. In early April of 1862, he was surprised by Gen. I propose to move immediately upon your works". It was at Fort Donelson that he not only captured a entire Confederate army, but he electrified the Northern people with his famous demand, "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted.

In February of 1862, Grant gave the Union cause its first major victory of the war by capturing Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in Tennessee. On August 7, Grant was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers. The governor felt that a West Point man could be put to better use and appointed him colonel of the 21st Illinois Infantry (effective June 17, 1861). On April 24, 1861, ten days after the fall of Fort Sumter, Captain Grant arrived in Springfield, Illinois, with a company of men he had raised.

Louis, and finally an assistant in the leather shop owned by his father and brother in Galena, Illinois. Seven years of civilian life followed, in which he was a farmer, a real estate agent in St. After the Mexican war ended in 1848, he remained in the army until resigning on July 31, 1854. He was twice brevetted for bravery: at Molino del Rey and Chapultepec.

Grant served in the Mexican-American War under Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott, taking part in the battles of Resaca de la Palma, Palo Alto, Monterrey, and Veracruz. (Buck) Grant, Jr., Ellen (Nellie) Grant, and Jesse Root Grant. They had four children: Frederick Dent Grant, Ulysses S. Grant married Julia Boggs Dent (1826–1902) on August 22, 1848.

Grant drank distilled liquor and smoked huge numbers of cigars (one story had it that he smoked over 10,000 in five years) which may have contributed to his throat cancer of later life. At the academy, he established a reputation as a fearless and expert horseman. He graduated from West Point in 1843, ranking 21st in a class of 39. Upon graduation, Grant adopted the form of his new name with middle initial only, never acknowledging that the "S" stood for Simpson.

Hamer erroneously nominated him as Ulysses Simpson Grant, and although Grant protested the change, it was difficult to resist the bureaucracy. Hamer. Congressman, Thomas L. At the age of 17, Grant received a cadetship to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, through his U.S.

In the fall of 1823 they moved to the village of Georgetown in Brown County, Ohio, where Grant spent most of his time until he was 17. His father, a tanner, and his mother were born in Pennsylvania. Grant was born Hiram Ulysses Grant in Point Pleasant, Clermont County, Ohio, 25 miles (40 km) north of Cincinnati on the Ohio River, to Jesse Grant and Hannah Simpson. .

His support for the legal rights of blacks to vote and hold public office were unpopular at the time, but have gained him more respect in modern times. More recent treatments have emphasized the accomplishments of his administration, including his struggle to preserve Reconstruction. He is instead mostly criticized for not taking a strong stance against the corruption, and not acting to stop it. They agree that Grant was not personally corrupt; it was his subordinates in the executive branch who were at fault.

Although Grant was a successful general, he is considered by historians to be one of America's least successful presidents, who led an administration plagued by scandal and corruption. Fuller as "the greatest general of his age and one of the greatest strategists of any age." He won many important battles, rose to become general-in-chief of all Union armies, and is credited with winning the war. C. F.

Grant has been described by military historian J. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was a Union general in the American Civil War and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). Ulysses S. Colorado – August 1, 1876.

Morrison Remick Waite (Chief Justice) – 1874. Ward Hunt – 1873. Bradley – 1870. Joseph P.

William Strong – 1870. Office of the Surgeon General (1871). (Today it is known as the Office of Personnel Management.). Arthur, a Grant faithful.

"Advisory Board on Civil Service" (1871); after it expired in 1873, it became the role model for the "Civil Service Commission" instituted in 1883 by President Chester A. Office of the Solicitor General (1870). Post Office Department (1872). Department of Justice (1870).

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