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Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.

Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).

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A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. All remaining amenities re-opened at the scheduled time on October 25, 2005. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. The Magic Kingdom, Epcot and Downtown Disney re-opened at 1:00pm. Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. As a result of Hurricane Wilma, all the four theme parks, Typhoon Lagoon water park (Blizzard Beach water park already being closed for maintenance), resort amenities (Downtown Disney, the golf courses) and Fort Wilderness Resort and Campground were closed at the start of October 24, 2005. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. [1].

Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. The parks were closed for each. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Hurricanes Charley and Frances came through the area in summer 2004. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. The parks re-opened the following day under heightened security. Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. The parks closed partway through the day on September 11, 2001 in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks.

at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). The Walt Disney Company made history by closing its Florida theme parks for the first time during Hurricane Floyd in 1999, which ended up missing the area. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. The trade magazine "American Business" reports (as quoted by the Orlando Sentinel) these attendance figures for the four theme parks in 2004:. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. (Tickets do not cover admission for activities or events separately priced.). Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. There are a few levels of the Annual Passes including different prices for children.

Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. The Annual Passes at Walt Disney World allow guests to have unlimited access to the parks during the year time period of their pass. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. As part of the "Magic Your Way" package, Disney also created a service entitled "Disney's Magical Express" whereby guests staying on the Disney property will be able to take Disney transportation directly from the Orlando airport to their hotels, while their luggage is picked up (with participating airlines) and delivered to their rooms for them. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. The Water Park Fun & More Option was known as the Magic Plus Pack Option from January 2, 2005, through October 1, 2005. Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. "Magic Your Way" also offers options such as the Park Hopper Option ($40 per ticket, allowing a guest to visit more than one park per day), the Water Park Fun & More Option ($50 per ticket, giving a guest between 2 and 5 visits to water parks, Pleasure Island, DisneyQuest, or Disney's Wide World of Sports), and the No Expiration Option (between $10 for a two-day ticket and $135 for a ten-day ticket, without which the ticket will expire 14 days after its first use).

For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. Disney's "Magic Your Way" park ticket pricing, introduced in January 2005, is intended to make guests choose to spend more days on Disney property instead of visiting competing theme parks in the area; additional days at Disney can be much less expensive than a day at another park. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. She replied, "I think Walt would have approved.". As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. On opening day, Roy Disney gave an opening dedication, after which he asked Walt's widow Lillian what she thought of Walt Disney World. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. Disney's Contemporary Resort, Disney's Polynesian Resort, and Disney's Fort Wilderness Resort and Campground were also completed in time for the park's opening on October 1, 1971.

The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. Construction of drainage canals was soon begun by the Improvement District, and Disney built the first roads and the Magic Kingdom. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The Florida Supreme Court ruled in 1968 that the District was allowed to issue tax-exempt bonds for public projects within the district, despite the sole beneficiary being The Walt Disney Company. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. The laws forming the District and the two Cities was signed into law on May 12, 1967. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. The only areas where the District had to submit to the county and state would be property taxes and elevator inspections.

Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. In addition to the standard powers of an incorporated city, which include tax-free bonds, the Improvement District would have total immunity from any current or future county or state land-use laws. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). After the film, it was explained that, for Walt Disney World to succeed, a special district would have to be formed: the Reedy Creek Improvement District with two cities inside it, the City of Bay Lake and the City of Reedy Creek (now the City of Lake Buena Vista). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. The role of EPCOT was emphasized in the film that was played, the last one recorded by Walt Disney before his death. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). On February 2, 1967, Roy Disney held a press conference in Winter Park, Florida.

Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. But have they all heard of Henry Ford, who started it all? Walt Disney World is in memory of the man who started it all, so people will know his name as long as Walt Disney World is here.". In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. In his own words: "Everyone has heard of the Ford cars. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). For the past few years that the project had been in pre-production, it had been known simply as Disney World, but Roy Disney added "Walt" to the name to make it Walt Disney World. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. From then on, his brother Roy Disney headed the project.

For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. Walt Disney died on December 15, 1966. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. To create the District, only the support of the landowners within was required. No structural damage. The Reedy Creek Drainage District was incorporated on May 13, 1966 under Florida State Statutes Chapter 298, which gives powers including eminent domain to special Drainage Districts. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. At the conference, Walt Disney explained the plans for the site, including EPCOT, the Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow, which was to be a futuristic city.

