This page will contain blogs about Earthquakes, as they become available.

Earthquake

Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998

An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes.

Characteristics

Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage .

Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle.

Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard.

Damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Section of collapsed freeway after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are.

Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it.

Earthquake Size

The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:

Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.

A Shakemap recorded by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network that shows the instrument recorded intensity of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001. A Community Internet Intensity Map generated by the USGS that shows the intensity felt by humans by ZIP Code of the shaking of the Nisqually earthquake on February 28, 2001.

The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS.

The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values.

Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:

  • an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year
  • an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years
  • an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years.

Causes

Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity.

Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena.

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later.

Preparation for earthquakes

  • Emergency preparedness
  • Household seismic safety
  • Seismic retrofit
  • Earthquake prediction

Specific fault articles

  • Alpine Fault
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Hayward Fault Zone
  • North Anatolian Fault Zone
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • San Andreas Fault

Specific earthquake articles

  • Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China.
  • Cascadia Earthquake (1700).
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952).
  • Lisbon earthquake (1755).
  • New Madrid Earthquake (1811).
  • Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857).
  • Charleston earthquake (1886). Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100.
  • San Francisco Earthquake (1906).
  • Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs.
  • Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737).
  • Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale.
  • Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake.
  • Ancash earthquake (1970). Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people.
  • Sylmar earthquake (1971). Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989.
  • Tangshan earthquake (1976). The most destructive earthquake of modern times. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died.
  • Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.)
  • Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987).
  • Armenian earthquake (1988). Killed over 25,000.
  • Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures.
  • Northridge, California earthquake (1994). Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction.
  • Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan.
  • İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey.
  • Düzce earthquake (1999)
  • Chi-Chi earthquake (1999).
  • Nisqually Earthquake (2001).
  • Gujarat Earthquake (2001).
  • Dudley Earthquake (2002).
  • Bam Earthquake (2003).
  • Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures.
  • Chuetsu Earthquake (2004).
  • Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries.
  • Sumatran Earthquake (2005).
  • Fukuoka earthquake (2005).
  • Kashmir earthquake (2005). Killed over 79,000 people. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter.
  • Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005).

This page about Earthquakes includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Earthquakes
News stories about Earthquakes
External links for Earthquakes
Videos for Earthquakes
Wikis about Earthquakes
Discussion Groups about Earthquakes
Blogs about Earthquakes
Images of Earthquakes

A recently proposed theory suggests that some earthquakes may occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where one earthquake will trigger a series of earthquakes each triggered by the previous shifts on the fault lines, similar to aftershocks, but occurring years later. Apple has promoted the iPod and iTunes brands in several successful advertising campaigns, a large number of which are part of their series of silhouette commercials. These oscillations of the earth are either due to the deformation of the Earth by tide caused by the Moon or the Sun, or other phenomena. iPod sales according to Apple's quarterly financial results:. Another type of movement of the Earth is observed by terrestrial spectroscopy. iPod sales according to Apple's yearly financial results:. Earthquakes such as these, that are caused by human activity, are referred to by the term induced seismicity. [39].

Thus scientists have been able to monitor, using the tools of seismology, nuclear weapons tests performed by governments that were not disclosing information about these tests along normal channels. Sales by Hewlett-Packard made up 5% of all iPod sales. Finally, ground shaking can also result from the detonation of explosives. In July of 2005, HP reversed its decision and announced they would stop reselling the iPod by September 2005, when existing stock were projected to be depleted. Earthquakes have also been known to be caused by the removal of natural gas from subsurface deposits, for instance in the northern Netherlands. Retailers of this model included (among others) the retail giant Wal-Mart, which included a disclaimer explaining that it would not work with its own online music service. Such earthquakes occur because the strength of the Earth's crust can be modified by fluid pressure. The HP models were the same as the Apple iPod except for the inclusion of an "HP" logo on the back under the Apple logo and "iPod" label They were sold as the "Apple iPod + hp".

at certain geothermal power plants and at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal). On January 8, 2004, Hewlett-Packard announced that they would license the iPod from Apple to create an HP-branded digital audio player based on the iPod. A rare few earthquakes have been associated with the build-up of large masses of water behind dams, such as the Kariba Dam in Zambia, Africa, and with the injection or extraction of fluids into the Earth's crust (e.g. [38]. Some earthquakes are also caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes, and such quakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions. Most recently, Apple shipped 14.04 million iPods during the quarter that ended on December 31, 2005, a 207% increase over the same quarter one year prior. Deep focus earthquakes, at depths of 100's km, are possibly generated as subducted lithospheric material catastrophically undergoes a phase transition since at the pressures and temperatures present at such depth elastic strain cannot be supported. [37] Apple shipped 6.16 million iPods during the quarter that ended on June 25, 2005, a 616% increase over the same quarter in 2004.

Eventually when enough stress accumulates, the plates move, causing an earthquake. In its first quarter results of 2006, Apple reported earnings of $565 million — its highest revenue in the company's history. Where these plates meet stress accumulates. In other countries, the iPod market share is significantly lower, mostly due to high import taxes and less ubiquitous marketing, so flash memory players, or hard disk based players from competitors like Creative are dominant. The Earth is made up of tectonic plates driven by the heat in the Earth's mantle and core. That is why Flash players at the beginning of 2005 account for less than half the US market share they did in 2004 (their market share decreasing from 62% in January 2004 to 29% in January 2005 [36]). Most earthquakes are powered by the release of the elastic strain that accumulate over time, typically, at the boundaries of the plates that make up the Earth's lithosphere via a process called Elastic-rebound theory. Therefore, Apple succeeded in chipping away at the mainstream Flash player market in the US.

For example it has been calculated that the average recurrence for the United Kingdom can be described as follows:. This success was especially based on the introduction of the iPod mini. Larger earthquakes occur less frequently than smaller earthquakes, the relationship being exponential, ie roughly ten times as many earthquakes larger than 4 occur in a particular time period than earthquakes larger than magnitude 5. Within one year from January 2004 to January 2005, its US market share tremendously increased by 34% from 31% to 65%. As a result the moment magnitude (MW) scale was introduced by Hiroo Kanamori, which is comparable to the other magnitude scales but will not saturate at higher values. [35] According to the latest financial statements, iPod's market share accounts for 74% in the US in July 2005. The values of moments for different earthquakes ranges over several order of magnitude. [34] The iPod currently dominates the digital audio player market in the US, frequently topping best-seller lists.

The seismic moment is calculated from seismograms but can also by obtained from geologic estimates of the size of the fault rupture and the displacement. Fortune magazine reported on June 27, 2005 that Apple had sold over 15 million iPods, including 5.3 million in the first quarter of that year. Seismologists now favor a measure called the seismic moment, related to the concept of moment in physics, to measure the size of a seismic source. This equates to 100 iPods sold every minute throughout the quarter. They are still useful however as they can be rapidly calculated, there are catalogues of them dating back many years and are they are familiar to the public. At the Macworld Expo keynote speech[33] on January 10, 2006, Apple CEO Steve Jobs reported sales of over 42 million iPods total, and 14 million in the first quarter of fiscal year 2006. However as each is also based on the measurement of one part of the seismogram they do not measure the overall power of the source and can suffer from saturation at higher magnitude values (larger events fail to produce higher magnitude values).These scales are also empirical and as such there is no physical meaning to the values. Sites like iLounge and The Apple Collection have parts of their sites devoted to iPod concepts, things varying from completely touch screen iPods to iPods that include an integrated mobile phone.

Each of these is scaled to gives values similar to the values given by the Richter scale. The iPod's design is also a part of this ecosystem. Other more recent Magnitude measurements include: body wave magnitude (mb), surface wave magnitude (Ms) and duration magnitude (MD). Along with the introduction of the nano they also introduced nano tubes (most likely a joke on nanotubes), a silicone case with no screen, dock connector, or headphone port protection, but a cover over the click wheel, and the hold switch. It is obtained by measuring the maximum amplitude of a recording on a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer (or one calibrated to it) at a distance of 600km from the earthquake. Apple themselves even make some. This is known as the “Richter scale”, “Richter Magnitude” or “Local Magnitude” (ML). There are a host of different types and brands, all different for each iPod owners different needs.

