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. Recording at 100 Mbits/s, it uses a better color compression method to give better color representation than a standard DV25 or MiniDV cassette and less compression artifacts. Gibson is also the surname of several notable people:. Broadcast-level HD cameras often record to hard-drives via a raw input/output or to tape or flash disks in formats that support higher bitrates than MiniDV cassettes such a DVCPro HD. In Australia:. All major Camcorder vendors provide camcorders in this segment. In the United States:. It records MPEG-2TS compressed HDTV video on standard DV media (DV or MiniDV cassette tape) and transfers it using Firewire.

Gibson may refer to:. The standard for consumer/prosumer HDTV acquisition is High-Definition Video (HDV). . Some DVD manufacturers such as Philips are licensing the DivX codec in order to play 720p/1080i content recorded on standard consumer DVD-R discs. William Gibson (Catholic martyr). This upconversion process can improve the perceived picture quality of standard-definition video. William Gibson (novelist), the science fiction, cyberpunk novelist, author of Neuromancer. These players, however, are not considered to be true HD DVD players since they include only an integrated scaler to upconvert the standard-definition DVD video to high-definition video.

William Gibson (playwright), author of 'The Miracle Worker. There are now some DVD players that will output enhanced or high-definition signals from standard-definition DVDs. Wilfrid Wilson Gibson. Although they disagree about physical format technology, both the HD DVD and Blu-ray factions have selected the same three video codecs to be mandatory in their designs: specifically, MPEG-2 Part 2, VC-1, and H.264. Thomas Milner Gibson. The Blu-ray format has already gained a majority support from almost every major movie studio in the USA, while the HD DVD format has received support from a smaller consortium of companies, many of whom have also pledged support for Blu-ray anyway. Steve Gibson, of Gibson Research, makers of SpinRite. A more likely possibility is that the PlayStation 3 console (manufactured by Sony, the main advocate of Blu-ray discs) will gain a major lead in sales for Blu-ray players when it launches in 2006.

Gibson. A possible outcome of a messy format war could be the emergence of combo players, as the physical disc sizes are identical. Robert L. As a result, this will likely lead to certain films becoming available only on one format. Gibson. Both sides of the HD disc camp are likely to leverage studio partners against each other through exclusive arrangements. Randall L. A format war is now very likely between the DVD Forum's HD DVD (formerly "Advanced Optical Disc") standard and the Blu-ray Disc Association's Blu-ray disc standard.

Mel Gibson, film actor, director and producer. Recently, the DVD Forum and the Blu-ray Disc Association failed to agree on standards for high-definition 12-cm discs. Kirk Gibson. It was unclear to On2 and the arbitrator whether the Chinese government ever approved the EVD proposal as a standard. Jon Gibson (minimalist musician). On2 filed multiple breach of contract claims for arbitration, but in March of 2005 the arbitrator ruled that E-World had not broken the contract and owed nothing to On2. John Gibson (Indiana). Soon after the announcement that VP6 would be used on EVD, negotiations between On2 and E-World (the consortium pushing EVD to become a standard) broke down.

John Gibson (media host). studio will commit to movies in this format without some form of copy-protection, which is not yet specified. Jill Gibson. It is unlikely any major U.S. Jabbar Gibson. Very few titles were made available in any market for this format, although it is presumed that many would be needed to drive purchase of incompatible players. Gibson, the American psychologist influential in the field of visual perception. A low cost for the codec itself is not a significant advantage over DVD, however, as the standalone hardware players will be incompatible with standard DVD-Video unless the manufacturer pays the royalties for the technologies necessary to make the player DVD-compatible.

J. As China starts to dominate manufacturing of TV and DVD units, the country's choice of standards becomes more important for everyone. J. As an advantage, VP6 would not require royalties on recorded media (although royalties would be charged for player devices at a similar cost as for other codecs). Ian Gibson (artist). As reported, this was a result of China's desire to avoid royalties on WM9 or AVC. Hutton Gibson. VP6 was reported by On2 to have been chosen by China for use in the Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD) format initiative.

Hoot Gibson. H.264 is also used by some for encoding video podcasts. Guy Gibson. Since many movie trailers are released in QuickTime format, when movie distributors started releasing HD trailers on the web the format they chose was H.264. Gordon Gibson. H.264 has made significant progress towards becoming a widespread video format on the internet thanks to Apple Computer's QuickTime software supporting the format as of version 7. Edward Gibson. Example of broadcasters concerns.

