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Dita Von TeeseOn the cover of Playboy, December 2002. Cover of a book by Midori, featuring Dita Von Teese in bondage.
Dita Von Teese (born Heather Sweet on September 28, 1972 in Rochester, Michigan) is a popular American burlesque artist.
Von Teese is fond of wearing elaborate lingerie such as corsets and stockings, and, in her words, "puts the tease back into striptease" with long, complex dance shows complete with props and characters.
She was featured in Playboy magazine in 1999, 2001 and 2002.
She is also a leading fetish model and has been compared to Bettie Page. She also acts, in such movies as Romancing Sara, Matter of Trust, in which she is billed as Heather Sweet, and also in two films by Andrew Blake: Pin Ups 2 and Decadence.
Appearances in Playboy Special Editions
On December 3, 2005, von Teese was married to American musician Marilyn Manson in a non-denominational ceremony at Curteen Castle in Kilsheelan (County Tipperary), Ireland, the home of Gottfried Helnwein. The wedding was officiated by surrealist film director and comic book writer Alejandro Jodorowsky. They reportedly exchanged vows in front of approximately 60 guests, including Lisa Marie Presley, and she wore a royal purple silk taffeta gown by Vivienne Westwood plus a tri-corned hat and matching corset. The two have been a couple since 2000.
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The two have been a couple since 2000. Instead, the agency relies on other methods, including death certificates and urging physicians to send suspicious cases to the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC) at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, which is funded by the CDC. They reportedly exchanged vows in front of approximately 60 guests, including Lisa Marie Presley, and she wore a royal purple silk taffeta gown by Vivienne Westwood plus a tri-corned hat and matching corset. In the U.S., the CDC has refused to impose a national requirement that physicians and hospitals report cases of the disease. The wedding was officiated by surrealist film director and comic book writer Alejandro Jodorowsky. In the UK anyone with possible vCJD symptoms must be reported to the UK Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit and so it is unlikely that any cases would be missed. On December 3, 2005, von Teese was married to American musician Marilyn Manson in a non-denominational ceremony at Curteen Castle in Kilsheelan (County Tipperary), Ireland, the home of Gottfried Helnwein. As for vCJD in humans, autopsy tests are not always done and so those figures too are likely to be too low, but probably by a lesser fraction.
. It is noticeable that there are no cases reported in Australia and New Zealand where cattle are mainly fed outside on grass pasture and, mainly in Australia, non-grass feeding is done only as a final finishing process before the animals are processed for meat. She also acts, in such movies as Romancing Sara, Matter of Trust, in which she is billed as Heather Sweet, and also in two films by Andrew Blake: Pin Ups 2 and Decadence. Even so, currently the only reliable test is examination of tissues during an autopsy. She is also a leading fetish model and has been compared to Bettie Page. Newer tests are faster, more sensitive, and cheaper, so it is possible that future figures may be more comprehensive. She was featured in Playboy magazine in 1999, 2001 and 2002. Tests are also difficult as the altered prion protein has very small levels in blood or urine, and no other signal has been found.
Von Teese is fond of wearing elaborate lingerie such as corsets and stockings, and, in her words, "puts the tease back into striptease" with long, complex dance shows complete with props and characters. At the opposite end of the scale, Japan tests all cattle at the time of slaughter. Dita Von Teese (born Heather Sweet on September 28, 1972 in Rochester, Michigan) is a popular American burlesque artist. For instance, in the EU the cattle tested are older (30 months+), while many cattle are slaughtered earlier than that. ISBN 0060591676. The tests used for detecting BSE vary considerably as do the regulations in various jurisdictions for when, and which cattle, must be tested. Dita Von Teese, Burlesque and the Art of the Teese, Regan Books, 2006. The figures given above for BSE are certainly too low, and most likely by a considerable amount.