Richter devised a simple numerical scale (which he called the magnitude) to describe the relative sizes of earthquakes in Southern California. Some are silicone, others are hard plastic, some you can't even reach the controls through. In the 1930s, a California seismologist named Charles F. Kate Spade, iSkin, Speck, Incase, and Chums all produce these cases. The first attempt to qualitatively define one value to describe the size of earthquakes was the magnitude scale (the name being taking from similar formed scales used on the brightness of stars). People buy these accessories not only to protect their iPods but also to make fashion statements. If you feel an earthquake in the US you can report the effects to the USGS. Besides technological peripherals there are also cases.

For some tasks related to engineering and local planning it is still useful for the very same reasons and thus still collected. Other companies (such as Griffin Technology) make add-ons that allow your iPod to record your voice, charge your iPod on the go, play your tunes over the radio, or use your iPod wirelessly with a remote. The problem with these scales is the measurement is subjective, often based on the worst damage in an area and influenced by local effects like site conditions that make it a poor measure for the relative size of different events in different places. Companies such as JBL, Bose, Altec Lansing, and Kensington all make speakers that are designed specifically to work with the iPod, using the iPod's thirty pin dock connector. No structural damage. A host of different companies produce accessories that are designed to work with the iPod. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. The large accessories market that has built up around the iPod is sometimes described as the iPod ecosystem.

Trees and bushes shake. Arguing that the cheap songs from iTMS have contributed significantly to the iPods' great success, record labels are also seeking a share of profits from the iPod division itself and they hope to accomplish this by putting pressure on Apple to differentiate between "hot singles" and "golden oldies." Jobs responded by accusing the record industry of being greedy [26]. Plaster in walls might crack. Aside from the controversial iPod-exclusive AAC format of audio files, SonyBMG and Warner Music who had initially signed on with Apple have lately complained that they have been undercharged for the value of their songs due to iTMS's flat fee. Furniture moves. Steve Jobs has stated "We would like to break even (or) make a little bit of money (on the iTunes Music Store) but it's not a money maker." The role of the iTMS is not to sell songs, but rather to promote the sale of iPods by offering owners a convenient service for music. Pictures fall off walls. Yet Realnetworks has continued to update the technology allowing iPod owners to download purchased music from RealNetworks music store.

Objects fall from shelves. For a short time in 2004, RealNetworks had advertised that tracks purchased from their RealPlayer Music Store could be played on an iPod through the use of their Harmony technology; however, an iPod update released at the time of the iPod photo launch disabled files created by Harmony. People have trouble walking. Microsoft and RealNetworks have accused Apple of using iPod, the iTunes Music Store, and FairPlay to lock iPod users into using iTunes exclusively (and vice versa), creating a vertical monopoly. Everyone feels movement. No portable music player other than the iPod can play the DRM-enabled files sold on the iTMS, and the iPod cannot play files protected with other DRM technologies, such as Microsoft's DRM format or RealNetwork's Helix-DRM system. The value 6 (normally denoted "VI") in the MM scale for example is:. However, the files can also be burned to CD, at which time those DRM restrictions are removed.

These assign a numeric value (different for each scale) to a location based on the size of the shaking experienced there. Apple encrypts the AAC audio files using the controversial FairPlay digital rights management (DRM) system, so that only authorized computers (up to five) and unlimited iPods can play them. In the United States the Mercalli (or Modified Mercalli, MM) scale is commonly used, while Japan (shindo) and the EU (European Macroseismic Scale) each have their own scales. Advertised that any song was 99¢, the music bought from it can be uploaded onto the iPod and the store has become the dominant online music service, helping the sale of iPods. The first method of quantifying earthquakes was intensity scales. Introduced on April 28, 2003 the iTunes Music Store (iTMS) is an online music store run by Apple and built into iTunes. Earthquakes that occur below sea level and have large vertical displacements can give rise to tsunamis, either as a direct result of the deformation of the sea bed due to the earthquake or as a result of submarine landslips or "slides" directly or indirectly triggered by it. Another popular tool is vPod, a stand alone freeware tool for copying music from your PC to iPod.

Just as a large loudspeaker can produce a greater volume of sound than a smaller one, large faults are capable of higher magnitude earthquakes than smaller faults are. Some of the more notable examples are the ml iPod plugin for Winamp, that allows users to manage their iPod content through Winamp, and Anapod Explorer, produced by Redchair Software, which presents a Windows Explorer-like interface for managing the content on an iPod. The total size of the fault that slips, the rupture zone, can be as large as 1000 km, for the biggest earthquakes. Many of these third-party tools allows functionality not available through iTunes, such as the ability to copy music off the iPod back to the host PC. The location on the surface directly above the hypocenter is known as the "epicenter". However, several third-party tools exists that addressed synchronization of the iPod. That point is called its "focus" or "hypocenter" and usually proves to be the point at which the fault slip was initiated. Apple Computer endorses only one official method for synchronizing with the iPod: iTunes.

Using such ground motion records from around the world it is possible to identify a point from which the earthquake's seismic waves appear to originate. Additionally, many aftermarket stereo manufacturers Kenwood, Alpine, etc, have iPod integration solutions to allow one of their head units to control and play music from an iPod. The Rayleigh waves from the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused ground motion of over 1 cm even at the seismometers that were located far from it, although this displacement was abnormally large. Virtually any vehicle that has a factory CD changer controller port on the stereo, or a sideways tape player can be integrated with an iPod using this kit. Ground motions caused by very distant earthquakes are called teleseisms. Using Peripheral Electronics' iPod2Car adaptor kit, an iPod can be thus integrated into many vehicles which wouldn't otherwise allow it. The power of an earthquake is distributed over a significant area, but in the case of large earthquakes, it can spread over the entire planet.
In 2006, this feature will also be available in other cars from Lexus, Nissan, Mazda, Daihatsu, BMW, MINI, smart, and Alfa Romeo.

While almost all earthquakes have aftershocks, foreshocks are far less common occurring in only about 10% of events.
This feature will also be available in Ferrari and Infiniti soon. Most large earthquakes are accompanied by other, smaller ones, that can occur either before or after the principal quake — these are known as foreshocks or aftershocks, respectively. This feature is only available in certain cars:. S-waves (secondary or shear waves) and the two types of surfaces waves (Love waves and Rayleigh waves) are responsible for the shaking hazard. In some cars, music can be controlled through the steering wheel. There are four types of seismic waves that are all generated simultaneously and can be felt on the ground. Not to be confused with "iPod your Car" which allows car integration on a personal car, iPod Car integration allows one to connect an iPod to a car, and listen to pre-made car playlists for the car, or the entire library through car speakers.

In a particular earthquake, any of these agents of damage can dominate, and historically each has caused major damage and great loss of life, but for most of the earthquakes shaking is the dominant and most widespread cause of damage. Some reviews in arstechnica.com showed that the battery in iPod nano is soldered in the mainboard and in the fifth-generation iPod it is more difficult to be removed and "It's actually affixed to the metal backplate and sits above its own power management circuitry and right next the headphone port and its driver circuitry". liquefaction, landslide), and fire or a release of hazardous materials. The big question now is if the fifth-generation iPod battery can be replaced by users in the same manner as the other generations of iPod. Large earthquakes can cause serious destruction and massive loss of life through a variety of agents of damage, including fault rupture, vibratory ground motion (i.e., shaking), inundation (e.g., tsunami, seiche, dam failure), various kinds of permanent ground failure (e.g. These batteries often contain more capacity than the standard Apple batteries. Some deep earthquakes may be due to the transition of olivine to spinel, which is more stable in the deep mantle. As a response to the battery problem, multiple 3rd parties [23] [24] [25] have appeared that are selling iPod battery replacement kits for one third of the price that Apple charges customers for a battery replacement.

