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CeCe Winans, born Priscilla Winans, is an American gospel singer. She was born in Detroit, Michigan. Her first solo album, Alone in His Presence, was released in 1995; she had previously recorded as part of a duet with her brother BeBe Winans. Many of her ten siblings, as well as her parents, were professional gospel singers.
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Many of her ten siblings, as well as her parents, were professional gospel singers. Increasingly, many jurisdictions also permit cannabis use for medicinal purposes. Her first solo album, Alone in His Presence, was released in 1995; she had previously recorded as part of a duet with her brother BeBe Winans. By effectively removing the user from the criminal justice system, decriminalization focuses more on those who traffic and sell the drug on the black market. She was born in Detroit, Michigan. Many jurisdictions have also decriminalized possession of small quantities of cannabis, so that it is punished by confiscation and/or a fine, rather than imprisonment. CeCe Winans, born Priscilla Winans, is an American gospel singer. Since the twentieth century, most legal jurisdictions of the world have laws against the cultivation, use, possession, or transfer of cannabis (and these laws impact adversely of course on the herb's cultivation for non-drug purposes) but there are many regions where certain circumstances of cannabis handling are legal or licensed and others where laws against its use, possession, or sale are not enforced.
Throne Room (2003). Main article: Legal issues of cannabis. CeCe Winans (2001). In addition, users note an improved ability to distinguish subtle characteristics of flavor and aroma, in absence of lighter gas fumes or burnt matter. Alabaster Box (1999). As a result, some users claim to experience subtly different effects when using cannabis in this way. His Gift (1998). By contrast, vaporization may preserve some of these cannabinoids, although the concentrations of the various cannabinoids may be disparate to those in smoked cannabis.
Everlasting Love (1998). It is worth noting that the effects of combustion break down many of the cannabinoids present in cannabis to varying degrees when smoked. Alone in His Presence (1995). With this method, the user does not inhale as many toxic chemicals that are byproducts of combustion and so may be less harmful. Usually with a vaporizer, cannabis can be heated to a temperature at which the active ingredients are released into gaseous form with little or no burning of the plant material. See Cooking with cannabis external links below.
They contain little THC. The seeds of the plant, high in protein and fatty acids, can also be roasted and eaten. The tea is, however, reputed to be a tasty and relaxing drink. Contrary to popular belief, Cannabis Tea does not contain significant amounts of THC, because THC, along with the other cannabinoids, is highly insoluble in water, but readily dissolves into the fats and alcohol.
Preparing cannabis for oral consumption must be done with fats or alcohol. Still, it usually takes more than an hour for the effects to set in, as opposed to smoking, where it takes but a few minutes. As with other drugs that are taken orally, it is sometimes customary to fast before taking the drug to increase the effect (possibly because an empty stomach will absorb the drug faster so it 'hits' you more strongly). Infusion in drinks containing milk and flavoring herbs is also possible, and more common in India.
Common preparations involve blending with butter that is used in preparing brownies, fudge or cookies. It takes some experience for one to regulate the dose. It is thought that the active component of cannabis, delta- 9 THC, is converted to the more psychoactive delta-11 THC in the liver. The effects of the drug take longer to begin, but last longer and may be more physical rather than mental.
With this method, some claim that more cannabis must be used. Cannabis may be orally consumed by blending it with alcohol or fats. The most common method of cannabis consumption is by smoking a hit through one of several classes of devices:. They differ in their appearance and the highs they produce.
These include Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis, the latter containing somewhat less THC. There are also three different species of Cannabis. Cannabis is prepared for human consumption in several forms:. Many individuals also consider their use of cannabis to be spiritual regardless of organized religion.
This claim is founded on the Hebrew reference to "kanehbosm" (aromatic hemp), which has however been translated variously by other sources as meaning calamus or even cinnamon. The etymological significance aside, calamus and cinnamon are not known to produce the kinds of spiritual experiences associated with anointment. Some have contended that the Old Testament book of Exodus at 30:23 included cannabis as one of the ingredients in the holy anointing oil which was to be used by Jewish priests. In this way Rastafarians believe that cannabis brings the user closer to Jah. Thus the Rastafarians come together to smoke marijuana in order to discuss the truth with each other, reasoning it all out little by little through many sessions.
