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Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable.

Biography

Childhood

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family.

In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together.

Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll).

Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille.

Education

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college.

Helen Keller, graduation from Radcliffe College, c. 1904

Political activities

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Helen Keller met every U.S. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain.

Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. If I could not see it, I could smell it."

Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:

"At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent."

Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. And the social evil contributed its share. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness."

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI.

In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today.

Writings

In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles.

Honors

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor.

Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1].

Later life

Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral.

Helen Keller in the arts and popular culture

A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller.

Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality.

The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation.

In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.

Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival.

In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.


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In the animated series Family Guy, the final scene from The Miracle Worker was shown in one episode with the characters speaking in binary.
. Her life and achievements are celebrated annually in Tuscumbia, her hometown, in the Helen Keller festival. Coolidge appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:. In the comedy cartoon series South Park Helen Keller's life was shown in a musical.
. The Hindi movie Black released in 2005 was largely based on Keller's story, from her childhood to her graduation. [11].

None of the early movies hint at the social activism that would become the hallmark of Helen's later life, although the Disney version produced in 2000 states in the credits that Helen became an activist for social equality. An academic conference on Coolidge was held July 30-31, 1998, at the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library to mark the 75th anniversary of his lantern-light homestead inaugural. This semi-sequel to The Miracle Worker recounts her college years and her early adult life. [10]. Another recent movie about Helen Keller's life is The Miracle Continues. The State of Vermont dedicated a new historic-site visitors' center nearby to mark Coolidge's 100th birthday on July 4, 1972. The 1962 version of the movie won Academy Awards for Best Actress in a Leading Role for Anne Bancroft who played Sullivan and Best Actress in a Supporting Role for Patty Duke who played Keller. Coolidge is buried beneath a simple headstone in Notch Cemetery, Plymouth Notch, Vermont, where the family homestead is maintained as a museum.

The Miracle Worker, a play about how Helen Keller learned to communicate, was made into a movie three times. Shortly before his death, Coolidge confided to an old friend: "I feel I no longer fit in these times.". A silent film, Deliverance, first told Keller's story. Prior to his death, Coolidge felt disappointed about Hoover's re-election defeat, after which his health began to decline very rapidly. Joseph of Arimathea in Washington National Cathedral. in Northampton, Massachusetts on January 5, 1933 at the age of 60. She was cremated and her remains were placed in the Chapel of St. He died suddenly of coronary thrombosis at his home, "The Beeches," at 12:45 p.m.

Helen Keller died on June 1, 1968 at the age of 87, more than thirty years after the death of Anne Sullivan. Coolidge published an autobiography in 1929 and wrote a syndicated newspaper column, "Calvin Coolidge Says," from 1930-1931. Keller devoted much of her later life to raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. [9]. Alabama honors her, a native daughter, on its state quarter [1]. In his post-White House years, Coolidge served as chairman of the non-partisan Railroad Commission, as honorary president of the Foundation of the Blind, as director of New York Life Insurance Company, as president of the American Antiquarian Society, and as trustee of Amherst College. Johnson awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor. Coolidge did not seek renomination; he announced his decision with typical terseness: "I do not choose to run for President in 1928." After leaving office, he and wife Grace returned to Northampton, Mass., where his political career had begun.

On September 14, 1964, President Lyndon B. The treaty, ratified in 1929, committed signatories including the U.S., Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan to "renounce war, as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another." [8]. She wrote a total of eleven books, and authored numerous articles. A notable foreign-affairs initiative of the Coolidge administration was the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, named for Coolidge's Secretary of State, Frank Kellogg, and for French foreign minister Aristide Briand. She also wrote a lengthy autobiography. Did he support these measures while president? No, because in the 1920s, such matters were considered the responsibilities of state and local governments." [7]. In 1960 her book Light in my Darkness was published in which she advocated the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. Although some later commentators have dismissed Coolidge as a doctrinaire, laissez-faire ideologue, historian Robert Sobel offers some context based on Coolidge's sense of federalism: "As Governor of Massachusetts, Coolidge supported wages and hours legislation, opposed child labor, imposed economic controls during World War I, favored safety measures in factories, and even worker representation on corporate boards.

In 1925 she addressed a convention of Lions Clubs International giving that organisation a major focus for its service work which still continues today. During his Presidency, the United States experienced a wildly successful period of economic growth: the so-called "Roaring Twenties." Coolidge not only lowered taxes, but also reduced the national debt. In the 1920s, she sent a hundred dollars to the NAACP with a letter of support that appeared in its magazine The Crisis. Coolidge was the last President of the United States who did not attempt to intervene in free markets, letting business cycles run their course. In 1920 she was one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union. Coolidge made use of the new medium of radio and made radio history several times while president: his inauguration was the first presidential inauguration broadcast on radio; on February 12, 1924 he became the first President of the United States to deliver a political speech on radio and on February 22 he also became the first to deliver such a speech from the White House. Her contacts with suspected communists were frequently investigated by the FBI. He was easily elected President of the United States in his own right in 1924.

