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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary. Jefferson's buildings helped initiate the ensuing American fashion for Federal style architecture. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. His major works included Monticello (his home), the Virginia State Capitol and the University of Virginia. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical. He felt that it reflected the ideas of republic and democracy where the prevalent British styles represented the monarchy. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. Jefferson was an accomplished architect who was extremely influential in bringing the Neo-Classical style he encountered in France to the United States.

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. All the documentary evidence shows that Hemings' first child, Harriet, was born in 1795 -- years after the mythical child "Tom" that Callender alleged. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. Significantly, everyone who has researched the issue -- regardless which side they take on the Jefferson-Hemings paternity question -- agree that there is no evidence supporting the original allegation, published by Thomas Callender in 1802, that Jefferson fathered Sally Hemings' first child in France prior to 1790. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. Professor Mayer's independent report also suggests that the Foundation report is flawed by biases and faulty assumptions (including the assumption that only one man fathered all of Sally Hemings' children). The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. Mayer, a member of the Scholars Commission, says in his own writings that there is "the possibility that Jefferson's brother Randolph or one of Randolph Jefferson's five sons could have fathered one or more of Sally Hemings' children." He also states that, "Indeed, eight of these 25 Jefferson males lived within 20 miles (a half-day's ride) of Monticello—including Thomas Jefferson's younger brother, Randolph Jefferson, and Randolph's five sons, who ranged in age from about 17 to 26 at the time of Eston's birth." All of these men could have passed down the Y chromosome used as "proof".

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. David N. A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. A study by the Thomas Jefferson Foundation states that "it is very unlikely that Randolph Jefferson or any Jefferson other than Thomas Jefferson was the father of her children," while a study by an independent Scholars Commmission concludes that the Jefferson paternity thesis is not persuasive. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. Two major, mutually contradictory studies were released in the early 2000s. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. A full account of the controversy can be found in the Sally Hemings article.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. A subject of considerable controversy since Jefferson's own time was whether Jefferson was the father of any of the children of his slave Sally Hemings. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. In 1778, the legislature passed a bill he proposed to ban further importation of slaves into Virginia; although this did not bring complete emancipation, in his words, it "stopped the increase of the evil by importation, leaving to future efforts its final eradication". Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. In 1769, as a member of the state legislature, Jefferson proposed for that body to emancipate slaves in Virginia, but he was unsuccessful. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. His ambivalence can be seen for example, in the first draft of the Declaration of Independence, which Jefferson wrote, in which he condemned the British crown for sponsoring the importation of slavery to the colonies, charging that the crown "has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere..." This language was dropped from the Declaration at the request of delegates from South Carolina and Georgia.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Many of his slaves were considered property that was held as a lien for his many accumulated debts. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. Some find it hypocritical that he both owned slaves and yet was publicly outspoken in his belief that slavery was immoral. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. Jefferson's personal records show he owned 187 slaves, some of which were inherited at the death of his wife. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. Jefferson's political principles were also heavily influenced by John Locke (particularly relating to the principles of inalienable rights and popular sovereignty) and Thomas Paine's Common Sense.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. Jefferson had and read Wawrzyniec Grzymala Goslicki's book De optimo senatore, and in his works paraphrased some of Goslicki's phrases from the book. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. and was a friend of both James Madison and Jefferson. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. Subsequently, many of the ideas of the Polish Brethren were continued in English-speaking countries by Unitarian congregations -- most notably, by Joseph Priestley, who had emigrated to the U.S. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. Biddle was a pioneer of Unitarianism in England.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Biddle's followers had very close relations with the Polish Socinian family of Crellius (aka Spinowski). I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Stegmann, a Polish Brother from Germany. And the social evil contributed its share. Englishman John Biddle had translated two works by one of the Polish Brethren, Samuel Przypkowski; he also translated the Racovian Catechism and a work by J. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. Jefferson was influenced heavily by the ideas of the Polish Brethren.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the full text of this letter and that to which Jefferson was replying see Wikisource. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. Though not religious himself, he viewed religious opinions in others, including public officials, as a purely personal matter with which the state should not interfere:. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. Moreover, he personally believed, as did Deist and humanist John Locke, that human rights were endowed by a God: "Can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis, a conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are a gift of God? Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that His justice cannot sleep forever" (Notes on the State of Virginia, 1781-1785 Query 18). I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". He also had friends who were clergy, and he supported some churches financially.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. Jefferson himself attended certain public Christian services during his presidency. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. Clearly, however, Jefferson's desire to erect a "wall of separation" did not include a desire to inhibit the personal religious lives of public officials. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. Allen was only 12 when Jefferson retired the presidency, there is large doubt as to the accuracy of Allen's diary entry. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. As Rev.