They see cannabis as having the capacity to allow the user to penetrate the truth of how things are much more clearly, as if the wool had been pulled from the eyes of the former non-user. The use of cannabis, and particularly of large pipes called "chalices", is an integral part of what Rastafarians call Reasoning sessions. Rastafarians claim to know that cannabis is the Tree of Life mentioned in the Bible. Bob Marley, amongst many others, said, "the herb [ganja] is the healing of the nations". It is not known when or why the Rastafarians made cannabis into something sacred, though it is clear that by the late 1940s Rastafari was associated with cannabis smoking at the Pinnacle community of Leonard Howell.
The most famous religious group to use cannabis in a spiritual context are the Rastafari movement, though they are by no means the only group. Cannabis has a long history of spiritual use, especially in India, where it has been used by wandering spiritual sadhus for centuries. See section History for information on historic and other medical use. THC has also been found to reduce arterial blockages. (http://www.nature.com/news/2005/050404/full/050404-7.html) A sublingual spray derived from an extract of cannabis has also been approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis in Canada as the prescription drug Sativex.
A synthetic version of the active ingredient in cannabis, THC, is readily available in the form of a pill as the prescription drug Marinol. The medical use of cannabis is politically controversial, but it is sometimes recommended informally by physicians. It is also used to relieve glaucoma and certain neurological illnesses such as epilepsy ,migraine and bipolar disorder. Medically, cannabis is most often used as an appetite stimulant and pain reliever for certain terminal illnesses such as cancer and AIDS.
Main article: Medical marijuana. While some studies have demonstrated a correlation between cannabis use and lung cancer, this might primarily indicate only that cannabis use may correlate with tobacco use, and more objective scientific attention is needed to separate these and other factors in order to better understand the potential long-term physiological effects of cannabis use itself.  (http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2000/108-10/correspondence.html#thc) Furthermore, the concentration of toxic and carcinogenic additives such as nicotine, arsenic, and radium-226, is substantially greater in tobacco cigarettes than in cannabis. However, the average cannabis user smokes less frequently, and there is evidence that cannabinoids present in cannabis may actually serve to protect against cancer.
Some cannabis smokers inhale the smoke more deeply and hold it in their lungs for a longer period of time. Studies have pointed out that cannabis produces more tar and burns at a higher temperature than tobacco. These effects are particularly apparent with repeated and prolonged use. Any time you inhale smoke, the respiratory system is adversely affected.
In some ways, the effects of smoking cannabis are similar to the effects of smoking any substance. In Jamaica, cannabis is often called wisdom weed, and in India, it has long been seen in this way. It can be used to increase mental performance and concentration, and give insights into the nature of how things are. Some claim that extended use of cannabis may help a human reach a higher level of mental consciousness and clarity, expanding the mind and helping individuals become more aware, insightful and intelligent.
Though cannabis has been used for thousands of years, and has been increasingly popular in the west since the sixties it is only since the nineties that the link between cannabis and psychosis has been identified. On the other hand, many people with pronounced psychological disorders, especially schizophrenia and depression, often self-medicate their illness with cannabis in place of potent main-stream drugs like antipsychotics, due to cannabis's relatively low side effects and calming physiological effects that alleviate symptoms. Rather, cannabis may trigger latent conditions or be part of a complex coordination of causes, referred to as the diathesis-stress model in psychology. There is an increasing correlation in some people between cannabis use and psychosis, schizophrenia, and clinical depression, but there is no evidence that cannabis use causes these illnesses.
However, subtle impairment of complex cognitive function may persist even after long periods of abstinence in some of the users who suffered from decreased cognitive performance in the first place. In some people, cannabis use appears to cause significant medium-term decreases in cognitive performance, but performance on general intelligence and cognitive tests returns to "normal" in those people affected in this way within weeks of abstinence depending on the level of use. In particular, because THC has a very long half-life, working its way out of the body slowly over many days, it thereby obviates severe withdrawal effects seen in other substances. However, because cannabis is a peculiar psychedelic that is unlike typical depressant or stimulant drugs, these persistent effects are unlike those normally associated with physical dependence.
