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Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.

Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).

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A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. The interior design bears a likeness to the stores, furnished with dark wood and concrete floors, leather couches, and comfortably-worn rugs. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. The campus includes a mess hall, fire pits, trails, a recreational center, and an Abercrombie & Fitch store, where marketing and design elements are developed. Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. Set amid acres of forest, the compound features rustic, farm-styled structures with elements of modern architecture, a reflection of the company's outdoorsy roots. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. In 2003, the company expanded its New Albany, Ohio headquarters (a suburb of Columbus)[1].

Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. The company will also begin expanding the brands internationally, expanding to Europe by 2006 and Japan by 2007. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. and RUEHL concepts to act as its primary growth vehicles in the U.S. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. As the Abercrombie & Fitch brand reaches its full growth potential in the U.S., the company is depending on the Hollister Co. Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. The company has expressed interest in developing a fifth concept, though there are no confirmed plans to introduce another brand to the market in the near future.

at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Abercrombie & Fitch operates three additional concept stores: abercrombie (Abercrombie Kids), a smaller version of the original chain which aims to attract patrons ages 7-14; Hollister Co., which sells California-inspired apparel to attract patrons 14-18; and RUEHL, which sells business casual and leather goods to target ages 22-30. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. As part of the settlement terms, A&F agreed to pay $40 million to rejected applicants and affected employees, institute policies and programs that promote diversity in its workforce and advertising campaigns, appoint a Vice President of Diversity, hire 25 recruiters to seek minority employees, and discontinue the practice of recruiting employees at primarily white fraternities and sororities. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. The company agreed to an out of court settlement of the class action suit. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Abercrombie & Fitch — accused the company of discriminating against minority employees by offering desirable positions to white employees.

Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. A 2004 lawsuit — Gonzales v. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. For several years, Abercrombie & Fitch has faced accusations of discrimination against minority employees. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. In November 2005, the Women & Girls Foundation of Southwest Pennsylvania launched a "girl-cott" of the store for selling T-shirts bearing phrases like "Who needs a brain when you have these?" The campaign went national on NBC's Today Show, and the company pulled the shirts from stores on November 5, 2005. Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The company stopped selling the shirt in October of 2004 after USA Gymnastics president Bob Colarossi announced a boycott of Abercrombie & Fitch for mocking the sport.

For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. The second incident involved another t-shirt with the phrase "L is for Loser" written next to a picture of a male gymnast on the rings. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. West Virginia governor Bob Wise spoke out against the company for depicting "an unfounded, negative stereotype of West Virginia," but the shirts were not removed. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. The first incident involved a shirt featuring the phrase, "It's All Relative in West Virginia," an apparent jab at incest relations in the rural South. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. More T-shirt controversy occurred twice in 2004.

The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The underwear included phrases like "Eye Candy" and "Wink Wink" printed on the front. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. That same year, the children's clothing division removed a line of thong underwear sold for girls in pre-teen children's sizes after parents mounted nationwide storefront protests. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. The company discontinued the designs and apologized after a boycott by Asian-American student groups. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. One shirt featured the slogan "Wong Brothers Laundry Service—Two Wongs Can Make It White" with smiling figures in conical hats, a 1900s popular-culture depiction of Chinese immigrants.

Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. In 2002, controversy erupted over shirts featuring caricatures of Asians and other ethnic groups. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). The company's clothing has also been the subject of criticism. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. In 2004, "A&F Magazine", a comparatively tame collection of photos and essays about rising celebrities, replaced the publication altogether. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). In 2003, an array of religious organizations, women's rights activists, and Asian-American groups organized boycotts and protests over the publication, and the "Christmas Edition" of the catalog was removed from stores.

Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. The publication was also criticized on moral grounds, for featuring sexually explicit interviews with porn stars, and articles that, according to critics, glamorized alcohol consumption, group sex, homosexuality, and self-performed oral sex. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Several states threatened to pursue legal action, though the company was never charged with violating any related statutes. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). Despite a company policy restricted sale of the publication to adults, critics charged that the publication was readily sold to minors. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. It featured photographs of attractive young male and female models, often partially or scantily dressed, posing in pairs or groups, which many likened to softcore pornography.

For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. The A&F Quarterly became a lightning rod for controversy shortly after it was published. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. The company's playful, homoerotic marketing made Abercrombie & Fitch a destination for the gay market in the late 1990s, though the company denies that it ever made a concerted effort to market to gay customers. No structural damage. A&F TV was originally developed to run on cable television and on monitors in Abercrombie & Fitch stores, but currently is offered only on the company's website. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. In 1999, the company rolled out "A&F TV", a feature that spotlights young people engaged in sports and leisure activities.