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". This anecdote seems to contradict statements in Jefferson's personal letters. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. Ethan Allen at the Library of Congress). Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. Good morning sir." (quoted from the handwritten history of Rev. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. The Christian religion is the best religion that has ever been given to man and I as chief Magistrate of this nation am bound to give it the sanction of my example.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Nor can be. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. Allen claimed he overheard Jefferson say to a friend who had challenged him for going to church when he did not believe: "[N]o nation has ever yet existed or been governed without religion. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. Ethan Allen (1797-1879) in which Allen claimed to have seen Jefferson walking to church one Sunday with a large red prayer book under his arm. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. On the other hand, there is one anecdote by the Rev.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Weightman June 24, 1826). Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. "May it be to the world, what I believe it will be, (to some parts sooner, to others later, but finally to all), the signal of arousing men to burst the chains under which monkish ignorance and superstition had persuaded them to bind themselves, and to assume the blessings and security of self-government" (Letter to Roger C. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Spafford, March 17, 1814). She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own" (Letter to Horatio G.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. His letters contain the following observations: "History, I believe, furnishes no example of a priest-ridden people maintaining a free civil government" (Letter to Alexander von Humboldt, December 6, 1813), and, "In every country and in every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. Moreover, his private letters indicate he was skeptical of too much interference by clergy in matters of civil government. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. During his presidency, Jefferson refused to issue proclamations calling for days of prayer and thanksgiving. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. 347:.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. Peterson, ed., Thomas Jefferson: Writings (1984), p. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. He further developed his thoughts in the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1779), quoted from Merrill D. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. Jefferson also supported what he called a "wall of separation between Church and State", which he believed was a principle expressed within the First Amendment (see Letter to the Danbury Baptist Association, 1802, and Letter to Virginia Baptists, 1808). Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). Virginia thereby became the first state to disestablish religion — Rhode Island, Delaware, and Pennsylvania never having had established religion.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Instead, in 1786 the Virginia General Assembly passed Jefferson's Bill for Religious Freedom, which he had first submitted in 1779, and was one of only three accomplishments he put in his own epitaph. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. From 1784 to 1786 Jefferson and James Madison worked together to oppose Patrick Henry's attempts to again assess taxes in Virginia to support churches. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. Congress in 1903. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. This compilation was published after his death and became known as the Jefferson Bible, later printed in some 2,500 copies for the U.S.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. He labored on an edited version of the Gospels, removing references to the miracles of Jesus and material he considered preternatural, leaving only Jesus' moral philosophy, of which he approved. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Like most deists, Jefferson did not believe in miracles. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He had high esteem for Jesus' moral teachings, which he viewed as the "principles of a pure deism, and juster notions of the attributes of God, to reform [prior Jewish] moral doctrines to the standard of reason, justice & philanthropy, and to inculcate the belief of a future state." (Letter to Joseph Priestley, April 9, 1803.). By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family. Though Jefferson did not believe in the divinity of Jesus, he several times referred to himself as a Christian.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. Jefferson later expressed general agreement with his friend Joseph Priestley's Unitarianism and wrote that he would have liked to have been a member of a Unitarian church, but there were no Unitarian churches in Virginia. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. He later removed his name from those available to become godparents, because his beliefs opposed Trinitarian theology. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. Before the American Revolution, when the Episcopal Church was the American branch of the Anglican Church of England, Jefferson was a vestryman in his local church, a lay position that was part of political office at the time. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. Jefferson was raised Episcopalian at a time when the Episcopal Church was the state religion in Virginia.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Jefferson believed, furthermore, it was this Creator that endowed humanity with a number of inalienable rights, such as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness". . Jefferson repeatedly stated his belief in a creator, and in the United States Declaration of Independence uses the terms "Creator", "Nature's God", and "Divine Providence". Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. On matters of religion, Jefferson was sometimes accused by his political opponents of being an atheist; however, he is generally regarded as a believer in Deism, a philosophy shared by many other notable intellectuals of his time. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Contemporary scholars debate over whether Jefferson suffered from Asperger's Syndrome, a high-functioning form of autism.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. In addition, he burned all of his letters between himself and his wife at her death, creating the portrait of a man who at times could be very private. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. His reluctance to speak in public is usually attributed to his taciturnity, though some historians believe it was due to a lisp. As president he discontinued the practice of delivering the State of the Union Address in person, instead sending the address to Congress in writing (the practice was eventually revived by Woodrow Wilson); he ended up giving only two public speeches during his presidency. Though it is a biographical tradition that he lacked wit, Molière and Don Quixote seem to have been his favorites; and though the utilitarian wholly crowds romanticism out of his writings, he had enough of that quality in youth to prepare to learn Gaelic in order to translate Ossian, and sent to James Macpherson for the originals.

