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Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.

Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).

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A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. Using some of Emmerich's notes, Bill McCay wrote a series of five novels continuing the story the original creators had envisioned. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. Because of these differences, some fans of the film consider the television series as its own separate entity, rather than a proper sequel to the film. Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. Others are most likely just oversights. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. Other changes have been explained as advances in technology, such as more precise "aiming" by Earth's dialling computer (to compensate for the drift of the planets in 10,000 years) that prevents the frost effect.

Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. For example, it was sarcastically mentioned at one point that there is another Colonel named Jack O'Neil whose name is often mixed up with Jack O'Neill's (and who "has no sense of humor"). Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Several of these differences were simply ignored by the TV series, but others have been addressed in various episodes of Stargate SG-1. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. For example, in the film:. Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Also, certain details were changed.

at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). This new team introduced many new concepts to make the Stargate universe into a workable weekly science fiction show. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. MGM, which owned the rights, took Roland Emmerich and Dean Devlin's product and handed the reins to a new team of creators (Brad Wright and Jonathan Glassner). Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. The original film did not develop as much of the setting's depth as would be needed in a television series. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. See Stargate SG-1 Comics for more information.

Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. A series of comics has also been published by Avatar Press. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. See the Stargate Atlantis article for more information. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. The magazine also features stories based on the Stargate Atlantis series. Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The magazine is available in the UK.

For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. The Official Stargate Magazine produced by Titan Publishing has also published a series of short stories based on the series. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. See the Stargate Atlantis article for more information. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. A series of Atlantis books is also forthcoming from Fandemonium Press. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. They're not sold in bookstores in the United States due to licensing issues; however, they can be ordered from stores in the UK.

The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. A series of books from Fandemonium Press is also available in the UK, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. These books were written by Ashley McConnell and published by ROC. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Since 1999, several novels have been released based on the Stargate SG-1 series. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. The Stargate SG-1 story and surrounding mythos has spawned many subsidiary productions which are often considered canon (fiction) with the occassional obvious exceptions.

Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. Alternatively, to study the plot in detail it would be wise to begin with the first episode "Children of the Gods" and progress from there. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). For an overview, see List of Stargate SG-1 episodes. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. The show currently has 194 confirmed or aired episodes. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). As of 2005, SG-1 is on its ninth season and has since been renewed for a record-breaking tenth season believed to be screened for Summer 2006.

Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. Some of the more important planets are:. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. However, other letters, such as "M" have been seen instead of "P"; it was once thought that because all the planets in the Pegasus Galaxy were "M"-designated that "M" referred to planets in Pegasus rather than P; however, with the appearance of "P" planets in Season Two of Stargate Atlantis, we can now return to the old assumption that "M" stands for "Moon" and "P" for "Planet", and that all the numerically-designated worlds listed in Season One of Atlantis were moons. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). However, if the local name of a planet is known then that name is usually used in place of the designator code. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. Every planet other than Earth is assigned a code typically of the form P0X-000, where "0" is replaced by a number and "X" by any letter; these are derived from the coordinate-adjusting program developed by Samantha Carter in order to make the Abydos Cartouche gate addresses of any use.

For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. A number of different planets are seen throughout the series. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. Some aliens possess devices that can probe memories, detect lies, hold bodies in stasis, create holograms that can act as perfect avatars for the subject, and teleportation devices that can transport things here-and-there without the device itself being near. No structural damage. Chiefly, the Goa'uld possess massive motherships and Death Gliders, and use Ring Transporters for small-distance movement, as well as Zat guns and staff weapons for attack, however it should be noted that they did not develop this technology, as a parasitic race all of their technology has been effectivley stolen from conquered races. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. There exist a number of more technologically advanced races and societies on the show, who have produced a variety of highly-advanced weapons, tools, and spacecraft.

