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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.
. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. Thomas Carter was a famous stage magician in the early part of the 1900's, and the book offers a fascinating alternate explaination for the death of Warren Harding. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. President Harding and his wife both appear in fictional form as supporting characters in the novel Carter Beats the Devil by Glen David Gold. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. Harding County, New Mexico is named in his honor.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. Now Elizabeth Ann Blaesing, Nan Britton's daughter has been a resident of California for most of her life and was still living as of 2002. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. Christian, who adopted Elizabeth Ann. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. Britton married a Mr. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. Under cross-examination by the Harding heirs' attorney, Grant Mouser (a former member of Congress himself), Britton's testimony was riddled with inconsistencies, and she lost her case.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. Harding on behalf of Elizabeth Ann. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. Following Harding's death, Nan Britton unsuccessfully sued the estate of Warren G. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. Harding and Britton, according to unsubstantiated reports, continued their affair while he was President, using a closet adjacent to the Oval Office for privacy. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Harding never met Nan's daughter, but paid large amounts of child support.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. According to Nan's kiss-and-tell book The President's Daughter, published after Harding's death, she and Senator Harding conceived "their" daughter, Elizabeth Ann, in January 1919 in his Senate office. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. Nan's obsession with Harding started at an early age when she began pasting pictures of then-Senator Harding on her bedroom walls. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. Britton of Marion. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. Phillips, Harding also reportedly had an affair with Nan Britton, the daughter of Harding's late friend, a Dr.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Besides Mrs. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. The Harding-Phillips love letters remain under an Ohio court protective order that expires in 2024, after which the content of the letters may be published and/or reviewed. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. Russell in turn left quoted passages from the letters as blank passages in protest against the Harding heirs' actions. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. Phillips were confiscated at the request of the Harding heirs, who requested and received a court injunction prohibiting their inclusion in Francis Russell's book, The Shadow of Blooming Grove.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. The letters Harding wrote to Mrs. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. Phillips also received monthly payments thereafter, becoming the first and only person known to have successfully extorted money from a major political party. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. Mrs. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. To reduce the likelihood of a scandal breaking, the Republican National Committee sent Carrie and her family on a trip to Japan and paid them over $50,000.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Once they learned of the affair, it was too late to find another nominee. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". When Harding won the Republican presidential nomination in 1920, he did not disclose the relationship to party officials. And the social evil contributed its share. Phillips threatened to go public with their affair if the Senator supported the war, but Harding defied her and voted for war, and Carrie did not reveal the scandal to the world. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. Mrs.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. Harding was now an Ohio Senator, and a vote was coming up on a declaration of war against Germany. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. and the affair reignited. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. Phillips moved back to the U.S. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". However, as the United States became increasingly likely to be drawn into World War I, Mrs.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. When he refused, she left her husband and moved to Berlin with her daughter Isabel. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. By 1915, she began pressing Harding to leave his wife. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. Phillips was ten years younger than Harding. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. Mrs.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". Phillips, who was then the wife of his friend James Phillips, owner of the local department store, the Uhler-Phillips Company. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. Russell persuaded her to relent, and the letters showed conclusively that Harding had a 15-year relationship with Mrs. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. Phillips kept the letters in a box in a closet and was reluctant to share them. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. The letters were in the possession of Harding's one true love, Carrie Fulton Phillips, who by the 1960s was very elderly.