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Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.

Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).

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A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. Special Guest Appearance by: Ville Valo (HIM) and Jussi 69 (The 69 Eyes). These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. While Bam and Raab are looking for Raab's wife, the Russian mail order bride, Phil and Ape hang out with the Dudesons. Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. Bam, Raab Himself and Bam's parents travel to Finland. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. Special Guest Appearance by: Dani Filth (Cradle of Filth).

Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. He runs away to New York City. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. After Bam wrecks Vito's bedroom window, Vito decides he's had enough with Bam breaking his property and seeks for revenge. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Special Guest Appearance by: Jimmy Pop, Evil Jared (Bloodhound Gang). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Bam and Ryan decide to have a drag race: Bam's Lamborgini against Ryan's Limo, but before the race can happen, the Lambo disappears from the garage.

at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Special Guest Appearance by: Metal Mulisha, led by Brian Deegan and GWAR. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. Vito attemps to join Metal Mulisha. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. Special Guest Appearance by: Mike Vallely. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. When Don Vito has had enough of Bam's pranks, he seeks revenge.

Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Special Guest Appearance by: Billy Idol. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Bam celebrates April's 20's for her birthday. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Special Guest Appearance by: Bob Burnquist. Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. Meanwhile, Dico turns April and Phil's pad into a more "rainforest-y" environment.

For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. Bam takes Don Vito to Brazil, what Vito thinks is in the Bahamas, and they hook up with pro-skater Bob Burnquist. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. Season Five. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. Bam and the guys are bored, so they make a game, which gives random activities for his family and friends. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. At the end, Vito stole Bam's hummer, anyway.

The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. He got one wrong, so Bam won. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. If Vito learns ten Spanish sentences when they all come back, Vito gets to keep Bam's hummer. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Brandon stays at home to teach Vito some Spanish. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. Bam, his family, and friends go to Mexico.

Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. Guest Appereance by: Clutch. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). So, they decide to make a snow-race. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Bam and the crew goes to Groundhog Day, to find out that there will be six more weeks of winter. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). Phil decides to stay home because he figures that it would be more fun than going to Louisiana, so it becomes a competition between Phil and Bam to see who can have the most fun.

Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. In doing so, he claims that bayous only exist in Louisiana, so Bam decides to go there. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Vito falls in and gets into one of his usual angry fits. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). Bam builds a bayou in front of Don Vito's trailer. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. Special Guest Appearance by: Jimmy Pop, Evil Jared (Bloodhound Gang).

For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. Like always, lots of cursing, playing tricks on each other, blowing up s***, and Vito. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. But when the townships denies his request to do it, he decides to make his own little state. No structural damage. with a car. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. On this episode, Bam gets the idea to sail on a water...

Trees and bushes shake. Since Brandon got a ticket for parking in a wrong spot with a rickshaw, they lost. Plaster in walls might crack. On this episode Bam and his friends (including Don Vito) get jobs so they can pay the heating bill or clean like April. Furniture moves. Special Guest Appearance by: Tim O'Connor. Pictures fall off walls. Later, Bam gets April and Phil another chance of having a great day while Raab and Dunn handcuff Vito out on a platform so he won't ruin another day for April and Phil.

Objects fall from shelves. Nearly at the end, Vito has to go and ruin the whole thing. People have trouble walking. Bam, his friends, and family celebrate April and Phil's anniversary. Everyone feels movement. This episode is the continuation of the previous episode. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. Special Guest Appearance by: Tim O'Connor, Ville Valo.

These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. At the end, it was to be continued. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. Bam, Vito, and his friends secretly follow them. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. The thing they don't know is that they are not alone. Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. Phil and April go on a trip to France to celebrate their anniversary.

Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.
Season Four. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. After trashing another one of Vito's cars, Bam promises him that he'll never do it again if Vito beats him on the miniature golf course he builds in the backyard. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". Special Guest Appearance by: Mike Vallely. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. While there, he decides that everyone will spend the entire night inside the mall.

Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. Bam takes his family and the CKY crew to the Mall Of America for a skating demo. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. He and the CKY crew spend the entire day torturing her, making the 24 hours as difficult as possible. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. Bam challenges Ape to not complain for 24 hours. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. As a peace offering, Bam takes her, his family, and the entire crew on a cruise...but on a pirate ship with Vito as captain.