Trees and bushes shake. A press conference was soon organized for November 15. Plaster in walls might crack. After most of the land had been bought, the story was leaked to the Orlando Sentinel on October 20, 1965. Furniture moves. Without the transfer of these rights, Tufts could come in at any time and demand the removal of buildings to obtain minerals. Pictures fall off walls. Yet another problem was the mineral rights to the land, owned by Tufts College.

Objects fall from shelves. In most cases, the owners were happy to get rid of the land, being mostly swampland. People have trouble walking. Much of the land had been platted into five-acre (20,000 m²) lots in 1912 by the Munger Land Company and sold to investors. Everyone feels movement. In addition to three huge parcels of land were many smaller parcels, referred to as "outs". The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. Two large tracts totaling $1.5 million were sold, and smaller tracts of flatlands and cattle pastures were purchased by exotic-sounding companies such as the Latin-American Development and Management Corporation and the Reedy Creek Ranch Corporation.

These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. In May 1965, major land transactions were being recorded a few miles southwest of Orlando in Osceola County. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. The first five-acre (20,000 m²) lot was bought on October 23, 1964 by the Ayefour Corporation (a pun on Interstate 4). The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. To avoid a burst of land speculation, Disney used various dummy corporations and cooperative individuals to acquire 27,400 acres (111 km²) of land. Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. Thus everything was to be done in complete secrecy.

Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. If the news of Disney's new resort was leaked, land prices would soar. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. However, the decision had not been made yet; no land had been purchased. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". When later asked why he chose it, he said, "the freeway routes, they bisect here.". That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. He saw the good road network, including Interstate 4 and Florida's Turnpike, with McCoy Air Force Base, soon to become Orlando International Airport, to the east, and immediately fell in love with the site.

Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. The airplane he travelled in would be used by future Disney executives to travel to the Resort from the company headquarters in Burbank, California and can now be seen at the Disney-MGM Studios. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Walt Disney first flew over the Orlando site (one of many) on November 22, 1963. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. Additionally, Walt Disney disliked the businesses that had sprung up around Disneyland, and wanted control of a much larger area of land for the new project. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Market surveys revealed that only 2% of Disneyland's visitors came from east of the Mississippi River, where 75% of the population of the United States lived.

While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. In 1959, the Walt Disney Company, under the leadership of Walt Disney, began looking for land for a second resort to supplement Disneyland, which had opened in Anaheim in 1955. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. Walt Disney World pastry chefs use more than 1,050 pounds of honey, 100 pounds of sugar, and 50 pounds of dark chocolate to bake gingerbread houses and other decorations for the holidays. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. According to Disney's "MouseMail" email newsletter: during the Christmas season, one hundred fifty truckloads of holiday decorations adorn the Walt Disney World Resort and 300,000 yards of ribbon and bows drape over 1,500 Christmas trees. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. Another quarter has been set aside as a wilderness preserve.

In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. Less than one-quarter of the property has been developed. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. Walt Disney World Resort covers a total of 47 square miles (122km2), about the size of San Francisco or twice the size of Manhattan. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. Two monorail lines also operate at Walt Disney World Resort: one links the Magic Kingdom, the Contemporary and Polynesian and Grand Floridian resorts, and the Transportation and Ticket Center (with an express track in the other direction, only stopping at the TTC and the Magic Kingdom); the other links Epcot and the Transportation and Ticket Center. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. Taxi boats link some locations.

At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. They are not to be confused with the Disney Cruise Line and Disney's Magical Express buses, which are run by Mears Transportation. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. There is a fleet of Disney-operated buses on property, branded Disney Transport free for use by resort and park guests. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. In a March 30, 2004 article in The Orlando Sentinel, Walt Disney World president Al Weiss gave some insight into how the parks are maintained:. Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage . The Walt Disney World Resort also sponsors and operates the Walt Disney World College Program, an internship program that has US college students live on-site and work for the Resort, providing much of the theme park and resort "front line" cast members.

. The largest single-site employer in the United States, Walt Disney World Resort has more than three thousand job classifications. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. Today it employs more than 57,000 cast members, spending more than $1.1 billion on payroll and $478 million on benefits each year. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. When the Magic Kingdom opened in 1971, the Walt Disney World Resort employed about 5,500 cast members. Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Walt Disney World paved the way for many other theme parks and attractions in the area, including SeaWorld and Universal Studios, and helped make Orlando a popular tourist destination for people from all over the world.

Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). There are two miniature golf courses: Fantasia Gardens and Winter Summerland. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. The five 18-hole golf courses are the Magnolia, the Palm, Lake Buena Vista, Eagle Pines, and Osprey Ridge (the last two are part of the Bonnet Creek Golf Club). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The Walt Disney World resort also includes five world-class golf courses. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). The themed resorts include:.