Playboy's Sexy 100 February 2003. BSE is the disease in cattle, whilst vCJD is the disease in people. 84 March 2002. The following table summarizes reported cases of BSE and of vCJD by country. Playboy's Book of Lingerie Vol. Indeed, US meat producer Creekstone Farms alleges that the USDA is preventing BSE testing from being conducted . 78 March 2001. Even so, critics call the partial prohibitions insufficient.
Playboy's Book of Lingerie Vol.  Compliance with the regulations was shown to be extremely poor before the discovery of the Washington cow, but industry representatives report that compliance is now 100%. 75 September 2000. In February 2001, the USGAO reported that the FDA, which is responsible for regulating feed, had not adequately policed the various bans. Playboy's Book of Lingerie Vol.  A proposal to end the use of cow blood, restaurant scraps, and chicken litter (fecal matter, feathers) in January 2004 was eventually scrapped, despite the efforts of some advocates of such a policy, who cite the fact that cows are herbivores, and that blood and fecal matter could potentially carry BSE. 74 July 2000 (pages 68-69). In addition, it is legal for ruminants to be fed byproducts from some of these animals.
Playboy's Book of Lingerie Vol. However, the byproducts of ruminants can still be legally fed to pets or other livestock and poultry such as pigs and chickens. 72 March 2000. In 1997, regulations prohibited the feeding of mammalian byproducts to ruminants such as cows and goats. Playboy's Book of Lingerie Vol. regulations only partially prohibit the use of animal byproducts in feed. 70 November 1999. However, U.S.
Playboy's Book of Lingerie Vol. As a result, the use of animal byproduct feeds was never common, as it was in Europe. Playboy's Girlfriends September 1999 (pages 76-81). Soybean meal is cheap and plentiful in the United States. 69 September 1999. . Playboy's Book of Lingerie Vol. Trace-backs revealed that this cow originated from a herd in Texas, making it the first BSE cow native to the United States.
67 May 1999 - Mizuno (pages 28-29). Tests carried out at the USDA laboratory in Ames, Iowa indicated the presence of BSE, and after subsequent confirmation from the Weybridge Veterinary Laboratory in the United Kingdom, the USDA acknowledged the second case of BSE on June 24. Playboy's Book of Lingerie Vol. On June 10, 2005, the USDA reported a possible case of BSE in the United States. 66 March 1999. No case of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has occurred in North America so far, except among those who have traveled to Europe. Playboy's Book of Lingerie Vol. .
64 November 1998 (pages 84-85). Japanese inspectors found material from cattle backbone in three of 41 boxes in a 858-pound shipment of beef from Atlantic Veal & Lamb. Playboy's Book of Lingerie Vol. Brooklyn-based Atlantic Veal & Lamb inspectors failed to notice there was bone material included in a shipment of veal to Japan. Playboy's Body Language October 1998.  It was, however, quick to reinstate the ban. 62 July 1998 (Mizuno, pages 14-15). Japan lifted its ban on US beef in December 2005.
Playboy's Book of Lingerie Vol. . Playboy's Real Sex February 1998. Notwithstanding, Japanese beef exports, chiefly the expensive wagyu, have been banned in the United States since Japan experienced its first case of BSE in January 2001. 58 November 1997 (Mizuno, pages 8-9). Since Japan and South Korea are the first- and third-largest importers of US beef, respectively, the economic impact of their bans is significant both for American cattle ranchers and for Japanese and Korean beef consumers. Playboy's Book of Lingerie Vol. beef until the authorities can be assured of its safety.
Playboy's Lingerie Model Search February 1997. discovery of BSE in 2003, Japan and South Korea instituted temporary bans on the import of U.S. Shortly after the U.S. surveillance relied on a test that gave results only after two weeks, after which time the meat from an animal usually has all been sold. Until the switch, U.S.
authorities called for a switch to the testing procedure that is used in the United Kingdom, which yields its results in one day. U.S. The meat of the BSE-positive cow went to market, but some of it was successfully recalled before it was sold to consumers. Only 200,000 cows slaughtered in 2003 were downers.