Trees and bushes shake. Print advertisements for the A&F Quarterly appeared in Interview and Out magazines in addition to Rolling Stone and Vanity Fair. Plaster in walls might crack. The racy publication made a splash with young customers and had one of the highest circulation rates among young adults of any magazine in the late 1990s. Furniture moves. The publication was a hybrid magazine and catalog (company officials referred to it as a "magalog".) and featured advice columns, articles about college life, and—most famously—the highly sexual fine art work of photographer Bruce Weber. Pictures fall off walls. The most conspicuous of the company's lifestyle branding efforts was its now-defunct magazine, A&F Quarterly, which the company published from 1997 to 2003.

Objects fall from shelves. For years, brand representatives were required to wear only Abercrombie & Fitch clothing, but such regulations have been loosened following lawsuits. People have trouble walking. The stores are also staffed with attractive "brand representatives", young salespeople who embody the Abercrombie & Fitch lifestyle: attractive, athletic, popular, enthusiastic, and outgoing. Everyone feels movement. The stores are plastered with photos of physically attractive young models, blast loud dance music through powerful speakers, and smell of the company's signature cologne. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. Abercrombie & Fitch aggressively positions itself as a "lifestyle brand"—a brand that embodies the values and appeal of a desirable way of living.

These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The company will add additional stores in Canada during the next several years and plans to open stores in Europe and Asia by 2007. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. stores in that country. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. The company marked its expansion into Canada in January of 2006, opening two Abercrombie & Fitch stores and three Hollister Co. Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. The company is currently expanding its Los Angeles flagship store at The Grove at Farmers Market.

Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. The four-level store is the largest in the chain and is located on 56th street and 5th Avenue, alongside boutiques by luxury retailers such as Fendi, Prada, and Chanel. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. In November of 2005, the company completed construction of its flagship Fifth Avenue location in New York City. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". Such efforts appear to be working: Abercrombie & Fitch logged an impressive 29% increase in same-store sales in December 2005, while most other specialty retailers experienced only moderate advances. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. In order to fend off what analysts often called the "cannibalizing" effect that Hollister is having on the flagship chain, Abercrombie & Fitch has attempted to differentiate itself from its sister brand by raising price-points, introducing a line of higher-end merchandise called "Ezra Fitch," and establishing strategies to limit the intrusion of Hollister into key Abercrombie & Fitch markets.

Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. The rapid expansion of the chain from 1999-2003, in addition to the introduction of the company’s more moderately-priced concept Hollister Co., arguably contributed to a decrease in same-store sales (an important measure of retail performance) across the chain during that time period. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. As of 2003, sales were $345/ft² ($3700/m²). Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. Throughout the 1990s, Abercrombie & Fitch enjoyed sales of over $400/ft² ($4300/m²) —high by retail standards—but that number has dropped significantly in recent years. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. The company has opted to build only large stores, averaging 8,000 to 20,000 square feet (700 to 2,000 m²) in high-volume retail centers around the country.

While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. (Women's retail normally outperforms men's by a ratio of about 2:1, though in certain markets the difference is greater or less.) The company designates Volume A stores, usually in major cities and tourist destinations, as "elite" or "super-elite." There are three super elite (AA) stores (Ala Moana in Hawaii, Aventura in Florida, and South Street Seaport in New York City) and less than thirty elite (A) stores in the chain. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. A store can have different tier designations for its men's and women's sides. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. Some small stores are relatively high volume, but lack the floor space needed to support the entire line. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. A store's tier level is independent of its volume, since allocation is often dependent on available area of selling space.

In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. Tier 1 stores receive all of the current items in all styles and colors, for example, while lower tier stores are sent less merchandise in a smaller range of sizes and colors. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. Tier level determines what selection of the current clothing line is sent to a store. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. The company manages merchandising, distribution, and sales by assigning each store a tier level (1, 2, 3, 4, or 5) and a volume level (A, B, C, D, E, or F). Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. Apparel is laid out so that customers can feel the fabrics, contributing to the sensory experience offered in-store.

At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Older merchandise is shuffled around to provide a different presentation for frequent customers each time they enter the store, while new items are generally placed out in the front rooms for display. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. Every week, each store is sent a booklet—often over 100 pages long—detailing the exact specifications for placing merchandise on the sale floor. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Merchandising is managed in a similar fashion. Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage . Abercrombie & Fitch has become notorious for loud, pulsing dance music, often eliciting complaints from mall operators and tenants for disrupting other customers and stores.

. Every store plays the same pre-produced music segment for a period of four to five weeks and has instructions on how loud the music is to be played at certain times of the day or week. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. Each store is spritzed daily with men’s cologne in order to ensure a pleasant sensory experience. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. The company also specifies in painstaking detail how lighting, layout, visual displays, marketing, and fixtures are to be placed and used in every store. Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Factors such as visual presentation, music, and fragrance are not left to chance.

Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). The company strictly regulates the store environment in an effort to provide a consistent, pleasureful experience for customers in a manner that can be replicated in each store. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Because it spends little on external advertising, the company depends upon the store experience to help define the brand. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. Abercrombie & Fitch has complete control over the design and production of its merchandise, stores, and marketing. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). The company is in the process of converting all of its chain store concepts into canoe stores.

The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. Unlike the chain store, which typically has a wider storefront and two entrances, the canoe store has one main entrance and is walled off into at least five rooms. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. A moose head is mounted above the cashwrap and a canoe is mounted in the main room of each canoe store. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. The interior features gray walls, white molding, polished concrete and black wood floors, metal fixtures, and large pictures of scantily-clad models. An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. The canoe store is recognized by a white facade, navy blue awnings, and solid metal and glass doors.

Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). However, the company introduced a new store concept (referred to as the "canoe store" concept) in the late 1990s to accommodate its rapid growth. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. The store resembled a hunting lodge, with plaid carpeting, dark wood fixtures, and antler chandeliers. Killed over 79,000 people. The original store concept (referred to as the "chain store" concept) hearkened back to the outdoorsy image of company's early years. Kashmir earthquake (2005). In 1996, The Limited took Abercrombie & Fitch public on the New York Stock Exchange and gradually phased out its ownership of the company.

Fukuoka earthquake (2005). Careful marketing made the brand synonymous with wealth and status among young patrons. Sumatran Earthquake (2005). The store quickly became successful, and by the mid-1990s, there were dozens of Abercrombie & Fitch stores in the United States. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. The clothing produced in the 1990s was fairly consistent with the brand's preppy image and tended to be less trend-driven than today's offerings, which bear significantly less resemblence to traditional Northeastern prep school apparel. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Labels on clothing reinforce the company’s image as a casual luxury merchandiser and emphasize the quality and durability of the product.

One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Much like Ralph Lauren (whose style is frequently evoked in Abercrombie & Fitch’s apparel), the clothing is fairly predictable: woven shirts, denim, miniskirts, cargo shorts, wool sweaters, polo shirts, and t-shirts can be found in most collections. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). Abercrombie & Fitch is a self-proclaimed "casual luxury" retailer. Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). The company began opening stores in upscale malls across America in the early 1990s, targeting teenagers and college students aged 18-24 from higher-income families. Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures. Over the next decade, Abercrombie & Fitch was carefully rebuilt as a teen apparel merchandiser.

Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). The Limited had been successful in rolling out new concept stores, such as Express, which sold women's clothing, and Victoria's Secret, which sold lingerie and beauty products. Bam Earthquake (2003). (now called Limited Brands) acquired Abercrombie & Fitch, determined to reinvigorate the ailing brand. Dudley Earthquake (2002). In 1988, The Limited Inc. Gujarat Earthquake (2001). Oshman's, a sporting goods retailer, acquired Abercrombie soon thereafter, but the company continued to struggle.

Nisqually Earthquake (2001). Despite the chain's apparent success, the company began to falter financially in the 1960s and went bankrupt in 1977. Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). The expansion continued through the 1960s, when the company opened new stores in Colorado Springs, Colorado; Short Hills, New Jersey; Bal Harbour, Florida; and Detroit, Michigan. Düzce earthquake (1999). In 1939, it adopted the slogan, "The Greatest Sporting Goods Store in the World." By 1958, the company operated stores in Chicago and San Francisco, wintertime-only stores in Palm Beach and Sarasota, Florida; and summertime-only stores in Bayhead, New Jersey; and Southampton, New York. İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey. Despite the change in ownership, Abercrombie & Fitch continued to expand.

Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. In 1928, Ezra Fitch retired from the company. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Talking was their pleasure and selling was performed only at the customers' insistence. Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. The clerks hired at Abercrombie & Fitch were not professional salesmen, but rugged outdoorsmen. Northridge, California earthquake (1994). The fishing section of the store alone was stocked with over 48,000 flies and over 18,000 fishing lures.

Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. It also included a desk that belonged to a fly- and bait-casting instructor who gave lessons at the pool, which was located on the roof. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. The eighth floor was dedicated solely to fishing, camping, and boating. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). The seventh floor included a gun room, stuffed game heads, and about seven hundred shot guns and rifles. Killed over 25,000. On the sixth floor, there was a picture gallery and a bookstore that focused on sporting themes, a watch repair facility and a golf school, fully equipped with a resident professional.

Armenian earthquake (1988). The second through the fifth floors were reserved for clothing that was suitable for any climate or terrain. Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). In the basement there was a shooting range, on the mezzanine there was paraphernalia for skiing, archery, skin-diving, and lawn games. 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). The flagship store included many different amenities. Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). Outside, a sign proclaimed, "Where the Blazed Trail Crosses the Boulevard.".