At subduction zones where plates descend into the mantle, earthquakes have been recorded to a depth of 600 km, although these deep earthquakes are caused by different mechanisms than the more common shallow events. [22]. Where the crust is thicker and colder they will occur at greater depths and the opposite in areas that are hot. Some iPod users also defended Apple by pointing out that their iPods had lasted longer than 18 months, while other viewers suggested that the brothers had attacked Apple solely for the sake of publicity. Most earthquakes occur in narrow regions around plate boundaries down to depths of a few tens of kilometres where the crust is rigid enough to support the elastic strain. The movie depicted the Brothers vandalizing Apple ads in the New York City area with graffiti proclaiming that "iPod's unreplaceable battery lasts only 18 months." [21] The movie was widely linked and viewed, with much of the commentary failing to mention Apple's recent change in policy. Large numbers of earthquakes occur on a daily basis on Earth, but the majority of them are detected only by seismometers and cause no damage . The movie, called iPod's Dirty Secret, apparently made before the change in policy, expressed anger because the battery on their early model iPod had failed after eighteen months and Apple refused to replace it.

. On November 21, 2003, a short film produced by iPod owners The Neistat Brothers was released on the Internet. Seismic waves including some strong enough to be felt by humans can also be caused by explosions (chemical or nuclear), landslides, and collapse of old mine shafts, though these sources are not strictly earthquakes. [20]. Most earthquakes are tectonic, but they also occur in volcanic regions and as the result of a number of anthropogenic sources, such as reservoir induced seismicity, mining and the removal or injection of fluids into the crust. On November 14, 2003, Apple quietly announced a battery replacement program that initially cost $99 [19] (now $59), and one week later offered users the option to extend the warranty of their iPods for $59. Earthquakes related to plate tectonics are called tectonic earthquakes. This situation led to a small market for third-party battery replacement kits.

Events located at plate boundaries are called interplate earthquakes; the less frequent events that occur in the interior of the lithospheric plates are called intraplate earthquakes (see, for example, New Madrid Seismic Zone). The official policy was that the customer should buy a refurbished replacement iPod, at a cost almost equivalent to a brand new iPod. The highest stress (and possible weakest zones) are most often found at the boundaries of the tectonic plates and hence these locations are where the majority of earthquakes occur. Compounding this problem, Apple would not replace worn-out batteries either. Earthquakes occur where the stress resulting from the differential motion of these plates exceeds the strength of the crust. This is unusually difficult for a consumer device, but at least half a dozen well-known rivals to the iPod have a similarly enclosed battery. The Earth's lithosphere is a patch work of plates in slow but constant motion (see plate tectonics). The battery in all iPod models cannot be removed or replaced by the user without levering the unit open.

The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself. Apple has published guidelines on its web site for maximizing the life of an iPod battery. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, planar zones of deformation within the Earth's upper crust. In other words, the battery will continue to have a useful life through the equivalent of five hundred complete discharges and recharges; through time and use, the life of the battery will generally decrease until eventually it is not able to power the iPod for more than a few minutes. Earthquakes result from the dynamic release of elastic strain energy that radiates seismic waves. Like most lithium-based batteries, the iPod battery lasts roughly 500 full recharge cycles. An earthquake is a sudden and sometimes catastrophic movement of a part of the Earth's surface. Apple designed the iPod with an internal lithium ion battery that users cannot easily replace (the first and second generation iPods used lithium polymer batteries).

Lake Tanganyika earthquake (2005). Unfortunately the case doesn't allow access to the screen or controls. Many more at risk from the Kashmiri winter. The first shipment did not include the cases, but were included later on. Killed over 79,000 people. For this reason, Apple started to package both the Nano and the fifth-generation iPods with soft fabric cloth carrying case which should help prevent scratches to the screen and body. Kashmir earthquake (2005). The surface is a soft plastic and normal use can easily damage the surface (and this seems to be more prominent on the black model than the white model).

Fukuoka earthquake (2005). The iPod body itself was also very delicate and can scratch easily. Sumatran Earthquake (2005). There have been a number of complaints about the Nano's screen being too soft, resulting in it becoming easily scratched or even cracking if put under too much pressure. Triggered a tsunami which caused nearly 300,000 deaths spanning several countries. The iPod nano is available in white and black, in 1 GB (US$149), 2 GB (US$199) and 4 GB (US$249) models. Epicenter off the coast of the Indonesian island Sumatra. The click wheel is used to input the digits to the passcode.

One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded at 9.0. The screenlock option lets users set a 4 digit passcode for their iPod, and once the screenlock is activated the only buttons that can be pressed are the skip forwards and backwards and the play/pause buttons. Indian Ocean Earthquake (2004). The nano saves the user's stopwatch stats for multiple timing sessions, which is useful for comparing times. Chuetsu Earthquake (2004). While the timer is on, the Start button changes to a Lap button that allows the user to time individual laps. Not large (6.0), but the most anticipated and intensely instrumented earthquake ever recorded and likely to offer insights into predicting future earthquakes elsewhere on similar slip-strike fault structures. The stopwatch feature allows users to press Start to start the timer, and the Stop button to stop.

Parkfield, California earthquake (2004). The clocks can be set to adjust for Daylight Saving Time. Bam Earthquake (2003). The world clock allows users to set the time in cities around the world, and set alarms for each time zone. Dudley Earthquake (2002). These features were new to the iPod operating system, including the addition of world clocks, a stopwatch, and a screenlock option. Gujarat Earthquake (2001). The iPod nano has several features that would later be included into the fifth generation iPod.

Nisqually Earthquake (2001). The nano is the first dock connector iPod that cannot sync to any PC (Windows or Mac) via FireWire cable, though it can still be charged via a Firewire connection. Chi-Chi earthquake (1999). It retains the standard 30-pin dock connector for compatibility with third-party peripherals. Düzce earthquake (1999). The headphone jack is located on the bottom. İzmit earthquake (1999) Killed over 17,000 in northwestern Turkey. It has a 65,536 color display that can show photographs, and connects to a computer via USB 2.0.

Killed over 6,400 people in and around Kobe, Japan. Based on flash memory instead of a hard drive, the iPod nano is 0.27 inches (6.9 millimeters) thick, weighs 1.5 ounces (42 grams), and is 62% smaller by volume than its predecessor, available in 1GB (introduced on February 7, 2006), 2 GB, and 4 GB models. Great Hanshin earthquake (1995). On September 7, 2005, Apple announced the successor to the iPod mini, the iPod nano. Damage showed seismic resistance deficiencies in modern low-rise apartment construction. The 512 MB iPod Shuffle is $69, and the 1 GB model is $99. Northridge, California earthquake (1994). or 22 g) and approximates in size to a pack of chewing gum (originally, the iPod shuffle website contained a footnote advising people not to eat the iPod shuffle like gum; it was later removed, possibly because several users photographed themselves with their iPod shuffles in their mouths.) Like the rest of the iPod family, iPod shuffle can operate as a USB mass storage device.

Revealed necessity of accelerated seismic retrofit of road and bridge structures. The iPod shuffle weighs less than one ounce (0.78 oz. Severely affecting Santa Cruz, San Francisco and Oakland in California. Users can set iTunes to fill iPod shuffle with a random selection from their music library each time the device connects to the computer. Loma Prieta earthquake (1989). The iPod shuffle has no screen and therefore has limited options for navigating between music tracks: users can play songs either in the order set in iTunes or in a random (shuffled) order. Killed over 25,000. One review regards it as having one of the best-sounding audio systems of all the iPod models.

