This page will contain blogs about Earthquakes, as they become available.

Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.

Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).

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A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. The Civic also won the North American Car of the Year and the North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) Car of the Year awards for 2006. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. The Civic Si was named "Best New Sport Car" and the sedan was named "Best New Economy Car" in the 2006 Canadian Car of the Year awards. Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. Honda claimed 5 of the top 10 Greenest car slots, 3 of which were models of the Civic. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. The Civic GX, a natural gas version of the vehicle was named Greenest Car of 2005 by the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.

Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. The Civic has been on Car and Driver magazine's annual Ten Best list six times, in 1985, 1988 through 1991, and 1996. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. The Civic was Motor Trend's Import Car of the Year for 1980, as well as its 2006 Car of the Year award. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. However, the use of this McPherson strut layout in the European model is inappropriate for a sporty use, while the 1.8 L engine, while more powerful than most 1.6 L version from previous generations, lacks the peaky behavior of the high-revving VTEC engines from the VTi/Type-R versions. Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Finally, a reengineered MacPherson strut front, and multi-link rear suspension allows the 2006 Civic Si to achieve 0.90 G avg of lateral acceleration on the skidpad.

at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Moreover, this new engine is matted to a 6-speed transmission with a helical-type limited slip differential. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. This newest generation of the Civic Si offers a 197 hp (147 kW) K20Z3 powered engine, utilizing drive by wire throttle, electric power steering, and a balance shaft. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. Paradoxically, the North American 2006 Civic Si concept strongly indicated that the Civic line would see a return to sportiness and performance, while the European Civic has become a more family oriented automobile. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. These changes made the car safer on the whole though, and helped the Civic sell better to the average consumer.

Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. The most recent models, while still competitive as tuner projects, have succumbed to added weight, reduced suspension technology and higher centres of gravity which has significantly reduced their appeal amongst passionate drivers. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Also, many fourth, fifth, and sixth-generation Civics can be similarly upgraded by replacing their original economy-oriented engines with a DOHC VTEC engine — commonly one of the B-series engines such as a B16A, which was also original equipment in some performance models of the Civic. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. The City Turbo engine is a good fit to the Civic engine bay in many models, and provides a significant increase in the power-to-weight ratio compared to the non-performance engines, thus boosting performance. Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. Also, because of parts interchangeability, many Civics which were originally equipped with lower-power engines can later be equipped with a newer Honda engine, or many other upgrades.

For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. As well, advanced four-wheel independent suspension inspired by Honda's racing research allowed class-leading handling in the 1988-1991 series which continued on until the 2000 model update. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. Civics prior to the fifth and sixth generation had a high power-to-weight ratio and a higher hp-to-liter output compared to many of their direct competitors which allowed for naturally better acceleration, braking and handling given similar parts. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. In many areas, the Civic is popular as a platform for modification and customization by an enthusiast community. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. Some current generation Civics use VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control), and are approaching the size and weight of the early Honda Accord models, which were initially introduced as a larger, upmarket alternative to the Civic in the mid 1970s.

The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. This engine was a rare example of commercial development of a stratified charge engine. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. This design could meet clean air emission standards without the power robbing emission control devices fitted to many cars of that time. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. An interesting engine development used in some 1975 to 1983 models as well as all carbureted models through 1987 was the CVCC system, where a small auxilary inlet valve allowed a rich fuel/air mixture into the cylinder near the spark plug, while the main charge was lean. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. The 2006 model year standard Civics for North America are manufactured in Alliston, Ontario, Canada and East Liberty, Ohio, while the Hybrid version is manufactured in Japan.

Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. In North America, the Civic hatchback was dropped for 2006, mainly due to the upcoming arrival of the Honda Fit. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Accordingly, all instances of the current model (left or right hand drive, anywhere in the world) are British-made cars designed with Japanese engineering, except for the US-built two-door coupe. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Starting in 2002, the Civic three-door hatchback has been built exclusively at Honda's manufacturing plant in Swindon, England - previously the five-door "Civic"/Domani and the Civic Aerodeck (based on the Japanese Orthia) were built in this plant for sale in Europe along with the Japanese EK series Civics. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). The three-door hatchback body style has been somewhat unpopular in the United States, but has achieved wide acceptance in Canada, as well as popularity in Japan and European markets, helping cement Honda's reputation as a maker of sporty compact models.

Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. In Canada, the sixth and seventh generation Civics where mildly redesigned to create the Acura EL until the advent of the eight generation Civic, which was used to create the Acura CSX. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. The seventh-generation minivan model is called the Honda Stream or the Honda Civic Stream. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). The sixth-generation station wagon was sold as the Honda Orthia (Honda Partner) as the downmarket commercial variant. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. In Thailand, the Civic was available as the four-door Isuzu Vertex (1995-2000).

For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. The Honda Domani, an upscale model based on the Civic, was sold as the Isuzu Gemini in Japan (1992-2000), and confusingly the 5-door Domani was sold as the Honda Civic (along with the "real" EK Civics) in Europe from 1995 to 2000. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. Also, at various times, the Civic or Civic-derived models have been sold by marques other than Honda — for example, Rover sold the 200, 400 and 45, each of which were Civic-based at some point (first 200s were the second generation Ballade; from 1990 the 200 and 400 were based on the Concerto; the 400 was the 1995 Domani), as was their predecessor, the Triumph Acclaim, based on the first Honda Ballade. No structural damage. Other models have been built off the Civic platform, including the Ballade, the CR-X, Quint, Concerto, Domani, CR-X Del Sol, and the Integra. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. A five-door station wagon model called the Civic Shuttle (also Civic Pro in Japan) was available from the early to late 1980s until the early 1990s (this brand name would later be revived for the mid-1990s Honda Shuttle people carrier, known in some markets as the Honda Odyssey).