The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. The store occupied the entire available space, making it the world's largest sporting goods store. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. moved yet again to a twelve-story building on Madison Avenue. Tangshan earthquake (1976). In 1917, Abercrombie & Fitch Co. Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989. A&F became the first store in New York to supply such clothing to women as well as men.

Sylmar earthquake (1971). By 1913, the store moved to a more fashionable and easily accessible midtown address just off Fifth Avenue, expanding its inventory to include sport clothing. Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. In 1909, Abercrombie & Fitch mailed out over its 456 page catalog, which included outdoor clothing, camping gear, articles, and advice columns, to 50,000 customers worldwide. Ancash earthquake (1970). Part of Fitch's strategy to expand the company was the creation of a mail-order catalog. Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake. A campfire blazed in one corner, where an experienced guide was always in attendance, imparting valuable information to interested customers.

Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. He set up a tent and equipped it as if it were out in the middle of the wilds of the Adirondacks. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Instead, it was displayed as if in use. Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). Stock was not hidden behind glass cabinets. On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs. Fitch determined that the store ought to have an outdoor feeling.

Great Kanto earthquake (1923). Fitch continued the business with other partners and was, for the first time, able to direct the company in a manner to his pleasing. San Francisco Earthquake (1906). In 1907, Abercrombie sold his share in the company to Fitch and returned to manufacturing outdoor goods. Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. The two quarrelled frequently, often violently, even as the company grew increasingly successful. Charleston earthquake (1886). He was positive that the future of the business lay in expansion, selling the outdoors and its delights to more of the general public.

Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). Fitch, on the other hand, was more of a visionary. New Madrid Earthquake (1811). Abercrombie was more conservative, content to continue the store as it was, selling professional gear to professional outdoorsmen. Lisbon earthquake (1755). David Abercrombie and Ezra Fitch were stubborn, hot-tempered men, and both had vastly differing opinions on how best to run the establishment. Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952). The partnership, however, was ill-fated.

Cascadia Earthquake (1700). In 1904, the store became incorporated and the official name of the company was changed to Abercrombie & Fitch Co. Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. Soon thereafter, the shop moved to a larger location at 314 Broadway St. Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Abercrombie accepted his offer, and Fitch joined as a partner. San Andreas Fault. In 1900, Ezra Fitch, a wealthy New York lawyer and loyal customer, expressed a desire to buy into the growing company.

New Madrid Fault Zone. His clientele consisted mostly of professional hunters, explorers and trappers. North Anatolian Fault Zone. It was his love of the great outdoors that inspired him to begin Abercrombie & Co., a shop dedicated to selling only the highest-quality camping, fishing and hunting gear. Hayward Fault Zone. He was also an inventor, an ingenious designer of tents, rucksacks and other camping equipment. Calaveras Fault. David Abercrombie, born and raised in Baltimore, Maryland, was a former trapper, prospector, topographer and railroad surveyor.

Alpine Fault. Abercrombie & Fitch began as a small waterfront shop and factory in lower Manhattan in June 4, 1892. Earthquake prediction. Other famous people to pass through Abercrombie & Fitch's doors include Charles Lindbergh, Amelia Earhart, Greta Garbo, Katharine Hepburn, Clark Gable, and author Ernest Hemingway, who killed himself using a shotgun purchased at an Abercrombie & Fitch store. Seismic retrofit. Every president from Theodore Roosevelt to Gerald Ford is said to have been outfitted by the company in some capacity (Teddy Roosevelt was an especially enthusiastic outdoorsman and Abercrombie & Fitch customer, and he frequently visited the store in preparation for his famous African safaris). Household seismic safety. Abercrombie & Fitch not only outfitted wealthy people, it also outfitted some of America's most influential leaders and celebrities on their excursions.

Emergency preparedness. The company's clientele consisted of mainly big-game hunters, fishermen, and outdoorsmen. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. was one of the most popular retail stores for America's sporting elite. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. During the beginning of the 20th century, Abercrombie & Fitch Co. an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year. .

states (except Wyoming) and in the District of Columbia, and 3 stores in Canada. As of 2006, the company operated 351 Abercrombie & Fitch stores in all U.S. The merchandise is sold in retail stores throughout the United States, in catalogs, and online. Abercrombie & Fitch is a specialty retailer encompassing four concepts: Abercrombie & Fitch, abercrombie (Abercrombie Kids), Hollister Co., and Ruehl no.925.

Leino. VP of Stores — David L. Sr. VP of Sourcing — Diane Chang.

Exec. Lennox. Communications — Thomas D. Director of Investor Relations of Corp.

COO — Mike Kramer and John Lough (temporary, as of August 31 2005). VP of Logistics and Store Operations — John Lough. Exec. CFO — Mike Kramer.

Chairman & CEO — Michael Jeffries.

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