(DEA, 2004) Yet, many animal and human studies conducted since the 1970s have revealed a cannabis withdrawal syndrome in some people after abstinence from heavy use which is usually characterized by several days of anxiousness, sleeplessness or more vivid, memorable dreams (REM rebound), irritability, and diminished appetite after cessation of use. Although use may become habitual, the extent of physical dependence to cannabis is unknown. When subjects who use only cannabis are combined in the same sample with subjects who use other drugs, an experiment could not conclude that its findings are indicative of an effect of the use of cannabis rather than an effect of the use of other drugs, or an effect of a complex combination of cannabis with other drugs. The most significant confounding factor in determining long-term effects is the use of other drugs by test subjects in studies of cannabis use.
Many old studies which purported to demonstrate such effects were deeply flawed, with strong bias and poor methodology. There is little conclusive scientific evidence about the long-term effects of human cannabis consumption. Also, some evidence suggests that toxic levels may be higher for humans than for rats. Only with intravenous administration, a method rarely used by humans, may such a level be possible.
It would be impossible for THC in blood plasma to reach such a level in human cannabis smokers. As for oral consumption, the LD50 for rats was 1270 mg/kg and 730 mg/kg for males and females, respectively. According to the Merck Index, 12th edition, the LD50, the lethal dose for 50% of tested rats, was 42 milligrams per kilogram of body weight with forced inhalation. No fatal overdose due to cannabis use has ever been recorded in humans.
Mild allergies to cannabis may be possible in some members of the population. Cannabinoid receptors are also present in the human reproductive system, but there is insufficient scientific study to conclusively determine the effects of cannabis on reproduction. THC has an effect on the modulation of the immune system which may have an effect on malignant cells, but there is insufficient scientific study to determine whether this might promote or limit cancer. Depending on the ratio, the quality of the "high" will vary.
Different marijuana products have different ratios of these and other cannaboids. THC can degrade to CBL & CBN (other cannaboids), which can make one feel sleepy and disorientated. Of the approximately 400 different chemicals found in Cannabis, the main active ingredient is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). Acute effects of cannabis consumption vary according to the dose, the variety of the plant, the method of use, the individual, and the environment, but for the general population usually include some of the following:.
Cannabis use was also a prominent part of 1960s counterculture. Louis Armstrong became one of its most prominent and life-long devotees. Although cannabis has been used recreationally throughout its history, it first became well known in the United States during the jazz music scene of the late 1920s and 30s. Several petitions for cannabis rescheduling in the United States have been filed, since the Act permits legalization of marijuana through the executive branch.
In 1970, the Controlled Substances Act made possession of marijuana illegal again on a federal level, without the constitutional issues that scuttled the 1937 act. In a case brought by Timothy Leary, the Court held that the law's requirement that a would-be possessor of marijuana register with the local bureau of the IRS, thereby placing his name and address on a file available to local law enforcment, violated the Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination, given the fact that at the time all 50 states had state laws on the books outlawing marijuana outright. The 1937 federal marijuana tax act was struck down by the Supreme Court in 1969. Anslinger also popularized the word marihuana for the plant, using a Mexican derived word (believed to be derived from a Brazilian Portuguese term for inebriation) in order to associate the plant with increasing numbers of Mexican immigrants, creating a negative stereotype which persists to this day.
During this period, Henry (Harry) Anslinger alleged that the drug could provoke criminal behavior in previously solid citizens. Furthermore, hemp would have been an easy target due to its intoxicating effect, while no rational justification could have been made for outlawing cotton, wool, or linen. Still, others could argue that hemp could never truly compete with the high strength and elasticity of synthetics, such as nylon. Others argue that Dupont wanted to eliminate cannabis because its high natural cellulose content made it a viable alternative to the company's developing innovation: modern plastic.
