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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary. 42-43). Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. (Memoirs of RN: pgs. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. Kennedy to debate the Taft-Hartley Act at a public meeting. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. The first Kennedy-Nixon debate occurred on April 21, 1947, when Democratic Congressman Frank Buchanan selected freshman congressmen Richard Milhous Nixon and John F.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. On December 28, 1968, Julie Nixon (Richard's daughter) and David Eisenhower (Dwight's grandson) were married. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. Because of his place in American culture as a controversial President, Richard Nixon has appeared as a character (with varying degrees of verisimilitude), both major and minor, in a variety of fiction. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues.
. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. Due to disputes over the papers, the library is privately funded and does not, like the other presidential libraries, receive support from the National Archives.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. Nixon's attempts to protect his papers and gain tax advantages from them had been one of the important themes of the Watergate affair. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. The Nixon Library contains only Nixon's pre- and post-presidential papers, as his presidential papers have been retained as government evidence. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. Nixon was survived by his two daughters Tricia and Julie, along with his four grandchildren. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Bush and their respective first ladies.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. W. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. Also in attendance at Nixon's funeral were former presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. Johnson (a service Nixon himself attended when president) on January 25, 1973. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. However, President Bill Clinton, former secretary of state Henry Kissinger, Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole, and California Republican Governor Pete Wilson spoke at the April 27 funeral—the first for an American president since that of Lyndon B.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Acting on his family's wishes, Nixon did not receive a state funeral, as customary for former presidents. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. He was buried beside his wife Pat Nixon (who had died ten months earlier, on June 22, 1993, of lung cancer) on the grounds of the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. On April 22, Nixon passed away at 9:08 PM at the age of 81. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. He might have lived longer had he been resuscitated using extraordinary measures, such as a respirator, but he refused such treatments, as he had stated in his earlier hospital visits.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. He was rushed to New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, where his condition deteriorated over the next several days. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. It was later determined that a blood clot that had formed in his upper heart as a result of his heart condition broke off and traveled to his brain. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. On April 18, 1994, at 5:45 PM EDT, Nixon suffered a severe hemorrhagic stroke while preparing to eat dinner in his Park Ridge, New Jersey home. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. He received surgery in 1974 for this problem (Barker et al 1997).