Armenian earthquake (1988). The shuffle has a SigmaTel processor. Whittier Narrows earthquake (1987). Unlike other iPod models, iPod shuffle cannot play Apple Lossless or AIFF encoded audio files—possibly due to the iPod shuffle's smaller processing power. 8.1 on the Richter Scale, killed over 6,500 people (though it is believed as many as 30,000 may have died, due to missing people never reappearing.). The shuffle comes in two models: 512 MB (up to 120 4-minute songs encoded at 128 kbit/s) and 1 GB (up to 240). Great Mexican Earthquake (1985). iPod shuffle introduced flash memory (rather than a hard drive) to iPods for the first time.

The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that two or three times that number died. Apple announced iPod shuffle at Macworld Expo on January 11, 2005 with the taglines "Life is random" and "Give chance a chance". The most destructive earthquake of modern times. With the introduction of the iPod nano, the iPod mini was discontinued. Tangshan earthquake (1976). Also, the second generation iPod minis did not include the AC adapter or the FireWire cable bundled with previous models. Caused great and unexpected destruction of freeway bridges and flyways in the San Fernando Valley, leading to the first major seismic retrofits of these types of structures, but not at a sufficient pace to avoid the next California freeway collapse in 1989. In addition, they featured richer case colors (though Apple discontinued the gold color) and other minor aesthetic changes (the color of the lettering on the click wheel now matched the color of the iPod mini).

Sylmar earthquake (1971). Most notably, both models featured an increased battery life of up to 18 hours. Caused a landslide that buried the town of Yungay, Peru; killed over 40,000 people. In February 2005, the second-generation [18] iPod mini came on the market with a new 6 GB model at $249 and an updated 4 GB model priced at $199. Ancash earthquake (1970). Silver models sold best, followed by blue ones, while the least popular was the gold. Good Friday Earthquake (1964) Alaskan earthquake. Apple initially made iPod mini devices available in five colors: silver, gold, blue, pink, and green.

Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale. The center button still acted as a select button. Great Chilean Earthquake (1960). The iPod mini introduced the popular "click wheel" that was incorporated into later iPods: the touch-sensitive wheel means that users can move a finger around it to highlight selections on the screen, while the unit's Menu, Back, Forward, and Play/Pause buttons are part of the wheel itself, letting a user press down on part of the wheel to activate one of those functions. Kamchatka earthquakes (1952 and 1737). Critics panned it as too expensive, but it proved to be overwhelmingly popular, and Apple Stores had difficulty keeping the model in stock. On the Japanese island of Honshu, killing over 140,000 in Tokyo and environs. It had 4 GB of storage and a price of $249 (at the time, only $50 below the 15 GB third-generation iPod).

Great Kanto earthquake (1923). On January 6, 2004, Apple introduced the first iPod mini. San Francisco Earthquake (1906). The iPod mini was discontinued on September 7, 2005, after Apple announced it was to be replaced by the iPod nano, which was 62% smaller in size and included a color screen. Largest earthquake in the Southeast and killed 100. The iPod minis used Microdrive hard drives for storage. Charleston earthquake (1886). In addition, it introduced the ability to charge over a USB connection.

Fort Tejon Earthquake (1857). Its smaller display had one less line than previous models, limiting the on-screen track identification to title and artist only, and not the album. New Madrid Earthquake (1811). The iPod mini had largely the same feature set as the full-sized iPod, but lacked support for some third-party accessories. Lisbon earthquake (1755). Apple entered the market for "mini"-form-factor digital audio players in January 2004, with the introduction of the iPod mini, competing directly with players like Creative's Zen Micro and Digital Networks Rio Carbon. Kamchatka earthquakes (1737 and 1952). The price point remains the same as the fourth-generation model.

Cascadia Earthquake (1700). The capacity of the iPod was increased to 30 GB from the previous 20 GB. Deadliest known earthquake in history, estimated to have killed 830,000 in China. The new Harry Potter iPod retains the laser engraved Hogwarts crest on back of the device and is sold with the "complete Harry Potter" (the first 6 books in the Harry Potter series). Shaanxi Earthquake (1556). On October 12, 2005 Apple reintroduced the Harry Potter collectible iPod along with the update of the iPod line. San Andreas Fault. A third-party addon will still be required in order to record audio on the iPod, as it was in previous generations.

New Madrid Fault Zone. Other notable improvements include the reduction of minor audio defects, such as hard drive noise being heard through the headphone jack, as well as an increase in recording quality to 44.1 kHz stereo, 22.05 kHz mono. North Anatolian Fault Zone. The fifth-generation iPod no longer supports file transfers via FireWire, but still supports charging using FireWire. Hayward Fault Zone. One must purchase one separately in order to charge it from the AC. Calaveras Fault. Apple has also discontinued the inclusion of an AC adapter and FireWire cable.

Alpine Fault. The fifth-generation iPod also comes with a thin slip case, most likely in response to many complaints concerning the iPod nano's easily scratchable surface. Earthquake prediction. In addition, the earphones plug is smaller. Seismic retrofit. Like the iPod nano, it comes in two colors, white and black, and it features the World Clock, Stopwatch, and Screen Lock applications. Household seismic safety. Griffin has, however, released a new version of the iTrip for the new iPod, which mounts to the dock connector on the bottom of the unit.

Emergency preparedness. Gone from the fifth-generation iPod is the remote control accessory port, previously found beside the headphone port, meaning that accessories such as the Griffin iTrip will no longer work. an earthquake of 5.6 or larger every 100 years. The headphone jack has been moved from the center of the top to the right of the top, while the hold switch has been moved to the left side of the top. an earthquake of 4.7 or larger every 10 years. Apple has stopped using the click wheels used in the fourth generation iPod and iPod mini from their previous supplier, Synaptics Inc of San Jose, CA, and now uses an in-house solution. an earthquake of 3.7 or larger every 1 year. The new click wheel is completely flat, unlike older models where the center button is slightly rounded.

The click wheel design is the same as the previous generation, but is marginally smaller than before. Watching movies reduces that amount to 2 and 3 hours respectively. The reported battery life for the 30 GB is 14 hours and for the 60 GB is around 20 hours. It is also 30% thinner than the previous full-size iPod.

The screen size is now 2.5" (6.35 cm) diagonally, 0.5" larger than the previous iPod. It can also display video on an external TV using the iPod AV or S-video cables with the iPod Universal Dock [17], however video watched on a TV is often of poor quality due to the fact that iPod video can only play videos up to 480x480. It has a 65,536 color (16-bit) screen, [15] with a 320 x 240 QVGA transflective TFT display, and is able to display video on an external TV via the AV cable accessory [16], which plugs into the headphone minijack and splits into composite video and audio output connectors with RCA jacks. However, the 30 and 60 GB versions differ in body thickness, the 30 GB version being slightly thinner.

On October 12, 2005, Apple announced at the "One more thing..." [14] event, the fifth-generation iPod, which featured the ability to play MPEG-4 and H.264 video with resolutions of up to 480 x 480 (maximum pixel count of 230,400) and 320 x 240 (maximum pixel count of 76,800), respectively (videos purchased from the iTunes Music Store are limited to 320 x 240.) Some users have reported the ability to play widescreen resolutions up to 640x360 using MPEG-4 and 400x192 using H.264 (total pixel count is equal to the stated maximums) The new models are available in 30 and 60 GB capacities and are priced the same as the previous generation at $299 and $399 USD, respectively. The only way to get a Harry Potter Collector's iPod is to buy it online [13] along with the complete set of Harry Potter audiobooks, at a combined price (as of February 9, 2006) of $548.00 USD. The iPod was launched along with Harry Potter audiobooks on the iTunes Music Store. [12].

This model was superseded on October 12, 2005 with a fifth-generation Harry Potter 30 GB Collector's iPod. On September 7, 2005, Apple released a limited-edition Harry Potter fourth-generation 20 GB iPod that featured a laser engraved Hogwarts crest on the back. The U2 iPod was the last iPod to ship with Firewire connection cables and firmware, prompting some analysts to speculate about the future inclusion of Firewire interfaces on Apple products. On October 12, 2005, Apple discontinued the iPod U2 Special Edition with the introduction of the fifth-generation iPod.