While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. Bam and the CKY crew's tomfoolery finally pushes Ape over the edge. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. Special Guest Appearance by: Jimmy Pop (Bloodhound Gang), Ville Valo, H.I.M. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. Bam challenges both Vito and Phil to go through training to become full-fledged rock stars. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. After an argument with Bam, Vito proclaims that anyone can become a rock star.

In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. Special Guest Appearance by: Johnny Knoxville. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. When he discovers that Johnny's given his Hummer a "makeover," this friendly visit turns into an all-out prank war. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. Bam gets paid a visit by his old friend Johnny Knoxville. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. After Bam discovers a Civil War cannonball on his property, he and the CKY crew decide to hold a Civil War reenactment in his backyard, complete with Union and Rebel soldiers.

At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Special Guest Appearnce by: Compton Ass Terry, N.E.R.D., Jack Osbourne, Dave Grohl, Tommy Lee, One of Hugh Hefner's Playboy Bunnies. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. While Tim Glomb constructs it, Bam, his family, and the CKY crew travel to Los Angeles to collect celebrity souvenirs from Dave Grohl, N.E.R.D, and others to pave into the driveway skatepark. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Bam decides to turn his driveway into a skatepark. Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .
Season Three.

. What to do with four cars and 14 acres? Have a Demolition Derby of course! Bam and the crew smash and crash into each other until there is nothing left of their automobiles. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. After seeing the cheap prices of the used cars, Bam decides to purchase four cars and bring them back to his 14-acre lot. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Bam takes Don Vito to a used-car dealer to buy him a new car. Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Special Guest Appearance by: Leather Face, Executioner.

Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). In the end, it becomes a Battle Royale that includes Phil, Don Vito, the wrestlers, and Bam. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. During the Grand Opening, Bam hires professional wrestlers to fight in a ring below the casino. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. He gets a brilliant idea to build Fast Eddie's Tree-Top Casino. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). April hears the commotion from the house and comes outside to yell at Bam.

The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. It's Arbor Day, so Bam decides to knock down one of the tall trees in the backyard. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. On the other hand, Bam opts to build a crude concrete half-pipe for the kids in front of a hardware store, uproots trees by running them over with his ATV and dump the trash that April, Phil, and Don Vito collected into Don Vito's house. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. From Bam's list, April chooses reading stories to the elderly, giving Phil a haircut, and, with the help of Don Vito and Phil, picking up trash from public spaces. An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Bam challenges April to do five things that will benefit the community.

Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). Special Guest Appearance by: Tony Hawk, Tim O'Connor, Jason Ellis, Donny Barley. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. Eventually, the crew arrives in New Orleans and wastes no time in adding their own brand of chaos to Mardi Gras. Killed over 79,000 people. Don Vito continues to get annoyed at Tony Hawk for delaying their travel with his constant skate sessions. Kashmir earthquake (2005). Bam and the crew leave Skatopia in one piece and continue their trek towards Mardi Gras.

Fukuoka earthquake (2005). Special Guest Appearance by: Tony Hawk, Tim O'Connor, Jason Ellis, Donny Barley. Sumatran Earthquake (2005). Don Vito gets very pissed and yells at Tony Hawk, "No more skateboarding!". Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. On the way down (in 2 RV's and a mini-motorcycle), Bam sessions out-of-the-way skate spots. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Bam (with a group of skateboarding legends including Tony Hawk, Jason Ellis, Tim O'Connor, and Donny Barley) head down to Mardi Gras.

One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Bam enters Phil and Don Vito in a competition he calls "Fat Boy Face Off." The contest includes hoagie racing, spinning in circles until dizzy, and the unforgettable "Slobstacle Course." To their surprise, there is no prize, only destruction to their own personal property - and in the end the only winner is Bam, of course. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). Special Guest Appearance by: Slayer. Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). As the evening approaches, Bam decides that Don Vito needs to bring a date - who will be the lucky lady?. Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures. Bam then invites the whole town to a backyard concert-bash.

Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Home improvements include installing an indoor mini-half, a pirate-themed bar, and a full-scale concert stage in the yard. Bam Earthquake (2003). When Bam learns that the legendary metal band Slayer are coming for a visit, the boys feel the need to do some redecorating and modifications to the house. Dudley Earthquake (2002). Special Guest Appearance by: Jess Margera. Gujarat Earthquake (2001). Bam proclaims, "New house, new rules!".