Trees and bushes shake. In Europe and the United States, "Civic" generically refers to any of the coupe, sedan or hatchback models, though in Europe the coupe is branded the "Civic Coupe". Plaster in walls might crack. In Japan, the hatchback Civic is just called "Civic" while the sedan model is called "Civic Ferio" - however with the current release of the new Civic in Japan only in sedan form, this naming convention has stopped. Furniture moves. While the Civic is sold in largely the same form worldwide, differences in the name of the models exist between markets. Pictures fall off walls. A 350 Watt, seven speaker sound system is also included.

Objects fall from shelves. It produces 197 hp (200 PS/147 kW), 57 more than the Civic sedan. People have trouble walking. The engine is a 2.0-liter, DOHC four-cylinder design with Honda's i-VTEC variable valve timing system. Everyone feels movement. It offers a more powerful engine, 6-speed manual transmission, sport seats, and different styling. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. The American market Civic Si is a special trim level designed to offer a sportier experience than the standard Civic.

These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The Sport Hatchback is also available with a 2.2 L I-CTDI Diesel engine from the Accord, F-RV and CRV, rated at 140 PS (138 hp/103 kW) and is capable of 205 km/h (127 mph) and accelerating from 0-60 mph in 8.4 seconds. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. This model featured from launch a 1.3 L I-DSI and a 1.8 L i-VTEC rated at 83 PS (81 hp/61 kW) and 140 PS (138 hp/103 kW) respectively, with 177 and 207 km/h (110 and 129 mph) top speeds and 14.2 and 8.6 sec 0-100 km/h sprint. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. The new Sport Hatchback model with futuristic styling was unveiled in August 2005 for the European market only. Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. The electric motors are powered by a battery array which is charged by regenerative braking during deceleration, which reduces exhaust emissions and extends fuel mileage.

Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. The hybrid version became available in 2003, which uses both a small (1.3 L) main gasoline engine and auxiliary electric motors. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. The interior of the Type-R includes Recaro seats and a Momo steering wheel, and the model also includes Type-R-specific badging, a helical limited-slip differential, and has been reported to accelerate from zero to 60 mph in about 6.8 seconds (6.6 in facelifted model). The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The EP Civic Type-R has a specific output of 200 PS (197 hp/147 kW) at 8000 rpm, a six-speed manual transmission, a reworked exterior with a bullet-like hatchback design, aeroform bumpers, spoiler, and 17 in wheels. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. Unlike the EK9 version, which was produced solely in Japan, the EP Civic Type-R is produced in the United Kingdom and exported to Japan.

Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. In 2001, Honda announced the release of the Civic Type-R for the EP chassis, a more sporty variant of the most recent model of Civic and successor to the EK9 Civic Type-R. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. The EK9-generation Civic Type-R had a maximum output in the range of 180 PS JIS (177 hp/132 kW), increased over the more common 160 PS (158 hp/118 kW) B16A engine in the SiR/VTi models, and included various alterations to the chassis to improve handling and reduce weight (such as better welding of the frame, and removal of the radio and noise-suppressing materials). Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. Beginning in 1997 [1], Honda produced the first iteration of Civic to receive the "Type-R" appellation (applied first to the Integra Type-R), with the EK9 chassis Civic Type-R. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. The Civic evolved from having a 1335 cc engine (1980) to having engines with larger capacities and more creature comforts (air conditioning, power windows, etc.) through the 1990s and into the 2000s.

While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. Like the Mini, the transaxle was integrated with the engine unit, but driveshaft technology in the Civic was well ahead of the universal joints of the Mini. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. Later models went to a five-speed manual and a full four-speed automatic transmission. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. Initially the Civic was sold with either a four-speed manual or a two speed "HondaMatic" model. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. .

In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. Still, many regard the Civic as representing a good value for the money, combining good performance, reliability and economy, as well as a very low rate of depreciation, resulting in a low total cost per mile or per year. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. The current Civic has become somewhat more luxurious. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. Early models of the Civic were typically outfitted with a basic AM radio, rudimentary heater, foam cushioned plastic trim, two-speed wipers, and painted steel rims with a chromed wheel nut cap. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. With the transverse engine placement of its 1169 cc engine and front wheel drive, like the British Mini, the car provided good interior space despite overall small dimensions.

At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. It was introduced in July 1972 as a two-door sedan, followed by a 3-door hatchback version that September. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. The Honda Civic is an automobile manufactured by Honda. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. The 1995 Civic was the most stolen car in the US for 2004[2]. Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes.

Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics).

The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface.

Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. Killed over 79,000 people. Kashmir earthquake (2005).

Fukuoka earthquake (2005). Sumatran Earthquake (2005). Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra.

One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.

Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Bam Earthquake (2003). Dudley Earthquake (2002). Gujarat Earthquake (2001).

Nisqually Earthquake (2001). Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). Düzce earthquake (1999). İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.

Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. Northridge, California earthquake (1994).

Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Killed over 25,000.

Armenian earthquake (1988). Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). Great Mexican Earthquake (1985).

The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. The most destructive earthquake of modern times. Tangshan earthquake (1976). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.

Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. Ancash earthquake (1970). Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.

Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.

Great Kanto earthquake (1923). San Francisco Earthquake (1906). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. Charleston earthquake (1886).

Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). New Madrid Earthquake (1811). Lisbon earthquake (1755). Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).

Cascadia Earthquake (1700). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). San Andreas Fault.

New Madrid Fault Zone. North Anatolian Fault Zone. Hayward Fault Zone. Calaveras Fault.

Alpine Fault. Earthquake prediction. Seismic retrofit. Household seismic safety.

Emergency preparedness. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year.

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