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). While generally in good health, he was on lifelong warfarin anticoagulant therapy after multiple episodes of phlebitis or deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism starting in 1965 (these conditions would later contribute to his fatal stroke). I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Nixon wrote many books after his departure from politics, including his memoirs. And the social evil contributed its share. Previously the only guilt that was alleged was his role in the cover up of the break-in. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. In July 2003, Jeb Stuart Magruder, a former Special Assistant to the President, alleged that Nixon had personally ordered the Watergate break-in by phone.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. Further tape releases, however, removed all doubt as to Nixon's involvement both in the Watergate cover-up and also the illegal campaign finances and intrusive government surveillance that were at the heart of the scandal. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. He gained great respect as an elder statesman in the area of foreign affairs, being consulted by both Democratic and Republican successors to the Presidency. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In his later years Nixon worked to rehabilitate his public image, and enjoyed considerably more success than could have been anticipated at the time of his resignation. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". Ford issued a pre-emptive pardon, effectively ending any possibility of indictment.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. Nixon's successor Gerald R. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. Nixon's sense of being persecuted by his "enemies," his grandious belief in his own moral and political excellence, and his committment to utilize ruthless power at all costs led some experts to describe him as having a narcissistic and paranoid personality.[[3]]. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. This did not help the public perception, and fed the comedians even more. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. Once the transcripts of the White House tapes were released, people were shocked at the amount of swearing and vicious comments about opponents that Nixon issued.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". He also frequently brandished the two-finger V sign (alternately viewed as the "Victory sign" or "peace sign") using both hands, an act which became one of his best-known trademarks. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. Nixon tried to shed these perceptions by staging photo-ops with young people, and even cameo appearances on popular TV shows such as Laugh-In and Hee Haw (before he was president). Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. He was also characterized as the very epitome of a "square" and the personification of unpleasant adult authority. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. He was often portrayed by these critics and commentators as a sullen loner, with unshaven jowls, slumped shoulders, and a furrowed, sweaty brow.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Editorial cartoonists and comedians had fun exaggerating Nixon's appearance and mannerisms, to the point where the line between the human president and the caricature version of him became increasingly blurred. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. Nixon's presidency was frequently dogged by Nixon's personality, and the public perception of it. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. In light of his loss of political support and the near certainty of both his impeachment by the House of Representatives and his conviction by the Senate, he resigned, effective August 9, 1974. listen? During the Watergate Scandal, Nixon's approval rating fell to 25%. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Haldeman would later claim that when Nixon used the phrase "the Bay of Pigs thing," he was actually referring to the assassination of President John F. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Howard Hunt, and also revealed that Nixon arranged for the blackmailing of the CIA into telling the FBI to stop investigating certain topics because of "the Bay of Pigs thing." Several of the Watergate burglars were involved in the Bay of Pigs operation. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Despite his efforts, one of the secret recordings, known as the "smoking gun" tape, was released on August 5, 1974 and revealed that Nixon authorized hush money to Watergate burglar E. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. The House Judiciary Committee opened formal and public impeachment hearings against Nixon on May 9, 1974.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. He lost support from some in his own party as well as much popular support after what became known as the Saturday Night Massacre of October 20, 1973 in which he ordered Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor in the Watergate case fired, as well as firing several of his own subordinates who objected to this move. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. Nixon was named by the grand jury investigating Watergate as "an unindicted co-conspirator" in the Watergate Scandal. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. Nixon was eventually investigated in relation to the June 17, 1972 burglary of the Democratic Party offices at the Watergate office complex, one of a series of scandals involving the Committee to Re-Elect the President (known as CRP but referred to by outsiders as CREEP), the White House enemies list and assorted "dirty tricks." His secret recordings of White House conversations were subpoenaed, and revealed details of his complicity in the cover-up. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. Nixon appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind.
. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. On April 3, 1974, Nixon announced he would pay $432,787.13 in back taxes plus interest after a Congressional committee reported that he had inadvertently underpaid his 1969 and 1972 taxes. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. He established the EPA on December 2, 1970. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve gasoline during the 1973 energy crisis.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. On January 2, 1974, Nixon signed a bill that lowered the maximum U.S. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. The strongest candidate against Nixon, Edmund Muskie, had been sabotaged by underhanded tactics, probably on Nixon's orders. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. He carried 49 of the 50 states, trailing only in Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. political history, defeating George McGovern and garnering over 60% of the popular vote.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. In 1972 Nixon was re-elected in one of the biggest landslide election victories in U.S. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. At the time, he stated that he was taking this action to "make life harder for the Mafia." His comment drew irate criticism from many Americans of Italian ancestry, who regarded it as an ethnic slur. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. currency in 1969 by executive order. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family. Nixon halted circulation of high-denomination U.S.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. efforts to explore and develop space for several decades thereafter. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. On January 5, 1972 Nixon approved the development of the Space Shuttle program, a decision that profoundly influenced U.S. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. involvement in Vietnam. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. Ironically it was the Democrat controlled Congress and President Nixon who had wound down the NASA budget and curtailed the Apollo program due to budget pressures caused principally by the vast expense of U.S.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Along with those of the astronauts, Nixon's name and signature were inscribed on the plaques left behind by Apollo 11 in 1969 and Apollo 17 in 1972. . On the morning of July 20, 1969, Nixon addressed Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during their historic moonwalk, live via telephone. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. [2]. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Recently declassified documents reveal the extent of support offered by Nixon to the dictator despite widespread human rights violations.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Nixon was also very vocal in supporting General Yahya Khan of Pakistan despite Genocide against Bengalis in East Pakistan. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. forces into Cambodian territory in April 1970) added to the administration's tacit support for the overthrow of the neutralist royal government of Norodom Sihanouk by the rightist military dictator Lon Nol, created chaos, and drove much of the peasant population of that country into the arms of the Khmer Rouge, a Maoist revolutionary movement that would eventually kill 1.7 million Cambodians after taking power. This bombing (and an incursion by U.S. During deliberations over Nixon's impeachment, his unorthodox use of executive powers over the ordering of these bombings were considered as an article of impeachment, but the charge was dropped.

Rogers and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Details of the bombing were kept secret even from high ranking officials such as Secretary of State William P. He also understood that the war was politically un-winnable due to massive demonstrations. In ordering the bombings, Nixon realized he would be extending an unpopular war as well as breaching Cambodia's "official" neutrality.

However, NVA communist forces did use Cambodian soil as a supply line to the Vietcong in the south. Militarily ineffective, the bombing campaigns killed approximately one hundred thousand Cambodian peasants. Congress. The bombing campaign was kept secret from the American public and the U.S.

