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Gibson may refer to:
In the United States:
Gibson is also the surname of several notable people:
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Gibson may refer to:. A nonsexualized portrayal of a girl is the character played by Drew Barrymore in E.T. . Hollywood movies also tend to sexualize girls, as in Taxi Driver and The Blue Lagoon. William Gibson (Catholic martyr). Other genres of manga and anime often feature sexualized and objectified portrayals of girls. William Gibson (novelist), the science fiction, cyberpunk novelist, author of Neuromancer. Examples include The Wallflower, Ceres, Celestial Legend, and Full Moon o Sagashite.
William Gibson (playwright), author of 'The Miracle Worker. There are many other stories with girls as protagonists in the Shōjo style of manga, which is targeted to girls as an audience. Wilfrid Wilson Gibson. Most of the animated films of Hayao Miyazaki feature a young girl as the hero, as in Majo no takkyūbin (Kiki's Delivery Service). Thomas Milner Gibson. In Japanese manga and anime, girls are often protagonists. Steve Gibson, of Gibson Research, makers of SpinRite. Franco-Belgian comics with girls in a central role include Isabelle (by Will) and Sophie (by Jidéhem).
Gibson. The most famous Flemish comic strip is Spike and Suzy (Suske and Wiske), about the adventures of a boy and a girl (each about 10 years old); it was translated from Flemish into French and English. Robert L. In the Peanuts series (by Charles Schulz), girl characters include Peppermint Patty, Lucy van Pelt, and Sally Brown. Gibson. In superhero comic books, an early girl character was Etta Candy, one of Wonder Woman's sidekicks. Randall L. There have been many American comic books and comic strips featuring a girl as the main character, such as Little Lulu, Little Orphan Annie, Girl Genius, and Amelia Rules.
Mel Gibson, film actor, director and producer. Books which have both boy and girl protagonists tend to focus on the boys, but important girl characters appear in Knight's Castle, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, The Book of Three, and the Harry Potter series (by Book 6, Harry Potter's social circle includes 1 boy and 2 girls, although newcomer Ginny still isn't let into secrets like Ron and Hermione are). Kirk Gibson. Children's books about girls include Little House on the Prairie, Eloise, Pippi Longstocking, Dragonsong, and A Wrinkle in Time. Jon Gibson (minimalist musician). European fairy tales include some memorable stories about girls, including Goldilocks and the Three Bears; Hans Christian Andersen's The Little Match Girl, The Little Mermaid, and The Princess and the Pea; the Brothers Grimm's Little Red Riding Hood; and others. John Gibson (Indiana). Most early children's stories focused on boys, with the notable exception of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll, whose photographs of little girls are part of the history of photographic art.
John Gibson (media host). Other novels include Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird, which has a young girl as protagonist; and Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita, about a girl subjected to sexual abuse. Jill Gibson. Examples include Jane Eyre, who suffers ill treatment; and Natasha in War and Peace, who is sentimentalized. Jabbar Gibson. Many novels begin with the childhood of their heroine. Gibson, the American psychologist influential in the field of visual perception. As in art, portrayals of girls in literature can reflect the social norms of the time at which they were written.
J. In American art, paintings that feature girls include Mary Cassatt's 1884 Children on the Beach and Whistler's Harmony in Gray and Green: Miss Cicely Alexander and The White Girl (shown at right). J. Later paintings of girls include Albert Anker's portrait of a Girl with a Domino Tower and Camille Pissarro's 1883 Portrait of a Felix Daughter. Ian Gibson (artist). Nicolas, circa 1660; and Johannes Vermeer's Girl with a Pearl Earring and Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window. Hutton Gibson. In European art, some early paintings to feature girls are Juan de Flandes' Portrait of a Young Girl, circa 1500–1510 (shown at left); Frans Hals' Die Amme mit dem Kind in 1620; Diego Velázquez' Las Meninas in 1656; Jan Steen's The Feast of St.