Trees and bushes shake. Humans from Earth are known by alien races as the Tau'ri. Plaster in walls might crack. The Tollan hold a strict policy of not allowing other less advanced races to access their technology for fear the race will destroy themselves with it. Furniture moves. One of these advanced human races we see repeatedly are the Tollan, a heavily advanced race SG-1 saves from the brink of destruction in first contact with them. Pictures fall off walls. The premise is that if Earth had not experienced the Dark Ages, it would also have developed to such advanced levels.

Objects fall from shelves. A few of the groups so far encountered were abandoned (usually due to a decline of easily mined naqahdah deposits) and have developed on their own to a level of technology far greater than that of contemporary Earth. People have trouble walking. Their inhabitants are often quite similar to the societies that were imported from Earth, culturally as well as technologically, with some adaptations based on their experiences with the Goa'uld. Everyone feels movement. Most Goa'uld-controlled worlds remain at a lower level of technology than Earth because interference has prevented them from progressing. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. In the Stargate universe, the explanation for human presence on other planets is that the Goa'uld used Stargates to transport large numbers of humans to other planets for use as slaves.

These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. Other alien races encountered are the benevolent Asgard, and the incredibly advanced Ancients, who appear mostly in their Ascended forms. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These aliens often pose as gods to enslave people. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. The parasite acts to take over the mind of the host and use their body, often providing the body with exceptional strength and longevity. Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. The chief alien race of SG-1 are the Goa'uld, an evil parasitic race that take humans and some other species for hosts.

Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. While many of the planets in the Stargate universe house transplanted human populations, several alien races are also featured, and a few of them have important roles in the story. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. The Ori begin to make incursions into the Milky Way, with the ultimate goal of converting all humans to worshippers and wiping out the Ancients. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". Due to an accidental visit by Daniel Jackson and Vala Mal Doran to the Ori's home galaxy, they draw the attention of the Ori to the Milky Way. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. However, as they reached the peak of their enlightenment, the two groups began to differ in their moral beliefs and goals.

Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. The Ori and The Ancients evolved from the same original race, and long ago once lived together in the same galaxy. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. These mortals are called Priors, and uphold a religion that worships the Ori, called Origin. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. One group of Ascended beings, the Ori, influence the mortal world through commanding mortals that they evolve and enhance. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Furthermore, factions of Ascended beings form and certain rebels begin to take a more active role in human affairs.

While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. It is discovered that Ba'al fled to Earth and is rebuilding his power from there, whilst many Goa'uld have totally infected The Trust. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. In Season 9, Jack O'Neill leaves the SGC and SG-1 is filled in by Cameron Mitchell, with Hank Landry taking control of the SGC itself. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. Baal has to flee under the total success of the Jaffa Rebellion. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. Daniel Jackson then is de-Ascended once more and arrives at the SGC.

In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. Daniel is killed, but finds himself in the Ascended plane again (again Oma has helped him), where Anubis is finally stopped in his plans by Oma. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. Meanwhile, RepliCarter captures Daniel Jackson, and whilst she probes his mind for Ascended knowledge, Daniel takes control of her mind, and manages to halt all the Replicators in the galaxy long enough for the Superweapon to be realigned and fired. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. SG-1 and the Jaffa Rebellion get to it first and try to alter it to destroy Replicators instead. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. In the Season 8 finale, Anubis seeks to destroy all life in the galaxy so he can remake it as he sees fit, and he seeks to do this using the Dakara Superweapon, the most powerful piece of Ancient technology known.

At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. A human-form-Replicator ('RepliCarter') is created in the image of Samantha Carter, who becomes the most powerful force in the galaxy. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. Alongside this, the Replicators escape and begin to conquer even the System Lords. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. He eventually comes to rule secretly over Ba'al as well. Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage . In Season 8, the System Lord Ba'al subsumes much of Anubis' power, but Anubis is discovered not to be dead due to his half-Ascended state.