On June 28, 2005, at the same time as the announcement of the merger of the iPod and the iPod photo lines, Apple added a color screen and photo capabilities to the iPod U2 Special Edition while dropping the price to $329. [11]. It also included an iTunes Music Store coupon redeemable for $50 off of the price of The Complete U2, a "digital boxed set" featuring over 400 tracks of U2 music. Originally retailing for $349, it had a black front with a red click wheel (the colors of U2's latest album, How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb), and featured the signatures of U2's band members engraved on the back.

On October 28, 2004, Apple released a black-and-red edition of the fourth-generation iPod called iPod U2 Special Edition. To fix this problem, a small piece of cellophane wrap with a hole in it or a thin, non-conductive washer may be placed between the headphone jack and the plug. The likely cause for this malfunction is that a small metal disk on the base of the earphone plugs makes electrical contact with the metallic back of iPod, tripping the detection mechanism. This erroneous detection occurs with some third-party headphones (such as Sennheiser models), but users have also reported experiencing the problem with the supplied Apple earbuds.

A headphone contact switch, in coordination with iPod's auto-pause feature, is supposed to pause the music playback if the headphones are disconnected, but incorrectly detects that the headphones have been removed. These iPods have a glitch that causes them to pause on their own, despite the hold switch being activated. Popular optional accessories included the dock, a FireWire cable (which owners could use in lieu of USB), an iPod AV cable (to view photo albums on a TV set), and an iPod Camera Connector (to transfer and view images directly from a digital camera to an iPod). The new fourth-generation line of iPods/Color iPods came bundled with a USB cable and an AC adapter.

New Mac computers are bundled with iPhoto, while Windows users must either use the limited features within iTunes for Windows or purchase either of the Adobe products (a limited version of Adobe Album is available for download for free). To manage the photo library on iPod, Mac users use Apple's iPhoto software, while Windows users can use Adobe Photoshop Album or Elements, or use a limited set of features within the free iTunes for Windows software. Along with the new lineup, Apple also updated iTunes to version 4.9, which added podcasting capabilities to iTunes and to iPod. Apple Computer — as well as prominent fan sites (such as iLounge) — continued to refer to this lineup as fourth-generation iPods.

The price of the 60GB iPod photo, now known as iPod 60GB, dropped from $449 to $399, and Apple discontinued the $349 30GB iPod photo model. On June 28, 2005, Apple Computer merged the iPod and iPod photo lines, [10] removing all monochrome models from the main iPod line, giving the 20GB iPod all of the capabilities of the former iPod photo line for $299, the same price as the previous monochrome version. However, unlike the first iPod photos, the lower-priced 60GB and the new 30 GB models lacked the dock, FireWire cable, carrying case, or AV cables (accessories valued at approximately $120). On February 23, 2005, Apple discontinued the 40 GB model; which included a FireWire & USB cable and a dock, introduced a lower-priced 30 GB model; which included only a USB cable and no dock, and dropped the price of the 60 GB model.

It originally came in 40 GB and 60 GB versions, which cost $499 and $599, respectively. One millimeter thicker than the standard monochrome fourth-generation iPod, iPod photo could also play music for up to 15 hours per battery charge. Released on October 28, 2004, iPod photo (originally named iPod Photo — with a capital P for "Photo" — but renamed less than a month after its launch) featured a 220 x 176-pixel (maximum pixel count of 38,720), 16-bit color screen capable of displaying 65,536 colors, and the ability to store and display JPEG, BMP, GIF, TIFF, and PNG images. The monochrome fourth generation iPod, slightly thinner (about 1 mm less) than the third generation iPod, introduced the ability to charge the battery over a USB connection.

It came in one of two sizes: 20 GB for $299 and 40 GB for $399 (Apple discontinued the 40 GB model in February 2005 and began solely selling a monochrome 20 GB version). Originally, the fourth-generation iPod had a monochrome screen and no photo capabilities, like its predecessors. After many requests from users asking for these improvements to operate on earlier iPods as well, Apple on February 23, 2005, released a firmware update which brings the new menu items to first- through third-generation iPods. Other minor changes included the addition of a "Shuffle Songs" option on the top-level menu to make it more convenient for users.

Apple also claimed that updated software in the new iPod allows it to use the battery more efficiently and increase battery life to 12 hours. Some users criticized the click wheel because it does not have the backlight that the third generation iPod's buttons had, but others noted that having the buttons on the compass points largely removed any need for backlighting. In the most obvious difference from its predecessors, the fourth generation iPod carries over the click-wheel design introduced on the iPod mini. In a new publicity route, Steve Jobs announced it by becoming the subject of a Newsweek magazine cover.

In July 2004, Apple released the fourth generation iPod. Although past models proved widely popular, after the release of the third generation model Apple's iPod sales skyrocketed, with a combination of effective advertising and celebrity endorsement making iPods a fashionable item. When purchased through the online Apple Store, the iPod featured custom engraving: a purchaser could have two lines of text laser engraved on the back for free. The third generation iPod could not charge through USB 2.0 however).

These iPods also introduced Hi-Speed USB connectivity (with a separately sold USB adapter cable. Instead, all iPods now shipped with their hard drives formatted for Macintosh use; the included CD-ROM featured a Windows utility which could reformat them for use with a Windows PC. With the third generation iPod, Apple stopped shipping separate Mac and Windows versions of the unit. The touch-sensitive buttons, which build upon the touch-sensitive scroll wheel introduced in the second generation iPod, make the third generation iPod unique in that it has no external moving parts (other than the hold slider on the top of the unit) and is the first iPod that doesn't have its buttons surrounding the wheel.

The new buttons featured red backlighting (controlled by the same preference as the screen backlight), allowing easier use in darkness. The third generation iPod featured touch-sensitive buttons located below the display. The iPod Dock came bundled with all but the least expensive iPod, and also retails separately. This allows them to fit more easily into the new iPod Dock which Apple introduced at the same time.

These iPods use a 30-pin connector called the Dock Connector — longer and flatter than a FireWire plug. Over the life of the third generation iPod series, Apple produced 10 GB, 15 GB, 20 GB, 30 GB, and 40 GB sizes. Slightly smaller than their predecessors, they had more distinctively beveled edges. On April 28, 2003, Apple CEO Steve Jobs introduced an "ultrathin" iPod series.

The second generation iPod came with carrying cases and wired remotes and it was the first generation that was compatible with Windows. Due to the new Toshiba hard drives, the 20 GB iPod slightly exceeded its first generation counterpart in thickness and weight, while the 10 GB model was slimmer. Introduced on July 17, 2002, at Macworld in 10 GB and 20 GB capacities, the second generation iPod replaced the mechanical scroll wheel of the original with a touch-sensitive, nonmechanical one (manufactured by Synaptics), termed a "touch wheel". Perhaps somewhat an antique, the original iPod is very rare to find nowadays, as technology has, indeed, progressed to new possibilities.

Although superseded by nonmechanical "touch" and "click" wheels, the circular controller design has become a prominent iPod motif. The first generation iPod featured four buttons (Menu, Play/Pause, Back, and Forward) arranged around the circumference of the scroll wheel. Apple designed a mechanical scroll wheel and outsourced the implementation and development to Synaptics, a firm that also developed the trackpad used by many laptops, including Apple's PowerBooks. Apple announced a 10 GB version ($499) in March 2002.

[9] Critics panned the unit's price, but iPod proved an instant hit in the marketplace, quickly overtaking earlier hard drive MP3 players such as the NOMAD Jukebox. First announced on October 23, 2001, the original iPod cost $399 with a 5 GB hard drive. One can scale this proportion up; the current 30-gigabyte iPod can hold roughly 7,500 songs, though the Apple website states that 'actual formatted capacity may be lower.'. Encoding songs at higher bitrates will take up more space on the hard drive.

