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Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.

Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).

This page about Earthquakes includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. On one episode of Foster's Home for Imaginary friends, there is a Dora parody that Eduardo watches called Lauren is Explorin'. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. It was the 79th anniversary of the parade. Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. Dora the Explorer became the first Latina balloon character in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade on Thursday, November 24th, 2005. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. Also, there are many action figures and playsets available in many markets.

Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. However, customers in Quebec will only be able to use the French version. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Currently Cheerios is offering free Dora the Explorer the Game CDROMs in specially marked packages. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. In the Dutch language version, broadcast on Nickelodeon (TV channel), the bilingualism is Dutch-English. Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. In the Irish language version, broadcast on the Irish Language station TG4, the bilingualism is Irish-Spanish, with Dora and Boots speaking in Irish and some other characters speaking Spanish as in the original.

at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). In the German language version, broadcast on the recently restarted German branch of Nickelodeon, the bilingualism is Anglo-German, analogously to the French and Japanese Version. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. In the Japanese language version, broadcast on Nick Japan, the bilingualism is Anglo-Japanese, with Dora and Boots speaking Japanese and other protagonists speaking and answering in English. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. Some French episodes are available to US customers on VHS from http://www.amazon.ca. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. In the French language version, Dora l'exploratrice, broadcast on the private French TV channel TF1, the bilingualism is Anglo-French, with Dora and Boots speaking French and other protagonists speaking and answering in English.

Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Some Spanish episodes are available to US customers on VHS, and some DVDs have a Spanish track (including Dora's Egg Hunt). Where these plates meet stress accumulates. In the Spanish language version, Dora la Exploradora, broadcast on the Telemundo network, Dora and Boots are speaking Spanish and other protagonists speaking and answering in English. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. The simplicity and repetitious nature of the episodes make this series especially well-suited for learning important phrases in a foreign language. Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. As with most animated series made in the US, Dora the Explorer has been dubbed into many languages all over the world.

For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. The show is generally in English, although it is peppered with simple Spanish phrases in an effort to give young viewers a rather limited multicultural experience. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. Dora and her companions are the subject of numerous books and other merchandise for children. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. Dora the Explorer is currently still being produced. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. While geography isn't directly taught, the concept of using a map to find one's way around is.

The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The episodes are used to demonstrate and practice skills such as decision-making, following directions, mathematics (usually counting), music, physical coordination, and Anglo-Spanish bilingualism. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. Sometimes there are also locomotives, boats and automobiles with speaking roles. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Additionally, the show features a number of anthropomorphic props, notably Dora's fat and ever-hungry backpack and the always-talking map. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. These characters can speak either Spanish or English.

Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. There are a number of minor, recurring animal characters such as Señor Tucan, Isa the iguana, Benny the bull, and Tico the squirrel. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Other recurring human characters include Dora's mother (mami), father (papi), and grandmother (abuela). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. He has proved popular enough that Nickelodeon introduced a separate Diego series entitled Go, Diego, Go! in 2005. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). Diego is an intrepid young animal rescue worker and sometimes partners with Dora in her adventures.

Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. Some more recently produced episodes have introduced Dora's cousin Diego, voiced by Felipe Dieppa. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Swiper is voiced by Marc Weiner. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). Sometimes the retrieval of the item is itself the quest. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. However, if Dora and Boots fail to repeat the phrase in time, Swiper steals the item, throws it somewhere and gloats, "You're too late!" Dora and Boots must then retrieve the item so the quest can continue.

For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. In response, Swiper disappointedly snaps his fingers and says, "Oh, man!". The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. In order to prevent Swiper from stealing whatever item Dora and Boots are carrying at the time, Dora first asks the audience if they see Swiper, then she leads them in saying, "Swiper, no swiping!" three times. No structural damage. He usually attempts to steal an item which is necessary for Dora and Boots to complete their quest. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. Swiper is a masked thief.

Trees and bushes shake. Dora's quests are often complicated by a villainous fox named Swiper. Plaster in walls might crack. Boots is voiced by Harrison Chad. Furniture moves. He wears red boots and loves to hold Dora's hand. Pictures fall off walls. Dora's sidekick and best friend is Boots, a talking monkey who is 5½ years old.

Objects fall from shelves. Dora's name is taken from the Spanish word Exploradora, which means explorer. People have trouble walking. Dora is voiced by Kathleen Herles. Everyone feels movement. At the end of each episode, Dora celebrates the completion of the quest with a song ("We Did It") and asks what the viewer's favorite obstacle or encounter was. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. Dora involves the other protagonists and the viewer of the show in the quest.

These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The location of Dora's home is also vague (however, most episodes show palm trees and mountains in the background so it is likely to be California or Mexico). In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. In any case, Dora speaks both Spanish and English. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. Dora's exact national origin remains vague because no specific Latin American country is ever mentioned. Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. Dora the Explorer tells the story of Dora Marquez, a seven-year old Latina who ventures forth on various simple but important quests.

Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. . The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. The series not only on Nick, but also on CBS on Saturday mornings and Noggin as well. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The show was created by Chris Gifford, Valerie Walsh, and Eric Weiner. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. Dora the Explorer became a regular series in 2000.

Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. A pilot episode for this series aired in 1999. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Dora the Explorer is an American animated television series for preschool-age children that is broadcast on Nickelodeon in the United States. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet.

While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground.

In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes.

Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics).

The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface.

Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. Killed over 79,000 people. Kashmir earthquake (2005).

Fukuoka earthquake (2005). Sumatran Earthquake (2005). Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra.

One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.

Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Bam Earthquake (2003). Dudley Earthquake (2002). Gujarat Earthquake (2001).

Nisqually Earthquake (2001). Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). Düzce earthquake (1999). İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.

Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. Northridge, California earthquake (1994).

Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Killed over 25,000.

Armenian earthquake (1988). Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). Great Mexican Earthquake (1985).

The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. Tangshan earthquake (1976). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.

Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. Ancash earthquake (1970). Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.

Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.

Great Kanto earthquake (1923). San Francisco Earthquake (1906). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. Charleston earthquake (1886).

Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). New Madrid Earthquake (1811). Lisbon earthquake (1755). Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).

Cascadia Earthquake (1700). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). San Andreas Fault.

New Madrid Fault Zone. North Anatolian Fault Zone. Hayward Fault Zone. Calaveras Fault.

Alpine Fault. Earthquake prediction. Seismic retrofit. Household seismic safety.

Emergency preparedness. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year.

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