Nisqually Earthquake (2001). Bam returns from Amsterdam and hates what April has done with the house. Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). Bam and the boys decide to abandon their unpacking duties and head to Amsterdam for a CKY show, leaving April and Phil to unpack and decorate the new house. Düzce earthquake (1999). Bam and the crew search for a new home and stumble upon a secluded house with acres of yard, complete with a unicorn mural painted on the side. İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
Season Two.

Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. Special Guest Appearances by: Bloodhound Gang, Tim O'Connor, Jason Ellis. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). The teams jump into their cars and race around town collecting bizarre items, as well as performing grotesque tasks needed to win the scavenger hunt. Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. Next, he splits everyone up into three teams, with the Bloodhound Gang forming the fourth team. Northridge, California earthquake (1994). The hunt begins with Bam purchasing three banged-up used cars.

Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. Bam, the crew and the Bloodhound Gang embark on an outrageous scavenger hunt. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Ape finds out that the house is still standing and forgives Bam and Bam forgives Ape. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). The episode ends with a news anchor visiting Ape and telling her that her house has been blown up. Killed over 25,000. They also build a cheap-ass ramp out of wood and duct tape, build a fort using wood to try to keep the rain out, fart during a nice game of poker with Don Vito, have Raab go skating naked, burn a cake, and eventually they escape from the island.

Armenian earthquake (1988). It ends up raining on the island and Bam ends up getting a cold from sleeping in the rain. Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). Once arriving, April becomes suspicious and decides to turn the tables on her son. 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). But what Bam really wants to do is take April, Phil and Don Vito to an island 100 yards away from Three Mile Island, the notorious nuclear power plant, and leave them there for 24 hours. Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). Bam plans to take April, Phil, Don Vito and his raucous crew of friends out for a boating trip on the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania.

The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. Bam adorns the Margera house with ultra-bright festive lights, man-made snow, giant sized Christmas ornaments, and an indoor ice skating rink. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. With twenty bucks and some duct tape, Bam bring the christmas spirit to West Chester, Pennsylvania. Tangshan earthquake (1976). Afterwards, Don Vito gets honey poured on him, gets money stuck on him, and eats a hoagie. Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989. One of the worms crawls into Don Vito's pants and ends up dying in it.

Sylmar earthquake (1971). They use Honey and Corn Flakes, Anchovies and Money, Worms and Worms, Roaches and Maggots, and Ass and Crack. Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. Lastly, Bam and his crew put Don Vito and Phil into a big plastic box and shoot random items into it by using a machine to blow any item they can fit into the machine into the box. Ancash earthquake (1970). Then, the boys steal April's car and convert it into one bad-ass souped-up hot-rod. Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake. Next, they build a secret underground tunnel into Don Vito's house.

Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. They paint the entire kitchen blue along with everything in it. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). While they're away, Bam and his crew play. Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). April & Phil go on a three-day-weekend leaving Bam at home. On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs. When you've got Russian mail-order brides, Elvis impersonators, Don Vito's blue dye-job and one wicked hotel-room food fight, all you can say is Viva La Bam!!.

Great Kanto earthquake (1923). Bam wants to do something special for them, so he decides to take them and the rest of the crew to Las Vegas. San Francisco Earthquake (1906). It's two days before Phil and April's wedding anniversary. Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. Special Guest Appearance by: Mike Vallely, Compton Ass Terry. Charleston earthquake (1886). Soon after, Bam's grandmother, Mum Mum, leaves the party claiming "this whole family is crazy!".

Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). Dressed in medieval armour, Bam & Co., including Compton Ass Terry riding atop an elephant, host this merry feast. New Madrid Earthquake (1811). Bam & his crew build a drawbridge and a moat to replace the front door and erect a walled area in the form of a castle in the front yard. Lisbon earthquake (1755). Bam wants to do something special for the family reunion...something medieval. Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952). Special Guest Appearance by: Turbonegro.

Cascadia Earthquake (1700). In a tidbit of film at the end of this episode, a fungus-infested toenail is pulled from Don Vito's foot by Bam with wire cutters. Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. For 24 hours, Bam has instilled his family, friends, and heck, the whole town with one simple message "Don't Feed Phil." And to celebrate his father's fast, Bam hosts a Turbonegro concert in his living room. Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Like it or not, Phil's going on a starvation diet. San Andreas Fault. Can Phil go without food for an entire day? That's what Bam wants to find out.