The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The non-themed hotels are owned by private, non-Disney hospitality companies such as Starwood, Holiday Inn, and Hilton. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. Another notable aspect is the large number of hotel resort complexes on the Walt Disney World property. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. The Downtown Disney area contains many shopping, dining, and entertainment venues, including DisneyQuest (a "virtual theme park" inside a building), the House of Blues, and a permanent Cirque du Soleil show (La Nouba). An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. There are also two water parks, Typhoon Lagoon and Blizzard Beach (a third, River Country, is permanently closed), as well as the Disney's Wide World of Sports athletic complex.

Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). Walt Disney World Resort features four major theme parks, each with a main attraction that serves as its symbol:. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. Walt Disney World Resort is the largest theme park resort in the world. Killed over 79,000 people. The land within Walt Disney World Resort is part of the Reedy Creek Improvement District which allows the Disney corporation to exercise quasi-governmental powers over the area. Kashmir earthquake (2005). Most of Walt Disney World's Central Florida land, and all of the public areas, are located in the cities of Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, located southwest of Orlando and a few miles northwest of Kissimmee.

Fukuoka earthquake (2005). In fact, the entire Walt Disney World property is outside Orlando city limits; the majority sits within southwestern Orange County, with the remainder in adjacent Osceola County to the south. Sumatran Earthquake (2005). A popular misconception is that the resort exists in Orlando, Florida. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. Disney, Walt Disney's older brother, who would dedicate the Magic Kingdom of Walt Disney World, and would officially proclaim "Disney World" as "Walt Disney World" in his brother's honor. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. In the end, it was Roy O.

One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. The official symbol, however, can still be found in many places around the Walt Disney World Resort, as well as in recent merchandise that uses it once again. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). Walt Disney World put an end to use of both its original font and official symbol at the conclusion of Walt Disney World's 25th Anniversary Celebration in 1996. Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). While Disneyland has kept its original font, it has lost nearly all references to its offical symbol. Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures. To reinforce the updated name and image, Disney World's official symbol was to be an oversized "D" with the face of Mickey Mouse depicted as the lines of latitude and longitude of this new World.

Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). After Walt Disney's death, the title of "Disney World" was settled upon, to be presented in a modern font instead of the original Disneyland font. Bam Earthquake (2003). However Walt Disney did make reference to the Walt Disney World Resort as both "Disney World" and "The Disney World", with both of these versions using the same font that was used in the spelling of Disneyland. Dudley Earthquake (2002). There is no official documentation showing that the Walt Disney World Resort was originally to be spelled "Disneyworld", for it was already going to be far different than "Disneyland". Gujarat Earthquake (2001). Walt Disney focused most of his attention on the "Florida Project" both before and after his participation at the 1964-1965 New York World's Fair, but died in December of 1966, almost five years short of seeing his vision realized.

Nisqually Earthquake (2001). Much later, concepts from the original idea of EPCOT would be integrated into the community of Celebration, Florida. Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). EPCOT became EPCOT Center, the second theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort. Düzce earthquake (1999). However plans for EPCOT would drastically change after Walt Disney's death. İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey. EPCOT was also known as Progress City.

Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. There was also to be of course various housing for guests to the resort, along with an industrial park, main resort terminal, and a futuristic airport, but most importantly was Walt Disney's "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow", or EPCOT as it is better known with respect as an acronym. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Walt Disney originally envisioned what would eventually become the Walt Disney World Resort as a resort that would have a Magic Kingdom somewhat larger and more elaborate than the Magic Kingdom of Disneyland. Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. . Northridge, California earthquake (1994). The 47-square-mile (122 km2) property is the largest theme park resort in the world.

Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. In addition to these four main theme parks, the resort contains two water parks, six golf courses, a sports complex, an auto race track, more than twenty resort hotels, and numerous shopping, dining, and entertainment offerings. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. It opened on October 1, 1971 with the Magic Kingdom, and has since added Epcot, Disney-MGM Studios, and Disney's Animal Kingdom. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Walt Disney World Resort is a theme park destination resort owned and operated by the Walt Disney Parks and Resorts segment of The Walt Disney Company. Killed over 25,000. The Walt Disney World Resort, often referred to as simply Walt Disney World or Disney World, is located in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA.

Armenian earthquake (1988). Disney's Animal Kingdom, 7.82 million visitors. Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). Disney-MGM Studios, 8.26 million visitors. 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). Epcot, 9.4 million visitors. Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). Magic Kingdom, 15.17 million visitors.