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. However, their existence was not confirmed until author Francis Russell gained access to them during his research for his book, The Shadow of Blooming Grove. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. Rumors of the Harding love letters circulated through Marion, Ohio for many years. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. Carrie Fulton Phillips; he was also rumored to have had an affair with Miss Nan Britton, though information for this comes mostly from her book, written after his death. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. What is known, and has been recorded in primary documents, is that during his lifetime, Harding had an affair with Mrs.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Many self-appointed experts on Harding's infidelities base their suppositions on innuendo, speculation, and stories that swirled around the President following his death. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. "I have no trouble with my enemies, but my damn friends, they're the ones that keep me walking the floor nights.". In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. "My God, this is a hell of a job!" Harding said. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. No evidence to date suggests that Harding personally profited from these crimes, but he was apparently unable to stop them.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. Charles Cramer, an aide to Charles Forbes, also committed suicide. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. He was convicted of fraud and bribery and drew a two-year sentence. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. Charles Forbes, Director of the Veterans Bureau, skimmed profits, earned fat kickbacks, and ran alcohol and drugs. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. Jess Smith, personal aide to the Attorney General, destroyed papers and then committed suicide.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. Thomas Miller, head of the Office of Alien Property, was convicted of accepting bribes. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. In 1931 Fall became the first member of a Cabinet to be sent to prison. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. Fall, who was eventually convicted of covertly leasing public oil fields to business associates in exchange for personal loans. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). The scandal involved Secretary of the Interior Albert B.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. The most infamous scandal of the time was the Teapot Dome affair, which shook the nation for years after Harding's death. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Corruption was rampant throughout Harding's administration, though it is uncertain how much Harding himself knew about his friends' illicit activities. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. Known as the "Ohio Gang" (a misleading term used by Charles Mee, Jr., for his book of the same name), some of the appointees used their new powers to rob the government. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. Upon winning the election, Harding placed many of his old allies and cronies in prominent political positions.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. With the release in the 1960s of Francis Russell's The Shadow of Blooming Grove, the specter of Harding's mixed blood was again raised and, lacking factual sources, quickly put down as innuendo. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Harding's 1923 California-issued death certificate also indicates nothing to suggest Chancellor's theories were accepted as fact. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. Furthermore, Chancellor's theories find no basis in Federal Census Records, nor in probate court records. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family. The claim is also impossible to verify through public records in Ohio; Harding was born in 1865, and the state of Ohio did not require registration or recording of births until 1867.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. Furthermore, there has never been a test of Harding's DNA. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. In fact, so few copies of his book exist—one of five known copies is owned by a private book collector in Marion, Ohio—that its availability to modern scholars is limited at best. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. Chancellor's work never provided clear indications of his sources, or his proof. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. There is no scientific or legal basis for these arguments.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Those who hold to the theory of mixed race do so without proof, often relying on the research of William Estabrook Chancellor for details of Harding's supposed African-American lineage. . Eventually the Hardings and Klings reconciled, but the rumors persisted. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. Kling got his comeuppance when his daughter Florence Kling DeWolfe married Harding. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Among those spreading the rumor was Amos Kling, one of Marion's wealthiest citizens, who detested Harding and his newspaper, The Marion Daily Star.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Harding's detractors began using the damaging rumor of his alleged negro ancestry against him in the 1880s, early in his political career. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. The theories advanced by Means—who had previously been imprisoned for his suspect activities while an FBI agent—have never been proven; they remain as speculative as they were sensational. In 1933, an exposé in Liberty magazine denounced Means as a fraud who used a ghost writer for The Strange Death of President Harding. Harding poisoned the President, a rumor that has clouded the facts of Harding's death and heart condition.