Nixon's administration secretly began a massive bombing campaign in Cambodia in March, 1969 (code-named Menu) to destroy what were believed to be the headquarters and large numbers of soldiers of the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam. troops, fighting was left to the ineffective South Vietnamese army. After the withdrawal of U.S. But there would be four more years of strategic bombing, with more bombs dropped than in World War II.

American involvement in the war declined while Nixon was in office. military commanders. During the war, on July 30, 1969, Nixon made an unscheduled visit to South Vietnam, and met with President Nguyen Van Thieu and with U.S. He proposed the Nixon Doctrine to establish a strategy of turning over the fighting of the war to the Vietnamese.

Still, many voters supported Nixon because they believed he would end the war. Because of this, Nixon's opponents criticized him for not revealing his secret plan to end the Vietnam War, although Nixon had not used this famous phrase. When a reporter pressed Nixon for specifics, he did not reveal any details. Nixon also promised "peace with honor," and without claiming to be able to win the war, Nixon claimed that "new leadership will end the war and win the peace in the Pacific".

Nixon appealed to what he claimed was the "silent majority" of socially conservative Americans who disliked the "hippie" counterculture and anti-war demonstrators. He was the first Vice-President to be elected President who did not succeed the President under whom he had served. Humphrey to become the 37th President of the United States, in a campaign where he promised to end the Vietnam War. In the election of 1968, he completed a remarkable political comeback by defeating Hubert H.

During the 1966 Congressional elections, he traveled the country speaking in support of Republican candidates and preparing for another campaign of his own. Nixon worked as a prominent lawyer, using these so-called "wilderness" years in the private sector to earn more money ($250,000 per year, by some accounts--equivalent to over $1 million today) and to solidify his political base. He and his family moved into a 12-room luxury apartment on Fifth Avenue in New York City. Nixon's post-election defeatist mood did not last.

Nixon spoke to a meeting of Pepsi-Cola bottlers. Kennedy was assassinated. Coincidentally, Nixon was in Dallas earlier on November 22, 1963, the day that President John F. He often said that he never regretted his comments at this famous press conference.

However, many others praised Nixon for telling the press off. In his concession speech, Nixon accused the media of favoring his opponent Pat Brown, and stated that it was his "last press conference" and that "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around any more." Many mocked Nixon for being a "sore loser" for saying this to the reporters. On November 7, 1962, he lost a race for Governor of California. Nixon campaigned against Kennedy on the great experience he had acquired in eight years as Vice President, but when Eisenhower was asked to name a decision Nixon had been responsible for in that time, he replied: "Give me a week and I might think of something." Although Eisenhower later said he intended that remark to mean he would discuss Nixon's achievements the following week, this was a severe blow to Nixon, and he blamed Eisenhower for his narrow loss to Kennedy.

Also, Eisenhower did not show much support for Nixon, and only reluctantly endorsed him as the Republican candidate at the 1960 Presidential election. It has since been widely suggested, with some support from research, that those who had listened to the debate on radio thought Nixon was more impressive [1], but that the television audience gave the edge to Kennedy. He expected to win voters with his foreign policy expertise, but people only saw a sickly man sweating profusely and wearing a gray suit that blended into the scenery; while his rival, Kennedy, looked comfortable in his position. Nixon likewise was instructed by CBS television producers to wear a grey suit that blended into the backdrop, whereas Kennedy was told by the same producer to wear a black suit which would stand out when black and white television was the standard.

Despite his five o'clock shadow, Nixon refused television makeup (instead using simple "Lazy Shave" coverup makeup) and was feeling sick, having recently injured his knee while campaigning. Many observers believe that a crucial factor in his loss was the first televised presidential debate. Kennedy, ironically a friend of Nixon's (Kennedy, in fact, was one of the first to congratulate Nixon when he was chosen as Eisenhower's running mate). In 1960, he ran for President on his own but lost to John F.

presidents, Nixon displayed a somewhat anti-intellectual streak during the 1952 campaign, criticizing the extremely intelligent Democratic presidential nominee, Adlai Stevenson, as an "egghead.". Although regarded as one of the most intellectual U.S. He also proved to be able to quickly think on his feet which was demonstrated on July 24, 1959, at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow where he and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had an impromptu "kitchen debate" about the merits of capitalism versus communism. Nixon was notable among Vice Presidents in having actually stepped up to run the government three times when Eisenhower was ill: on the occasions of Eisenhower's heart attack on September 24, 1955; his ileitis in June 1956; and his stroke in November 1957.