Hoot Gibson. Only Sappho's poetry includes love poems addressed to girls. Guy Gibson. Ancient Greek classical art and literature paid scant attention to female children, though there are many poems about boys. Gordon Gibson. Egyptian murals included sympathetic portraits of young girls of royal descent. Edward Gibson. Portrayals of girls may reflect their standing in the artists' culture, and a brief overview of different views of girls in different art periods gives a sense of girls' roles in societies around the world and at different points in time.
Edmund Gibson. The slang word "gal", as in "Buffalo gals won't you come out tonight", is a variant pronunciation of girl. Don Gibson. The word girl has many synonyms, including "belle", "chick", "doll", "gal", "lass" or "lassie", "maiden", and "miss". Deborah Gibson, is a singer, Broadway performer and former teen idol, credited as Debbie Gibson during her Teen Idol days. While outsiders might use "girl" or "girly" as a pejorative to refer to a gay male, within the gay community it is used as a term of endearment. Colin Gibson. Calling a male a girl often serves as a provocation to fight (see fighting words).
Christopher Burke Gibson. The more insulting "girly-boy", which originated in 1589 as "girle-boy", is used to indicate a weak or "sissy" male. Chris Gibson (game), fictional race driver. Using the word "girl" to refer to a male is usually meant as insulting, such as "You throw like a girl". Chris Gibson (Tasmania), Australian politician. The term "young woman" is sometimes used in the period between childhood and full adulthood. Gibson. In modern usage, "girl" is properly restricted to mean a human female who has not reached adulthood, and some would restrict the usage to prepubescent girls.
Charles H. There is a parallel objection to use of the word "boy" to describe a male over the age of puberty. Charles Dana Gibson is a famous American graphic artist. With the rise of feminism, the use of "girl" applied to any adult female became offensive to many, especially given the fact that the word was so often used to indicate low social status, low morals, weakness, or homosexuality. Charles Gibson. But social shifts generally permit only the female gender group themselves to use such terminology without giving offence. Bob Gibson (musician) was an American folksinger. Adult women will sometimes refer to themselves as "girls", as in "We're having a girls' night out" or "It's a girl thing".
Bob Gibson was a baseball player. A woman of a certain age might be called a girl to suggest that she looked younger than she was, or a group of women might speak of themselves as "us girls", though all were well over the age of maidenhood. Althea Gibson. In America today, the word "girl" is often used as an intended compliment or used humorously. Alfred Gibson. In England, the word "girl" was also used as a euphemism for "prostitute", as for example by Richard Steele in The Spectator. Alexander Gibson. In England, a "girl" was often a serving girl, while in America a "girl" was often a sweetheart or "girlfriend", for example, in the lyrics of the popular song "The Girl I Left Behind Me".
Gibson Desert. By the 1700s, there was a difference in some uses of the word between England and the Americas. Gibson, Western Australia – a small village. Note the parallel shift in the meaning of the word "maid". Gibson, Wisconsin. In 1668, in his Diary, Samuel Pepys uses the word to mean a female servant of any age: "girl" = "serving girl". Gibson County, Tennessee. Within little more than a century, however, the word began to take on implications of social class.
Gibson, Tennessee. There are manuscripts dating from 1530 in which the word "girl" is used to mean "maiden" (also originally applied to both genders), or any unmarried human female. Gibson Township, Michigan. Like many other words that originally were not gender specific, "girl" gradually came to be used primarily and then exclusively for one gender. Gibson, Louisiana. A male child was called a "Knave girl"; a female child was called a "gay girl". Gibson County, Indiana. While there is no general agreement about the etymology of "girl", it is found in manuscripts dating from 1290 with the meaning "a child" (of either gender).