Many argue that this seems unlikely given DuPont's lack of concern with the legal status of cotton, wool, and linen; although it should be noted that hemp's textile potential had not yet been largely exploited, while textile factories already had made large investments in equipment to handle cotton, wool, and linen. Some analysts theorize DuPont wanted to boost declining post-war textile sales, and wished to eliminate hemp fiber as competition. Congress was based in part on testimony derived from articles in the newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst, who was heavily interested in DuPont Inc. The decision of the U.S.
The expense, extremely high for that time, was such that people stopped buying and making it. The tax was $100 per pound of hemp, even for clothes or rope. Legal opinions of time held that the federal government could not outlaw it entirely. This was contrary to the advice of the American Medical Association at the time.
In that year, federal law made possession or transfer of marijuana (without the purchase of a by-then incriminating tax stamp) illegal throughout the United States. In some areas it could be openly purchased in bulk from grocers or in cigarette form at newsstands, though an increasing number of states had begun to outlaw it. Until 1937, consumption and sale of marijuana was legal in most American states. That marijuana is now well known in English as a name for drug material is due largely to the efforts of US drug prohibitionists during the 1920s and 30s.
The name marijuana is Mexican or Latin American in origin and associated almost exclusively with the herb’s drug potential. By the end of the 19th century its medicinal use began to fall as other drugs such as aspirin took over. It was famously used to treat Queen Victoria's menstrual pains, and was available from shops in the US. Under the name cannabis 19th century medical practitioners helped to introduce the herb's drug potential (usually as a tincture) to modern English-speaking consciousness.
In 1791, the cotton gin was invented and cotton began to replace hemp for clothing in the U.S. The plant was so important that Thomas Jefferson, as governor of Virginia, required every farmer in the state to plant hemp for the good of the economy and citizens' survival. American pioneers depended on hemp for clothes, canvas, rope, oil, food, and many other things. Large fields of hemp along the banks of the Rhine are featured in 19th century copper etchings.
Germans grew hemp for its fibers to make nautical ropes and material for clothes since ancient times. These etymological discussions run parallel to arguments drawn from history. Sara Benetowa of the Institute of Anthropological Sciences in Warsaw is quoted in the Book of Grass as saying: "The astonishing resemblance between the Semitic 'kanbos' and the Scythian 'cannabis' leads me to suppose that the Scythian word was of Semitic origin. In the Greek translations of the old testament "kan" was rendered as "reed", leading to English translations as "sweet calamus" (Exodus 30:23), sweet cane (Isaiah 43:24; Jeremiah 6:20) and "calamus" (Ezekiel 27:19; Song of Songs 4:14).
Kaneh bosm (Hebrew kannabos or kannabus) "kan" in means "reed" or "hemp", while "bosm" means "aromatic". Possibly it has an earlier origin in Semitic languages like Hebrew, in Exodus 30:23 God commands Moses to make a holy anointing oil of myrrh, sweet cinnamon, kaneh bosm, and kassia. The name cannabis is thought to be of Scythian origin. The cult of Dionysus, which is believed to have been originated in Thrace, has also been linked to the effects of cannabis smoke.
Cannabis was well known to the Scythians, as well as by the Thracians/Dacians, whose shamans (the kapnobatai - "those who walk on smoke/clouds") used to burn cannabis flowers in order to induce trances. In India particularly, some sects of Hinduism associated cannabis with Shiva. It was used as medicine throughout Asia and the Middle East to treat a variety of conditions. The first known mention of cannabis is in the Shen nung pen Ts'ao king, a Chinese medical text supposedly of 2737 BC, but probably considerably younger in reality.
Neolithic archaeological sites in China include cannabis seeds and plants. The use of cannabis, for food, fibers, and medicine, is thought to go back at least five millennia. The most common strains used for psychoactive effect are actually members of a subspecies also known as Cannabis indica. For the physiology and science of the plant see Cannabis sativa.
The use of cannabis as a recreational (or entheogenic) substance became illegal in most parts of the world during the early twentieth century, and remains that way today. Cannabis has been used for medical and psychoactive effects for thousands of years but became much more popular during the twentieth century. The Manual of Crime (incomplete, but contains information on cultivation). Wiktionary Appendix of Cannabis Slang.
War on Drugs. Street names. Stoner. Shotgun (cannabis).