For the first and second generation iPod, 1 gigabyte will hold 200 songs. Note that Apple claims that 1 gigabyte of storage will hold 250, 4-minute songs in 128 kbit/s AAC. Currently, Apple sells two sizes of iPod: a 30 GB hard drive for $299, and a 60 GB model for $399. During the third generation, three sizes of iPods have coexisted in the marketplace at any given time, priced at US $299, $399, and $499.

Within any generation of iPods, various models with different sizes of hard drives have come onto the market at different price points. Five distinct generations of iPods exist, commonly known as: first, second, third, fourth and fifth generations. While all iPods have roughly the same size and the same capabilities, the design has undergone several revisions since its introduction to the market. Some of this is also taken up by the iPod's firmware.

For example, a 4 GB iPod mini actually had 3.77 GiB of usable storage. This comes about because the capacity advertised uses metric prefixes, not binary prefixes. As with most hard drive-based devices, the actual drive space available for music, photo, video and data storage does not quite attain the advertised capacity. Several product revisions have taken place since the original model of iPod appeared, leading to the existence of five distinct generations.

The Harry Potter 20 GB Collector's fourth-generation iPod was replaced by the Harry Potter 30 GB Collector's iPod, which is simply a fifth-generation iPod with a Harry Potter engraving and the Harry Potter audiobooks pre-loaded. The iPod U2 Special Edition was also discontinued. The iPod mini (4 GB and 6 GB and in various colors) are now discontinued, having been replaced by the iPod nano. The model range as of February 7, 2006 includes:.

Some models come with different capacities (a higher capacity allows the storage of more music) or with different designs. Apple currently markets three distinct players bearing the iPod name. An iPod unable to start (due to either a firmware or a hardware problem) displays the "sad iPod" image, reminiscent of the sad Mac icon of earlier Macintosh computers. The iPods with FireWire ports can be put into FireWire Disk Mode, in which it behaves like a FireWire hard drive without any of the additional iPod functionality.

Fourth and fifth generation iPods, second generation iPod minis, iPod nanos and iPod shuffles automatically pause playback when headphones are unplugged from the headphone jack, and turn on when you put the headphones into the headphone jack. Setting this switch to display orange will make the buttons and scroll wheel unresponsive, so that users do not activate them accidentally. A 'Hold' switch also exists on the top of the unit. (Note that fourth and fifth-generation iPods, iPod minis, and iPod nanos incorporate these buttons into the "click wheel" scroll wheel.).

The iPods (other than the iPod shuffle) have five buttons:. iPod contains a small internal speaker which generates the scroll-wheel clicks and alarm clock beep sound, but this internal speaker cannot play music. A servicer can pry the iPod open by carefully inserting a small non-metal screwdriver to pull the metal away from the clips. The plastic front of the case has clips which lock under a ridge inside the rim of the metal case back.

The unit's case snaps together, with no screws or glue involved (though the fourth generation has some glue holding the battery in place). From left to right:. This photograph shows the internal view of a third-generation iPod:. The iPod mini uses the "Espy Sans" font (previously seen in eWorld, the Newton, and Copland), while the color fourth-generation iPods (previously known as iPod photo) and fifth-generation iPods use Myriad, Apple's current corporate typeface.

Until the release of iPod mini, the user interface of all iPods used "Chicago", the font used on the original Macintosh computer from 1984. More recent iPods, such as the iPod nano and fifth-generation iPod, also incorporate the "brushed-metal" effect, previously used in iTunes before version 5.0, in their stopwatch and screen lock features. (The founder of Pixo had worked on the Apple Newton, a personal digital assistant formerly produced by Apple.) The Pixo libraries provide the user interface, though the iPod photo has incorporated some visual elements from Mac OS X, such as the animated Aqua style progress bar. His team integrated the core firmware from PortalPlayer with the user interface library developed by Pixo.

Jeff Robbin headed the iPod firmware team at Apple. Apple has not yet released a Linux version of the software used to flash the firmware of the iPod. As of 2005 only gtkpod offers such functionality for Linux and other Unix variants; however in early 2006, AmaroK will have full support for most iPods. However, a special database file serves to list the songs available to play, so a program such as iTunes is required to upload songs.

The iPod will also charge from any powered USB or Firewire port, regardless of software support. The iPod uses standard USB and FireWire mass-storage connectivity, and therefore any system with mass-storage support can mount it and use it as an external hard drive. Running this interface on an iPod photo has been known to cause irreparable problems. The linux interface is known as "Podzilla".

[8]. A SourceForge project exists for the project [7], and copious documentation appears online. It currently supports first through third generation iPods, and features simple installers for Mac OS X and Windows. The iPodLinux project has successfully ported an ARM version of the Linux kernel to run on iPods.

The ability to use an iPod as a boot disk for a Macintosh computer was lost when Apple removed FireWire with the introduction of the fifth-generation iPod since none of the G5-based Macintosh models can boot from an external USB drive. HFS+ leaves slightly more space available to store data, and it allowed the iPod to serve as a boot disk for a Macintosh computer. Currently, iPods ship with FAT32 by default and are reformatted for use with Macintosh computers, but they previously shipped formatted for Mac and would be reformatted for PC. An iPod with its hard drive formatted as HFS+ operated only with a Macintosh, because Windows does not support HFS+, but since the Macintosh could handle FAT32, an iPod formatted as FAT32 could operate with a Macintosh as well as with a PC.

[5] Apple released a Windows version of iTunes on October 16, 2003 [6]; previously, Windows users needed third-party software such as Musicmatch Jukebox (included with Windows iPods before the release of the Windows version of iTunes), ephPod, or XPlay to manage the music on their iPods. The original iPod interacted only with Macintosh computers running Mac OS 9 or Mac OS X until July 17, 2002, when Apple began selling a Windows-compatible iPod, with its internal hard drive formatted in FAT32 instead of the original HFS Plus. [4]. The signature earphones have such good recognition characteristics that they can become a liability – after a 24% rise in robbery and a 10% increase in grand larceny in the NYC subway system, a spokesperson for the New York City Police Department suggested that iPods might be behind the increases.

However, using Earjams can be uncomfortable to some users. Some users add extra bass to the standard white headphones by using Griffin Earjams - a clip on accessory that makes it possible to insert the headphones into the ear, using soft rubber adapters. This is often easily solved by applying a small amount of suction to the problem earphone. They are also known to develop a clicking noise at volume peaks, due to the membrane being displaced.

Users rate the substandard bass response as the most apparent negative characteristic found in the standard headphones. Despite the fact that new generations of the iPod now appear in black as well as white, the cords still remain white. The white cords have become symbolic of the iPod brand, and advertisements for the devices feature them prominently. All iPods come with earbud headphones with distinctive white cords and earbuds, a color chosen to match the design of the original iPod.

(The 60GB fifth-generation iPod holds 64 MiB of RAM, to further extend battery life.). For example, an iPod could spin the hard disk up once and copy about 30 MiB of upcoming songs on a playlist into RAM, thus saving power by not having the drive spin up for each song. All iPods, except for the 60GB fifth-generation iPod, have 32 MiB of RAM, a portion of which holds the iPod OS loaded from the firmware and the vast majority of which serves to cache songs loaded from the hard drive. The iPod has a 32-MiB flash ROM chip which contains a bootloader, a program that tells the device to load the operating system from another medium (in this case, the hard drive).

The iPod mini uses one-inch hard drives made by Hitachi. The iPods use 1.8-in (46-mm) ATA hard drives (with a proprietary connector) made by Toshiba. The first three generations of iPod used two ARM 7TDMI-derived CPUs running at 90 MHz, while later models have variable speed chips which run at a peak of 80 MHz to save battery life. iPods can recharge their internal batteries using either FireWire (all generations) or USB power (only fourth generation and later) while connected to a computer or to an iPod AC power adapter.