Gibson Martini, see Martini cocktail. The Anglo-Saxon word gyrela = "ornament" may have given rise to the modern pronunciation of "girl", if the change in meaning can be explained. Gibson, to Hack. The word "girl" first appears during the Middle Ages. Gibson Amphitheatre. Relatively few girls become engineers, though in the USA, more do become doctors. Gibson Girl. However, their choices afterwards in postsecondary school are often very different and lead them to less socially recognized professions.
Gibson Appliance. Several studies, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment of the OECD, have shown that, in developed countries, girls usually obtain better scores than boys do in secondary schools in Literature and Language, boys on the other hand tend to score higher in mathematics. Gibson Guitar Corporation. This conflict is often called nature versus nurture. Some feminists deny this, but many feminists agree that both biology and upbringing have an influence on gender roles, with the question being the relative importance of each. The biological viewpoint of gender roles is not that all gender distinctions result from biology, but rather that biology has an influence.
Due to the influence of (among others) Simone de Beauvoir's feminist works and Michel Foucault's reflections on sexuality, the idea that gender was unrelated to sex gained ground during the 1980s, especially in sociology and cultural anthropology. On the other hand, feminists have argued that gender roles are the result of stereotypes and socialization rather than any innate biological differences. Simon Baron-Cohen, a Cambridge University professor of psychology and psychiatry, argues that "the female brain is predominantly hard-wired for empathy, while the male brain is predominantly hard-wired for understanding and building systems.". For example, the need to take care of offspring may have limited the females' freedom to hunt and to assume positions of power.
The idea that differences in gender roles originate in differences in biology originates from 19th-century anthropology; more recently, sociobiology and evolutionary psychology have turned to this problem to explain those differences by treating them as evolutionary adaptations to a lifestyle of Paleolithic hunter-gatherer societies. The reasons for this perceived difference in the behavior of girls and boys are a controversial topic in both public debate and the sciences. Girls, as a group, may be perceived as being more docile than boys, and as being less capable of rational decision making and more governed by emotional responses. Sometimes boys are presumed to be more responsible than girls, except in the cases of caring for younger children, which is sometimes thought to be instinctual in girls.
Girls are less often encouraged to pursue sports, with the exception of those that might be considered "feminine," such as figure skating or gymnastics; or those considered "gender-neutral," such as tennis. They may be prevented from participating in many of the same activities that boys participate in at the same age, as a matter of protecting them from perceived outside dangers, such as boys and men, or anything that may cause physical injury. Girls have traditionally been associated with playing with dolls and toy cooking and cleaning equipment, while boys have been associated with toys and games that require more physical activity or simulated violence, such as toy trucks, balls, and toy guns. In almost all cultures, girls have been socialized into gender roles. This disparity is targeted to end under the Millennium Development Goals and has closed substantially since 1990.^ .
65%). 74% for boys) or secondary education (59% vs. Although the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights specifies that "primary education shall be compulsory and available free to all", girls are slightly less likely to be enrolled as students in primary (70% enrollment vs. From birth, girls are a slight minority due to both natural factors (the human sex ratio has been observed since the 1700s as approximately 1,050 boys for every 1,000 girls) and due to sex selection on the part of parents.
UNICEF, 2004) aged 18 or under in the world, for a total of more than one billion living girls. There are 2.18 billion people (est. . Images of girls in art, literature, and popular culture often demonstrate assumptions about gender roles.
An ongoing debate about the influences of nature versus nurture in shaping the behavior of girls and boys raises questions about whether the roles played by girls are the result of inborn differences or socialization. Historically, girls faced discrimination and limitations on the roles they were expected to play in their societies, and the United Nations targeted discrimination in schooling to end by 2010. Usage in the sense of (romantic) "sweetheart" arose in the 17th century. Subsequently, it was extended to refer also to mature but unmarried young women since the 1530s.
During the 14th century its sense was narrowed to specifically female children. The English word from 1290 designated a child of either sex. The age at which a female person transitions from girl to woman varies in different societies, typically the transition from adolescence to maturity is taken to occur in the late teens. A girl is a young female human, as opposed to a boy, a young male human.