As a result, this speech became known as the "Checkers speech" and it resulted in a flood of support, prompting Eisenhower to keep Nixon on the ticket. This speech would, however, become better known for its rhetoric, such as when he stated that his wife Pat did not wear mink, but rather "a respectable Republican cloth coat," and that although he had been given a cocker spaniel named "Checkers" in addition to his other campaign contributions, he was not going to give it back because his daughters loved it. He went on TV and defended himself in an emotional speech, where he provided an independant third-party review of the fund's accounting along with a personal summary of his financies, which he cited as exonerating him from wrongdoing, and he charged that the Democratic Presidential candidate, Adlai Stevenson, also had a slush fund (see Memoirs of Richard Nixon, page 99). Nixon was accused by nameless sources of misappropriating money out of a business fund for personal use.

One notable event of the campaign was Nixon's innovative use of television. Eisenhower's ticket, although he was only 39 years old. In 1952 he was elected Vice President on Dwight D. Upon Nixon's election to the vice-presidency, Governor Earl Warren appointed Thomas Kuchel to succeed him in his Senate seat.

As with Voorhis, Nixon used the tactic of "guilt by association," printing an attack against Douglas on pink paper, listing a number of votes in Congress in which she voted the same as a left-wing Congressman from New York, Vito Marcantonio. Nixon was elected to the United States Senate in 1950, defeating actress turned congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas, whom Nixon accused during the campaign of having communist sympathies, calling her the "Pink Lady." In the campaign the Independent Review newspaper tagged Nixon with a nickname he would never shake: "Tricky Dick". In 1948, Nixon won both the Republican and Democratic nomination for re-election to the House. Whether Hiss was guilty or not is still in dispute, although evidence from Soviet archives released in the 1990s tends to point to his guilt.

He became a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee and was instrumental in the trial of State Department Undersecretary and General Secretary of the United Nations Charter meeting Alger Hiss for perjury after the exposure of his alleged activities as an Soviet spy. Nixon climbed the political ladder swiftly, making his name as an anti-Communist and a rough, no-holds-barred campaigner. He proposed a bill to facilitate servicemen's voting that was passed by both houses and signed into law. He also helped in the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act which set up controls over labor unions.

In the House, Nixon served on a committee that helped to implement the Marshall Plan which aided war-torn Europe. Kennedy of Massachusetts. The 80th Congress was the first with a Republican majority since the Hoover administration and its freshman class was filled with fellow war veterans, including Nixon's future rival John F. Many voters allegedly received phone calls in the middle of the night telling them that Voorhis was a Communist.

Nixon said "they're basically the same, if their members are the same..." Although Nixon's allegations were untrue, they succeeded and Voorhis was booed by the crowd. Then he held up a list of members from a Left-Wing PAC with Communist affiliations, and said that there were a few people who were in both Committees. During a debate with Voorhis he held up a list of members of a Political Action Committee (PAC) from which Voorhis received substantial campaign donations. The campaign he ran against Voorhis highlighted the aggressive campaigning style of whom Nixon was one of the pioneers.

Nixon was elected to the United States House of Representatives from California in 1946 by beating Jerry Voorhis, in a campaign which some charge was a result of underhanded political skullduggery. Rogers. It was in the Navy he met his future friend and Secretary of State William P. One interesting footnote about Nixon's naval career is that he learned to play poker (another taboo under Quakerism) and quickly became known as the best poker player in the Navy, having apparently won almost $10,000 by war's end.

He rose to the rank of Lieutenant Commander and his superiors praised him as an excellent officer and leader. Nixon served as a Cargo Officer in the South Pacific theater and put his shopkeeper's skills to work operating "Nick's Snack Shack," where military personnel could pick up hamburgers and fruit juice. He later stated he hated Hitler and was horrified by the attack on Pearl Harbor. Reportedly, his mother burst into tears when she first saw him in uniform.

He could have been exempt from military service because of his status as a birthright Quaker, but volunteered anyway. During World War II, Nixon served in the United States Navy. They were married at the Mission Inn in Riverside, California on June 21, 1940. At first, Pat displayed little interest in Nixon, who nonetheless pursued her so doggedly that he even drove her around on dates she had with other men.