. In the Season 7 finale, an Ancient Outpost is located in Antarctica, and Jack O'Neill is able to use the weapon there to utterly defeat Anubis' entire fleet. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. Throughout Season 7, Anubis continues to wreak havoc across the galaxy whilst Daniel and the SGC search for the Lost City of the Ancients, where powerful technology will be found that can defeat Anubis. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. His transgression causes him to de-Ascend back to the human plane of existence, allowing him to re-join SG-1, alive again. Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. However, Daniel is ultimately unable to stop Anubis as the other Ascended beings have a rule that interference in mortal affairs is prohibited.

Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Daniel promises to stop Anubis. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. However, in the Season 6 finale, Anubis threatens to destroy Abydos, the planet most dear to Daniel, save Earth. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. Occasionally, he appears to his friends to help them out, but is only visible to them alone, often causing them to think that they are hallucinating. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). In Season 6, his position is filled by Jonas Quinn; he is now engaged in cosmic affairs on a higher plane.

The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. Near the end of Season 5, Daniel Jackson is killed, but Ascends with help from Oma Desala. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. Anubis gains great power by using Ancient technology and stealing Asgard technology. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Anubis tried to do this as well, to harvest the vast knowledge and power in that plane, but was cast down again, leaving him in a dangerous half-Ascended state. An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. The theme of Ascension is introduced, explaining that the Ancients survived extinction by ascending to a higher plane of being.

Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). Anubis is considerably more evil than Apophis, and has much of the knowledge of the Ancients. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. After Apophis is conquered, another Goa'uld System Lord takes his place as the show's main villain, Anubis. Killed over 79,000 people. SG-1 is then able to refocus its efforts on the malignant force of Apophis. Kashmir earthquake (2005). The threat of these becomes so great that a final measure is taken, and, with the help of the Asgard, SG-1 manages to contain every Replicator within a time-dilation field that effectively postpones the problem of them for thousands of years.

Fukuoka earthquake (2005). Besides the Goa'uld, another threat arises in the early Seasons, namely a race of insentient machines called Replicators. Sumatran Earthquake (2005). The political powers on Earth are often at loggerheads over the Stargate, particularly after the programme is revealed to ambassadors from the main powers on Earth (France, China, Russia and Great Britain). Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. In particular, rogue NID agents, which eventually become the elite syndicate known as The Trust, are constantly trying to steal the Stargate or use alien technology for their own means. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. In the background of the show, there is a constant attempt by forces on Earth to take over the Stargate Program.

One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. It is later discovered that the Ancients were the most advanced race ever, and were the builders of the Stargates. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). They also meet races that have been surviving in the galaxy for millennia, such as the Nox, the Asgard, and the remnants of an extinct race that come to be known as the Ancients. Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). SG-1 and the SGC make several alliances with other races in the galaxy, such as the Tok'ra, Goa'ulds who share their bodies with their hosts and are opposed to the System Lords, the Tollan, and other advanced human civilisations. Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures. System Lords usually have vast armies of footsoldiers, the bulk of these forces consisting of alien beings called Jaffa (although humans are sometimes used, despite their inferior size and strength of Jaffa).

Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). All Goa'uld are parasitic beings that take control of other bodies (usually humans, whom they transported across the galaxy in the distant past). Bam Earthquake (2003). He was, however, but one of many System Lords who battle for power of the galaxy. Dudley Earthquake (2002). The original villain of Stargate SG-1, Apophis, was a powerful Goa'uld System Lord who caused the Stargate program to be brought back into action when he attacked Earth at the beginning of the series. Gujarat Earthquake (2001). television history.

Nisqually Earthquake (2001). This will make Stargate the longest running science fiction television show in U.S. Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). On October 24, 2005 Stargate SG-1 was renewed for an unprecedented tenth season. Düzce earthquake (1999). Although Richard Dean Anderson departs the show as a regular in Season 9, he appears in the first and third episodes of that season and has left the door open for future appearances. İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey. Stargate SG-1 continues to break records in terms of Nielsen Ratings for the Sci-Fi channel, while the eighth season two-part episode "Reckoning" was widely regarded by fans as one of the five best in the show's history.

Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. TV Guide recently proposed that its popularity may be exceeding that of the Star Trek franchise. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). The show remains popular despite entering its ninth season on the air. Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. Humans, as depicted in the series, are technologically behind some of the alien races the Stargate teams have met, but are rapidly gaining the ability to fight, defend, and benefit from the advances they have been exposed to in both significant and material ways. Northridge, California earthquake (1994). One of the most endearing qualities of Stargate SG-1 is that it takes place in the present day.

Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. Cameron Mitchell became the new Commanding Officer of SG-1. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Col. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Carolyn Lam replaced Brightman and Frasier as Chief Medical Officer, and Lt. Killed over 25,000. In Season 9, General Hank Landry replaced O'Neill as commander of the SGC, Dr.

Armenian earthquake (1988). O'Neill was promoted to Brigadier General and he in turn promoted Carter to Lieutenant Colonel and team leader of SG-1. Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). Elizabeth Weir assumed temporary command of the SGC, after which she was reassigned to the Antarctic base and, subsequently, as leader of the "Atlantis" mission (depicted in Stargate Atlantis). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). Dr. Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). At the end of Season 7, Hammond was promoted to Lieutenant General and reassigned to the "Office of Homeworld Security" in the Pentagon.

The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. In later seasons, there was considerable participation in the Stargate program by civilians and non-Americans, including at least one Russian SG team. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. Marines. Tangshan earthquake (1976). Air Force is in direct charge of the Stargate program, although from early on there was at least one SG team comprised of U.S. Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989. The U.S.

Sylmar earthquake (1971). Originally led by Major General George Hammond, Stargate Command is based in the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, Colorado. Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. For Season 6, Jackson was replaced by Jonas Quinn, an alien human, but Jackson returned to the show for Season 7. Ancash earthquake (1970). In Season 3, Carter was promoted to a Major. Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake. Daniel Jackson and Teal'c, an alien Jaffa.

Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. The four original members of SG-1 were Colonel Jonathan "Jack" O'Neill, Captain Samantha "Sam" Carter, Dr. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Three attempts were made to reverse-engineer alien technology and build starships, leading to the production of the F-302 and BC-303 models. Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). The Stargate teams were frustrated in initial efforts to acquire advanced technology to fight the Goa'uld from more advanced species and offshoots of humanity. On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs. The primary goal of the SG teams is to travel to other worlds through the Stargate and procure alien technology to help defend Earth against the Goa'uld, a galactically dominant alien race who became aware of this planet's now relatively advanced civilization after the recovery of Earth's Stargate and the subsequent destruction of Ra, a powerful Goa'uld System Lord (the events depicted in the 1994 movie).

Great Kanto earthquake (1923). The very existence of the SGC and all of its activities are covert and SCI-classified ("Sensitive Compartmented Information"). San Francisco Earthquake (1906). The series follows the adventures of four explorers designated as SG-1, one team among fifteen, who use an alien artifact called a 'Stargate' to travel the vast distances between planets, operating under the aegis of the United States Government's secret military base, Stargate Command (the SGC). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. . Charleston earthquake (1886). The two shows now run in tandem, with plots that are occassionally interconnected.

Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). A spin-off series, Stargate Atlantis, began airing in July 2004. New Madrid Earthquake (1811). For Season 10, Claudia Black will be added as a new regular, reprising her role as Vala Mal Doran. Lisbon earthquake (1755). Davis moved into the background in the eighth season and Anderson in the ninth; the latter season added new regulars Ben Browder and Beau Bridges. Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952). Actor Corin Nemec was a regular during the 6th Season, with Michael Shanks making only a few appearances.

Cascadia Earthquake (1700). The cast would change in later seasons. Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. Davis. Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Created by Jonathan Glassner and Brad Wright, SG-1 originally starred Richard Dean Anderson, Michael Shanks, Amanda Tapping, Christopher Judge and Don S. San Andreas Fault. In July 2005, the Sci-Fi Channel renewed SG-1 for a tenth season, making it the longest-running science fiction series on American television, surpassing The X Files's 202 episodes.