 Therefore it is not clear how effective the ban is in reducing the number of infected cattle consumed. Furthermore, there is some dispute as to whether the cow was a downer or not. While the Washington cow that tested positive for BSE was reportedly unable to stand, veterinarians say the condition was unrelated to BSE. The government plans to double the number of cattle tested in 2004, and has banned the use of "downer cows" for human consumption.
authorities have very little idea of how many American beef cattle might have the disease. As a result, U.S. Therefore, it is possible that even among those cattle that are tested and classified as negative, a proportion nevertheless may be contagious. Current tests reveal the presence of misshaped prions when they are abundant, but it is not known how far the disease must progress in an individual to transmit it to others.
 Agriculture Secretary Ann Veneman called the discovery "a clear indication that our surveillance and detection program is working." However, the United States tested only 20,526 cows in 2003 out of the roughly 35 million slaughtered. On December 23, 2003, the first case of BSE in the United States was found in a single Holstein cow in Mabton, Washington, although trace-backs later revealed that this cow originated from a Canadian herd. The United States also issued a temporary ban on all Canadian beef. The animal was destroyed after being declared unfit for consumption.
It occurred in a single older cow that may have contracted the disease from contaminated feed in earlier years. The second was reported in Canada on May 20, 2003. The first was in 1993, involving an animal born in Britain. As of January 2005, five BSE-infected cattle have been identified in North America.
regarding a possible risk of transmission of the BSE agent in gelatin products.". that there were some licensed surgical sutures derived from French bovine material." Concerns were also raised: ".. expressed concerns about the possible transmission of the BSE/scrapie agent to man through use of certain cosmetic treatments." Sources in France reported to the British Medicines Control Agency: ".. there was no insulin sourced from cattle in the UK or Ireland and that the situation in other countries was being monitored." In 1991 a European Community Commission: "..
no licensing action is required at present in regard to products produced from bovine material or using prepared bovine brain in nutrient media and sourced from outside the United Kingdom, the Channel Isles and the Republic of Ireland provided that the country of origin is known to be free of BSE, has competent veterinary advisers and is known to practise good animal husbandry." In 1990 the British Diabetic Association became concerned regarding the safety of bovine insulin and the government licensing agency assured them that: ".. use of bovine insulin in a small group of mainly elderly patients was noted and it was recognised that alternative products for this group were not considered satisfactory." A medicines licensing committee report that same year recommended that: ".. identify relevant manufacturers and obtain information about the bovine material contained in children’s vaccines, the stocks of these vaccines and how long it would take to switch to other products." It was further reported that the: ".. "..
On May 7, 1999 in his written statement number 476 to the BSE Inquiry, David Osborne Hagger reported on behalf of the Medicines Control Agency that in a previous enquiry the Agency had been asked to:. During the course of the investigation into the BSE epidemic, an enquiry was also made into the activities of the Department of Health and its Medicines Control Agency. . In 2005 a controversial paper in The Lancet suggested that BSE might have originated in British cattle when they ate imported animal feed that included infected human remains from Hindu funeral ceremonies in India.
So far nothing is known about the relative transmissibility of the two disease strains of BSE prion. But cruder measures yield a "biochemical signature" by which the newly discovered cattle strain appears different from the familiar one, but similar to the clumped prions in humans with traditional CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease).The finding of a second strain of BSE prion raises the possibility that transmission of BSE to humans has been underestimated, because some of the individuals diagnosed with spontaneous or "sporadic" CJD may have actually contracted the disease from tainted beef. Very little is known about the shape of disease-causing prions, because their insolubility and tendency to clump thwarts application of the detailed measurement techniques of structural biology. In other words, this implies a second strain of BSE prion.