They became acquainted at a community Little Theater group when they were cast in the same play. She had accepted a position as a high-school teacher in Whittier. It was during this period that he met his wife Pat. He later wrote that family law cases caused him particular discomfiture, since his reticent Quaker upbringing was severely at odds with the idea of discussing intimate marital details with strangers.

The work was mostly routine, and Nixon generally found it to be dull, although he was entirely competent. As a result, Nixon returned to California, passed the bar exam, and began working in the small-town law office of a family friend in nearby La Mirada. The partner who had met Nixon opined that the future president came across as "shifty.". Around the time of Watergate, one of the senior partners at White & Case found notes from the original interview.

Some writers have agreed with Nixon's own explanation--that he lacked the requisite Ivy League pedigree and family connections--but it is also possible that he interviewed poorly. For a variety of reasons, he had no luck. Graduating third in his class, Nixon hoped to secure a job with one of the prestigious "white-shoe" law firms in New York City. Years later, this incident came to light, and the press trumpeted it as "Nixon's first break-in.".

He was not punished. At one point, he was so overwrought about his grade results that he persuaded a cohort to help him through the transom door of the Dean's office, so that he could check the files. In order to retain his scholarship, Nixon had to maintain a high grade-point average. In 1934 he graduated second in his class from Whittier and went on to Duke University law school, where he received a full scholarship.

Nixon's chief accomplishment as student body president was organizing Whittier College's first school dance, a practice forbidden by the Quakers. His front teeth were knocked out and replaced by the rather prominent bridgework that later afforded caricaturists a field day. A lifelong football buff, Nixon practiced with the team assiduously but spent most of his time on the bench. Nixon then went on to become the student body president of Whittier College.

In lieu of Harvard, Nixon attended Whittier College, a local Quaker school where he founded the Orthogonian Society, a fraternity that competed with the already established Franklin Society. Some historians and commentators have speculated that Nixon's lifelong antipathy towards the "Eastern Establishment" had its genesis in this initial letdown. The award from Harvard provided him with a full scholarship, but since it did not cover living expenses, Nixon's family was unable to afford to send him away to college. Among other achievements, he had a penchant for Shakespeare and Latin, and could recite long passages by heart.

Nixon attended Fullerton High School, and won an award from the Harvard Club of California as the state's outstanding high school senior. Nixon's early life was marked by tragedy in the deaths of two of his brothers, Arthur and Harold, from tuberculosis. Today, this area is completely built up, but in Nixon's time, it was almost entirely farmland. He often spoke lovingly of his mother as a "Quaker saint," and began his memoirs with the words "I was born in a house my father built." Today, the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace has been erected next to the original house in Yorba Linda, which is open to the public; however, Nixon actually grew up some miles away, in Whittier, California.

Nixon always spoke highly of his parents. His father focused on the family business, a store that sold groceries and ARCO (then Atlantic Richfield) gasoline. His father, known as Frank, was an Irish Catholic who had sincerely converted to Quakerism but never fully absorbed its spirit, retaining instead a volatile temper. His upbringing is said to have been marked by such conservative evangelical Quaker observances as refraining from drinking, dancing and swearing.

He was raised as an evangelical Quaker by his mother, who hoped he would become a Quaker missionary. Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California on January 9, 1913, to Francis Nixon and Hannah Milhous, who was descended from a German family originally called Milhausen. . His resignation came after a loss of support in Congress amidst impending impeachment proceedings related to the Watergate scandal.

President to have ever resigned from office. Nixon is noted for his diplomatic foreign policy and moderate domestic policy, but he is also remembered as the first and only U.S. He is the only man to have been elected twice to the Vice Presidency and twice to the Presidency, and he was the fifth Republican President to be elected to two terms. Eisenhower.

He was also the thirty-sixth Vice President (1953–1961) serving under Dwight D. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the thirty-seventh President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ISBN 0465044883. Harpercollins.

257-289. Cultural Selection: Why Some Achievements Survive the Test of Time - And Others Don't, pp. The birth of culture. (1997).

Taylor, Gary. Victor Gollancz ISBN 0575062436. The Arrogance of Power The Secret World of Richard Nixon. (2000).

Summers, Anthony. ISBN 0803738579. Penguin. It Didn't Start With Watergate.

(1977). Lasky, Victor. ISBN 0671447602. Summit Books.

The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White House. (1983). Hersh, Seymour M. ISBN 1558493328.

Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. Vietnam and Other American Fantasies. (2000). Bruce.