New Madrid Fault Zone. Seasons six, seven, eight, and nine were aired on the Sci-Fi Channel. North Anatolian Fault Zone. The first episode was broadcast on July 27, 1997 on Showtime, which aired the series' first five seasons. Hayward Fault Zone. MGM owns and licenses the show, and it is filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Calaveras Fault. Contrary to the widespread belief of those who don't watch the show, it has absolutely no connection to Star Trek.

Alpine Fault. Unlike other science fiction franchises such as Star Trek, SG-1 is set in the present day, on Earth, and primarily involves humans. Earthquake prediction. Stargate SG-1 (alternately spelled Stargåte, and popularly abbreviated as SG-1) is a television series based upon the 1994 science fiction film Stargate. Seismic retrofit. See List of Stargate SG-1 cast for trivia related to casting. Household seismic safety. See Stargate-Oz Quotes.

Emergency preparedness. O'Neill. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. Throughout the show, there are many references to The Wizard of Oz, mainly stated by Col. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. The Air Force Association recognized Richard Dean Anderson at its 57th annual dinner on September 14, 2004 for his work as actor and executive producer of the show and "for the show's continuous positive depiction of the Air Force." [1]. an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year. Jumper made a cameo appearance in "Lost City," the episode that was originally slated to be the show's last.

Ryan appeared in the episode "Prodigy" because of his fascination with science fiction, especially space exploration. Jumper, have appeared in the show, playing themselves. Ryan and John P. Two successive Chiefs of Staff of the USAF, Generals Michael E.

The USAF cooperates closely with the makers of the program. The recent incorporation of Ben Browder (Farscape) and the forthcoming incorporation of Claudia Black as regular characters and Lexa Doig (Andromeda) as a recurring character further cements this trend. This trend extends to Stargate Atlantis, which featured Colm Meaney (Star Trek: The Next Generation, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine) and Jewel Staite (Firefly), as well as Robert Patrick and Mitch Pileggi (both of The X-Files). These included John de Lancie (Star Trek: The Next Generation, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager), Jolene Blalock & John Billingsley (Star Trek: Enterprise), Robert Picardo (Star Trek: Voyager), Rene Auberjonois (Star Trek: Deep Space Nine) Adam Baldwin (Firefly) and Claudia Black (Farscape).

Stargate SG-1 is notable for featuring many actors from other prominent science fiction series as guest stars on its show. Antarctica appears in Stargate SG-1 in the episodes "Solitudes", "Frozen", "Lost City", and in the Stargate Atlantis premiere "Rising". There are only three episodes of the series in which Teal'c (Christopher Judge) refers to Daniel Jackson (Michael Shanks) as "Daniel" as opposed to "Daniel Jackson": "The Broca Divide", "The First Commandment", and "Forever in a Day". place names) have been made throughout the series.

Numerous references to Vancouver culture (eg. Many of the minor characters (and the extras) are Vancouverites. The show is filmed in and around Vancouver. In the film, O'Neill didn't encouter Ra until after Daniel Jackson had discovered he was an alien.

In the episode "Children of the Gods," O'Neill told General Hammond that their "first clue" Ra was an alien was the fact that his eyes glowed. However, she is much older in the opening sequence of the film, which is set in that year. In the episode "The Torment of Tantalus", it was clearly stated Catherine Langford was twenty-one in 1945, which would make her about four years old in 1928. The first time Daniel Jackson sees the Stargate is after he figures out the seven-coordinate address system, but in the TV episode "Lost City", he tells Elizabeth Weir that "I remember when we were first trying to get the Stargate to work, I would just come here, and stare at it for hours.".

Jackson's wife's name was Sha'uri, rather than Sha're. Dr. Colonel Jack O'Neill's son was named Tyler rather than Charlie. Colonel Jack O'Neill's wife/ex-wife was named Sarah rather than Sara.