Means claimed it was possible that Mrs. In 1930, a former private investigator named Gaston Means wrote the exploitative book, The Strange Death of President Harding, in which he suggested many people had motives to murder the President, including his wife. The lapse between the final interment and the dedication was due in part to the aftermath of the Teapot Dome scandal. Both bodies were moved in December 1927 to the newly completed Harding Memorial in Marion, which was dedicated by President Herbert Hoover in 1931.

Harding's death in November 1924, she too was temporarily buried next to her husband. Following Mrs. Harding was entombed in the receiving vault of the Marion Cemetery, Marion, Ohio, in August 1923. Harding at this time was: "They can't hurt you now, Warren.".

The most commonly reported (though never verified) remark attributed to Mrs. Harding speak for more than an hour to the face of her dead husband. White House employees at the time were quoted as saying that the night before the funeral, they heard Mrs. Following his death, Harding's body was returned to Washington, where it was placed in the Gold Room of the White House pending a state funeral at the United States Capitol.

Harding was succeeded by his Vice President, Calvin Coolidge, who was sworn in by his father, a Justice of the Peace, in Plymouth Notch, Vermont. Sawyer's medical qualifications were also called into question. Harding refused permission for an autopsy, which soon led to speculation that the President had been the victim of a plot. Upon Sawyer's recommendation, Mrs.

Charles Sawyer, the Surgeon General, who was traveling with the presidential party. Naval physicians surmised that he had suffered a heart attack; however, this diagnosis was not made by Dr. on August 2, 1923 at age 57. Harding died of either a heart attack or a stroke at 7:35 p.m.

Arriving at the Palace Hotel in San Francisco, he developed pneumonia. At the end of July, while traveling south from Alaska, he developed what was thought to be a severe case of food poisoning. Rumors of corruption in his administration were beginning to circulate in Washington by this time, and Harding was profoundly shocked by a long message he received while in Alaska, apparently detailing illegal activities previously unknown to him. During this trip, he became the first President to visit Alaska.

In June of 1923, Harding set out on a cross-country "Voyage of Understanding," planning to meet ordinary people and explain his policies. Harding appointed the following justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:.
. Both President Harding and his wife were extremely popular during their tenure in the White House.

Wallace, the future Cabinet Secretary, Vice President and 1948 progressive presidential candidate. Wallace was the father of Henry A. Wallace. Weeks, Postmaster General Will Hays, and Secretary of Agriculture Henry C.

Despite the reputation that later clung to him, Harding did appoint several men to his Cabinet who rose to personal prominence later, including especially Hughes, Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon, Secretary of War John W. He attended baseball games regularly. senator from Ohio he had voted for Prohibition, Harding kept the White House well stocked with bootleg liquor. Although as a U.S.

As President, Harding played both golf (in season) and poker twice a week. "This is not the American way.". "Nothing can be gained by blinking our eyes to this problem," Harding stated. Harding also called for the equal access to politics, business and education for all Americans.

In his speech, given at the Capitol park, Harding stated that lynching had become an international problem, and that it violated the rights of "negro Americans". President to advocate the rights of blacks while on southern soil. On October 26, 1921, Harding delivered a speech while on a trip to Birmingham, Alabama, making him the first U.S. In a special session of Congress shortly after his inaugaration he called for retrenchment of government, low taxes, repeal of the wartime excise tax, reduction of railroad rates, a great merchant marine, a Public Welfare Department (realized in 1953 as the U.S Health, Education and Welfare Department), a national budget system and promotion of agricultural interests.

Harding was also able to bring the reality of an eight-hour work day to millions of Americans (which happened some days after his death). Congress, and the General Accounting Office to audit government expenditures. Also notable was the establishment of the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget), which increased the powers of the President by directing departmental spending plans to him rather than to the U.S. One important event, however, was the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922, which at Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes' instigation limited the size of navies and reduced tension between the US, the UK and Japan in the Pacific.

Throughout his administration, Harding adopted laissez-faire policies, and there are few lasting achievements to his name. Debs, campaigning from Federal prison, received 3 percent of the national vote. Socialist Eugene V. Cox received 36 percent of the national vote and 127 electoral votes.

Harding received 61 percent of the national vote and 404 electoral votes, an unprecedented margin of victory. The milestone election of 1920 was the first in which women could vote nationwide. These rumors, perhaps based on no more than local Ohio gossip, were circulated by William Estabrook Chancellor. In response, Harding's campaign manager said, "No family in the state [of Ohio] has a clearer, a more honorable record than the Hardings, a blue-eyed stock from New England and Pennsylvania, the finest pioneer blood." To a friend, however, Harding confided that one of his ancestors may have "jumped the fence," though Harding himself was never certain whether or not this was true.

During the campaign, rumors were spread by persons (unaffiliated with the Cox campaign) that Harding's great-great-grandfather was a West Indian black and that other blacks lurked in his family tree (see Scandals, below). However, it was Harding's support for women's suffrage in the Senate that made him extremely popular with women: the ratification of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution in August 1920 brought huge crowds of women to Marion, Ohio to hear Harding. Considered handsome, Harding photographed well compared to Cox. The campaign also drew upon Harding's popularity with women.