Helen Keller wrote glowingly of the emergence of communism during the Russian Revolution (See ISBN 0684818868). [6]. I found that poverty drove women to a life of shame that ended in blindness.". Occasionally, he would flip through the entire stack and announce, "I have no questions today." The reporters were not allowed to quote him directly, or even to attribute his remarks to "a White House spokesman." It was nothing like today's open, sometimes disputatious press conferences. And the social evil contributed its share. When reporters were admitted to his office, he would go through the slips, discarding any he had no desire to address. For the first time I, who had thought blindness a misfortune beyond human control, found that too much of it was traceable to wrong industrial conditions, often caused by the selfishness and greed of employers. Louis Lyons, a Washington newsman in the 1920s and later an official of Harvard's Nieman Foundation for Journalism, recalled that Coolidge required all questions to be submitted in advance, written on slips of paper.

"I was appointed on a commission to investigate the conditions of the blind. [5] Coolidge's press conferences, however, reflected his reticent personality with a vengeance. In "Why I Became an IWW" Helen wrote that her motivation for activism came in part due to her concern about blindness and other disabilities:. Roosevelt who averaged about 6.9. Helen Keller also joined the industrial union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), in 1912 after she felt that parliamentary socialism was "sinking in the political bog." Helen Keller wrote for the IWW between 1916 and 1918. He also managed to hold 520 press conferences, averaging 7.8 per month, somewhat higher than Franklin D. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him...Oh, ridiculous Brooklyn Eagle! Socially blind and deaf, it defends an intolerable system, a system that is the cause of much of the physical blindness and deafness which we are trying to prevent.". Making use of the new medium of radio, he delivered an address about once a month.

But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. Even though Coolidge was said to be somewhat tight-lipped, he delivered more speeches than any other president up to that time. "At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. Upon telling Coolidge of her wager, he replied simply with the words "You lose."[4] However another one of Coolidge's dinner guests had this to say "I cannot help feeling that persons who complained about his silence as a dinner partner never really tried to get beyond trivialities to which he did not think it worth while to respond.". The editor of the Brooklyn Eagle wrote that her "mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development." Keller responded to that editor, referring to having met him before he knew of her political views:. It is said that a White House dinner guest once made a bet with her friends that she could get the president to say at least three words during the course of the meal. Newspaper columnists who had praised her courage and intelligence before she came out as a socialist now called attention to her disabilities. He said that "when he died, the glory of the Presidency went with him.".

If I could not see it, I could smell it.". People who knew the President said he never fully recovered from his son's death. In her words, "I have visited sweatshops, factories, crowded slums. After that, Coolidge, a man of few words, who had already earned the nickname "Silent Cal," became more withdrawn. Her political views were reinforced by visiting workers. died. Debs in each of his campaigns for the presidency. The blister became infected, and Calvin, Jr.

She supported Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Before his election in 1924, Coolidge's younger son, Calvin, Jr., contracted a blister from playing tennis on the White House courts. Helen Keller was a member of the socialist party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. Calvin Coolidge was in Vermont, the morning of August 3rd (EST). Kennedy and was friends with many famous figures including Alexander Graham Bell, Charlie Chaplin and Mark Twain. His father, a notary public, administered the oath of office in the family's parlor by the light of a kerosene lamp; Coolidge was resworn by a federal official upon his return to Washington, D.C. President from Grover Cleveland to John F. Coolidge was visiting at the family home, still without electricity or telephone, when he got word of Harding's death.

Helen Keller met every U.S. Upon Harding's death, Coolidge became President on August 2, 1923. Helen and Anne Sullivan traveled all over the world to over 39 countries, and made several trips to Japan, becoming a favorite of the Japanese people. Harding was inaugurated on March 4, 1921, and served until August 2, 1923. In 1915 she founded Helen Keller International, a non-profit organization for preventing blindness. Roosevelt in a landslide, 60.36 to 34.19 percent (404 to 127 in the electoral college). She made it her own life's mission to fight for the sensorially handicapped in the world. Cox and Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D.

With tremendous willpower Helen went on to become a world-famous speaker and author. The Harding-Coolidge ticket won handily against Ohio Governor James M. In 1904 at the age of 24, Helen graduated from Radcliffe cum laude, becoming the first deaf and blind person to graduate from a college. However, convention delegates stampeded and nominated Coolidge. In 1898 they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. Party leaders wanted to nominate Wisconsin Senator Irvine Lenroot for vice president. In 1894, Helen and Anne moved to New York City to attend the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf. Harding of Ohio.