The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. This is for Florida Residents only and requires proof of residency. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. You do not get complimentary parking. Tangshan earthquake (1976). Florida Resident Epcot After 4 Annual Pass - This allows guests unlimited access to Epcot after 4pm. Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989. This is for Florida Residents only and requires proof of residency.

Sylmar earthquake (1971). You do not get complimentary parking. Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. The ticket has black out dates that are around Christmas/New Years, Easter, most of June to August and Thanksgiving. Ancash earthquake (1970). Florida Resident Seasonal Pass - This allows guests to have limited access to The Magic Kingdom, Epcot, Disney MGM Studios, and Animal Kingdom. Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake. You also get complimentary parking.

Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. Annual Passport - This allows guests to have unlimited access to The Magic Kingdom, Epcot, Disney MGM Studios, and Animal Kingdom. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). You also get complimentary parking. Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). Premium Annual Passport - This allows guests to have unlimited access to The Magic Kingdom, Epcot, Disney MGM Studios, Animal Kingdom, Pleasure Island, Blizzard Beach, Typhoon Lagoon, DisneyQuest, and Disney's Wide World of Sports complex. On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs. DINOSAUR (formerly named Countdown to Extinction).

Great Kanto earthquake (1923). Expedition Everest. San Francisco Earthquake (1906). Kali River Rapids. Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. Primeval Whirl. Charleston earthquake (1886). Kilimanjaro Safaris.

Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). Disney's Animal Kingdom

    . New Madrid Earthquake (1811). Fantasmic!. Lisbon earthquake (1755). The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror. Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952). Rock 'n' Roller Coaster.

    Cascadia Earthquake (1700). Lights, Motors, Action! Extreme Stunt Show. Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. Disney-MGM Studios

      . Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Spaceship Earth. San Andreas Fault. Soarin'.

      New Madrid Fault Zone. Mission: SPACE. North Anatolian Fault Zone. Test Track. Hayward Fault Zone. Epcot

        . Calaveras Fault. Big Thunder Mountain Railroad.

        Alpine Fault. Splash Mountain. Earthquake prediction. Space Mountain. Seismic retrofit. "it's a small world". Household seismic safety. Pirates of the Caribbean.

        Emergency preparedness. The Haunted Mansion. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. The Magic Kingdom

          . an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. There is a tree farm on-site, so that when a mature tree needs to be replaced, a thirty-year-old tree will be available to replace it. an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year. There are cast members permanently assigned to painting the antique carousel horses; they use genuine gold leaf.

          The streets in the parks are steam cleaned every night. 90 percent of guests say that the upkeep and cleanliness of the Magic Kingdom are excellent or very good. In 2003, US$6 million was spent on renovating its Crystal Palace restaurant. Disney spends more than US$100 million every year on maintenance at the Magic Kingdom.

          More than 5,000 cast members are dedicated to maintenance and engineering, including 650 horticulturists and 600 painters. Walt Disney World Swan (operated by Westin Hotels). Walt Disney World Dolphin (operated by Sheraton Hotels and Resorts). The Villas at Disney's Wilderness Lodge.

          Shades of Green (named because of its location between two golf courses; it's currently leased by the United States Department of Defense and used for vacationing active and retired military personnel and their families). Disney's Yacht Club Resort. Disney's Wilderness Lodge. Disney's Saratoga Springs Resort & Spa (formerly the Disney Institute).

          Disney's Port Orleans Resort French Quarter (formerly Disney's Port Orleans Resort). Disney's Port Orleans Resort Riverside (formerly Dixie Landings). Disney's Pop Century Resort. Disney's Polynesian Resort.

          Disney's Old Key West Resort. Disney's Grand Floridian Resort and Spa. Disney's Fort Wilderness Resort & Campground. Disney's Coronado Springs Resort.

          Disney's Contemporary Resort. Disney's Caribbean Beach Resort. Disney's BoardWalk Villas. Disney's BoardWalk Inn.

          Disney's Beach Club Villas. Disney's Beach Club Resort. Disney's Animal Kingdom Lodge. Disney's All-Star Sports Resort.

          Disney's All-Star Music Resort. Disney's All-Star Movies Resort. Disney's Animal Kingdom (the Tree of Life). Disney-MGM Studios (The Sorcerer's Hat, though formerly the 'Earful Tower' water tower represented it).

          Epcot (Spaceship Earth, the geodesic sphere.). The Magic Kingdom (Cinderella Castle).

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