Harding even went so far as to coach her husband on the proper way to wave to newsreel cameras to make the most of coverage. Mrs. She cultivated the relationship between the campaign and the press; as the business manager of the Star, she understood reporters and their industry and played to their needs by making herself freely available to answer questions, pose for pictures or deliver home cooked food from her kitchen to the press office, a bungalow she had constructed at the rear of their property in Marion. The campaign owed a great deal to Florence Harding, who played perhaps a more active role than any previous candidate's wife in a Presidential race.

From the onset of the campaign until the November election, over 600,000 people traveled to Marion to participate. Business icons Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, and Harvey Firestone also lent their cachet to the Front Porch Campaign. Al Jolson, Lillian Russell, Douglas Fairbanks, and Mary Pickford were among the luminaries to make the pilgrimage to central Ohio. Not only was it the first campaign to be heavily covered by the press, and to receive widespread newsreel coverage, but it was also the first modern campaign to use the power of Hollywood and Broadway stars who traveled to Marion for photo opportunities with Harding and his wife.

Harding's "front porch campaign" during the late summer and fall of 1920 captured the imagination of the country. Harding ran on a promise to "Return to Normalcy," a term he coined, which reflected three trends of his time: a renewed isolationism in reaction to World War I, a resurgence of nativism, and a turning away from the government activism of the reform era. The election was seen in part as a referendum on whether to continue with the progressive work of the Woodrow Wilson administration or to revert to the laissez-faire approach of the William McKinley era. Roosevelt.

Cox, whose vice presidential candidate was Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. In the 1920 election, Harding ran against Democrat Ohio Governor James M. There is controversial and disputed evidence that Harding was himself a Klan member. Harding's newlywed brother Vetallis ("Tal") Kling and his bride Elnora ("Nona") Younkins-Hinaman also received a all expenses-paid tour of Europe from the Hardings; the bride was a Catholic widow, and the marriage performed in the Catholic Church at a time when Catholics were viewed as a liability in American politics and the recently revived Ku Klux Klan, anti-Catholic as well as anti-black and anti-Jewish, was rapidly becoming popular in the Midwest.

Mrs. Phillips and her family received an extended tour of Asia courtesy of the Republican Party in exchange for her silence. Harding answered "No" and the Party moved to nominate him, only to discover later his relationship with Carrie Fulton Phillips. His formal education was limited, he had a longstanding affair with the wife of an old friend, and was a social drinker.

Before receiving the nomination, he was asked whether there were any embarrassing episodes in his past that might be used against him. A relative unknown outside his own state, Harding was a true "dark horse" candidate, winning the Republican Party nomination due to the political machinations of his friends after the nominating convention had become deadlocked. He made a speech opposing this and had a recording made of it. This was a proposal of President Woodrow Wilson that would later be The United Nations.

Harding was a strong opponent of the League Of Nations. Among them was the vote to send the 19th Amendment (granting Women's Suffrage) to the states for ratification, a measure he had supported. As with his first term as Senator, Harding had a relatively undistinguished record, missing over two-thirds of the roll-call votes. Re-entering politics five years later, Harding lost a race for governor in 1910, but won election to the United States Senate in 1914, serving from 1915 until his inauguration on March 4, 1921, having earned the distinction of becoming the first sitting Senator to be elected President.

At the conclusion of his term as Lieutenant Governor Harding returned to private life. His leanings were conservative, his record in both offices relatively undistinguished. He served four years before being elected Lieutenant Governor of Ohio, a post he occupied from 1903 to 1905. As an influential newspaper publisher with a flair for public speaking, Harding was elected to the Ohio State Senate in 1899.

& A.M., Marion, Ohio. 70, F. He was raised to the Sublime Degree of a Master Mason on August 27, 1920, in Marion Lodge No. Harding was also a member of the Freemasons.

Florence's drive has been credited with helping Harding to achieve greater things than he could have done alone, leading to speculation that she later pushed him all the way to the White House. Thomas, who ran for President on the Socialist ticket, often credited his work ethic to Florence Harding, whom he remembered fondly in his recollections of life in Marion. One of the Hardings' paperboys at the Star was the young Norman Thomas, son of the city's Presbyterian Church minister, who later became a noted journalist and socialist leader in New York City. Florence Harding inherited her father's determination and business sense, and turned the Marion Daily Star into a profitable business.