Edmund Gibson. However, this is currently a rumour and has not yet been challenged. Don Gibson. In fact, there is some concern in the community that Microsoft may have appropriated itself the H.264 standard, modified and improved upon it and are trying to resell the solution as VC-1, without providing dues to the MPEG-LA. Deborah Gibson, is a singer, Broadway performer and former teen idol, credited as Debbie Gibson during her Teen Idol days. The main areas of dominance of VC-1 seem currently to be in the Blu-Ray DVD (HD DVD have not yet announced support for VC-1) and, for obvious reason, the home PCs. Colin Gibson. It has been thought for a while that VC-1 was better adapted for the IPTV world than H.264, but press announcements have also already been made by some of the largest STB manufacturers like Amino, Pace, Kreatel demonstrating solutions based on H.264 standards.

Christopher Burke Gibson. So far, only a handful of very minor broadcasters are seriously considering VC-1. Chris Gibson (game), fictional race driver. H.264 was chosen for several reasons: The standard was validated as an open standard at least a year before VC-1 was seriously considered as a potential open standard, and, then, there is a lot of uncertainty on the levies Microsoft may want to impose once the algorithm is adopted. Chris Gibson (Tasmania), Australian politician. H.264 as a standard has already been selected and adopted by the biggest broadcasters in the USA (DirecTV, DISH Network) and Europe (BSkyB, Premiere, Canal+, TPS, ...). Gibson. Other codecs are in contention such as AVC (MPEG-4 part 10, also known as H.264, approved by the ITU-T and MPEG standards bodies in early-2003) and the VP6 and now VP7 codecs from On2 Technologies.

Charles H. The codec has been submitted to SMPTE and is in SMPTE's standardization process with an intent for it to become an official SMPTE standard known as VC-1 in the near-future. Charles Dana Gibson is a famous American graphic artist. As of the start of 2005, Microsoft recommends a 3.0 GHz processor with 512 MB of RAM and a 128-MB video card for 1080p playback on Windows XP, though they are now commercially available DVD players, like the KiSS DP-600, that will play back WMV HD DVD ROMs in high definition on HDTV sets. Charles Gibson. Since then, more titles have become available in this format, such as the acclaimed surf documentary Step Into Liquid. Bob Gibson (musician) was an American folksinger. As of November 2003, this format required a significant amount of processing power to encode and decode and the only commercially-available movie that used the codec was the Terminator 2: Extreme Edition DVD (see 1).

Bob Gibson was a baseball player. It remains to be seen if the codec will be adopted for widespread use, if only as a Wi-Fi industry standard. Althea Gibson. Microsoft is marketing its high-definition Windows Media 9 Series codec as WMV HD. Alfred Gibson. In an attempt to provide a bitrate-compatible high-definition format for high-definition video on standard DVD-ROMs, Microsoft introduced their Windows Media 9 Series codec with the ability to compress a high-definition bitstream into the same space as a conventional NTSC bitstream (approximately 5 to 9 megabits per second for 720p and higher). Alexander Gibson. It is expected to have a big impact on the HDTV market.

Gibson Desert. Sony will include a Blu-ray player in PlayStation 3, and it will be released during 2006. Gibson, Western Australia – a small village. Blu-ray uses a blue-laser optical disc with an MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 codec. Gibson, Wisconsin. Blu-ray technology is currently available only in Japan with a Japanese satellite/terrestrial tuner, but is expected to be released in other world markets in 2006. Gibson County, Tennessee. HD programming may be recorded on optical disc using Blu-ray or on HD DVD.

Gibson, Tennessee. D-Theater is currently a small niche market even within the niche HDTV community, and it appears as if the final D-Theater title was published in 2004. Gibson Township, Michigan. This format is superior to broadcast HDTV due to its higher bandwidth and, of course, the ability to do non-realtime optimization of the encoding, which is not possible with broadcast HDTV. Gibson, Louisiana. Comprising less than 100 titles and utilizing a 28-Mbit/s MPEG2 stream at 720p or 1080i with either Dolby Digital 5.1 or DTS encoding, D-Theater is an encrypted D-VHS format, and only D-Theater capable D-VHS players can play back these tapes. Gibson County, Indiana. Aside from scarce Japanese analog MUSE-encoded laser discs that are no longer produced, as of 2005 the only current available prerecorded HD media is D-Theater.