Apple stopped shipping FireWire cables with iPods in favor of only using Hi-Speed USB (USB 2.0), more than likely a cost-cutting and size-saving measure since many Windows-based PCs do not have FireWire ports. Except for iPod shuffle, iPod nano, and fifth-generation iPod, all previous models of iPod offered FireWire connectivity. The game, "Rock and Pop Trivia Quiz" from Coolgorilla takes the listener through 40 narrated questions on well known Rock & Pop artists. December 2005 saw the release of one the first iPod Game to make use of the iPod's ability to act as a "Sonic Gaming Platform".

All iPods (except the shuffle) feature "Brick", a clone of the Breakout arcade game from Atari (originally created by Apple cofounder Steve Wozniak) along with three other games:. Most iPods (the exception is the iPod shuffle) also feature games. However, iPod has limitations as a PDA, since users cannot edit this information on the iPod but only on a computer. It can also display notes, and hence host simple games and store restaurant information.

[3]. Repeated calls to Apple from consumers have yielded no commitment to correct this problem as of January, 2006. No workaround (including mentally converting times when reading them) is functionally acceptable due to the combined behaviours of iSync, iCal and the iPod with regards to converting events between timezones. Their timezones are excluded from the iPod's firmware, leaving them unable to properly sync calendar events and alarms to their devices.

The limited PDA calendar functions of the iPod are somewhat tainted for users from Newfoundland and parts of Australia. However the files can be manually dragged and dropped into the correct directory on the iPod. Although Mozilla Calendar and Mozilla SunbirdiCalendar have the same file format used by iCal and the iPod, there is no way to automatically sync schedules across from these programs. With the 2005 release of iTunes 5.0, Apple integrated contact/schedule syncing into iTunes and added the ability for Windows users to synchronize their contacts and schedules from Microsoft Outlook and Outlook Express.

Since January 2003, Mac users have been able to synchronize their contacts and schedules Address Book and iCal to their iPods through iSync. In addition to playing music and storing files, the iPod has limited PDA functionality. iTunes lacks the ability to transfer songs from iPod to computer because of legality issues. Apart from iTunes there are also several third-party applications available that can be used to transfer songs to the iPod.

Users may also set a rating (out of 5 stars) on any song, and can synchronize that information to an iTunes music library. iTunes can automatically synchronize a user's iPod with specific playlists or with the entire contents of a music library each time an iPod connects to a host computer. Apple designed the iPod to work with the iTunes media library software, which lets users manage the music libraries on their computers and on their iPods. Midis can also be played on iPods, but they first must be converted to the MP3 format by choosing the "advanced" menu on iTunes.

Reviewers have criticized the iPod's inability to play some other formats, in particular the Ogg Vorbis and FLAC formats. WMA files with copy protection cannot be played in iTunes or be copied to an iPod. The Windows version of iTunes can transcode non copy-protected WMA files to an iPod supported format. The fifth-generation iPod can also play .m4v (H.264) and .mp4 (MPEG-4) video file formats.

The iPod can play MP3, WAV, AAC/M4A, Protected AAC, AIFF, Audible audiobook and Apple Lossless audio file formats. 6,928,433: "Automatic hierarchical categorization of music by metadata", which Creative dubbed the "Zen Patent", granted on 9 August 2001).[2]. Patent No. Also in August 2005, Creative Technology, one of Apple's main rivals in the MP3 player market, announced that it too held a patent on part of the music selection interface used by the iPod (U.S.

Apple's application to the United States Patent and Trademark Office for a patent on "rotational user inputs", as used in the iPod's interface, received a third "non-final rejection" (NFR) in August 2005. In 2005, Apple Computer faced two lawsuits claiming patent infringement by the iPod and its associated technologies: Advanced Audio Devices claimed the iPod breached their patent on a "music jukebox" (See Hong Kong-based IP portfolio company Pat-rights filed suit on behalf of inventor Keung Tse Ho,) claiming that Apple's FairPlay technology breached their patent on "protection of software against unauthorized use".[1]. Apple and several industry analysts have posited that the iPod has a "halo effect", encouraging users of non-Apple products to switch to other Apple products, such as to Macintosh computers. The iPod has sold at a tremendous rate, now past 42 million units since its release.

As of October 2004, iPod dominated digital music player sales in the United States, with over 90% of the market for hard-drive-based players and over 70% of the market for all types of players. In 2003, Apple released third-generation iPods that included a single CD that included a Windows version of the iTunes software along with the Mac version. The actual iPods could work with either system (though to work with Windows, they had to use the FAT32 filesystem, Mac iPods could use either the FAT32 or HFS Plus filesystem). The only difference though was the bundled software, since there was no iTunes for Windows at the time, the Windows iPods came packaged with Musicmatch software.

In 2002, Apple released the second-generation iPod in two versions, one for Mac users and one for Windows users. It was unveiled by CEO Steve Jobs on October 23, 2001 as a Mac-compatible product with a 5GB hard drive that put “1,000 songs in your pocket.”. Apple’s Hardware engineering chief Jon Rubinstein assembled a team of engineers to design and build the first iPod in less than a year, with Tony Fadell and Michael Dhuey as the principal hardware engineers. While digital cameras, camcorders and organizers had well-established markets, the company found digital music players lacking in quality and Apple decided to develop its own.

Development of the iPod grew out of Apple’s digital hub strategy, as the company was creating software applications for the growing number of digital devices being snapped up by consumers. Recently, some media have started referring to the generation primarily born in the late 1980s, and which in particular has made the iPod popular, as the iGeneration, suggesting that the "i" family of products may have a far-reaching cultural impact. When Apple first introduced the iMac, the "i" stood for Internet (as well as a possible tongue-in-cheek reference to Steve Jobs's title with the company at the time, interim CEO, abbreviated iCEO), meaning that the iMac shipped with everything needed for a connection, but the prefix stuck, as the brand recognition associated with it has positive effects on the sales of Apple products. The company has many other products with a lowercase "i" in front of the name, including iSight, iChat, iTunes, iDVD, iBook, and many more.

Apple's web site reflects this usage (for example, "iPod incorporates the same touch-sensitive Apple Click Wheel that debuted on iPod mini"), which resembles Apple's use of the words Macintosh or iMac. Apple Computer often refers to the player as iPod, without use of the definite article the. . The most recent incarnations of iPod and iTunes have video playing and organization features.

A music jukebox application, iTunes stores a comprehensive library of the user's music on his or her computer, and can play and rip music from a CD. The bundled software used for uploading music, photos, and videos to the iPod is called iTunes. The iPod is currently the world's best-selling digital audio player. As of January 2006, the lineup consists of the fifth-generation iPod, which has video playback capabilities, the iPod nano which has a color screen, and the iPod shuffle; all three versions were released in 2005.

Discontinued versions of the iPod include two generations of the popular iPod mini and four generations of the full-sized iPod, all of which had monochrome screens except for the fourth-generation iPod with color screen (previously sold as iPod photo before it replaced the monochrome iPod in the top line). Like most digital audio players, an iPod can serve as an external data storage device when connected to a computer. The standard iPod model stores media on a built-in hard drive, while the smaller iPod shuffle and iPod nano use flash memory. Devices in the iPod family provide a simple user interface designed around a central scroll wheel (with the exception of the iPod shuffle).

Hugely popular, the iPod provides excellent sound quality and the ability to hold immense amounts of music. The iPod is a brand of portable digital media player designed and marketed by Apple Computer. Accessed on October 13, 2005. Notes." MP3 Newswire.

"Apple Portable Does Video. ^  Richard Menta. Accessed on August 22, 2005. "Eminem settles with Apple over iPod commercial." c|net News.com.