For many years he was president of the American Philosophical Society. The range of his interests is remarkable. Yet he seems to have acted habitually, in great and little things, on system. Beneath a quiet surface he was fairly aglow with intense convictions and a very emotional temperament.

There was grace, nevertheless, in his manners; and his frank and earnest address, his quick sympathy (though he seemed cold to strangers), and his vivacious, desultory, informing talk gave him an engaging charm. In later years he was negligent in dress and loose in bearing. He had angular features, very poor posture, a very ruddy complexion, strawberry blonde hair and hazel-flecked, grey eyes. Jefferson was six feet, two-and-one-half inches (189 cm) in height, large-boned, slender, erect and sinewy.

Jefferson appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:.
. He also said that Americans were united in a benign religion, by this he is most likely talking about the identical morals of equality and liberty.he was sex addict most mondren historians think becuse when he was in 20's as lawyer he was caaugth going out a window by woman husband in williamsburg. He said this would make America a great power.

The final point Jefferson brought up is that America’s citizens are not American from birth, but from sharing the same ideas. Not having good relations would limit much trade and stifle the economy’s growth, as well as make America a very weak political power. He realized the tremendous implications of being looked down upon by the mighty eyes of mother England, as well as other countries. Another one of his important points was that America needs to become strong in the eyes of foreign powers.

He explained how unity was necessary for the imminent expansion America would encounter. Jefferson largely restated these ideas in his inaugural address. In the United States Declaration of Independence and the Constitution the idea that the majority couldn’t have all the power, to protect the rights of the minority, was very prominent. At this point in time it became very important to unify the country under common goals and ideas.

Jefferson was the first Republican president. The second president, John Adams, was the only Federalist president that the USA saw. At the time of Jefferson’s inauguration, the country was very much divided, mainly politically among politicians, between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. The principles of this address can mainly be categorized as unity and expansion, but more importantly unity.

Thomas Jefferson, a powerful advocate of equality and liberty, gave his inaugural address on March 4, 1801. Jefferson's presidency from, 1801 to 1809, was the first to start and end in the White House; it was also the first Democratic-Republican presidency. His epitaph, written by him with an insistence that only his words and "not a word more" be inscribed, reads:. He is buried on his Monticello estate.

Jefferson passed away on July 4, 1826, the same day as John Adams. Jefferson also appears on the $100 Series EE Savings Bond. five cent piece, or nickel. $2 bill and the U.S.

Jefferson's portrait appears on the U.S. Jefferson is so far the only Vice President elected to the Presidency to serve two full terms. It was resolved on February 17, 1801 when Jefferson was elected President and Burr Vice President by the United States House of Representatives. presidential election, 1800.