New Madrid Fault Zone. Special Guest Appearance by: Tim O'Connor, Tony Hawk, Kenny Hughes, Bucky Lasek, Kevin Staab. North Anatolian Fault Zone. As soon as Phil & April hit the road, Bam and crew get to work converting the family home into an indoor/outdoor skate park. Hayward Fault Zone. Next, Bam gets his parents out of the house by sending them to Atlantic City. Calaveras Fault. Bam wants to get Phil angry...but can he piss off his mild-mannered dad? He certainly tries to by installing a fire pole in the living room, ironing hamburgers on ALL Phil's clothes, replacing the toothpaste with ground meat and lastly, by demolishing Phil's beloved van.

Alpine Fault. Season One. Earthquake prediction. . Seismic retrofit. The fifth and final season of the series finished on August 14, 2005. Household seismic safety. Each season consists of eight half-hour episodes.

Emergency preparedness. The show which is mostly filmed in West Chester, Pennsylvania debuted on October 26, 2003 on the MTV network in the United States and has since been seen by fans worldwide. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. It is a follow-up and spin-off to the popular series Jackass which was also shown on MTV. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. Viva La Bam is a television reality show (though large portions are scripted) on MTV focusing on the life of Bam Margera and his friends engaged in various practical jokes with one another, but mostly played out on his unsuspecting parents Phil & April, as well as his uncle Vincent Margera ("Don Vito"). an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year. His comment was that there would be no sixth season, but there would be occassional MTV specials and he and Johnny Knoxville were planning things for possible Jackass stunts.

In December of 2005, Bam addressed rumors of a sixth season on Last Call with Carson Daly. In one shot you can see (on the left side of the screen) the DVD of 'Viva la Bam: The Complete Second and Third Seasons' on a shelf. In the beginning of episode 5.1, it shows the inside of Vito's bedroom. At the ending of Episode 5.8, Bam stated that "There will be no more episodes, so have fun watching re-runs for the rest of your lives! Wait to see what we do next.".

According to Bams official website on January 3, 2006 Bam Animation will begin on MTV. The show's main title theme is a snippet of "The King Of Rock N' Roll", by Finnish band Daniel Lioneye. 5.7 Raab's Russian Mail-Order Bride. 5.6 Where's Vito?.

5.5 Lost Lambo. 5.4 Metal Mulisha. 5.3 Vito's Revenge. 5.2 April's Birthday Surprise.

5.1 Destination: Brazil. 4.8 Random Tasks. 4.7 Destination: Mexico. 4.6 Groundhog Day.

4.5 Bam On The Bayou. 4.4 State Of Bam. 4.3 Working Class Bam. 2.

4.2 Phil & April's Anniversary Pt. 1. 4.1 Phil & April's Anniversary Pt. 3.8 Bamiature Golf.

3.7 Mall Of Bam. 3.6 Angry Ape. 3.5 Mutiny On The Bam. 3.4 Rockstars.

3.3 Fort Knoxville. 3.2 Uncivil War. 3.1 Driveway Skatepark. 2.8 Demo Derby.

2.7 Tree Top Casino. 2.6 Community Disservice. 2. 2.5 Mardi Gras Pt.

1. 2.4 Mardi Gras Pt. 2.3 Fat Boy Face Off. 2.2 Dating Don Vito.

2.1 Castle Bam. 1.8 Scavenger Hunt. 1.7 April's Revenge. 1.6 Very Merry Margera Christmas.

1.5 Paint Phil Blue / Three-Day Weekend. 1.4 Viva Las Vegas. 1.3 Family Reunion. 1.2 Don't Feed Phil.

1.1 Phil's Hell Day / Bam's Skate Park. Dani Filth. GWAR. Billy Idol.

Punxsutawney Phil. HIM. CKY. Turbonegro.

Slayer. The Bloodhound Gang. Hopper Penn. Sean Penn.

Hank from Hell. Ville Valo. Johnny Knoxville. Tommy Lee.

Dave Grohl. Jack Osbourne. Donny Barley. Jason Ellis.

Kenny Hughes. Tim O'Connor. Kerry Getz. Compton Ass Terry.

Bucky Lasek. Tony Hawk. Jen Rivell.

08-29-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.