Gibson Martini, see Martini cocktail. This encryption can prevent someone from recording content at all or simply limit the number of copies. Gibson, to Hack. This content is protected by encryption known as 5C. Gibson Amphitheatre. As of July 2004, boxes are not included in the FCC mandate. Gibson Girl. None of the DBS providers have offered this feature on any of their supported boxes.

Gibson Appliance. As part of the FCC's "plug and play" agreement, cable companies are required to provide customers that rent HD set-top boxes with a set-top box with "functional" Firewire (IEEE 1394) upon request. Gibson Guitar Corporation. Analog tape recorders with bandwidth capable of recording analog HD signals such as W-VHS recorders are no longer produced for the consumer market and are both expensive and scarce in the secondary market. Realtime MPEG-2 compression of an uncompressed digital HDTV signal is also prohibitively expensive for the consumer market at this time, but should become inexpensive within several years (although this is more relevant for consumer HD camcorders than recording HDTV). However, the massive amount of data storage required to archive uncompressed streams make it unlikely that an uncompressed storage option will appear in the consumer market soon.

D-VHS digitally records a 28.2-Mbit stream onto a classic VHS tape, using a FireWire (IEEE 1394) digital transport to carry a compressed MPEG-2 Transport Stream from the tuning device to the recorder. In the U.S., the only current archival option is D-VHS. HDTV can be recorded to D-VHS (Data-VHS), W-VHS, to an HDTV-capable digital video recorder such as DirecTV's high-definition TiVo or Dish Network's DVR 921 or 942, or to a computer equipped with an HDTV capture card. Lower-resolution sources like regular DVDs may be upscaled to the native resolution of the TV.

An HDTV-compatible TV usually uses a 16:9 aspect ratio display with an integrated ATSC tuner. In the United States, HDTV specifications are defined by the ATSC. Viewers without HDTV sets will continue to receive their television programming through analog transmission approaches. Viewers with HDTV sets will receive picture resolution six times sharper than standard definition analog sets.

In January 2006, Televisa's XEFB-TV and Multimedios' XHAW-TV in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon began HDTV transmissions on UHF channels 48 and 50, respectively. San Antonio in Tijuana, Mexico with 403,000 watts, directed primarily northward at San Diego. This affiliate of the American Fox TV Network is on UHF channel 23 broadcasting from Mt. XETV in Tijuana, Baja California - across the border from San Diego, California - is on the air in HDTV using 720p format.

And one retailer, Elektra, started shipping televisions with HDTV receivers to support this broadcast. Also, TV Azteca has planned to broadcast the Mexican football tournament in HDTV. Phase Two of the national rollout will bring HDTV services to six additional cities (Matamoros, Reynosa, Nuevo Laredo, Ciudad Juarez, Mexicali and Tijuana) through the first half of 2006. By the third quarter of 2006, HDTV transmissions will be available in Mexico City, Guadalajara and Monterrey.

The launch will be carried out in two phases. In 2005, TV Azteca signed a deal with Harris Corporation's broadcast communications division for digital TV transmitters and HDTV encoding equipment to bring high-definition TV to nine Mexican cities. During the first half of 2005, at least one cable provider in Mexico City (Cablevision) has begun to offer 5 HDTV channels to subscribers purchasing a digital video recorder (DVR). Some events are now broadcast in high definition.

Mexican television company Televisa made experimental HDTV broadcasts in the early-1990s, in collaboration with Japan's NHK. It is required that at least 10 hours of HD content to be broadcast on a weekly basis during the first year of commercial digital service. From 2005, digital services are available in all the country. After a long controversy between the government and broadcasters, ATSC was chosen over DVB-T.

It is reported that two million HD receivers have been sold in Japan already. Japan terrestrial broadcast of HD via ISDB-T started in December 2003. The old system is not compatible with the new digital standards. Japan had pioneered HDTV for decades with an analog implementation.