An electoral tie resulted between Jefferson and his opponent Aaron Burr in the U.S. He was also the second Vice President of the United States, under John Adams from 1797 until 1801, achieving that position after getting second place in the presidential election of 1796. Jefferson was the first Secretary of State of the United States, serving from 1789 until 1795. Jefferson was a great believer in the uniqueness and the potential of the United States and is often classified as the forefather of American exceptionalism (see also exceptionalism).

He is noted for the bold pronouncement: "We could in the United States make as great a variety of wines as are made in Europe, not exactly of the same kinds, but doubtless as good." While there were extensive vineyards planted at Monticello, a significant portion were of the European wine grape Vitis vinifera and did not survive the many vine diseases native to the Americas.
Jefferson's idea for the United States was that of an agricultural nation of yeoman farmers, in contrast to the vision of Alexander Hamilton, who envisioned a nation of commerce and manufacturing. During his ambassadorship to France (1784-1789) he took extensive trips through French and other European wine regions and sent the best back to the White House. Jefferson was also an avid wine lover and noted gourmet. Instead, he cut a wedge out of the mound so that he could walk into it, look at the layers of occupation, and draw conclusions from them.

When exploring an Indian burial mound on his Virginia estate in 1784, Jefferson avoided the common practice of simply digging downwards until something turned up. He has sometimes been called the "father of archaeology" in recognition of his role in developing excavation techniques. Jefferson's interests included archaeology, a discipline then in its infancy. Nearby is the University of Virginia, the original architecture and curriculum of which Jefferson also designed.

Jefferson himself designed his famous home, Monticello, near Charlottesville, Virginia; it included automatic doors, the first swivel chair, and other convenient devices invented by Jefferson. The Library of Congress was founded from the sale of his collection (the Library was founded in 1800; Jefferson sold his third library to Congress in 1815). The committee met and unanimously solicited Jefferson to prepare the draft of the Declaration alone. Livingston.

The Continental Congress delegated the task of writing the Declaration to a committee which included Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Jefferson was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence, and a source of many other contributions to American political and civil culture. It was not followed by the Virginia delegates, but it was published nationally and won Jefferson some national admirers who agreed with his ideas and who were impressed by his writing ability. The summary was considered to be towards the radical side at the time in terms of the view of the colonies towards the British government.

In 1774, he wrote A Summary View of the Rights of British America which was intended as instructions for the Virginia delegates to a national congress. Jefferson served in the Virginia House of Burgesses. He practiced law in Virginia and in 1772 Jefferson married a widow, Martha Wayles Skelton. Jefferson inherited about 5,000 acres of land and dozens of slaves from his father, out of which he created his home which would eventually be known as Monticello.

He attended and then attempted to institute many reforms at the College of William & Mary — where he was a member of the secret Flat Hat Club — before founding his own vision of higher education at the University of Virginia. Jefferson's parents were Peter Jefferson (March 29, 1708–August 17, 1757) and Jane Randolph (February 20, 1720–March 31, 1776), both from families who had been settled in Virginia for several generations. . Kennedy welcomed 49 Nobel Prize winners to the White House in 1962, saying, "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered at the White House, with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone." Achievements of his presidency include the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

President John F. Many people consider Jefferson to be among the most brilliant men ever to occupy the Presidency. Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the third (1801–1809) President of the United States, second (1797)–1801) Vice President of the United States, and an American statesman, ambassador to France, political philosopher, revolutionary, agriculturalist, horticulturist, land owner, architect, archaeologist, slaveowner, author, inventor, and founder of the University of Virginia. Press, 1989).

Jefferson's Literary Commonplace Book (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Wilson, Douglas L., ed. (New York: Norton, 1995). The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776-1826, 3 vols.

Smith, James Morton, ed. Pathbreaking study of the central place of debt in Jefferson's life and thought. Principle and Interest: Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Debt (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995; reprint ed., Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001). Sloan, Herbert J.