In 1888, Helen attended Perkins Institute for the Blind. Coolidge made a half-hearted effort to secure the Republican presidential nomination in 1920, losing to Senator Warren G. She also learned to read English, French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille. he later wrote to labor leader Samuel Gompers, "there is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime." [2][3]. Anne was able to teach Helen to think intelligibly and to speak, using the Tadoma method: touching the lips of others as they spoke, feeling the vibrations, and spelling of alphabetical characters in the palm of Helen's hand. In 1919, Coolidge gained national attention when he ordered the Massachusetts National Guard to forcefully end the Boston Police Department strike. Helen's big breakthrough in communication came one day when she realized that the motions her teacher was making on her palm, while running cool water over her palm from a pump, symbolized the idea of "water" and nearly exhausted Sullivan demanding the names of all the other familiar objects in her world (including her prized doll). He was lieutenant governor of the state from 1916-1918, and Governor from 1919-1920.

Her first task was to instill discipline in the spoiled girl. Coolidge was elected mayor of Northampton in 1910 and 1911, was a member of the State senate 1912-1915, serving as president of that body in 1914 and 1915. Sullivan demanded and got permission from Helen's father to isolate the girl from the rest of the family in a little house in their garden. Grace's reply was "Did you marry me to darn your socks?" Without cracking a smile and with his usual seriousness, Calvin answered, "No, but I find it mighty handy."[1]. It was the beginning of a 49-year period of working together. Not long after their marriage Coolidge handed her a bag with 52 pairs of holey socks. The school delegated teacher and former student Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old, to try to open up Helen's mind. She was talkative and fun-loving and Coolidge was quiet and serious.

Bell advised the couple to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind, the school where Bridgman had been educated, which was then located in South Boston, Massachusetts. They were complete opposites personality-wise. He put her in touch with local expert Alexander Graham Bell, who was working with deaf children at the time. In 1905, Coolidge married Grace Anna Goodhue. In 1886, her mother Kate Keller was inspired by an account in Charles Dickens' American Notes of the successful education of another deaf/blind child, Laura Bridgman, and travelled to a specialist doctor in Baltimore for advice. He practiced law in Northampton, Massachusetts, and was a member of the city council in 1899, city solicitor from 1900-1902, clerk of courts in 1904, and representative from 1907-1908. By age seven she had invented over sixty different signs that she could use to communicate with her family. He attended Amherst College, in Massachusetts, graduating in 1895.

The illness did not last for a particularly long time, but it left her blind, deaf, and unable to speak. He dropped John from his name upon graduating from college. It was not until nineteen months later that she came down with an illness that the doctors described as "an acute congestion of the stomach and the brain" - Scarlet Fever. Coolidge was the only president to be born on the 4th of July (Independence Day). She was not born blind and deaf, but was actually a typical, healthy infant. and Victoria Moor. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. He was born in Plymouth, Windsor County, Vermont on July 4, 1872 to John Calvin Coolidge, Sr.

Keller was born at an estate called Ivy Green, on June 27, 1880 to parents Captain Arthur H. . . Harding. Her loss of ability to communicate at such an early developmental age was very traumatic for her and her family and as a result she became quite unmanageable. John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933) was the twenty-ninth Vice President (1921-1923) and the thirtieth President of the United States (1923-1929), succeeding to that office upon the death of Warren G. Her disabilities were caused by a fever in February, 1882 when she was 19 months old. Calvin Coolidge Presidential Library and Museum.

Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. Wombats and Such: Calvin and Grace Coolidge and Their Pets. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. Coolidge effect. presidential election, 1924. U.S.

presidential election, 1920. U.S. "There is no right to strike against the public safety of anybody, anywhere, any time."*. "The chief business of the American people is business."*.

"I do not choose to run for President in 1928.". Without looking at her he quietly retorted, "You lose."). "You lose." (His wife, Grace Goodhue Coolidge, recounted that a young woman sitting next to Coolidge at a dinner party confided to him she had bet she could get at least three words of conversation from him. If the foundation be firm, the foundation will stand.".

We do not need more of the things that are seen, we need more of the things that are unseen. We do not need more law, we need more religion. We do not need more government, we need more culture. We do not need more knowledge, we need more character.

"We do not need more intellectual power, we need more moral power. "The nation which forgets its defenders will be itself forgotten.". The slogan "press on" has solved and always will solve the problems of the human race.". Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent.

Education will not; the world is full of educated derelicts. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Talent will not; nothing is more common than unsuccessful people with talent. "Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence.

It means looking out for yourself by looking out for your country.". "Patriotism is easy to understand in America. "I have noticed that nothing I never said ever did me any harm.". "Collecting more taxes than absolutely necessary is legalized robbery.".

Signed Revenue Act of 1928. Signed Radio Act of 1927. Signed Revenue Act of 1926. Signed Revenue Act of 1924.

Signed Immigration Act of 1924. Harlan Fiske Stone - 1925. Harding died in California, August 2nd (PST),. Note: Warren G.

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