Soap bar. Victor Robinson. Marijuana Parties. Medical marijuana.
Magic Brownie. Fitz Hugh Ludlow ("The Hasheesh Eater"). Cannabis: Legal issues. Jack Herer.
Cannabis: Health issues. Head shop. Hash oil. Grow-op.
Emerald Triangle. Dugout (smoking). Drug policy of the Netherlands. coffee shop.
Cannabis cultivation. Amsterdam. 420 (drug culture). This method is often used when no other materials for smoking are at hand, and is also thought to be more efficient, as there is no idle burning between inhalations.
A small amount of resin, or marijuana (oil or bud), known as a spot is then pressed between the knives and the resulting smoke inhaled through a funnel, often made from a bottomless soft-drink bottle. A further method, commonly referred to as spotting or hot knives, is when two knives are heated (usually on a stove-top element) until red-hot. The term gravity bong has different meaning in different cultures but usually refers to either of these two latter devices. Other designs include the waterfall bong and bucket bong.
While it is a common belief that bongs make smoking safer a NORML-MAPS study found that the water filters out more THC than tar. Despite this, bong use is common and enables smoking techniques that are not possible with a simple smoking pipe. In a water-pipe, or bong, by which the smoke is filtered through water into a large chamber. Some users prefer a vertically held ceramic or glass pipe, known as a chillum, coming from India. Tobacco pipes, pipes home-made by the user, and others, are also sometimes used.
Such pipes usually have a rush or carb hole which is covered by a finger for suction when beginning smoking, which is released to finish inhalation without advancing the burning any further. Blown-glass pipes are usually intricately and colorfully designed, with colors becoming more vivid after repeated use. By using a smoking pipe, often called a bowl, usually made of blown glass, wood, or sometimes metal. In such preparation, tobacco or other smokable material are sometimes combined into a single roll.
By rolling it up, either manually or with a rolling machine, into a cigarette, often called a spliff or joint, with thin rolling papers, or into a cigar, often called a blunt, with wrapper obtained by removing the tobacco from the inside of a standard cigar. Minimally potent leaves and detritus, called shake, bush or leaf. Hash oil, resulting from extraction or distillation of THC-rich parts of the plant. Bhang, prepared by the wet grinding of the leaves of the plant and used as a drink.
Often thin dark rectangular pieces. Charas, produced by hand-rubbing the resin from the resin gland-rich parts of the plant. Hashish, a concentrated resin made from pressing kif into blocks. It is produced by sifting marijuana and leaves.
kief or kif, a powder containing the resin glands (glandular trichomes, often incorrectly called "crystals" or "pollen"). Sinsemilla or sensemillia, flowering tops which are free of seeds as a result of being grown in a pollen-free environment. Marijuana or buds, the resin gland-rich flowering tops of female plants.
Increased metabolism of glucose, reducing blood sugar levels. Higher blood pressure while sitting. Lower blood pressure while standing. Lower intra-ocular pressure (within the eyeball).
Dizziness, confusion. Aphrodisiacal qualities. Headache, usually associated with poor quality, overly fresh material or too much consumption. Dry mouth (xerostomia).
Reddening of the conjunctivae (red eye). Increased blood flow and heart rate. Dilation of blood vessels (vasodilation), resulting in:
Deeper breathing. Dilation of alveoli (air sacs) in lungs, resulting in:
Pain relief (especially headaches and cramps). Increased awareness of patterns and color. Subjective potentiation of other drugs. Auditory and visual hallucinations (or entheogenic effects).
Paranoia, agitation, and anxiety. Slowness, caution (especially when driving automobiles). Difficulty with working memory in some cases. Disruption of linear memory.
Increased consciousness of body and mind connection. Initial wakefulness followed by drowsiness and lassitude. Creative or philosophical thinking. Increased awareness of sensation.
Loss or increase of inhibition. Increased sensuality. Physical pleasure. Enhanced recollection of episodic memory.
Holistic attention, introspection. Mental clarity. Increased appreciation of humor, music and other art. Relaxation or stress reduction.
Mild euphoria, feelings of general well-being. General change in consciousness.