Places in the footnotes Jefferson's later revisions done in his personal copy. Edition of Jefferson's only published book, follows the 1787 Stockdale edition that was the basis for almost all nineteenth-century reprints. Notes on the State of Virginia (New York: Penguin, 1999). Shuffelton, Frank, ed.

Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (Oxford University Press, 1992). Peterson, Merrill D. Important symposium volume, the product of a 250th birthday conference at the University of Virginia. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

Jeffersonian Legacies. Onuf, Peter S., ed. Excellent, challenging re-exmaination of Jefferson's political thought and his vision of American national development. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000).

Jefferson's Empire: The Languages of American Nationhood. Onuf, Peter S. Notable monograph. The Constitutional Thought of Thomas Jefferson (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000).

Mayer, David N. The classic multi-volume biography of TJ by Dumas Malone. (Boston: Little Brown and Company, various dates). Jefferson and His Time, 6 vols.

Malone, Dumas. Important symposium volume prompted by the reversal of the conventional wisdom concerning Jefferson's liaison with Sally Hemings and its meaning in American history. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999). Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson: History, Memory, Civic Culture.

Lewis, Jan Ellen, and Onuf, Peter S., eds. Jefferson's Manual of Parliamentary Practice, written when he was vice-president, with other relevant papers. Press, 1988). Jefferson's Parliamentary Writings (Princeton: Princeton Univ.

Howell, Wilbur Samuel, ed. Challenging essay on Jefferson's life and its historical significance. Thomas Jefferson: Author of America (New York: HarperCollins, 2005). Hitchens, Christopher.

What Would Jefferson Do? (New York: Harmony Books, 2004). Hartmann, Thomas. The leading study of this subject. Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy (Charlittesville: University Press of Virginia, 1997; paperback ed., with new introduction, 1999).

Gordon-Reed, Annette. Pathbreaking study of honor culture and its relationship to the politics of Jefferson and his time. Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001). Freeman, Joanne B.

Jefferson's legal commonplace book. Press, 1926). The Commonplace Book of Thomas Jefferson: A Repertory of His Ideas on Government (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Chinard, Gilbert, ed.

All the correspondence between Jefferson and John and Abigail Adams. of North Carolina Press, 1959). The Adams-Jefferson Letters (Chapel Hill: Univ. Cappon, Lester J., ed.

Correspondence of Jefferson with his children and grandchildren. Press of Virginia, 1986). Bear, Jr., The Family Letters of Thomas Jefferson (Charlottesville: Univ. Betts, Edwin Morris and James A.

Young-adult version of Bernstein's compact life. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004). Thomas Jefferson: The Revolution of Ideas [Oxford Portraits series]. B.

Bernstein, R. (Oxford University Press, 2003) Excellent compact biography. Thomas Jefferson. B.

Bernstein, R. Jefferson's account books with records of daily expenses. Press, 1997). (Princeton: Princeton Univ.

Jefferson's Memorandum Books, 2 vols. Bear, Jr., James A., ed. Valuable introduction by Eugene Sheridan. All three of Jefferson's versions of the Gospels, with relevant correspondence about his religious opinions.

Press, 1983). Jefferson's Extracts from the Gospels (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Adams, Dickinson W., ed. Thomas Jefferson : Writings : Autobiography / Notes on the State of Virginia / Public and Private Papers / Addresses / Letters by Thomas Jefferson (1984, ISBN 094045016X).

Online, Notes on the State of Virginia [1]. Ohio (1803). Thomas Todd - 1807. Henry Brockholst Livingston - 1807.

William Johnson - 1804. Abolition of the external slave trade in 1808. neutrality by ending trade with the belligerents in the Napoleonic War. Embargo Act of 1807, an attempt to force respect for U.S.

Tertium quids create a divide in the Republican Party (the Democratic-Republican Party_(United_States)). Creation of the Louisiana Territory (later renamed the Missouri Territory) in 1805. Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806). Twelfth Amendment is ratified (1804).

Land Act of 1804. Madison (1803). Marbury v. Creation of the Orleans Territory in 1804.

Admission of Ohio to the Union in 1803. Louisiana Purchase (1803).

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