^  Ina Fried. Accessed on August 22, 2005. "New iPod ads feature U2." Macworld. ^  Jim Dalrymple.

Accessed on August 22, 2005. "Pepsi ads wink at music downloading." USA Today. ^  Theresa Howard. The first iPod television ad.

^  Beat. Accessed on August 23, 2005. ^  "Hewlett-Packard to Stop Reselling iPods." Forbes. Accessed on January 18, 2006.

^  "Apple Reports First Quarter Results." Apple. Accessed on August 23, 2005. ^  "Apple Reports Third Quarter Results." Apple. Accessed on August 22, 2005.

"It's iPod's Revolution: We Just Live in It." Fortune. ^  Andy Serwer. Stan Ng — Director of iPod Product Marketing. Danika Cleary — iPod Product Manager.

Sanjeev Kumar. Jeff Robbin. Tony Fadell — Apple Vice President of iPod Engineering. Jonathan Ive — Apple Vice President of Industrial Design.

[57]. Apple announced on October 14, 2005 that Jon Rubinstein will retire on March 31, 2006 and be succeeded by Tony Fadell. Jon Rubinstein — Apple Senior Vice President of the iPod Division. Steve Jobs — CEO of Apple.

It featured Wynton Marsalis performing "Sparks". The ad is in blue and features many circular shapes in the background. On January 10, 2006, Apple premiered a new silhouette ad, based on the modified silhouette campaign (read above). [56].

The silhouette of Eminem also shows more highlights and shadows. Instead of a solid background, the background is a busy montage of different shapes and buildings in similar tones of orange. The other was a video of Eminem performing Lose Yourself in a modified version of the silhouette style. One featured a video of U2's Original of the Species playing on the new iPod's screen, held by a hand in the same style as the iPod nano adverts.

On October 12, 2005 Apple introduced two ads for the iPod fifth generation. They focused instead on the diminutive size of the product, with live-action shots of a hand holding an iPod nano on a black background, flipping it round and fiddling with it, to show how small and light it was. The TV adverts that accompanied the release of the iPod nano were the first for a long time not to incorporate the silhouette theme. The giveaway lasted for two months and included 100 million codes under the caps of Pepsi drinks, of which only 5 million were redeemed by its end.

In conjunction, Pepsi also launched ads featuring young teenagers who had been accused of unauthorized filesharing by the RIAA, who go on to say they will still download music for free thanks to the Pepsi iTunes Giveaway. Each bottle had a 1:3 chance of winning a free download. On February 1, 2004, during the Super Bowl, Pepsi and Apple kicked off their promotional deal to include a free iTunes download under the caps of Pepsi bottled soda. The iPod shuffle was released alongside TV commercials featuring silhouettes dancing on a green background with Apple's shuffle symbol moving underneath them, showing their intent on incorporating their silhouette campaign with each of their products.

[55]. To commemorate the launch of the U2 iPod, Apple released an ad featuring the music video of Vertigo (changed to characteristic iPod silhouettes). These commercials featured popular songs, such as The Vines' Ride, The Caesars' Jerk it Out, Gorillaz' Feel Good Inc., Steriogram's Walkie-Talkie Man, Jet's Are You Gonna Be My Girl, Propellerheads' Take California, Ozomatli's Saturday Night, N.E.R.D.'s Rock Star (Jason Nevin's Mix), Franz Ferdinand's Take Me Out, Daft Punk's Technologic, and many more. It featured silhouettes dancing to music while listening to iPods.

In October 2003, Apple released their first TV commercial of the silhouette campaign, which had already been featured for some time in print. The commercials featured a wide range of music, including The Who's My Generation, Sir Mix-a-lot's Baby Got Back, Pink's There You Go, and Eminem's Lose Yourself. The ads featured informally dressed persons wearing iPods and giving animated silent renditions of popular songs, accompanied by dancing, air guitar, and other performances. In April 2003, Apple introduced a new ad campaign in conjunction with the launch of the iTunes Music Store.

[54]. The ad can be viewed on Apple's web site. The first iPod ad, featuring the tagline "A thousand songs, in your pocket" was launched alongside iPod in November 2001. [31] [32].

Honda will be the first to include text-to-speech capabilities that allow drivers to search for playlists, artist and album names or genre. More than thirty percent of the cars in the United States now include iPod support. With these deals Apple now has 15 car companies worldwide planning to offer iPod integration. Apple announced in September 2005 that they now have deals with Acura, Audi, Honda and Volkswagen to integrate iPod into their car stereos during the year.

[28] [29] [30]. Apple announced at Macworld Expo in January 2005 that Mercedes-Benz USA, Volvo, Nissan, Alfa Romeo and Ferrari would offer similar systems. The iPod attached to a cable harness in the car's glove compartment and allowed the driver to create up to five unique "BMW playlists" that were displayed through the vehicle's radio head unit. [27] The interface allowed drivers of late-model BMW vehicles to control their iPod through the built-in steering wheel controls and the radio head unit buttons.

BMW released the first iPod automobile interface to come from an automotive company. Volvo: S40, S60, S80, V50, V70, XC70, XC90. Volkswagen: Beetle, Jetta, Golf, GTI, Passat, Touareg. Suzuki: Aerio SX, Grand Vitara.

Scion: xA, xB, tC. Nissan: Frontier, Pathfinder, Armada. Mini: Cooper, Cooper S. Mercedes-Benz: C-Class, CLK, CLS, E-Class, SLK, M-Class, R-Class.

Jeep: Liberty, Wrangler. Honda: Accord, Civic, CR-V, Element, Odyssey, Pilot, Ridgeline, S2000. Dodge: Caravan, Grand Caravan, Neon, Ram, Stratus Sedan. Chrysler: Pacifica, Sebring, Town & Country.

BMW: Z4, X3, X5. Audi: A3, A4, Allroad. Acura: MDX, RL, TL using Acura Music Link (option only - installation and parts required). iPod shuffle (512 MB and 1 GB).

iPod nano (1 GB, 2 GB and 4 GB). iPod (30 GB and 60 GB). 'Center' (the button in the center of the scroll wheel; this selects a menu or a menu item). 'Next' (which skips forward through tracks in play).

'Previous' (which skips back through tracks in play). 'Play/Pause' (which plays or pauses the track in play). 'Menu' (which backs up one level in the menus). A hole on the bottom of the case allows access to the dock connector port on the circuit board.

Wires connect the ports and switch on the top of the case to a small plug. The rear of the iPod. The layer of rubber also helps to protect a spinning hard drive from shock damage while the owner of the iPod moves about. The hard drive, surrounded by a layer of soft rubber which also extends beneath it to insulate it from the circuit board.

The lithium ion battery. Note three connectors: the battery connects in the lower-right corner; the hard drive connector lies to the left of the black area in the lower left; and the headphone jack, wired remote control jack, and Hold switch (all located on the top of the iPod) connect as a single plug in the top right. The lighter green circuit board controls the iPod (and leaves room for the battery to fit beside it), and the darker green board beneath it controls the touch-scroll wheel and the buttons. The front of the iPod casing (facedown).

An intact third-generation iPod. This allows the user to read small text files. Notes: iPod also has the function to read eBooks through use of the Notes Function. No record is kept of the score, and there is no limit on the number of songs played; however, the songs repeat after the first 100.

Music Quiz became available through a free firmware update for third-generation iPods released in October 2003 and later came standard with the iPod mini and fourth-generation iPods. The faster the users choose the right song, the more points they get. A song drops off the list every few seconds. The game plays a portion of a random song and prompts the user to identify it from a list of 5 (or of 4 on the iPod mini).

Music Quiz: an interactive music quiz featuring the user's own songs. Solitaire: a simple card game resembling the Klondike solitaire card game. Parachute is similar to the Apple II game Sabotage by Mark Allen. Parachute: a game in which the user controls a turret and attempts to shoot down paratroopers and the helicopters which release them.

12-22-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List