Colonel Jack O'Neill's name was spelled O'Neil. A few names were spelled differently or changed, which has been a source of in-jokes and pedanticism ever since:

    . The Air Force base was under Creek Mountain, rather than Cheyenne Mountain. Abydos was located in the Cirrian galaxy, "on the far side of the known universe", rather than one of the closest Stargates to Earth.

    Ra was the last of a dying race rather than just one of many Goa'uld. Ra's species was not named, and Ra was presented as using a sort of incorporeal "possession" of a human host instead of direct biological parasitism. Archeology 101 by Martha Wells (January/February 2006, Stargate Magazine #8). Stargate SG-1: Survival of the Fittest by Sabine C Bauer (upcoming).

    Stargate SG-1: Siren Song by Jaimie Duncan and Holly Scott (upcoming). Stargate SG-1: The Cost Of Honour (2 of 2) by Sally Malcolm. Stargate SG-1: City Of The Gods by Sonny Whitelaw. Stargate SG-1: A Matter Of Honour (1 of 2) by Sally Malcolm.

    Stargate SG-1: Sacrifice Moon by Julie Fortune. Bauer. Stargate SG-1: Trial By Fire by Sabine C. The Morpheus Factor.

    The First Amendment. The Price You Pay. Jaffa-American might be a more apt description. While an amusing bit of political correctness, it is inaccurate as Teal'c was in no way African.

    Stargate SG-1 (novelization of the series' pilot, "Children of the Gods")
    In the book, McConnell describes Teal'c as "African-American". Stargate SG-1: The Alliance (video game, cancelled). Stargate Adventure (video game). Stargate SG-1 Roleplaying Game.

    Stargate Atlantis (originally intended to succeed SG-1). Stargate Infinity (animated; not considered canon). UK: Sky One, Channel 4. Ireland: Sky One Ireland, RTÉ Two.

    Spain: AXN (cable/satellite), TV3 (Catalonia), Canal 9 (Valencian Community), ETB2 (Basque Country). South Africa: M-Net Series (DStv). Slovakia: (JOJ TV, Markiza TV)(until season 6). Slovenia: Kanal A.

    Portugal: Sic /Sic Radical. Poland: HBO and HBO 2. Netherlands: Veronica. Hungary: Tv2.

    Germany: RTL II. France: M6. Czech Republic: Nova (until season 6) (Prima TV) (until season 6). Canada: Space: The Imagination Station, Citytv (and starting with Season 9 in HDTV on CITY-TV, Atlantic Satellite Network, Movie Central (English); Z Télé, TQS (French Canada).

    Brazil: Fox Channel. Belgium: Kanaal 2 (Dutch Belgium), RTBF (French Belgium). Austria: ATV+. Australia: Seven Network, TV1.

    United States: Showtime (until season 5), Sci Fi Channel (since season 6). Ford offered the name "Atlantica" only to be rejected by Major Sheppard ("Suspicion")). The actual name of the planet (given by the Ancients) is unknown and the human expedition team is yet to name the planet (although Lt. The Atlantis planet: Situated in the Pegasus Galaxy and location of the Atlantis Expedition.

    In the alternate timeline where it is first introduced, it is called the "Beta Site.". The Alpha Site: a designation for an uninhabited world with a gate address unknown to the Goa'uld set up in case Earth (or any other human-controlled world) has to be evacuated. Orilla: The current Asgard homeworld. Langara: homeworld of Jonas Quinn.

    Tollana: the second homeworld of the technologically advanced Tollan until their destruction. Destroyed by Anubis in Full Circle. Homeworld of Sha're and Skaara. Abydos: the planet visited in the original Stargate film, as well as several times during the series.

    It is also holy to the Jaffa, who have made it the capital of the new Free Jaffa Nation. Dakara: Home of an Ancient superweapon. Teal'c's homeworld. Chulak: a Jaffa homeworld, formerly controlled by Apophis.

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