Franklin, H. ISBN 1891620002. Public Affairs. When the War Was Over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Revolution.

(1986). Becker, Elizabeth. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon 1136 pages - Simon & Schuster; SBN: 0671707418. Nixon, RM.

PMID 9236996. Nixon. Ann Vasc Surg 1997;11:387-90. Venous interruption for pulmonary embolism: the illustrative case of Richard M. Barker WF, Hickman EB, Harper JA, Lungren J.

ISBN 0671691880. Simon & Schuster. Nixon: Ruin and Recovery 1973–1990. (1991).

Ambrose, Stephen E. ISBN 0671528378. Simon & Schuster. Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962–1972.

(1989). Ambrose, Stephen E. ISBN 067152836X. Simon & Schuster.

Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913–1962. (1991). Ambrose, Stephen E. ISBN 0679433236.

Random House. Beyond Peace. (1994). Nixon, Richard.

ISBN 0671743430. Simon & Schuster. Seize The Moment: America's Challenge In A One-Superpower World. (1992).

Nixon, Richard. ISBN 0671723189. Simon & Schuster. In the Arena: A Memoir of Victory, Defeat, and Renewal.

(1990). Nixon, Richard. ISBN 0671627120. Simon & Schuster.

1999: Victory Without War. (1988). Nixon, Richard. ISBN 0877956685.

Arbor House Publishing. No More Vietnams. (1987). Nixon, Richard.

ISBN 0446512494. Random House. Leaders. (1982).

Nixon, Richard. ISBN 0283986506. Sidgwich Jackson. Real War.

(1980). Nixon, Richard. ISBN 0385001258. Doubleday.

Six Crises. (1962). Nixon, Richard. ISBN 0671707418.

Simon & Schuster. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (Reprint). (1978). Nixon, Richard.

Dick Tuck. Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California. History of the United States (1964–1980). presidential election, 1972.

U.S. presidential election, 1968. U.S. presidential election, 1960.

U.S. presidential election, 1956. U.S. presidential election, 1952.

U.S. The Richard Nixon mask is a popular costuming item. "The Love of Richard Nixon" is a song by Manic Street Preachers. Neil Young's song Campaigner has a refrain discussing a place "where even Richard Nixon has got soul".

Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young song Ohio about the Kent State Massacre, attributes blame to Nixon. The "alternative 1985" in Back to the Future Part II has Nixon as the long-serving President (newspaper states that he "seeks fifth term"). Watchmen, set in an alternative reality in which Nixon is still President in the mid-1980s. Futurama, where Nixon's preserved head is elected President of Earth.

The Simpsons. Secret Honor. Hot Shots! Part Deux. Forrest Gump.

Elvis Meets Nixon. Dick. The Cayman Triangle. The Assassination of Richard Nixon.

Most interesting are many generally little-known details about Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward's earlier background as a Navy communications intelligence officer and aide to Admiral Thomas Moorer, who had served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1967 to 1970. The authors point to a Navy/Pentagon conspiracy that reached into the White House, one intended to dethrone Nixon as the Pentagon had been displeased with Nixon's desire to "open" China. Authors Robert Gettlin and Len Colodny offer a fascinating and well-researched alternative explanation about Watergate in Silent Coup: The Removal of a President. Nixon in China is an opera dealing with Nixon's visit there.

The movie Nixon directed by Oliver Stone. Haldeman also provides an insider's perspective in the books The Ends of Power and The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House. H.R. Chuck Colson gives an insider account of the Watergate affair in Born Again.

The book points out that past presidents may have used wiretaps and engaged in other activities that Nixon was accused of, but were never pursued by the press or the subject of impeachment hearings. Conservative author Victor Lasky published a book in 1977 called It Didn't Start With Watergate. The detailed accounts were mostly favorably regarded by both liberal and conservative reviewers. Best-selling historian-author Stephen Ambrose wrote a three-volume biography (Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913-1962, Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962-1972, Nixon: Ruin and Recovery 1973-1990) considered the definitive work among many Nixon biographies.

The book and movie All the President's Men tell Woodward and Bernstein's story of the Watergate affair. "I know that you believe you understand what you think I said, but I'm not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant.". "We did not live on the wrong side of the tracks, but we could hear the whistle real loud!". I have never been a quitter.".

"In all the decisions I have made in my public life, I have always tried to do what was best for the nation. "We are all Keynesians now.". "McCarthy goes after Communists with a shotgun; I go after them with a rifle.". Foreign Service.