The purpose of the label is create a single norm to simplify the purchase of a HDTV in Europe. A label "HD-ready" has been created to inform consumers of the benefits of High Definition. Although most of these channesl are pay tv, there are some free to air hd stations available(Prosieben & Sat 1), as well as technical transmissions by satellite. As for 2006, there has been a slow but steady increase in the number of HD channels available to european viewers in many countries.

Commercial HDTV services began in 2004 with Euro1080, an Belgian MPEG2/DVB-S pay channel. CBC officially launched HDTV programming on March 5, 2005. as of early-2005. CHUM Limited's Citytv in Toronto was the first HDTV broadcaster in Canada, however very few shows are shown in HDTV beyond the well-known ones such as CSI, ER, etc.

Other networks are continuing to announce availability of HD signals. Global joined the crowd in late-2004. They were also the first to broadcast a terrestrial HD digital ATSC signal in Canada. CTV Toronto broadcast in HD along with its western counterpart, BC CTV.

stations plus some PBS feeds and a couple of pay-TV movie channels. Bell ExpressVu, a Canadian satellite company, Rogers Cable and Videotron provide somewhat more than 21 HDTV channels to their subscribers including TSN HD, SportsNet HD, Discovery HD (Canadian Edition), The Movie Network HD, and several U.S. In Canada, on November 22, 2003, CBC had their first broadcast in HD, in the form of the Heritage Classic outdoor NHL game between the Edmonton Oilers and the Montreal Canadiens. A complete testbed is expected for 2006 (see for updates).

Brazilian universities, research and government institutions are discussing the best policies for a digital television system for use in Brazil. However, most Australian DTV broadcasters are still experimenting with HDTV transmission and DTV delivery. Most cities in Australia that have a population of 40,000 or greater have at least one terrestrial DTV channel available (for example, Albany, Western Australia, has had DTV available for almost a year as of May, 2005). Australia started HD broadcasting in January 2001, but only in August 2003 was HD content mandated.

See also: COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 92/38/EEC of 11 May 1992. The HD-MAC standard was abandoned in 1993, and since then all EU and EBU efforts have focused on the DVB system (Digital Video Broadcasting), which allows both SDTV and HDTV. Thus, analogue HDTV could not replace conventional SDTV (terrestrial) PAL/SECAM, making HD-MAC sets unattractive to potential consumers. HD-MAC could be used only by cable and satellite providers, where there is a wider bandwidth available.

Another reason for HD-MAC's failure is that it was not realistic to use 36 MHz for a high-definition signal in terrestrial broadcasting (SDTV uses 6-, 7- (VHF), or 8-MHz (UHF)). HD-MAC (the high-definition variant of MAC) was left for transcontinental satellite links, however. Owing to the advance of technology and the launch of middle-powered satellites by SES Astra, broadcasters could avoid MAC, and lower transmission costs. It was required that all high-powered satellite broadcasters use MAC from that year.

However, it never became popular among broadcasters. The European Commission established a European standard for uncompressed digital HDTV in a 1986 directive (MAC). It broadcasts the same programs as BS-digital channel 103, but will end sometime in 2007. Though Japan has since switched to a digital HDTV system based on ISDB, the original MUSE-based BS Satellite channel 9 (NHK BS Hi-vision) is still being broadcast.

The Japanese MUSE system, developed by NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories (STRL) in the 1980s, employed filtering tricks to reduce the original source signal to decrease bandwidth utilization. Japan began broadcasting analog HDTV signals in the early 1990s using an interlaced resolution of 1035 lines (1035i). Japan has the earliest working HDTV system still in use, with design efforts going back to 1979. It was transmitted only on VHF channels, and a French 819-line TV channel occupied 14 MHz of bandwidth.

It was used only for black-and-white TV; color TV in 819-line SECAM never went beyond the experimental stage. It was discontinued in 1986. The French "755i" 819-line HDTV system was used in only France, Belgium and Monaco, and in France only for the first French TV channel. When, in the late-1960s, a second TV channel and color TV were introduced in Europe, the UK dropped its 405-line TV system (completely in 1985) and France dropped its 819-line system, making all European countries agree to use 625 lines (576i) for their TV transmissions.