In 2004 researchers reported evidence of a second contorted shape of prions in a rare minority of diseased cattle. As a result the full extent of the human vCJD outbreak is still not fully known. This is attributed to the long incubation period for prion diseases, which are typically measured in years or decades. Although the BSE epidemic was eventually brought under control by culling all suspect cattle populations, people are still being diagnosed with vCJD each year (though the number of new cases currently seems to be dropping).
It is estimated that 400,000 cattle infected with BSE entered the human food chain in the 1980s. Disease incidence also appears to correlate with slaughtering practices that led to the mixture of nervous system tissue with hamburger and other beef. For many of the vCJD patients, direct evidence exists that they had consumed tainted beef, and this is assumed to be the mechanism by which all affected individuals contracted it. Up to date statistics on all types of CJD are published by the UK CJD Surveillance Centre in Edinburgh.
There is also some concern about those who work with (and therefore inhale) cattle meat and bone meal, such as horticulturists, who use it as fertilizer. Three cases of vCJD occurred in people who had lived in or visited Britain--one each in Ireland, Canada and the United States. Of the 157 cases of vCJD in humans so far, 148 occurred in the United Kingdom, 6 in France, and one in Italy. This is a separate disease from 'classical' Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, which is not related to BSE and has been known about since the early 1900s.
Following an epidemic of BSE in Britain, 157 people (as of 2004) acquired and died of a disease with similar neurological symptoms subsequently called vCJD, or (new) variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. While other European countries like Germany required said animal byproducts to undergo a high temperature steam boiling process, this requirement had been eased in Britain as a measure to keep prices competitive. A contributing factor seems to have been a change in British laws that allowed a lower temperature sterilization of the protein meal. A change to the rendering process in the early 1980s may have resulted in a large increase of the infectious agents in the cattle feed.
However, soybeans do not grow well in Europe, so cattle raisers throughout Europe turned to the less expensive animal byproduct feeds as an alternative. Worldwide, Soybean meal is the primary plant-based protein supplement fed to cattle. The use of meat and bone meal as a protein supplement in cattle feed was widespread in Europe prior to about 1987. The tissues that contain most of the pathogenic molecules are those of the brain and the nervous system, although infectious amounts have been shown experimentally to be present elsewhere, such as in blood.
As more animals became ill, more infectious tissue got into the feed, and so the number of cases reached epidemic proportions. This practice allowed the accumulation of prions over many generations. Prior to the BSE epidemic, cattle were fed with meat and bone meal, a high-protein substance obtained from the remnants of butchered animals, including cows and sheep. However, sheep and cattle TSEs are quite different and it is now thought more likely that BSE could have originated with a case of sporadic BSE in a single bovine.
It was first believed to have originated in sheep, in which the related prion disease scrapie is common (such diseases collectively are called "transmissible spongiform encephalopathies" or TSEs). The British BSE epidemic in cattle was recognised in 1986. These aggregate to form dense plaque fibers, which lead to the microscopic appearance of "holes" in the brain, degeneration of physical and mental abilities and ultimately death. In the brain these proteins cause native cellular prion protein to deform into the infectious state which then goes on to deform further prion protein in an exponential cascade.
Transmission can occur when healthy animals consume tainted tissues from others with the disease. Most TSEs, however, occur sporadically in animals that do not have a prion protein mutation. TSEs can arise in animals that carry a rare mutant prion allele, which expresses prions that contort by themselves into the disease-causing shape. BSE is a type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE).
Misshapen ("misfolded") prion proteins carry the disease between individuals and cause deterioration of the brain. Unlike other kinds of infectious disease which are spread by microbes, the infectious agent in BSE is a specific type of protein. . While never having killed cattle on a scale comparable to other dreaded livestock diseases, such as foot and mouth and rinderpest, BSE has attracted wide attention because people assume humans can contract the disease, but it has never been proven that BSE has any link to variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (vCJD), sometimes called new variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (nvCJD), a human brain-wasting disease.
The disease appears transmissible to humans. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of cattle, which infects by a mechanism that shocked biologists on its discovery in late 20th century.