This page will contain blogs about Earthquakes, as they become available.

Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.

Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).

This page about Earthquakes includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. It made a return on the Ten Best as the Acura RSX for 2002 and 2003. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. The GS-R model was called out specifically in 1994 and 1995. Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. The Integra was on Car and Driver magazine's annual Ten Best list six times, in 1987, 1988, and 1994 through 1997. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. It also has an entirely new engine, the K-series, which is considered by some to be the best engine Honda has ever released.

Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. NSX, TSX, MDX, etc). Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. The new name conforms to Acura's new naming scheme for all cars in its line up (e.g. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. The fourth generation Integra, produced from 2002 onwards, has been renamed the Acura RSX. Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. The Type R was a no-compromise sports car, and it showed the world what Honda was capable of.

at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). This provided for a much noisier ride, but since the Type-R was a racecar for the street, most owners didn't mind. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. The air conditioning system was removed and nearly all the sound-dampening material was eliminated. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. The interior was stripped down to reduce weight. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Mild oversteer was easy to induce with a lift of the throttle, and during steady-state cornering the car maintained a slight tail-out stance.

Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. The result was a chassis with very responsive, racetrack-ready handling that ably absorbed mid-corner bumps well. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. The front anti-roll bar retained the same size, although the end links were changed to a more responsive sealed ball joint as opposed to a rubber bushing on the lesser models. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. The rear anti-roll bar diameter was increased to 22 mm in diameter. Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The springs and dampers were much stiffer, with a 10 mm reduction in ride height.

For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. All soft rubber bushings were replaced with much stiffer versions, as much as 5.3 times higher in durometer readings. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. The Type R received very aggressive tuning in its suspension settings. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. The tires were upgraded to Bridgestone RE010 "summer" tires. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. Under those wheels was a much larger set of disk brakes front and back.

The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The Type R's body also received a new functional rear wing, body-colored rocker panels, and 5 bolt hubs with special lightweight Type-R wheels. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. Camber rigidity was improved at the rear by increasing wheel bearing span by 10 mm. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. The front strut tower bar was replaced with a stronger aluminum piece. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. "Performance rods," chassis braces that were bolted in place, were added to the rear trunk wall and rear subframe.

Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. The chassis received enhancements in the form of reinforcements to the rear wheel wells, roof rail, and other key areas. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). The GS-R's open differential was replaced with a torque-sensing limited slip type. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. The clutch disk has a slightly smaller swept area, for improved bite. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). The American version retained the same 4.4 final drive throughout the Type R's production run, unlike the Japanese market version, which in 1998 changed to a 4.785 final drive along with revised gearing.

Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. The transmission was upgraded with lower and closer gear ratios in second through fifth gears, in order to take advantage of the additional rev range. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. A retuned engine computer also contributed to improve power output. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). An improved stainless steel exhaust collector with more gentle merge angles, a change to a larger, consistent piping diameter, flared internal piping in the muffler allowed easier exit of gasses. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. That intake fed a short-runner intake manifold with a larger throttle body for better breathing.

For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. Intake air was now drawn from inside the fender well, for a colder, denser charge. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. Stiffer valve springs resisted float on more aggressive camshafts. No structural damage. The intake ports were given a minor port and polish. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. The intake valves were reshaped with a thinner stem and crown that reduced weight and improved flow.

Trees and bushes shake. Two extra counterweights on the crankshaft altered its vibration modes to enhance durability at high RPM. Plaster in walls might crack. Molybdenum-coated, high compression pistons and stronger-but-lighter connecting rods strengthened the reciprocating assembly. Furniture moves. The B16A's cylinder head returned for an encore, with differently shaped combustion chambers and intake ports compared to the regular B18C in the GS-R. Pictures fall off walls. The B18C5 Type R engine contained more key differences than just some manual assembly steps and an increased redline.

Objects fall from shelves. It had many exclusive features found on no other Integra. People have trouble walking. The Type R was the pinnacle of the Integra line. Everyone feels movement. Once again, the Type-R saw a limited release in the US. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. The GS-R edition received 5-spoke "blade" style wheels as a stylistic change.

These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. It also has all-red taillights and a revised rear bumper. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. The 1998 Integra had slightly larger headlights and a more aggressive front bumper. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. Despite some popular demand for a new Integra model for 1998, Acura chose to give the third-generation model a slight facelift and rerelease it. Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. Although the engine's "split personality" and unusually high capability to rev made it popular among hardcore enthusiasts, it cost the vehicle points in comparison tests where drivers noted that the vehicle was too hard-edged, loud and rev-hungry to be an easy daily driver.

Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. Although impressive, the Type R was still hampered by some criticism; its maximum torque output was only 130 ft·lbs, and maximum output could not be achieved until 7000 RPM, meaning that the engine was only performing at peak between 7,000 RPM and its 8,400 RPM redline. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. A Type R model was added for the 1997 model year, powered by a highly tuned, hand-finished variant of the GS-R's powerplant producing 195 horsepower, meaning it made more hp per litre than the Ferrari F355's V8. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". Standard horsepower increased to 142, and the GS-R recieved a dual-stage intake manifold and a displacment boost to 1.8 litre, bringing horsepower up to 170. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. Acura debuted the third generation model in 1994, now based on the all-new Civic chassis that had been introduced in '92.

Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. Every Integra made since then has had the "A" badges. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. For the 1991 model year however, Acura's "A" logo appeared for the very first time on the front of the hood, as well as between the taillights. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. Therefore, from 1986 to 1990 the only external clues to any Integra's identity came at the rear, where badges for "Acura" "Integra", and the trim level appeared. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Prior to the 1991 model year, Acura had made a minor point of the supposed understated elegance of minimal exterior badging.

While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. This generation also saw Acura make a bit of a marketing shift. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. Canada and the rest of the world got regular seat belts. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. Motorized "passive" seat belts were used instead. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. The second generation was the last Integra to be sold without airbags in the United States.

In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. Honda had already used the vtec system in the b16a engines in the late 80s which are a predacessor to the b17 engine. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. Other small updates came on at the same time, namely new front and rear bumpers, a new steering wheel, new rear turn signals, new ECU, chromed interior door handles and an increase in power to 140 for the non-VTEC engine. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. For 1992 Honda added the GS-R trim level, powered by a de-stroked, 1.7 litre version of the standard engine with the VTEC system from the then-new NSX added-on, bumping output to 160 horsepower. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. The GS model could also be had with a leather interior, which made it a sort of "deluxe" model, and featured its own model number.

At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Trim levels for 1990 and 1991 included the RS (base model), LS, and GS. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. The three-door hatchback and 4-door sedan body styles continued to be available, but the 5-door hatch was discontinued due to poor market reception. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Acura debuted the second generation Integra in 1990, now powered by a new 1.8 litre engine making 130 horsepower, giving the model a necessary boost in performance. Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage . The model was not without its shortcomings though; despite having 113 horsepower and a reachable 7,000 RPM redline, the new twin-cam engine had little torque and needed to be wound up quite a bit to make full power, leading to criticism that the model wasn't well-suited for day to day driving on surface streets, but was better tuned for spirited driving down tight, windy roads.

. Combined with sleeker styling and a nicer interior, buyers were effectivly convinced that the Integra was worth the extra money, and nearly 228,000 units were sold during the five year run of the first generation model. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. The Integra shared its platform with the less-sporty Civic, although it featured a small list of key upgrades over its lesser stablemate to help merit a price increase over the CRX Si, which was otherwise the sportiest compact vehicle being offered by Honda/Acura; enlarged 4-wheel disc brakes replaced the small front-disc/rear-drum setup used by the Civic and CRX, suspension calibration was re-worked, better tires were used and a 113 horsepower DOHC fuel injected 16-valve engine was used in place of the SOHC, 90 horsepower unit from the CRX Si. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. The engine was the vehicle's most publicized feature, as twin-cam, multi-valve engines were anything but commonplace in entry-level models at the time. Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Three and 5-door hatchback bodies as well as a traditional four-door sedan were available, with a 1.6 L DOHC 16-valve engine powering all three.

Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). The vehicle debuted in Japan in 1985 as the Honda Integra before going on sale a year later in North America as part of the then-new Acura lineup. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. . Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. Although a sedan was available for several years, the 4-door body was dropped when the vehicle transitioned to its current fourth-generation "DC5" platform, which is now sold as the RSX in North America. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). It is Acura's smallest, least expensive model, designed to offer a competitor to vehicles like Volkswagen's Golf GTI, which was the most well known and popular "hot hatch" of the 1980s when the Integra was introduced.

The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Acura Integra, sold as a Honda in most of the world, is a small, sporty vehicle sold primarily as a coupe. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. 301,103 Units sold from 1994-2001 - 2005555. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. 262,285 units sold from 1990-1993. An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface.

Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. Killed over 79,000 people. Kashmir earthquake (2005).

Fukuoka earthquake (2005). Sumatran Earthquake (2005). Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra.

One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.

Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Bam Earthquake (2003). Dudley Earthquake (2002). Gujarat Earthquake (2001).

Nisqually Earthquake (2001). Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). Düzce earthquake (1999). İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.

Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. Northridge, California earthquake (1994).

Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Killed over 25,000.

Armenian earthquake (1988). Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). Great Mexican Earthquake (1985).

The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. Tangshan earthquake (1976). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.

Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. Ancash earthquake (1970). Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.

Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.

Great Kanto earthquake (1923). San Francisco Earthquake (1906). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. Charleston earthquake (1886).

Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). New Madrid Earthquake (1811). Lisbon earthquake (1755). Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).

Cascadia Earthquake (1700). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). San Andreas Fault.

New Madrid Fault Zone. North Anatolian Fault Zone. Hayward Fault Zone. Calaveras Fault.

Alpine Fault. Earthquake prediction. Seismic retrofit. Household seismic safety.

Emergency preparedness. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year.

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