The French 819-line (or 755i) HDTV system was introduced in the 1950s. The French TV system thus became the world's first HDTV system, and, by today's standards, the French system could be called 755i (not all lines could be used for the actual image — some lines were lost during the vertical retrace). The UK used 405 lines, most other countries 625 lines (both numbers include the vertical gap, the actual resolution were lower), but France decided in 1948 to go for 819 lines. in the late-1940s and early-1950s, different countries used different resolutions.

When Europe resumed TV transmissions after WWII, i.e. Most professionals in 3D technology foresee greater use of stereo visuals and animation as HDTV becomes the norm. The Discovery HD channel has already provided a small amount of science programing in 3D. A number of 3D stereoscopic major animation films like Polar Express, Disney's Chicken Little and 6 more scheduled for 2006 release, will be likely to be sold for home display in one or more of the new HD disk systems in 3D.

For more technical details see the articles on HDV, ATSC, DVB, and ISDB, respectively. New HD compression and recording formats such as HDV use rectanglar pixels for more efficient compression and to open HDTV aquisition for the consumer market. The pixel aspect ratio of native HD signals is 1.0, or 1 pixel length = 1 pixel width. HDTV is capable of "theater-quality" audio because it uses the Dolby Digital (AC-3) format to support "5.1" surround sound.

Recommended receiver is Humax PR-HD 1000, but others are announced as well as PCI cards. Some German broadcasters already use MPEG-4 together with DVB-S2 (ProSieben, Sat1 and Three Premiere Channels). Some broadcasters also plan to use MPEG-4. Although MPEG-2 supports up to 4:2:2 YUV chroma subsampling and 10-bit quantization, HD broadcasts use 4:2:0 and 8-bit quantization to save bandwidth.

MPEG-2 is most commonly used as the compression codec for digital HDTV broadcasts. NBC, Universal-HD (both owned by General Electric), CBS, HBO-HD, INHD, HDNet and TNT currently broadcast 1080i content. In North America, Fox, ABC, and ESPN (ABC and ESPN are both owned by Disney) currently broadcast 720p content. An LCD capable of native 1080i resolution still costs over a thousand US dollars.

720p appears at full resolution on a common 1280x1024 LCD, which can be found for under $250. 720p Video also has lower storage and decoding requirements than 1080i or 1080p, and few people possess displays capable of displaying the 1920x1080 resolution without scaling. In addition, 720p is used more often with internet distribution of HD video, as all computer monitors are progressive, and most graphics cards do a sub-optimal job of de-interlacing video in real time. In general, 720p is more appropriate for fast action as it uses progressive fields, as opposed to 1080i which uses interlaced fields and thus can have a degredation of image quality with fast motion.

The format depends on the broadcast company if destined for television broadcast, however in other scenarios the format choice will vary depending on a variety of factors. Noncinematic HDTV video recordings are recorded in either 720p or 1080i format. (See also: Deinterlacing). These may be upconverted to a higher resolution format (720i), but removing the interlace to match the common 720p format may distort the picture or require filtering which actually reduces the resolution of the final output.

Older (pre-HDTV) recordings on video tape such as Betacam SP are often either in the form 480i60 or 576i50. (See also: Telecine). One film frame is held for three video fields, (1/20 of a second) and then the next is held for two video fields (1/30 of a second) and then the process repeats, thus achieving the correct film rate with two film frames shown in 1/12 of a second. In countries using the NTSC standard, (60 fps) a technique called 3:2 pulldown is used.

When shown on television in countries using PAL, film must be converted to 25 frames per second by speeding it up by 4%. Depending on the available bandwidth and the amount of detail and movement in the picture, the optimum format for video transfer is thus either 720p24 or 1080p24. Photographic film destined for the theatre typically has a high resolution and is photographed at 24 frame/s. The lossy compression that is used in all digital HDTV systems will then cause the picture to be distorted.

On the other hand, a very high resolution may require more bandwidth than is available. The field and frame rate should match the source, as should the resolution. The optimum format for a broadcast depends on the type of media used for the recording and the characteristics of the content. In addition, the technical standards for broadcasting HDTV are also able to handle 16:9 aspect ratio pictures without using letterboxing, thus further increasing the effective resolution for such content.

HDTV has at least twice the resolution of SDTV, thus allowing much more detail to be shown compared to analog television or regular DVD. The most common are:. Most HDTV systems support some standard resolutions and frame or field rates. For example 24p means 24 progressive frames per second and 50i means 25 interlaced frames per second.