While the marriage was not one of full-blown passions, the couple complemented one another, Harding's affable personality balancing his wife's no-nonsense approach to life. He opposed the marriage vigorously and would not speak to his daughter or son-in-law for eight years. Upon hearing that his only daughter intended to marry Harding, Kling cut her completely out of the family and even forbade his wife to attend her wedding. Florence's father was Harding's nemesis, Amos Kling.

Five years older than Harding, she had pursued him persistently, until he reluctantly surrendered and proposed. In 1891, Harding married Florence Mabel Kling DeWolfe, a divorcee and the mother of one son. He spent his days boosting the community on the editorial pages, and his evenings "bloviating" (Harding's term for informal conversation) with his friends over games of poker. He traveled to Battle Creek, Michigan to spend several weeks in a sanitarium regaining his strength, later returning to Marion to continue operating the Star.

In 1889, when Harding was 24, he suffered exhaustion and nervous fatigue. While Harding won the war of words and made the Daily Star the biggest newspaper in Marion, the battle took a toll on his health. When Harding moved to unseat the Marion Independent as the official paper of daily record, his actions brought the wrath of Amos Kling, one of Marion's wealthiest real estate speculators, down upon him. However, Harding's political stance was at odds with those who controlled most of Marion's local politics.

Harding converted the paper's editorial platform to support the Republicans and enjoyed a moderate degree of success. It was the weakest of Marion's three newspapers and the only daily in the growing city. After graduation, Harding moved to Marion, where he raised $300 with two friends to purchase the failing Marion Daily Star. Harding's education was completed at Ohio Central College (later Muskingum College) in Iberia.

While a teenager, the Harding family moved to Caledonia in neighboring Marion County when Harding's father acquired The Argus, a local weekly newspaper, where Harding learned the basics of the newspaper business. His mother was a midwife who later obtained her medical license. His boyhood heroes were Alexander Hamilton and Napoleon. George Harding and Phoebe Dickerson Harding.

Harding was the oldest of the eight children of Dr. Harding was born on November 2, 1865, near Corsica, Ohio (now Blooming Grove) in Morrow County. . Harding was basically "a good President.".

Ferrell, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of History at Indiana University and a leading scholar on the presidency, has concluded that Warren G. Robert H. With the passage of time, Harding's place in history is being reconsidered. He was succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge.

However, medical scholars now believe that Harding died of end stage heart disease. The cause of death was first said to have been food poisoning, then changed to apoloxy(stroke). While on the final leg of a western states and the Alaska Territory, Harding died in San Francisco, California, 27 months into his term. He adopted hands-off laissez-faire policies both on economic and social policy.

Cox in a landslide, 60.36 to 34.19 percent (404 to 127 in the electoral college). In the 1920 election he defeated his Democratic opponent James M. A political unknown at the time of the 1920 Republican National Convention, Harding emerged as a dark horse to become the presidential nominee through political maneuvering. Senator (1914–1921), where he again had a relatively undistinguished record, missing over two-thirds of the roll-call votes.

At the conclusion of his term, Harding returned to private life, only to reenter politics ten years later as a U.S. His leanings were conservative, his record in both offices relatively undistinguished. He served four years before being elected Lieutenant Governor of Ohio, a post he occupied from 1903 to 1905. Harding was elected to the Ohio State Senate in 1899.

state of Ohio, Harding was an influential newspaper publisher with a flair for public speaking before entering politics, first in the Ohio Senate (1899–1903) and later as Lieutenant Governor (1903–1905). A Republican from the U.S. Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, serving from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. Edward Terry Sanford - 1923.

Pierce Butler - 1923. George Sutherland - 1922. Harding was the only President to have appointed a previous President as chief justice (or associate justice, for that matter; Taft is the only person to have served as both President and Supreme Court Justice). William Howard Taft - Chief Justice - 1921

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