"cookie pushers and faggots in striped pants", referring to the Peace Corps and the State Dept. "Let me say this about that.". "I would have made a good pope.". "Solutions are not the answer.".

"I don't know a lot about politics, but I do know a lot about baseball.". "Sock it to me?" (cameo on the television comedy series Laugh-In). "The greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker." (From his 1969 inaugural; later used as Nixon's epitaph). "Any nation that decides the only way to achieve peace is through peaceful means is a nation that will soon be a piece of another nation." (from his book No More Vietnams).

Still, I think some people get a little carried away when they take out their proctoscopes." (regarding the intense scrutiny which he was forced to endure.). "I think that the ability of the American people to review all that there is to know about their president using a microscope is wonderful. And then you destroy yourself." Farewell to White House staff August 8, 1974. Those who hate you don't win unless you hate them.

Always remember, others may hate you. "The greatness comes not when things go always good for you, but the greatness comes and you are really tested, when you take some knocks, some disappointments, when sadness comes, because only if you have been in the deepest valley can you ever know how magnificent it is to be on the highest mountain.. "Well, I screwed it all up real good, didn't I?". "I was under medication when I made the decision not to burn the tapes.".

"When the President does it, that means that it's not illegal." (explaining his interpretation of Executive Privilege to interviewer David Frost). "I recognize that this additional material I am now furnishing may further damage my case," (after the ordered release of the White House tapes August 5, 1974). We're going to protect our people if we can." (to Haldeman, tapes ordered released for the trial of Haldeman, Ehrlichman and Mitchell). That's the whole point.

I want you all to stonewall it, let them plead the Fifth Amendment, cover up or anything else, if it'll save it, save this plan. "I don't give a shit what happens. I've earned everything I've got." November 17, 1973 Televised press conference with 400 Associated Press Managing Editors at Walt Disney World, Florida, Nixon summarized his responses to journalists' questions regarding speculation and criticism of his personal finances and the Watergate scandal. Well, I'm not a crook.

And I think, too, that I can say that in my years of public life, that I welcome this kind of examination because people have got to know whether or not their President's a crook. And in all of my years of public life, I have never obstructed justice. I have earned every cent. I made my mistakes, but in all of my years of public life, I have never profited, never profited from public service.

"I want to say this to the television audience. Kennedy. Haldeman would later write that Nixon used the expression 'the Bay of Pigs thing' when he was referring to the assassination of President John F. Nixon was telling Haldeman to tell the CIA to stop the FBI investigation, by telling the CIA that it would 'open the whole Bay of Pigs thing.' Haldeman did give Nixon's order to the CIA's Richard Helms, who exploded into a rage of fury when told, according to Haldeman.

And, ah because these people are plugging for, for keeps and that they should call the FBI in and say that we wish for the country, don't go any further into this case", period!" The 'smoking gun tape' on June 23, 1972. don't, don't lie to them to the extent to say there is no involvement, but just say this is sort of a comedy of errors, bizarre, without getting into it, "the President believes that it is going to open the whole Bay of Pigs thing up again. "When you get in these people when you...get these people in, say: "Look, the problem is that this will open the whole, the whole Bay of Pigs thing, and the President just feels that" ah, without going into the details.. "This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the Creation, because as a result of what happened in this week, the world is bigger, infinitely." (concerning the Apollo Moon landing).

Because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference." 1962 after losing the race for Governor of California. "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around anymore. Space Shuttle program started. Release of the dollar from the fluctuating gold standard that had controlled its worth since the Bretton Woods Conference, allowing its value to float in world markets.

troops from Vietnam while dramatically increasing the scale of bombing. "Vietnamization": the slow withdrawal of U.S. SALT I, or Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, led to the signing of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Post Office Department abolished as a federal department and reorganized as the U.S Postal Service.

Establishment of the Office of Minority Business Enterprise. Establishment of the Supplemental Security Income program. Establishment of the Drug Enforcement Administration. Establishment of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency. Détente The beginning of the end of the cold war. In the short term Nixon was successful in playing the "China card" against the Soviet Union and its client state North Vietnam. Normalizing of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and partially abandoning the Republic of China on Taiwan as part of Realpolitik, a foreign policy eschewing moral considerations.

William Rehnquist - 1972. - 1972. Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. Harry Andrew Blackmun - 1970.

Burger - Chief Justice - 1969. Warren E.

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