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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary. An Anti-Paine newspaper won him some more political attention. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. His interment was in the family burial ground at Quincy, Massachusetts and he was subsequently reinterred after his wife's death in a family crypt in the United First Parish Church across the street, where his tomb can be viewed today. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. Adams died of a cerebral hemorrhage on February 23, 1848 in the Capitol Building, Washington, D.C. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. Adam's son Charles Francis also pursued a career in politics.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. In 1841, Adams represented the Amistad Africans in the Supreme Court of the United States and successfully argued that the Africans, who had seized control of a Spanish ship where they were being held as illegal slaves, should not be returned to Spain, but returned home as free people. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Massachusetts in 1834. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. He was chairman of the Committee on Manufactures (for the 22nd through 26th, 28th and 29th Congresses, respectively), the Committee on Indian Affairs (for the 27th Congress) and the Committee on Foreign Affairs (also for the 27th Congress). The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. Rather than retire, Adams would go on to win election as a Democratic-Republican to the House of Representatives beginning with the 22nd Congress, serving from March 4, 1831, until his death.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. None. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. Adams appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.
. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. During this time he worked on developing a federal system of roads, canals, bridges, lighthouses, and universities until Jackson, who defeated Adams in the latter's quest for re-election, was sworn in to replace him.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. Adams served as President from March 4, 1825 to March 3, 1829. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. Although Adams lost in both the popular and electoral votes in the Presidential election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which to the surprise of many elected Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. President James Monroe ran virtually unopposed for re-election, but one elector cast his ballot for Adams, allegedly to ensure that George Washington remained the only American president unanimously chosen by the electoral college. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. Adams received one electoral vote in the presidential election of 1820.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. As Secretary of State, he negotiated the Adams-Onís Treaty and helped develop the Monroe Doctrine, which warned European nations not to meddle in affairs of the Western Hemisphere. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. Typically, however, his alone were the ones that Monroe decided upon. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. He was sometimes called the "Lone Wolf" for his positions during this time because he often did not go with everyone else's opinion. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. He was Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President James Monroe from 1817 to 1825, a tenure during which he was instrumental in the acquisition of Florida and in keeping the United States from becoming dependent on England.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. During this time, Adams and his wife lost to illness an infant daughter, born in 1811. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. He was Minister (Ambassador) to Russia from 1809 to 1814, a member of the commission which negotiated the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, and Minister to the United Kingdom from 1815 to 1817. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. He was elected as a Federalist to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1803, until June 8, 1808, when he resigned, a successor having been elected six months early after Adams broke with the Federalist Party. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. House of Representatives in the same year.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Adams was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the U.S. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". He began his political career in 1802 when he elected to the Massachusetts State Senate. And the social evil contributed its share. He afterwards returned to Quincy where he lived in the "Old House" (now a museum). For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. President to do so.).

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. (As of 2004, Adams is the only U.S. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. The couple named one of their sons after George Washington. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. Despite his father's opposition to him having a foreign-born wife, Adams wed Louisa Johnson in 1797. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". While serving abroad, he met Louisa Catherine Johnson, the daughter of an American merchant living abroad.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. President George Washington appointed him Minister to the Netherlands in 1794, Minister to Portugal in 1796 and Minister to Prussia in 1797. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. He studied law after which he was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Boston. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. He graduated from Harvard University in 1787 and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. He acquired his early education in Europe at venerable institutions such as the University of Leiden while accompanying his father while the elder Adams was serving as an American envoy to France and later the Netherlands during the Revolutionary War.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". His birthplace is open to the public, as is the nearby cairn marking the site from which he viewed the Battle of Bunker Hill as a 7-year-old boy. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. Adams was born in Braintree, Massachusetts in a part of town which eventually become the separate town of Quincy. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. . Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Senate in 1875.) As a Congressman, Adams became an opponent of slavery, and because he was an ex-president, he became one of the most prominent supporters of abolition in the country.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. (Andrew Johnson was elected to the U.S. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. Presidents to serve in Congress after having been President. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. House of Representatives in 1830, one of only two U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Adams was elected to the U.S.

Helen Keller met every U.S. For these activities he has been called "the most influential American grand strategist of the nineteenth century" and "perhaps the greatest secretary of state in American history."1. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. While serving as Secretary of State under President James Monroe, Adams negotiated the Adams-Onís Treaty with Spain and devised the Monroe Doctrine, both of which were of long lasting importance. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Before becoming President, he was the most experienced diplomat in the United States. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. Adams's most important contributions to American history came before and after his relatively ineffective term as President.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. He was the son of President John Adams and First Lady Abigail Smith. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was the sixth (1825-1829) President of the United States. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. "Greatest secretary of state": Samuel Flagg Bemis. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. 15.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. Note 1: "Influential grand strategist": John Lewis Gaddis, Surprise, Security, and the American Experience (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2004, ISBN 0674011740), p. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. Treaty of Ghent. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. Adams-Onis Treaty. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). Mount Quincy Adams.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. presidential election, 1828. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. U.S. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. presidential election, 1824. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. U.S.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. presidential election, 1820. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. U.S. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. [1]. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family. She learned that Adams liked to take nude dips in the Potomac River almost every morning around 5 a.m., so she went to the river, gathered his clothes and sat on them until he answered all of her questions.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. Adams had repeatedly refused requests for an interview with Anne Royall, the first female professional journalist in the U.S., so she took a different approach to accomplish her goal. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. President to give an interview to a woman; however, he did not have much choice. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. John Quincy Adams is the first U.S. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. President to wear long pants instead of knee britches.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. John Quincy Adams was the first U.S. . Bush. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. Bush and George W. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. W.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. The second father-son duo is Presidents George H. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. He is the first President whose father was also President. Robert Trimble - 1826.

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