A frame or field rate can also be specified without a resolution. It can then usually be assumed to be either 50 or 60, except for 1080p which is only supported as 1080p24, 1080p25 or 1080p30 by consumer HDTV displays. Often the frame or field rate is left out. The format 1080i50 is 1920 × 1080 pixels, interlaced encoding with 50 fields (25 frames) per second.

For example, the format 720p60 is 1280 × 720 pixels, progressive encoding with 60 frames per second. In the context of HDTV, the formats of the broadcasts are referred to using a notation describing:. . This is a confusing use of the terms HD and HDTV.

Even HD-ready sets do not necessarily have enough pixels to display video to the 1080-line (1920x1080) or 720-line (1280x720) HD standards in full resolution without interpolation, and HD-compatible sets are often just standard-definition sets with an HDMI input. They indicate that a TV or display is able to accept video over an HDMI connection, using a new connector design, the main purpose of which seems to be to ensure that digital video is only passed over an interface which, by agreement, incorporates copyright protection. The terms HD ready and HD compatible are being used around the industrial world for marketing purposes. The world used analog PAL, NTSC, SECAM and other standards for over half a century.

Most patents were expiring by the end of World War II leaving the market wide open and no worldwide standard for television agreed upon. It was patent interference lawsuits and deployment issues given the tumultuous financial climate of the late 20's and 30's. Farnsworth, John Logie Baird and Vladimir Zworkin had each developed competing TV systems but resolution was not the issue that separated their substantially different technologies. Historically, the term high-definition television was also used to refer to television standards developed in the 1930s to replace the early experimental systems, although, not so long afterwards, Philo T.

Except for early analog formats in Europe and Japan, HDTV is broadcast digitally, and therefore its introduction sometimes coincides with the introduction of digital television (DTV). High-definition television (HDTV) means broadcast of television signals with a higher resolution than traditional formats (NTSC, SÉCAM, PAL) allow. TV Azteca Plans HDTV Mexican Rollout. High Definition (HD) Image Formats for Television Production, technical report from the EBU.

High Definition for Europe - a progressive approach, article from the EBU technical review . Images formats for HDTV, article from the EBU technical review . DVB HDTV standard. DTV channel protection ratios.

United States Federal Standard 1037C. MUSE had a bit-reduced stereo audio transmission system that was notable in its design as it was not psychoacoustical like Musicam. Considering the technological limitations of the time, MUSE was a very cleverly-designed analog system. Whole-camera pans would result in a loss of 50% of horizontal resolution.

Stationary images were transmitted at full resolution. Moving images were thus blurred in a manner similar to using 16mm movie film for HDTV projection. In the typical setup, three picture elements on a line were actually derived from three separate scans. The increased clarity, and detail make larger screen sizes more comfortable and pleasing to watch.

Both systems will usually play current DVDs, and attempt to extract a near-HDTV-quality image from them, but they are not compatible with each other. One is called HD DVD, the other is Blu-ray. Two new pre-recorded disc formats will be available in spring 2006. The gaps between scaning lines are smaller or gone.

The visual information is about 2-5 times more detailed overall. The colors will generally look more realistic, due to the cleaner signal. Most HD programming and films will be presented in the 16x9 proportioned, semi-widescreen format (though some films created in even wider ratios will still display "letterbox" bars on the top and bottom of even 16:9 sets.) Older films and programming that retain their 4:3 ratio display will be presented in a version of letterbox commonly called "pillar box", displaying bars on the right and left of 16:9 sets (rendering the term "fullscreen" a misnomer.) Or, one can usually choose to enlarge the image to fill the screen, however this option will display a distorted, stretched-out picture. You would never get a snowy, washed out, image, or vertical rolling.

All commercial HD is digital, so the signal will either deliver a good picture, a picture with large pixelation, a series of frozen pictures, or no picture. 60i (NTSC). 50i (PAL). 60p.

50p. 30p. 25p. 24p (cinematic film).

NTSC is typically 720x480. Number of frames or fields per second. Progressive frames (p) or interlaced fields (i). The number of lines in the display resolution.

08-29-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use Business Search Directory Real Estate Database Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.